steel research international

Cover image for Vol. 87 Issue 9

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Online ISSN: 1869-344X


  1. 1 - 94
  1. Communications

    1. The Local Characterization of Individual Phase Mechanical Properties Using Nano-Indentation and In Situ Scanning Probe Microscopy in an Advanced High Strength Steel

      Mahdi Karam-Abian, Abbas Zarei-Hanzaki and Hamid Reza Abedi

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600274

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      The present work aims to characterize the mechanical behavior of micro-constituents in the advanced high strength steel through conducting sharp nano-indentations at various loading conditions. The in situ imaging by scanning probe microscopy is employed to target the proper position at each phase and also to precise measurement of the possible piling-up or sinking-in effects.

  2. Full Papers

    1. Influence of Heat Treatment Schedule on the Tensile Properties and Wear Behavior of Dual Phase Steels

      Hamid Ashrafi, Sorour Sadeghzade, Rahmatollah Emadi and Morteza Shamanian

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600213

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      Effect of processing route on the microstructure, tensile properties, and wear behavior of DP steels is investigated. The DP steel with fine and fibrous martensite, obtained from IQ heat treatment, exhibits the highest values of UTS and TE. The wear resistance of produced DP steels changes in the order of SQ < IA < IQ.

    2. Estimation of Internal Cracking Risk in the Continuous Casting of Round Bars

      Guillermo Poltarak, Sergio Ferro and Carlos Cicutti

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600223

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      A modeling methodology is developed to assess the risk of hot-tearing in round billets, consisting of a thermo-mechanical model followed by the codification of failure criteria. A cracking indicator is then obtained and applied to evaluate the effect of pinch-roll compression. Finally, influence of operative variables on the cracking risk is analyzed. Model results present a good agreement with cracked bar macro-etchings.

    3. Effect of In Situ Nano-Particles on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ferritic Steel

      Yawei Niu, Hao Tang, Yanlin Wang, Xiaohua Chen, Zidong Wang, Kaixuan Chen, Yi Wu and Xingui Liu

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600100

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      Effect of in situ nano-particles produced in melt directly is investigated here. On the one hand, these in situ nano-particles present coherent or semi-coherent relationship with the matrix, which allow of a substantial improvement of the strength while without sacrificing its plasticity and toughness too much. On the other hand, the as-cast structure is obviously optimized due to the heterogeneous nucleation effect of these in situ nano-particles.

    4. Effect of Melt Rate on Surface Quality and Solidification Structure of Mn18Cr18N Hollow Ingot during Electroslag Remelting Process

      Xu Chen, Zhouhua Jiang, Fubin Liu, Jia Yu and Kui Chen

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600186

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      A new method for manufacturing Mn18Cr18N steel has been developed based on hollow ESR ingot. A mathematical model of ESR hollow ingot based on the CAFE method has been developed to reveal the morphology of the grain growth and the evolution process of the macrostructure. The optimized technical parameters have been summarized based on the simulation and experiment results.

    5. Formation and Evolution of Non-Metallic Inclusions during Deoxidation by Al Addition in BOF Crude Steel

      Yunguang Chi, Zhiyin Deng and Miaoyong Zhu

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600218

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      Industrial steel samples are taken to investigate the types of inclusions in BOF crude steel, and their sources are discussed. Laboratory experiments are also carried out to study the formation and evolution of inclusions during deoxidation by Al addition in BOF crude steel.

    6. Effect of Fine Grained Dual Phase Steel on Bake Hardening Properties

      Nattavut Ormsuptave and Vitoon Uthaisangsuk

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600150

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      DP steel with fine grain structure is generated by a combination of constrained groove pressing and following intercritical annealing. The subgrain size of about 0.47 mm is achieved. The fine grained DP steel shows improved bake hardenability, because applied severe plastic deformation leads to enhanced heterogeneous nucleation sites for precipitation and accelerated carbon diffusion to phase boundaries during baking.

    7. Glide Stress by Stationary Creep of Tempered Martensite with Polyhedral Particles

      Franc Vodopivec, Fevzi Kafexhiu, Borut Žužek and Bojan Podgornik

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600200

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      The interaction acting stress (σa) – polyhedral particles is examined by a model based on linear mechanics. The glide component (σg) of acting stress decreases to σg = 0.023 σa, governing gliding velocity and creep rate. The gliding velocity gv = 558 nm s−1 and ferrite lattice glide resistance Rg = 3.16 × 10−13 N are calculated.

    8. Effect of Oxygen-Coal Lance Configurations on Coal Combustion Behavior

      Zhenfeng Zhou, Hailong Huo, Guang Wang, Qingguo Xue, Xuefeng She and Jingsong Wang

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600197

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      A three-dimensional coal combustion model is developed to simulate the lance–blowpipe–tuyere-raceway of a blast furnace. The coal flow and combustion behaviors are investigated under different oxygen enrichment ways of oxygen-coal and oxygen-coal double lances. The burnout is very different under different oxygen enrichment ways. The increase in the coal burnout is very obvious under special local oxygen enrichment ways.

    9. Usefulness of Non-Uniform Heating and Quenching Method for Residual Stress of Bimetallic Roll: FEM Simulation Considering Creep Behavior

      Nao-Aki Noda, Kejun Hu, Yoshikazu Sano, Katsma Ono and Yusuke Hosokawa

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600165

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      The residual stress is investigated for bimetallic roll after non-uniform heating and quenching in comparison with the one after uniform heating and quenching. The usefulness of non-uniform heating quenching is discussed for reducing the risk of thermal barrel breakage. In this FEM simulation, the effect of creep on stress relaxation is also considered.

    10. Influence of Cr2O3 and B2O3 on Viscosity and Structure of High Alumina Slag

      Ren Ze Xu, Jian Liang Zhang, Zhi Yu Wang and Ke Xin Jiao

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600241

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      The viscosity of slag containing 2 wt% Cr2O3 and 1 wt% B2O3 is similar to the viscosity of Cr-free and B-free slag, which indicates the viscosity increment resulted from the addition of 2 wt% Cr2O3 can be eliminated by adding 1–2.5 wt% B2O3. So the addition of B2O3 can reduce the viscosity and improve the fluidity of Cr2O3-containing slag.

    11. Characterization of MnS Particles in Heavy Rail Steels Using Different Methods

      Xuewei Zhang, Lifeng Zhang, Wen Yang and Yuanchi Dong

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600080

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      The morphology of MnS changed from elliptical and spherical near the surface of bloom to strip-like, petal-like, polyhedral, and irregular in the center of bloom gradually. The size of both pure MnS particles and complex inclusions which consisted of a MnS outer layer and an oxide core increased from the edge to the center of bloom.

