steel research international

Cover image for Vol. 85 Issue 10

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Online ISSN: 1869-344X


  1. 1 - 81
  1. Full Papers

    1. Numerical, Physical, and Industrial Studies of Liquid Steel Chemical Homogenization in One Strand Tundish with Subflux Turbulence Controller

      Adam Cwudziński

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400207

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      The object of investigation is an one-strand slab tundish. For the set zone of alloy feeding, numerical simulations, laboratory experiments (with a physical water model), and industrial experiments are carried out. The hybrid pulse-step method for introduction of an alloy addition to liquid steel is developed. In the tundishes with STC and dam, a reduction in mixing time is noted.

  2. Technical Notes

    1. Microalloying Effect on the Activation Energy of Hot Deformation

      Moo-Young Seok, In-Chul Choi, Yakai Zhao, Dong-Hyun Lee, Jung-A. Lee and Jae-il Jang

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400255

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      In this study, through a series of hot compression tests of four different microalloyed steels, we systematically explore the influences of Nb, V, Ti, and Mo on the Q and have directly compared the effect of each element in a quantitative manner.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Numerical Simulation of Flow-Induced Wall Shear Stresses in Three Different Shapes of Multi-Strand Steelmaking Tundishes

      Md Irfanul Haque Siddiqui and Pradeep Kumar Jha

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400217

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      Numerical investigation of the effect of three different tundish shapes, i.e., boat, T-shape, and V-shape on generation of wall shear stress are carried out. Average wall shear stress value is maximum for V-shape tundish as compared to other two configuration tundishes. Similarity in variation of wall shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy is observed at different walls.

    2. Mathematical Modeling of Nitrogen Removal from the Vacuum Tank Degasser

      Shan Yu, Jyrki Miettinen, Lei Shao and Seppo Louhenkilpi

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400093

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      This paper is focused on predicting nitrogen removal from the vacuum degasser specially taking into account the multi-component effect of steel composition. An integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed. Two operating diagrams are obtained to give the correlations between chemical reaction rate constant, initial nitrogen content, and final nitrogen content in liquid steel.

    3. Microstructural Refinement and Mechanical Properties of High-Speed Niobium-Microalloyed Railway Wheel Steel

      Si Wu, Xiu-Cheng Li, Juan Zhang, Cheng-jia Shang and Raja Devesh Kumar Misra

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400236

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      The microstructure of railway wheel steel is refined and the percentage of ferrite is increased from 4 to 24% with the addition of 0.06% Nb. The addition of Nb inhibits mixed microstructure and delays the coarsening temperature of austenite grains from 880 to 960 °C. The impact energy at −20 °C is increased from 7.0 to 19.0 J with no apparent reduction in tensile strength. The grain refining and precipitation strengthening are roles of niobium in promoting ferrite–pearlite transformation and improving toughness in medium carbon steels.

    4. Influence of Al2O3 Content on Liquid Phase Proportion and Fluidity of Primary Slag and Final Slag in Blast Furnace

      Shengli Wu, Wei Huang, Mingyin Kou, Xinliang Liu, Kaiping Du and Kaifa Zhang

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400158

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      The objective of this study is to understand the effect of Al2O3 on blast furnace operation by studying the properties of liquidus temperature, liquid phase proportion and fluidity of the primary slag in the cohesive zone and the final slag in the hearth of the blast furnace. The optimization measures by adding MgO content and increasing CaO/SiO2 are discussed.

    5. Effect of Water Vapor on Sulfur Distribution Between Liquid Fe and MgO-Saturated Slag Relevant to a Flash Ironmaking Technology

      Yousef Mohassab and Hong Yong Sohn

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400197

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      For the first time, the effect of water vapor on the distribution of sulfur between slag and molten iron is studied for MgO-saturated CaO[BOND]FeO[BOND]Al2O3[BOND]SiO2[BOND]MnO (0.2–0.8 wt%)[BOND]P2O5 (0.1–0.9 wt%) slags in the temperature range 1550–1600 °C under CO/CO2/H2/H2O, H2/H2O, and CO/CO2 with pO2 = 10−10–10−9 atm. Water in the gas atmosphere is found to increase LS.