    12. Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Oxygen Jets at High Ambient Temperature

      Ziliang Li and Daqiang Cang

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600209

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      The applicability of existing two-equation turbulence models has certain limitations on simulating supersonic jet at different ambient temperatures. The standard k–ϵ model and the realizable k–ϵ model are applicable to the simulation of supersonic jet at room temperature. Meanwhile, the standard k–ω turbulence model is superior to the other models when simulating the supersonic jet at high temperature.

    13. Utilization of Waste HDPE for Sustainable EAF Steelmaking: Carbon Dissolution into Liquid Steel

      Somyote Kongkarat, Benya Cherdhirunkorn and Raumporn Thongreang

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600168

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      Blends of HDPE with metallurgical coke are used as a carburizing material in EAF steelmaking. The blend can significantly enhance the dissolution of carbon into liquid steel compared to pure coke, but this strongly depends on HDPE concentration in the blend. Blend H3 shows the overall carbon dissolution rate of 15.2 × 10−3 s−1, whereas it is 0.3 × 10−3 s−1 for coke alone.

    14. Non-Metallic Inclusion Behaviors in a New Tundish and SEN Design Using a Swirling Flow during Continuous Casting of Steel

      Peiyuan Ni, Lage Tord Ingemar Jonsson, Mikael Ersson and Pär Göran Jönsson

      Version of Record online: 4 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600155

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      The behaviors of non-metallic inclusions in a new tundish design enabling a swirling flow SEN are investigated using a Lagrangian tracking scheme. Large non-metallic inclusions of different densities show a large difference under a “reflect” boundary condition at tundish walls. In the swirling flow SEN, a much smaller number of large Al2O3 inclusions touches the wall compared to Ce2O3 inclusions.

    15. Effect of Acid-Soluble Aluminum Content on Precipitates and Microstructure of Annealed Hot-Rolled Grain-Oriented Silicon Steel

      Bowen Zhou, Chengyi Zhu, Guangqiang Li, Xiangliang Wan and Jürgen Schneider

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600056

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      Hot band annealing is effective for obtaining fine and dispersively distributed precipitates in grain-oriented silicon steel. Als content can have a great influence on the precipitation behaviors of precipitates, and thus affects the microstructural evolution during hot band annealing significantly.

    16. Distribution of Zn, Pb, K, and Cl in Blast Furnace Lining

      Verena Trinkel, Philipp Aschenbrenner, Christoph Thaler, Helmut Rechberger, Ole Mallow and Johann Fellner

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600153

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      The paper presents investigations on the distribution of Pb, Zn, Cl, and K in the lining of a blast furnace aiming at identifying particularly stressed zones. Samples obtained at the end of the furnace's campaign are analyzed for the respective elements in order to characterize their distribution over the furnace height and their penetration depth.

    17. Application of New Generation Electromagnetic Stirring in Electric Arc Furnace

      Lidong Teng, Michael Meador and Pär Ljungqvist

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600202

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      Electromagnetic stirring (ArcSave) plays an important role in the modern electric arc furnaces operation and the key process benefits with ArcSave: (i) reduced process time and increased productivity; (ii) reduced electrical energy consumption; (iii) increase yield of scrap and ferroalloys; and (iv) increased operation safety and reliability.

    18. Optimization of Phosphorous in Steel Produced by Basic Oxygen Steel Making Process Using Multi-Objective Evolutionary and Genetic Algorithms

      Snehanshu Pal and Chandan Halder

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600193

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      Prediction of optimal solution for the conflicting objectives namely, minimization of end blow phosphorous content and maximization of end blow bath temperature has been performed in this paper. The analysis of Pareto front reveals that a low level of end blow phosphorous content is possible up to a certain critical value of end blow temperature.

    19. Vanadium Microalloyed 0.25 C Cast Steels Showing As-Forged Levels of Strength and Ductility

      Andrii G. Kostryzhev, Erick U. Morales-Cruz, Jorge Zuno-Silva, Edgar Cardoso-Legorreta, Ismael Ruiz-Lopez and Elena V. Pereloma

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600166

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      In 0.25 wt% carbon cast steels with ferrite–pearlite microstructures both strength and ductility increase with vanadium additions. Microalloying with 0.04–0.12 wt% V results in 730–750 MPa of yield stress, 955–1000 MPa of ultimate tensile strength, and 12.3–21.5% of elongation to failure, which correspond to the values observed in hot forged and thermo-mechanically processed steels with similar compositions.

    20. Arrhenius-Type Constitutive Model and Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of 20Cr2Ni4A Alloy Carburizing Steel

      Wei Wang, Jun Zhao, Rui Xue Zhai and Rui Ma

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600196

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      The Arrhenius-type constitutive equation with Zener–Hollomon parameter for 20Cr2Ni4A steel is determined to describe the deformation behavior. The kinetic model and kinematic model of dynamic recrystallization for 20Cr2Ni4A steel are established to describe the dynamic recrystallization behavior; the model of dynamic recrystallization grain size for 20Cr2Ni4A steel is also constructed.

    21. Attraction Force Estimations of Al2O3 Particle Agglomerations in the Melt

      Changji Xuan, Andrey V. Karasev, Pär Göran Jönsson and Keiji Nakajima

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600090

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      The influences of van der Waals force, wettability, and solid phase sintering are systematically studied for the Al2O3 agglomeration. A function of Hamaker constant of liquid iron changes with surface tension, which is pointed out. The difference between cavity bridge force and van der Waals force is smaller than seven times.

    22. A Comparative Study of Microstructure and Texture Evolution in Cu-Bearing and Nb-Bearing Grain Oriented Silicon Steels

      Yang Wang, Feng Fang, Xiang Lu, Yuan-Xiang Zhang, Yun-Bo Xu, Guang-Ming Cao, Cheng-Gang Li, R. Devesh Kumar Misra and Guo-Dong Wang

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600181

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      The microstructure and texture evolution between Cu-bearing and Nb-bearing silicon steel is compared. The mainly grain growth inhibitors in Cu-bearing and Nb-bearing silicon steels are CuMnS and NbCN, respectively. The results indicate that the pinning strength of Nb-particles is much stronger than Cu-particles, and the Goss zone (Region II) in Nb- bearing hot rolled sheets, which act as the nuclei for secondary recrystallization is reduced. Therefore, the magnetic properties of Nb-bearing silicon steel are inferior, compared to Cu-bearing silicon steels.

    23. The Oxidation and Decomposition Behavior of Carbonate Iron Ore

      Yating Tang, Mansheng Chu, Jue Tang, Lin You and Zhenggen Liu

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600129

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      In this work, the preoxidation part of a new beneficiation process for carbonate iron ore is studied by the single factor experiments. Besides, X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy are used to investigate the main phase and structure transformations during the oxidation. Meanwhile, through thermoanalysis, the thermal decomposition kinetics of carbonate iron ore are also conducted for this processing.

  3. Communications

    1. A Theoretical Scaling Equation for Designing Physical Modeling of Gas–Liquid Flow in Metallurgical Ladles

      Shan Yu, Zong-Shu Zou, Lei Shao and Seppo Louhenkilpi

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600156

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      In the present work, a theoretical scaling equation embodying liquid density and surface tension is deduced by analyzing the governing equation of plume rise velocity for physical modeling of gas–liquid flow in metallurgical ladles. The advantage of the scaling equation is demonstrated by comparing the calculated order of prototype gas flow rate with the one based on measured gas fractions.

  4. Full Papers

    1. Generating Mechanism of Large Heterogeneous Carbonitrides with Multiple Layers in H13 + Nb Bar

      You Xie, Guoguang Cheng, Lie Chen, Yandong Zhang and Qingzhong Yan

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600119

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      A great number of micron-sized precipitates exist in H13 + Nb bar. These precipitates include oxide cores and outer carbonitrides. The carbonitride can be further classified into Ti–V-rich one, Nb-rich one, and V-rich one. These large precipitates are generated in liquid steel during solidification. The generating mechanism can be well speculated by Thermo-Calc and be helpful to further control.

    2. Effect of Magnesium Addition on Behavior of Collision and Agglomeration between Solid Inclusion Particles on H13 Steel Melts

      Gang Du, Jing Li, Zhong-Bing Wang and Cheng-Bin Shi

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600185

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      The formation sequence of MgO · Al2O3 cluster is the same as that of alumina cluster, but the MgO · Al2O3 clusters cannot form the outside branch and attract more distant particles. The collision, agglomeration and growth of inclusions, as well as the formation of clusters in H13 steel can be effectively impeded by the adding of magnesium.

    3. Early Stages of Cu Precipitation in 15-5 PH Maraging Steel Revisited – Part II: Thermokinetic Simulation

      Georg Stechauner, Sophie Primig and Ernst Kozeschnik

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600085

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      The authors investigate the Cu-precipitation and two DSC peaks in 15-5 PH steel by the means of thermokinetic modeling. The simulations indicate that the exothermic reactions come from the nucleation of Fe-rich Cu clusters and their subsequent transformation into pure Cu composition. The findings support the experimental findings of part I.

    4. Early Stages of Cu Precipitation in 15–5 PH Maraging Steel Revisited − Part I: Experimental Analysis

      Sophie Primig, Georg Stechauner and Ernst Kozeschnik

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600084

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      During continuous aging with a heating rate around 15 K min–1 of as-quenched 15-5 PH maraging steel in a differential scanning calorimeter, two exothermal reactions are observed. These DSC signals are attributed to the nucleation and growth of Fe-rich Cu clusters in the lower temperature range, followed by Cu-enrichment of these clusters and seamless transformation into bcc-Cu precipitates at higher temperatures.

    5. Application of Bayer Red Mud-Based Flux in the Steelmaking Process

      Yanling Zhang, Fengshan Li, Ruimin Wang and Dongdong Tian

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600140

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      Using Bayer red mud-based flux in simulated steelmaking processes show that good slag fluidity is observed during the entire process. The dephosphorization ratio can be more than 85%, and the final [P] can be lowered to less than 0.005%. No rephosphorization phenomenon is observed in the whole experiment.

    6. Comprehensive Electric Arc Furnace Model for Simulation Purposes and Model-Based Control

      Amirhossein Fathi, Yadollah Saboohi, Igor Škrjanc and Vito Logar

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600083

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      A comprehensive EAF model used to evaluate the main EAF processes along with their effects on overall energy and mass balance. The model is computationally light and it is designed to estimate the unmeasured process values or to optimize the operation of the EAF in order to reduce power-on time, energy or raw material use.

    7. Catalytic Behavior of Potassium Vapor on Coke Gasification Reaction

      Jian Bo Zhong, Jian Liang Zhang, Ke Jiang Li, Zheng Jian Liu, Guang Wei Wang, Run Sheng Xu and Di Zhao

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600152

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      The present work indicates that the catalysis of potassium vapor on coke gasification will be enhanced with the increase of potassium content in coke, and reach a limitation when the content of potassium exceeds 3.5 wt%. And the catalysis of potassium vapor on coke gasification is mainly embodied by reducing gasification temperature and increasing the pre-exponential factor, which may mean increasing active carbon sites.

    8. Effects of Strain and Deformation Temperature on Bainitic Transformation in a Fe–C–Mn–Si Alloy

      Haijiang Hu, Guang Xu, Li Wang and Mingxing Zhou

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600170

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      The effects of strain and deformation temperature on bainitic transformation are investigated. The amount of bainite first increases and then decreases with strain at a certain deformation temperature. The peak value strain (PVS) increases with the increase of ausforming temperature, whereas the corresponding maximum amount of bainitic transformation decreases.

    9. The Effect of Bake-Hardening Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Dual-Phase Steels

      Ali Ramazani, Sonja Bruehl, Mahmoud Abbasi, Wolfgang Bleck and Ulrich Prahl

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600060

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      The effect of bake-hardening (BH) parameters, namely pre-strain, baking temperature, and holding time, on yield strength increment of DP steels with different martensite volume fractions is investigated. The results show that maximum yield strength is obtained as optimum values of BH parameters are applied. The increment of pre-strain enhances the Lüders band and decreases the yield strength increment.

    10. Dynamic Tensile Testing of Ultrahigh Strength Hot Stamped Martensitic Steels

      Tom Taylor, Stephen Danks and George Fourlaris

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600144

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      Tensile testing over strain rates of 0.001–200 s–1 is performed on four hot stamped (HS) martensitic steels, including 22MnB5 and 38MnB5. The unique response of 38MnB5 to increasing strain rate, marked by significantly higher tensile strength and ductility, gives rise to significantly higher toughness than 22MnB5 at the higher strain rates.

    11. Cumulative Fatigue Damage: CDM-Based Engineering Rule and Life Prediction Aspect

      Nikolaos D. Batsoulas

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600048

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      A novel methodology for fatigue life prediction of metallic components under variable amplitude loading is proposed. The Continuum Damage Mechanics approach, which relates the damage rate to that of cyclic loading through the damage function, is employed. A versatile damage function is presented. The result is a fatigue damage engineering rule. A wide range of fatigue data are used to validate the proposed rule.