    6. Analysis of Slag Chemistry by FTIR-RAS and Raman Spectroscopy: Effect of Water Vapor Content in H2[BOND]H2O[BOND]CO[BOND]CO2 Mixtures Relevant to a Novel Green Ironmaking Technology

      Yousef Mohassab and Hong Yong Sohn

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400186

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      Silicate melt structural entities with their Q-notation, NBO/Si ratios, and structural units in addition to bridging and non-bridging oxygens are shown. The molten slags equilibrated with CO/CO2/H2/H2O mixtures are analyzed by the FTIR-RAS and Raman techniques. H2O increases polymerization of the silicates. The results provide new insights into the slag chemistry under H2O-containing atmospheres.

    7. Pre-Blast Strengthening of Fe–18Mn–0.6C–1.5Al TWIP Steel

      Chang-Ho Choi, Ching-Tun Peng, Brian F. Dixon and Huijun Li

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400198

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      A new challenging simple explosive blast is successfully demonstrated on a high manganese TWIP steel. This innovative technique is developed by the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) to maximize resilient strength and hardness with a minimal compensation of elongation and toughness.

    8. The Effect of Jet Angle and Initial Plate Temperature during Jet Impingement Heat Transfer Process in Ultra-Fast Cooling Technology

      Qian Xie, Bingxing Wang, Zhaodong Wang and Guodong Wang

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400152

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      The AISI314 specimen is heated to 850°C and quenched by the impinging jet, the temperature data is recorded by the thermocouples, which are 2 mm underneath surface. The flow field and heat transfer mechanism under different initial temperature (600 and 750°C) and inclination angle (0°, 30°, and 60°) are studied.

    9. Calculation of Solidification-Related Thermophysical Properties of Steels Based on Fe-C Pseudobinary Phase Diagram

      Zhi Xie and Jian Yang

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400191

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      Special algorithms have been developed for calculation of solidification-related thermophysical properties including density, thermal conductivity, enthalpy and specific heat from 1600 to 0 °C for carbon and low alloy steels. The algorithms are based on Fe-C pseudobinary phase diagram of steels. Comparison with software JMatPro and measured data indicates that the algorithms are accurate and applicable.

    10. Fast and Efficient Annealing of Stainless Steel Strip Using Oxyfuel Burners

      David Lindell, Thomas Ekman and Rachel Pettersson

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400168

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      Pilot plant annealing experiments have been conducted to study the effect of the higher water content, caused by altering the oxidizer in combustion furnaces, on oxidation and pickling of cold rolled stainless steel. Characterization of oxide, microstructure, mechanical properties, and pickling response suggests that the increasing the water content from 15 to 50 mol% does not result in any negative downstream effects.

    11. Modeling Study of Molten Steel Turbulence Control by SEN Design Improvement in a Conventional Slab Caster

      José de J. Barreto, Rudolfo D. Morales, Saul Garcia-Hernandez, Alfonso Najera-Bastida and Ismael Calderon-Ramos

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400131

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      A study to improve the fluidynamics of a slab mould by redesigning the SEN ports is carried out. The results indicate that the original design induces vortexes formation at the free surface and the backflow phenomena. The proposed design eliminates the formation of this phenomenon. Additionally, the backflow induces jet fluctuations, and its elimination provided stable flow patterns.

    12. Simulation on Flow Field and Mixing Phenomenon in Single Snorkel Vacuum Degasser

      Dian-Qiao Geng, Xin Zhang, Xing-An Liu, Ping Wang, Hai-Tao Liu, Hong-Min Chen, Chuan-Min Dai, Hong Lei and Ji-Cheng He

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400092

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      Flow field and mixing phenomenon in single snorkel degasser with ladle bottom blowing has been investigated by numerical method. The results show that the flow field inside the single snorkel vacuum degasser can be optimized in order to achieve higher recirculation rates and smaller mixing times, which are important to refining.