    12. Tensile Behavior of Cast and Electron Beam Welded Interstitially Strengthened High-Alloy TRIP Steel

      Lars Halbauer, Ralf Eckner, Marco Wendler, Olga Fabrichnaya, Anja Buchwalder, Lutz Krüger, Rolf Zenker and Horst Biermann

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600028

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      The research program investigates the tensile behavior of a newly developed, interstitial hardened, high-alloy TRIP steel. For different temperatures, the tensile behavior of the base material and welded samples is studied. The differences of the martensite evolution during deformation are discussed on the basis of microstructural analysis and different simulation approaches.

    13. Characterization and Analysis of Non-Metallic Inclusions in Low-Carbon Fe–Mn–Si–Al TWIP Steels

      Hongbo Liu, Jianhua Liu, Susanne K. Michelic, Shaobo Shen, Xiaofeng Su, Bowei Wu and Hao Ding

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600131

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      The present work mainly characterizes the non-metallic inclusions in low-carbon Fe–Mn–Si–Al TWIP steels produced by argon oxygen decarburization–electroslag remelting (AOD-ESR)-forging method. Single Al(O)N and MnS(Se)–Al(O)N aggregates are two main kinds of inclusions in TWIP–AOD ingots. The formation, growth, and dissolution of AlN and MnS inclusions formed in steel before and after ESR process are analyzed based on thermodynamics and kinetics.

    14. Borides Effect on the Workability and Microstructure Evolution of As-Cast Borated Stainless Steel under Hot Compression

      Xuan Zhou, Mingjia Wang, Chu Chen and Hongchang Zhao

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600041

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      Boride effect on strength depends on the temperature. And boride can be the particle-stimulated nucleation (PSN) sites, but the fraction is small. Cavities will occur by: (i) boride cracking; (ii) vacancy condensation at boride–matrix interface; and (iii) debonding of boride–matrix interface. Moreover, cracks almost originate from cavities around borides and propagate mainly via debonding at boride–matrix interface and original grain boundary.

    15. Effect of Thermal Charging of Hydrogen on the Microstructure of Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel

      Han-Jin Kim, M. P. Phaniraj, Ju-Heon Kim, Young-Su Lee, Dong-Ik Kim, Jin-Yoo Suh, Joonho Lee, Jae-Hyeok Shim and Seong-Jun Park

      Version of Record online: 9 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600063

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      The tensile behavior of hydrogen-charged 304-type austenitic stainless steel, with and without prestrain, is investigated. Under the same hydrogen charging conditions, the prestrained specimen retains less hydrogen than the solution-treated specimen. Comparison of flow stress and microstructure of hydrogen-charged specimens with specimens aged in vacuum at 300 °C shows that hydrogen enhances the formation of martensite.

    16. Gas-Based Direct Reduction of Hongge Vanadium Titanomagnetite-Oxidized Pellet and Melting Separation of the Reduced Pellet

      Wei Li, Gui-Qin Fu, Man-Sheng Chu and Miao-Yong Zhu

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600120

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      A novel clean process is proposed to dispose Hongge vanadium titanomagnetite (HVTM) in this paper, in which iron and titanium-rich slag are obtained by gas-based direct reduction of HVTM-oxidized pellet and melting separation of the reduced pellet. The results provide theoretical and technical bases for the comprehensive utilization of HVTM and increase the recovery rates of Fe, Ti, V, and Cr.

  5. Communications

    1. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 18%Mn TWIP/TRIP Steels Processed by Warm or Hot Rolling

      Andrey Belyakov, Rustam Kaibyshev and Vladimir Torganchuk

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600123

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      Two Fe–18%Mn steels with carbon content of 0.4 or 0.6% C are processed by thermo-mechanical processing under conditions of warm or hot rolling. Both processings improve the mechanical properties of the present steels. The yield strength comprises 300–360 MPa after rolling at 1100 °C and 850–950 MPa after rolling at 500 °C.

  6. Full Papers

    1. The Influence of Microstructure and Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Clean Steels

      Niclas Ånmark, Andrey Karasev and Pär Göran Jönsson

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600111

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      This study focuses on the evaluation of the machinability of different carburizing steel grades by using a cemented carbide cutting tool during semi-finishing of steel. Correlations between the microstructure (average grain size, micro hardness, and carbon equivalent) and the content of non metallic inclusions to the cutting tool life are established.

    2. The Effect of Intercritical Annealing on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ferritic–Martensitic Two-Phase Steels

      Lars Oliver Wolf, Florian Nürnberger, Dmytro Rodman and Hans Jürgen Maier

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600107

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      The combined process of intercritical annealing and press-hardening opens up new possibilities of adapting the mechanical properties of components. The two-phase microstructure of dual-phase and partial martensitic steels can be set by the austenite content in the annealing process. This, however, requires precise knowledge about the effects of annealing time and temperature on the microstructural evolution in the low-alloyed steels used.

  7. Communications

    1. Effect of Inhibitor Particles on Normal Grain Growth before Secondary Recrystallization of Grain-Oriented Electrical Steels

      Weimin Mao and Huiping Ren

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600114

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      A reasonable and simple analytic equation for normal grain growth including effects of Zener drag induced by inhibitor particles in grain-oriented electrical steels is deduced, while migration of quadruple junction points is the determined mechanism of grain growth, which can only be inhibited by the particles if grain size becomes large enough.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Effect of Austenitization and Tempering on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a 5 wt% Cr Cold Work Tool Steel

      Muhammad Arbab Rehan, Anna Medvedeva, Berne Högman, Lars-Erik Svensson and Leif Karlsson

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600012

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      The effects of austenitization and tempering temperatures are studied for a 5 wt% Cr cold work tool steel. The aim is to understand the influence on microstructure and mechanical properties. The best combination of mechanical properties is achieved by austenitization at 1020 or 1050 °C followed by tempering at 525 °C.

    2. The Role of MgO Powder in Preventing Defluidization during Fluidized Bed Reduction of Fine Iron Ores with Different Iron Valences

      Zhan Du, Qingshan Zhu, Yafeng Yang, Chuanlin Fan, Feng Pan, Haoyan Sun and Zhaohui Xie

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600122

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      The role of MgO powder in preventing defluidization during fluidized bed reduction of fine iron ores with different iron valences is investigated. Microstructure observation and diffusion activation energy estimation demonstrate that the required MgO content to prevent defluidization is the same at 973 K, whereas it is sequenced as m(Fe2O3) > m(Fe3O4) > m(FeO) at 1073 and 1173 K.

    3. Optimum Deformation Criteria and Flow Behavior Description of Boron-Alloyed Steel through Numerical Approach

      Sarallah Hamtaei, Abbas Zarei-Hanzaki and Alireza Mohamadizadeh

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600042

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      The paper deals with modeling the flow behavior of boron micro-alloyed steel, which plays a significant role in automotive industry. To this end, different constitutive equations are developed in order to present the most reliable solution. The results are also used to determine optimum deformation parameters by efficiency maps, which also show the occurrence of deformation-induced ferrite transformation (DIFT).

    4. Investigation on Improvement of Center Porosity with Heavy Reduction in Continuously Cast Thick Slabs

      Zhigang Xu, Xinhua Wang and Min Jiang

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600061

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      In order to improve the center porosity of slabs, the heavy reduction process of START (Solidification Terminal Advanced Reduction Technique) is developed. START is implemented with 9 mm heavy reduction in the first segment and 3 mm reduction in the second segment accounting for the uneven solidification. As a result, center porosities along the slab width are significantly improved.

    5. Mechanical Properties and Transformation Behaviors of Ti–Zr Killed Low-Carbon Steels with High-Temperature Hot-Rolling Process

      Chao Wang, Guodong Wang, Zhaodong Wang and Raja Devesh Kumar Misra

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600057

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      The experimental low-carbon steels are deoxidized with Ti and Zr to form effective inclusions for intragranular ferrite nucleation. High-temperature hot-rolling process is adopted and coarse prior austenite grains are formed. However, the as-transformed microstructure is significantly refined due to inclusion-induced acicular ferrite formation and, meanwhile, the mechanical properties are also remarkably improved.

    6. Three-dimensional DEM Study of Coal Distribution in the Melter Gasifier of COREX

      Yang You, Qin-Fu Hou, Zhi-Guo Luo, Hai-Feng Li, Heng Zhou, Ren Chen and Zong-Shu Zou

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500481

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      A three-dimensional discrete element method model is established and validated for studying the coal distribution in a COREX melter gasifier. First, the effects of chute angle and rotational speed are examined. Second, the formation of an asymmetrical burden pile and the underlying mechanisms are analyzed. Last, particle size segregation and velocity distribution are investigated.

    7. Effect of Sn on the Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Ultra-Purified 17% Cr Ferritic Stainless Steel

      Xiang-Jun Zhang, Fei Gao and Zhen-Yu Liu

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600059

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      The present paper investigates the influence of Sn on pitting corrosion of ferritic stainless steels in chloridion medium. Proper Sn addition can effectively improve pitting potential, while excessive addition (about 0.33 wt%) can deteriorate pitting corrosion resistance. The content of Sn in ferritic stainless steels should be optimized within 0.1–0.23 wt% to obtain better corrosion resistance.

    8. Effect of Cr Content on Microstructure and Impact Toughness in the Simulated Coarse-Grained Heat-Affected Zone of High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels

      Gang Huang, Xiang Liang Wan and Kai Ming Wu

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500424

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      The relationship of Cr content and heat input welding to area fraction of acicular ferrite grains in the simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zone of high-strength low-alloy steels is investigated. The area fraction of acicular ferrite decreases with increasing both Cr content and heat input welding.

  9. Reviews

    1. Melting, Remelting, and Casting for Clean Steel

      John Campbell

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600093

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      The casting of steels usually involves pouring, which is now known to introduce masses of oxides. The oxides necessary entrain in the liquid in a double form, entraining air (as spherical bubbles or flat bubbles called bifilms). These features are largely unrecognized, and the bifilms not easily detected, but often control properties, particularly the failure properties including fracture and corrosion. The elimination of such defects is discussed.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Influence of Silicon on Desulfurization of Al-Killed Steel by CaO–Al2O3 Slag Contained FeO and MnO

      Jianfei Xu, Fuxiang Huang, Xinhua Wang and Cailiang Jing

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600053

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      For the heats with different silicon contents, (FeO + MnO) content in slag after desulfurization varied in a wide range. It was much higher for Si-free liquid steel, while lower for Si-containing liquid steel. As a result, more obvious differences in desulfurization efficiency between Si-free steel and Si-containing steel can be seen.

    2. Effects of Process Parameters on Spot Welding of TRIP and Quenching and Partitioning Steels

      Pasquale Russo Spena, Luca Cortese, Manuela De Maddis and Franco Lombardi

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600007

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      Dissimilar spot welding of a quenching and partitioning (Q&P) and a TRIP steel is investigated here, quality of spot welds being examined in terms of microstructure and mechanical properties. The effects of clamping force, welding current, and time on shear strength of spot welds are discussed. Metal expulsion is also detected by monitoring welding electrical parameters and its effect on joint quality assessed.

    3. Flatness Control Strategy Based on Delay Compensation for Cold Rolling Mill

      Wang Pengfei, Peng Yan, Wang Dongcheng, Sun Jie, Zhang Dianhua and Liu Hongmin

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600065

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      For low-speed rolling processes, the Smith predictive control can ensure good dynamic characteristics. The adjusting time and the steady-state error of the system are very small, which is almost the same as there is no time delay. Moreover, the simulated flatness and flatness deviation are also steady except the initial stage, as shown in figure (time delay τ = 0.5 s).

    4. Evolution of Microstructure and Properties of Steel 22MnB5 due to Short Austenitization with Subsequent Quenching

      Anatolii Andreiev, Olexandr Grydin and Mirko Schaper

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600086

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      Combination of rapid heating with press hardening for production of crash-relevant elements of “body-in-white” promises significant reduction of heating duration and production area with improvement of mechanical properties of finished components. The steel 22MnB5 after rapid heating to austenitization temperature, soaking within 2 s, and subsequent quenching exhibits up to 10% increased strength properties and significantly reduced decarburized layer thickness in comparison with material processed by means of conventional technology.

    5. Effect of Material Processing and Imposed Mechanical Stress on the Magnetic, Mechanical, and Microstructural Properties of High-Silicon Electrical Steel

      Nora Leuning, Simon Steentjes, Kay Hameyer, Markus Schulte and Wolfgang Bleck

      Version of Record online: 28 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600039

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      Non grain-oriented electrical steel is used as magnetic core material for electrical machines. Thus, electromagnetic properties are pivotal for this material's function. Detrimental effects of changes in microstructure, residual, as well as external stresses due to mechanical processing need to be studied in order to improve NGO processing, prevent deterioration and optimize electrical machines.