    13. Research on the Improvement Effect of High Tension on Flatness Deviation in Cold Strip Rolling

      Xiao-chen Wang, Quan Yang, Zheng-yi Jiang and Jin-wu Xu

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400048

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      A roll-strip-tension coupling model with both accuracy and efficiency is established for cold rolling process with tension. Then the self-correction effect of front tension and the attenuation effect of back tension on flatness deviation are analyzed by the calculation results of the model, and corresponding quantitative correction coefficient and attenuation coefficient are obtained.

    14. Deformation-Induced Role Switching Between Ferrite and Austenite in the Precipitation of Carbides at High Temperatures in Duplex Stainless Steels

      Kin Ho Lo

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400098

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      The austenite phase of duplex stainless steels (DSSs) is always considered to undergo nearly no phase transformation or precipitation upon annealing. The ferrite phase, on the other hand, is always regarded as the active transforming/precipitating phase. However, it's been found that if DSSs are plastically deformation and annealed between 900 and 1050°C, then the situation will be totally opposite.

    15. Physical Simulation of the Flow Field in a Vertical Twin Roll Strip Caster – A Water Model Study

      Arnis Pelss, Antje Rückert and Herbert Pfeifer

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400150

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      The visualization of the flow inside the pool of a twin roll strip caster is important for the process. In this study, the flow is systematically investigated for different volume flow distributions in a full scale water model. Therefore the particle image velocimetry method and video analysis are used to determine the main flow patterns.

    16. Influence of Bainite Morphology on Ductile Fracture Behavior in a 0.4C-CrMoNi Steel

      Navid Saeidi, Fakhreddin Ashrafizadeh, Behzad Niroumand, Mohammad Reza Forouzan and Frederic Barlat

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400155

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      SEM analysis is involved in studying ductile fracture mechanism in upper and lower bainitic steels. Detailed microstructural analysis reveales that cracking and interface decohesion of Al2O3 inclusions at lower strains and decohesion of cementite/ferrite matrix interfaces at higher strains are the main void nucleation mechanisms. Void growth behavior is also modeled. Moreover, final fracture mechanisms are examined and cleared in both steels studied.

    17. ASR Bending Force Mathematical Model for the Same Width Strip Rolling Campaigns in Hot Rolling

      Yan-Lin Li, Jian-Guo Cao, Guang-Hui Yang, Dun Wen, Yi-Zhong Zhou and Heng-Hao Ma

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400133

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      ASR bending force mathematical model for different rolling schedules is established. The model is related with the strip width, the rolling force, the diameters of rolls and the roll shifting stroke. The developed model lead a better crown of non-oriented electrical steel and an increase in coil numbers within a large number of the same width strip rolling campaign in production mills.

    18. Experimental Study on the Refining Desulfurization Slag Made from the Reduced Red Mud

      Dong Kai, Wu Long, Liu Wenjuan and Zhu Rong

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400181

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      Refining desulfurization slags made from the reduced red mud are studied by thermodynamic simulation, orthogonal experiments, and verification experiment. The results of the optimal combination slag with the best desulfurization and the metal Fe separation from the reduced red mud prove that, manufacture refining desulfurization slag is a feasible method on the disposal and recycling of the red mud.

    19. Optimization of Midrex Direct Reduced Iron Use in Ore-Based Steelmaking

      Kaisa Huitu, Mikko Helle, Hannu Helle, Marko Kekkonen and Henrik Saxén

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400091

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      The potential of using direct reduced iron as a partial substitute of pellets in a blast furnace is studied. The main objective is to analyze the prerequisites for an economically feasible operation of a steel plant integrated with a direct reduction plant. The results illustrate the conditions under which it will be economical to use DRI in the blast furnace.