    6. The Strip Steel Surface Defect Recognition Based on Multiple Support Vector Hyper-Sphere with Feature and Sample Weights

      Rongfen Gong, Chengdong Wu, Maoxiang Chu and Xiaoping Liu

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600049

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      In this work, eight classes of strip steel surface defects are classified by FSW-MSVH classifier. The novel classifier adopts clustering information, Relief-F, one-versus-rest, and TSVH techniques. And it solves the problems of abnormal samples, weakly relevant features, and multi-class classification. So, FSW-MSVH multi-class classifier has superiority in accuracy and speed.

    7. Effect of Cooling Process on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of X100 Pipeline Steel

      Xiao-Guang Zhou, Cai-You Zeng, Hao Yang, Liang-Yu Ma, Zhen-Yu Liu, Di Wu and Guo-Dong Wang

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500411

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      The effects of cooling rate and finish cooling temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of X100 pipeline steel have been investigated by thermo-mechanical simulation experiment and hot rolling experiment. Meanwhile, the results reveal that the mixed microstructure consisting of fine bainitic ferrite lath, fine M/A islands, and dispersed precipitation play an important role in increasing the strength and toughness of X100 pipeline steel.

    8. Stress Analysis of a Continuous Casting Process, on the Basis of the Element-Free Galerkin Formulation

      Juan C. Álvarez Hostos, Eli S. Puchi Cabrera and Alfonso D. Bencomo

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600019

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      In this work, the advantages of the element-free Galerkin technique, in comparison with the commons mesh-based methods, are used to solve the thermomechanical problem involved in a continuous casting (CC) process of a steel round billet. This research proposes a novel approach to predict the performance of a CC process, including a robust integration of the non-conservative strain components without requiring a mesh for discretizing the problem domain.

    9. Equilibrium between Carbon and FeO-Containing Slag in CO–CO2–H2O Atmosphere by FactSage Calculation

      Yan Wu, Hiroyuki Matsuura, Zhangfu Yuan and Fumitaka Tsukihashi

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500482

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      A thermodynamic analysis of carbon gasification process with FeO–CaO–SiO2 slag as heat carrier in CO–CO2–H2O atmosphere is performed using FactSage 6.3 under steady temperature condition. The effects of initial FeO content in slag, the mass%CaO/mass%SiO2 ratio of slag, slag temperature, and added carbon amount upon the production of H2 and CO gases are investigated.

    10. An End-to-End Steel Strip Surface Defects Recognition System Based on Convolutional Neural Networks

      Li Yi, Guangyao Li and Mingming Jiang

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600068

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      Visual surface inspection system is playing an important part in the industrial production of steel strip. In this paper, an end-to-end surface defects recognition system based on the deep convolutional neural networks is proposed for real-time steel strip surface defects recognition. This system directly uses the defect image as input and defect category as output, learns defect features from the training of network, which avoids the separation between feature extraction and image classification.

    11. Austenite Evolution and Solute Partitioning during Thermal Cycling in the Intercritical Range of a Medium-Mn Steel

      Maria-Ioanna Tzini, Panagiota Sarafoglou, Andreas Stieben, Gregory Haidemenopoulos and Wolfgang Bleck

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600050

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      The evolution of austenite volume fraction and solute partitioning during thermal cycling in the intercritical range of a 4.5Mn steel are studied. The evolution of austenite during thermal cycling in the intercritical range comprises of forward, inverse, and stagnant stages. Due to the low diffusivity in austenite, wells form in the composition profiles in austenite of Mn and C.

    12. Anisotropic Compressive Properties and Energy Absorption Efficiency of Porous Twisted Short Fiber Materials

      Fei Wu, Zhaoyao Zhou, Bibo Yao and Zhiyu Xiao

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500475

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      Novel porous twisted short fiber materials (PTSFMs) with spatial composite intertexture structure are produced by compaction following with sintering of twisted short fibers by using a rotary multi-cutter tool to cut steel wire ropes. Porous structures of the PTSFMs exhibit a big difference in the through-thickness and in-plane directions, which results in the anisotropic compressive property and energy absorption efficiency.

    13. Evolution of Non-Metallic Inclusions from FeTi70R Alloys during Alloying of Fe–40Ni–20Cr Steels

      Hans E.O. Kellner, Andrey V. Karasev, Arashk Memarpour and Pär G. Jönsson

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500428

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      To understand how FeTi70R affects Ni-based alloys, the macro inclusions in FeTi70R are investigated. Laboratory experiments are performed to see how these inclusions evolve in the melt and how different parameters affect their evolution. Industrial samples are taken to confirm if these inclusions exist during production and if they affect the quality.

    14. Effect of Pre-Rolling Heat Treatments on the Bond Strength of Cladded Galvanized Steels in a Cold Roll Bonding Process

      Illia Hordych, Dmytro Rodman, Florian Nürnberger, Christian Hoppe, Hans Christian Schmidt, Guido Grundmeier, Werner Homberg and Hans Jürgen Maier

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600021

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      The bond strength of cold-rolled cladded galvanized steel can be increased using a pre-rolling heat-treatment, if a certain amount of brittle compounds is introduced at the interface prior to rolling. The heat treatment can also substitute the typically employed brushing process.

    15. Evaluation of Void Nucleation and Development during Plastic Deformation of Dual-Phase Steel DP600

      Kerim Isik, Gregory Gerstein, Till Clausmeyer, Florian Nürnberger, A. Erman Tekkaya and Hans Jürgen Maier

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500483

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      The evolution of voids in a dual-phase steel, DP600 (containing ferrite matrix and martensite), is investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The specimens prepared by ion beam slope cutting are used to observe small voids (minimum area 0.05 μm2). The quantitative evaluation of the void volume fraction enables the identification of material parameters for a Gurson-type model.

    16. Effect of Hot Rolling on Texture, Precipitation, and Magnetic Properties of Strip-Cast Grain-Oriented Silicon Steel

      Yang Wang, Yuan-Xiang Zhang, Xiang Lu, Feng Fang, Guang-Ming Cao, Cheng-Gang Li, Yun-Bo Xu, R. Devesh Kumar Misra and Guo-Dong Wang

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600009

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      In conventional process, the Goss texture is formed during hot rolling and mainly distributed at subsurface layer. In our study, the hot rolling reduction is limited, and the hot-rolled Goss texture is weak. But the cold rolling process can form Goss texture and distributed homogeneously through the thickness. Thus, the primary annealed sheets had a relatively strong Goss texture.