    20. Dissimilar Metal Active Gas Welding of TWIP and DP Steel Sheets

      Pasquale Russo Spena, Paolo Matteis and Giorgio Scavino

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400154

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      New austenitic high-manganese TWIP steels have been proposed for the fabrication of car-body components, due to their excellent combination of strength and ductility. A widespread usage of TWIP steel grade is conditional on the employment of resistance spot welding to assemble body components made of dissimilar steel grades. For this reason, this work aims at investigating the mechanical and microstructural response of dissimilar butt weld seams of TWIP and dual phase steel sheets, with an austenitic filler, made by MAG welding.

    21. Influence of the Sulfur Content on the Sintering Behavior and the Mechanical Properties of a CrMnNi-TWIP-Steel

      Sabine Decker, Katja Lange, Lutz Krüger and Tobias Dubberstein

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400141

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      Sulfur reduces the surface tension of steel melts and enables the generation of very small steel particles during gas atomization. Results show, that high-alloyed steel with sulfur contents in the range of 0.02–0.1 wt% exhibits a high strength and a good deformability under quasi-static compression despite the formation of a large fraction of sulfur precipitations.

  4. Corrections

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  5. Full Papers

    1. Applicability of Top Gas Recycle Blast Furnace with Downstream Integration and Sequestration in an Integrated Steel Plant

      Rajeev Kumar Sahu, Sanat Kumar Roy and Prodip Kumar Sen

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400196

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      Global warming has led to consideration of the top gas recycle (TGR) blast furnace with significant potential to reduce CO2 emissions. A TGR system model has been developed to simulate the behavior of TGR furnace under different operating conditions. Under optimal conditions, the estimated total carbon requirements can be brought down substantially. But simultaneously there is a considerable reduction in the available downstream energy as well as an increase in sequestration load.

    2. Conventional and Tailored Mn-Bearing Alloying Agents for the Production of High Manganese Steels

      Gereon Hils, Alexander Newirkowez, Michael Kroker, Ulrich Grethe, Rune Schmidt-Jürgensen, Joachim Kroos and Karl-Heinz Spitzer

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400153

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      Concerning the industrial production of high manganese steel melts, conventional Mn-bearing alloying agents are reviewed. A modified process route for pyrometallurgical winning of special silicomanganese grades tailored for high manganese steelmaking has been conceived. For each individual process step, namely manganese slag production, silicomanganese production, and optional desiliconization of silicomanganese, results of lab-scale experiments are discussed.

    3. URANS Simulation of Continuous Casting Mold Flow: Assessment of Revised Turbulence Models

      Christoph Kratzsch, Klaus Timmel, Sven Eckert and Rüdiger Schwarze

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400097

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      A time resolving numerical model of a single-phase mold is formulated in the frame of Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations. Thereby the performance of various turbulence models is evaluated focusing the jet flow. The results show, that it is necessary to have higher order discretization with either the RNG kϵ model or the kω SST model.

    4. Research and Application of Ultra-Fast Cooling System and Velocity Controlled Strategy for Hot Rolled Strip

      Zhen-Lei Li, Hai-Jun Li, Guo Yuan, Guo-Dong Wang and Xue-Qiang Wang

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400077

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      Ultra-fast cooling is an advanced technology in hot rolling strip for development of low-cost and high-performance steels. Key components, sequential control structure, and mathematical model for ultra-fast cooling are described. Velocity controlled strategy for each strip element is developed. The temperature fluctuation affected by velocity variation is effectively eliminated and the system realizes accurate temperature control of UFCT and CT.

    5. Looking Back at Steel Research International and Its Future

      Hyunjoung Lee and Il Sohn

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400174

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      The knowledge structure of steel research in the journal of Steel Research International from 1990 to 2013 is identified by extracting and analyzing 5700 keywords from 2430 papers. Analysis of the keyword frequency and subgrouping provide valuable insights into understanding the knowledge structure of the steel research field and research directions for Steel Research International.

    6. Effect of Hot Metal Utilization on the Steelmaking Process Parameters in the Electric Arc Furnace

      Baek Lee, Jae Wook Ryu and Il Sohn

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400157

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      Hot metal additions into a 150 ton DC-EAF is studied. 1700 kWh of accumulated power consumption is decreased for every ton of hot metal utilized. Oxygen lancing practices is modified with hot metal additions in the EAF without increasing the tap-to-tap times. At hot metal additions of above 0.6, the decarburization rate linearly increases with oxygen lancing.

    7. Numerical Investigation of Free-Surface Flows under the Influence of Magnetic Fields

      Yong Ma and Gunther Brenner

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400104

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      Visualization of the computed free surface flow with inflow disturbances for different magnetic fields imposed in the marked region. The color represents the magnitude of velocity.

    8. Austenite Transformation Behaviour of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steels under Hot Tensile Test

      Hongfei Li, Guangwei Fan, Yan He, Jingang Bai, Caili Zhang and Peide Han

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400032

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      The initial secondary austenite phase (γ′) transformation occurs only in the cooling process and under hot tensile test condition. The γ′ precipitates in the temperature range of 950–1150 °C. The γ′/δ phase interface is coherent at 950 °C. However, the γ′/δ phase interface is not coherent at 1100 °C.

    9. Study of Inclusions in High Sulfur, Al-Killed Ca-Treated Steel via Experiments and Thermodynamic Calculations

      Wagner Viana Bielefeldt and Antônio Cezar Faria Vilela

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400112

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      In the production of special steels, inclusions have a significant influence on final product quality. The main objective of this study is to conduct a thermodynamic study aimed at preventing clogging problems during continuous casting (CC) and the formation of undesirable inclusions. Alumina (Al2O3), spinels, and calcium sulfide (CaS) are potential sources of defects during rolling and steel forging.

    10. Formability of AHSS under an Attach–Detach Forming Mode

      Omid Majidi, Frédéric Barlat, Myoung-Gyu Lee and Dong-Jin Kim

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400001

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      The FE simulation results demonstrate that the thinning tendency is limited by the simultaneous effects of friction coefficient reduction and springback after each detachment. It explains the increased drawability when the non-conventional forming mode is used compared to the conventional V-mode, as shown by the cup-drawing test results.

    11. Influence of B2O3 and TiO2 on Viscosity of Titanium-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag

      Yanhong Gao, Lingtao Bian and Zhongyu Liang

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400039

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      All the viscosities are within 0.2 Pa s for high temperature (over 1633 K in this experiment), which is less than that of the B-free slag. However, the value increases sharply when temperature is below break point temperature. In addition, an increase in the value of B2O3 content reduces significantly break point temperature and descent rate of temperature rises with increasing B2O3 content.

    12. Effects of MnO and CaO/SiO2 Mass Ratio on Phase Formations of CaO[BOND]Al2O3[BOND]MgO[BOND]SiO2[BOND]CrOx Slag at 1673 K and PO2=10−10 atm

      Qifeng Shu, Qingyun Luo, Lijun Wang and Kuochih Chou

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400117

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      Manganese is found to be enriched in spinel and liquid. The spinel increases in size with increasing of MnO and decreasing of CaO/SiO2 ratio. Disintegration is found in samples with increased MnO content and CaO/SiO2 ratio, which can be interpreted by increase of the size of Ca2SiO4 with increase of MnO content and CaO/SiO2 ratio.

    13. An Independent Modeling Approach for Prediction of Hardenability in Steels

      Neethi Sushanthi and Joydeep Maity

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400054

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      The cooling curves are generated for 1080 steel through explicit finite difference based model considering constant values of thermal conductivity and specific heat. Grange–Kiefer approach is extended for determination of 50% transformation nose of CCT diagram. The cooling curves are solved against 50% transformation nose of CCT diagram. The Du/D versus D plots are generated for both finite and infinite severity of quenchant. The DC predicted by the model closely matches with the experimental DC showing only 8% deviation.