    17. Effects of Coiling Temperature after Hot Rolling on Microstructure, Texture, and Magnetic Properties of Non-Oriented Electrical Steel in Strip Casting Processing Route

      Hai-Tao Liu, Hua-Long Li, Juergen Schneider, Yi Liu and Guo-Dong Wang

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500351

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      Relatively higher temperature of coiling has a similar effect as the conventional hot band normalizing on improving recrystallization microstructure, texture, and magnetic properties. Hence, hot band normalizing might be omitted in the fabrication of high-performance non-oriented electrical steels using the novel and compact strip casting production route.

    18. Reductive Heating Experiments on BOF-Slag: Simultaneous Phosphorus Re-Distribution and Volume Stabilization for Recycling

      Tung-Hsin Su, Huai-Jen Yang, Yu-Chen Lee, Yen-Hong Shau, Eiichi Takazawa, Ming-Fong Lin, Jin-Luh Mou and Wei-Teh Jiang

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500441

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      The reductive heating experiments on the basicity-modified BOF-slag at 1400–1600 °C result in silicate–metal segregation. The phosphorus in C2S is mostly converted to Fe2P in the metal domain. The silicate domain is composed of akermanite and merwinite with low phosphorus contents of »0.1% and absence of volumetrically unstable free-lime; it is, therefore, recyclable.

    19. Effect of Chromium and Water Vapor of Low Carbon Steel on Oxidation Behavior at 1050 °C

      Zhi-Feng Li, Guang-Ming Cao, Yong-Quan He, Zhen-Yu Liu and Guo-Dong Wang

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500429

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      The increase of Cr content in low carbon steel enhances the formation of Cr-enrich layer, which suppresses the ions diffusion and thus reduces the oxidation rate. In wet air, the H2O react with the Cr2O3 in the Cr-enrich layer, resulting in amount of voids. Therefore, the protective ability of Cr-enrich layer is decreased, and the oxidation rate is increased in comparison to dry air.

    20. Effect of Starting Microstructure through Severe Plastic Deformation and Ultra-Rapid Annealing of Low-Carbon Steel

      Mohammad Ali Mostafaei and Mohsen Kazeminezhad

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500474

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      Severe plastic deformation followed by ultra-rapid annealing is performed on the low-carbon steels with different starting microstructures: one microstructure contains carbides and the other contains pearlites. The effects of initial microstructures on the formation of refined final microstructure are discussed on the basis of the interaction between ferrite recrystallization and austenite transformation.

    21. The Novel Technique of Grain Refinement in the Aluminum-Free Ultrahigh Carbon Steel

      Qing Suo Liu, Mei Ju Zhao, Hai Xia Zhang, Na Li, Wei Dong Shi and Jing Wang

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500426

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      For the designed aluminum-free UHCS, the structure can be refined by a simple three-parameter heat-treatment process. The process can suppress the precipitation of large blocky carbide and avoid the formation of pearlitic structure with larger interlamellar spacing. Therefore, the excellent mechanical properties can be obtained for the steel.

    22. A New Tundish Design to Produce a Swirling Flow in the SEN During Continuous Casting of Steel

      Peiyuan Ni, Lage Tord Ingemar Jonsson, Mikael Ersson and Pär Göran Jönsson

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500407

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      A new cylindrical tundish is designed with the aim to produce a swirling flow in SEN. The results show that a swirl flow in the SEN of the new tundish is successfully obtained, with the tangential velocity of 1.6 m s−1 in SEN. The swirl flow phenomena, slag entrainment possibility, and wall shear stress in the new system are investigated.

    23. Residual Stress Simulation for Hot Strip Bimetallic Roll during Quenching

      Nao-Aki Noda, Kejun Hu, Yoshikazu Sano, Katsma Ono and Yusuke Hosokawa

      Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500430

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      The residual stress is investigated for high speed steel bimetallic roll during quenching by FEM elastic-plastic simulation. The optimum residual stress distribution is discussed to minimize the center tensile stress and to produce the surface compressive stress in the range of 200–500 MPa. Predicting the residual stress is realized by changing shell–core ratio, diameter, phase transformation, and material heat treatment process.

    24. Mathematical Modeling of Inclusions Deposition at the Upper Tundish Nozzle and the Submerged Entry Nozzle

      Enif Gutiérrez, Saul Garcia-Hernandez and José de Jesús Barreto

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500422

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      The non-uniform inclusion deposition at the nozzle wall is explained by a numerical and analytical study of the flow patterns inside the nozzle. The results show two zones of high inclusion deposition: at the upper tundish nozzle (UTN) and at the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) ports. Both are identified close to a low static pressure and a high turbulent kinetic energy dissipation zones.

    25. Effect of CaO/SiO2 and Al2O3 on Viscous Behaviors of the Titanium-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag

      Cong Feng, Mansheng Chu, Jue Tang, Yating Tang and Zhenggen Liu

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500355

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      In this study, the viscous behaviors of titanium-bearing BF slag are investigated by rotating spindle method. Then, the effects of CaO/SiO2 and Al2O3 on the viscosity, activation energy for viscous flow, and break point temperature of slag are obtained. Besides, the mechanisms on the variation of viscosity and activation energy for viscous flow are acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    26. Design Exploration to Determine Process Parameters of Ladle Refining for an Industrial Application

      Rishabh Shukla, Ravikiran Anapagaddi, Amarendra K. Singh, Jitesh H. Panchal, Farrokh Mistree and Janet K. Allen

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500392

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      In industry, ladle refining of steel has a significant impact on the cleanliness and composition of advanced high-strength steel. A model-based design framework is developed to explore the process design space and predict set points to meet given requirements. The method is useful for designing a process with fewer plant trials and can be instantiated for other unit operations, which in turn, helps to reduce the cost and time associated with scaling production from laboratory to industrial scale.

    27. On the Carbon Solubility in Expanded Austenite and Formation of Hägg Carbide in AISI 316 Stainless Steel

      Thomas L. Christiansen, Kenny Ståhl, Bastian K. Brink and Marcel A. J. Somers

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500415

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      Low-temperature carburizing of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316 leads to formation of expanded austenite. Hägg carbide (χ-M5C2) develops when the carbon content in the expanded austenite exceeds the metastable solubility limit which is 4.74 wt% carbon. This decomposition reaction takes place at temperatures as low as 380 °C. Hägg carbide is transformed into M7C3 carbide upon prolonged thermal exposure.

    28. Finite Element-Based Modeling of Strain Hardening in Metal Forming

      Michael Terhorst, Oksana Ozhoga-Maslovskaja, Daniel Trauth, Patrick Mattfeld and Fritz Klocke

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500375

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      Different forming strategies, e.g., forming with different temperatures or punch velocities, lead to different levels of strain hardening even though the same component geometry is reached. This article proposes a methodology for numerical strain hardening computation for evaluation of different forming strategies.