    14. A Model for Homogenization of Solid Alloying Admixtures in an Induction Crucible Furnace

      Mihails Ščepanskis, Andris Jakovičs, Egbert Baake and Bernard Nacke

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400118

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      The paper presents a methodology for identification of homogenization time of alloying inclusions in an induction crucible furnace where particles are admixed from a free surface of a melt. The methodology is based on the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Euler-Lagrange calculation of inclusions and a regression model for size of the inclusions and their density. The regression model avoids the repeated LES calculations and, therefore, is suitable for an optimization task.

  6. Technical Note

    1. Numerical Study about the Influence of Small Casting Speed Variations on the Metallurgical Length in Continuous Casting of Steel Slabs

      Josef Domitner, Menghuai Wu and Andreas Ludwig

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400059

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      The influence of small casting speed variations (715–735 mm min−1) on the metallurgical length in steel continuous casting is numerically investigated. The numerical simulations are based on an Eulerian two-phase solidification model. For a given casting configuration, the effects of strand surface bulging, shrinkage feeding, and mechanical softreduction are considered in different simulation cases.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Finite Element Analysis of Manufacturing Micro Lubrication Pockets in High Strength Steels by Hot Micro-Coining

      Adam Szurdak and Gerhard Hirt

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300475

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      The manufacturing of micro lubrication pockets in stainless steel AISI 304 by hot micro-coining is investigated conducting finite element simulations and complementing experiments. Suitable process parameters and process limits are determined in this work. Process limits occurred for the coining of high strength materials at low process temperatures due to plastic deformation of the die.

    2. Change of M23C6 Particles Size and Spacing by Tempering a High-Chromium Creep Resistant Steel at 800–550 °C

      Franc Vodopivec, Fevzi Kafexhiu and Borut Žužek

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400013

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      M23C6 particles size, number and dissolution velocity were deduced for tempering of a X20 steel at 800 to 550 °C. The dissolution of small particles increases the particle spacing for above one order of magnitude more than particles coarsening. By creep tests above 550 °C, particles spacing and creep rate are increased significantly by dissolution of small particles.

    3. Design of Magnetic Fields for Half and Full Type Electromagnetic Swirl Flow Generators

      Ying Yang, Pär G. Jönsson, Zhijian Su, Jicheng He and Keiji Nakajima

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300463

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      Two kinds of a full type and a half type electromagnetic swirl flow generators (EMSFG) are studied. Moreover, those two type devices with different magnetomotive forces, frequencies as well as core distances are also investigated. Furthermore, the distribution of the magnetic flux intensity in molten steel and EMSFG and the distribution of the Lorentz force in molten steel are discussed by using different EMSFG structures and electromagnetic parameters.

    4. Study on Desulfurization Abilities of Some Commonly Used Desulfurization Agents

      David Lindström and Du Sichen

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400031

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      The desulfurization abilities of some commonly used agents, namely fluidized CaO, CaC2, commercial-CaO, Mg, MgO, CaO · MgO, and mixtures of commercial-CaO–Mg are studied and compared under the same experimental conditions in a laboratory furnace at 1773 K. The desulfurization mechanisms of CaO · MgO, commercial-CaO, and mixtures of commercial-CaO and Mg are also studied.

    5. Use of Artificial Intelligence in Classification of Mill Scale Defects

      Szymon Lechwar, Łukasz Rauch and Maciej Pietrzyk

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400016

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      In this study, a classification model is developed for real-time prediction of various kinds of mill scales at typical hot rolling mill (HRM). In order to obtain input data, the automatic surface inspection system (ASIS) is used together with its classification model. Thereafter, novel procedure is introduced for further boosting of the accuracy of predictions by the use of hybrid classification concept.