    29. Particles Precipitation in Ti- and Al-Deoxidized Hadfield Steels

      Dimitrios Siafakas, Taishi Matsushita, Åsa Lauenstein, Sven Ekerot and Anders E. W. Jarfors

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500400

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      The in situ particles precipitation in Ti- and Al-deoxidized Hadfield steel is investigated. The present study explores the type, sequence of formation, and chemical composition as well as the mechanisms behind the in situ formation of particles during traditional deoxidation treatment of Hadfield steels. SEM–EDS and Thermo-Calc are utilized for the analysis.

    30. Low-Cost Grain Oriented Silicon Steels Manufactured by Continuous Annealing

      Yide Jiao, Ping Yang, Ning Zhang and Weimin Mao

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500423

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      Fully secondarily recrystallized structure with magnetic properties of P1.7 = 2.04 W kg−1 and B8 = 1.76 T is obtained at temperature of 1050 °C within 10 min in the condition of two-stage cold rolling. It is proved that new type of grain oriented steels can be produced by continuous annealing, which can replace non-oriented steels used in medium and small size transformers to reduce cost.

    31. Effect of Particle Size and Carbide Band on the Flow Behavior of Ferrite–Cementite Steel

      Siming Ma, Xincun Zhuang and Zhen Zhao

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500438

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      Microstructure-based representative volume element (RVE) models are employed for simulating the mechanical properties of steel with ferrite and spheroid cementite phases. Different RVE parameters and microstructure features are investigated for modeling the effect of carbide band. The experimental flow curve is well fitted by RVE simulation considering GND effect. The adverse effects of carbide band are also analyzed.

    32. Measurements of the Velocity of Drops in a Melt Atomization Process Using Particle Image Velocimetry

      Clemens Kirmse and Humberto Chaves

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500360

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      The two-dimensional velocity distribution of ligaments and drops produced by an industrial vacuum inert gas atomization facility is measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The melt jet breaks up into a hollow cone spray at approximately 60 mm from the nozzle. The velocity at this point is in the range of 160 m s–1.

    33. Effect of Rare-Earth Cerium on Impurity Tin-Induced Hot Ductility Deterioration of SA508-III Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel

      Shenhua Song and Shufu Sun

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500425

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      Impurity tin can severely deteriorate the hot ductility of SA508-III reactor pressure vessel steel, but a minor addition of rare-earth cerium can suppress this tin-induced hot ductility deterioration. Grain boundary segregation of tin is mainly responsible for the hot ductility deterioration, whereas the segregation of cerium is mainly responsible for the suppression of the deterioration.

    34. Austenitic Grain Growth Behavior during Austenization in an Aluminum-Alloyed 5% Cr–Mo–V Steel

      Sha-Sha Li, Yao-Hui Liu, Yu-Lai Song, Ling-Nan Kong, Tuan-Jie Li and Ren-Hang Zhang

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500427

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      The austenitic grain growth behavior of an aluminum-alloyed 5% Cr–Mo–V steel has been investigated in a wide range of austenitizing temperatures and holding times. The results indicate that high content of Al addition can significantly accelerate the austenite grain growth, mainly because the high content of Al affected the Zener drag and solute drag on the grain growth.

    35. Characterization of the Acicular Ferrite in Al-Deoxidized Low-Carbon Steel Combined with Zr and Mg Additions

      Yi Min, Xiaobing Li, Zhe Yu, Chengjun Liu and Maofa Jiang

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500440

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      The formation of acicular ferrite in the as-casted microstructures is investigated by adding Zr and Mg into Al-killed low-carbon steel. The nuclei inclusions are identified as Al2O3–MgO–MnS and Al2O3–MgO–ZrO2–MnS multiphase particles with size in the range of 1.5–3.0 μm. These compounds are followed by Al2O3–MgO–ZrO2, Al2O3–MgO, and Al2O3 in decreasing order of effectiveness for acicular ferrite.

    36. Experimental Simulation of Thermally Induced Stresses during Cooling of Continuously Cast Steel Slabs

      Michael Schöbel, Simon Großeiber, Sergiu Ilie and Guillermo Requena

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500369

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      The continuous casting process is established for rapid production of steel slabs. Heterogeneous cooling and deformation of semisolid steel cause problems by superimposed thermal, transformation, and deformation stresses. This work describes an approach in qualifying transformation stress gradients by in situ neutron diffraction. The results might help to improve simulation models and give insights into stress-inducing mechanisms during steel production.

    37. Characterization and Sulfuric Acid Leaching of Ferrochrome Converter (CRC) Dust

      Hannu Tapani Makkonen, Antti Kekki, Eetu-Pekka Heikkinen, Timo Fabritius, Jari Aromaa and Olof Forsén

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500348

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      This paper presents the results of characterization and sulfuric acid leaching of ferrochrome converter (CRC) dust. Take-off of solid particles during charging and ejection of liquid droplets are important formation mechanisms. The effects of mineralogy and microstructure, e.g., the existence of zincite and encapsulation phenomenon, on the hydrometallurgical treatment are evaluated.

    38. Multiple Criteria in a Top Gas Recycling Blast Furnace Optimized through a k-Optimality-Based Genetic Algorithm

      Kaibalya Mohanty, Tamoghna Mitra, Henrik Saxén and Nirupam Chakraborti

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500359

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      The strategy of optimum top gas recycling in a blast furnace is thoroughly examined using a steel plant simulator and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms. Several data-driven cost functions are constructed and simultaneously optimized. The results are expected to be quite useful toward the futuristic design of an efficient and environment friendly blast furnace operation causing a minimum possible environmental CO2 emission.

    39. Effect of Strain Rate on Deformation-Induced Martensitic Transformation of Quenching and Partitioning Steels

      Shuhui Li, Danqing Zou, Cedric Xia and Ji He

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500363

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      A deformation induced martensite to austenite transformation kinetic model, which accounts for effect of temperature and strain rate during deformation, is proposed to describe the transformation behavior of Quenching and Partitioning steel under different conditions. The model indicates that the influence of deformation induced heating at quasi-static strain rate on DIMT is obvious. But it is insufficient to explain strain rate dependent DIMT solely.

    40. Microalloyed Low-Carbon Multiphase Steels

      Volker Flaxa and Sascha Kluge

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500352

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Increasing forming properties of cold-rolled low carbon multiphase sheet steels by means of microalloying and heat treatment are described. To balance the gap between high strength and high formability ensuring optimal microstructure is essential. The present study shows how to adjust mechanical and technological properties to fit demanding requirements.


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