    6. Microstructure and Properties of Laser-Clad Mo2NiB2 Cermet Coating on Steel Substrate

      Qianlin Wu, Wenge Li, Ning Zhong and Guoqing Wang

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400065

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      A novel method to synthesize Mo2NiB2 boride cermet coating on Q235 steel substrate, consisting of Mo2NiB2-type ternary boride as a reinforced phase and a γ-(Fe, Ni) base binder, is realized with laser cladding technique. The wear resistance of the Q235 substrate is greatly improved. As compared to 304 stainless steel, lower corrosion rate is obtained for the coating and pitting corrosion disappeare in particular.

    7. Using a Mathematical Model of Counter-Current Flow in a Blast Furnace to Evaluate Reducibility of Iron-Ore-Bearing Raw Materials

      Pavlina Pustejovska, Jiri Tuma, Vladimir Stanek, Jiri Kristal, Simona Jursova and Jiri Bilik

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400055

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      The paper deals with a mathematical model of counter-current flow in a blast furnace for a complex evaluation of iron-ore bearing raw materials reducibility. It is based on laboratory tests results and model calculation to predict the parameters of the reduction process and specific consumption of carbon in the blast furnace by Rist.

    8. Research of Strain Aging in Pipeline Steel with a Ferrite/Martensite Dual-Phase Microstructure

      Xiurong Zuo and Rutao Li

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300465

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      The high-deformability pipeline steel with a ferrite/martensite dual-phase microstructure exhibits a superior strain aging resistance aging at 200–250°C for 5–15 min. The yield ratios are below 0.77 and the pipe still exhibits continuous yielding behavior, meanwhile tensile strength, uniform elongation and impact toughness do not experience significant change.

    9. About Electrical Properties of Chromite Pellets – Effect of Reduction Degree

      Anne M. Heikkilä, Juho H. Pussinen, Olli J. Mattila and Timo M. J. Fabritius

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400023

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      Chromite pellets, which are used as a part of SAF charge, are considered. The electrical behavior as a function of reduction degree of the chromite pellets is studied. It is found out that increase in reduction degree decreased the electrical conductivity measured in room temperature.

    10. Formation Conditions of Ti2O3, MgTi2O4, Mg2TiO4, and MgAl2O4 in Ti–Mg–Al Complex Deoxidation of Molten Iron

      Hideki Ono, Keiji Nakajima, Shingo Agawa, Toshio Ibuta, Ryota Maruo and Tateo Usui

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400034

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      The relationships of the compounds in the Mg–Ti–Al–O system in equilibrium with molten iron are clarified at temperatures ranging from 1873 to 1973 K, and the thermodynamic calculations are conducted in avoiding Al2O3 or spinel MgAl2O4 formation and for inclusion control. It is shown that the equilibrium relations between those compounds and the composition of solutes in steel at 1973 K.

    11. Compositional Evolution of Oxide Inclusions in Austenitic Stainless Steel during Continuous Casting

      Ja-Yong Choi, Sun-Koo Kim, Youn-Bae Kang and Hae-Geon Lee

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300486

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      Composition evolution and number density of oxide inclusions in austenitic stainless steel during continuous casting are demonstrated by plant data as well as mathematical modeling. Origin of the inclusions is argon oxygen decaburization (AOD) slag, and the inclusions grow by subsequent oxide formation due to decrease of solubility limit of O, Al, Mn, Si, etc, during casting. A simple mathematical model is presented to account for the composition evolution.

    12. Microstructual Evolution of a Medium Carbon Advanced High Strength Steel Heat-Treated by Quenching–Partitioning Process

      Ning Zhong, Qianlin Wu, Yansheng Yin and Xiaodong Wang

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400064

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      The present study shows that good combination of high tensile strength and relatively high ductility of a microalloyed carbon steel have been attained by quenching–partitioning–tempering process. The experimental results show that the sample partition-tempered for 30 s exhibits best comprehensive mechanical properties, which result from the integrated effect of carbide precipitation, conservation of certain amount of retained austenite and softening of the martensite matrix during the partition–tempering process.

    13. Effects of Cerium on Resistance to Pitting Corrosion of Spring Steel Used in Fasteners of High-Speed Railway

      Yan-Qiang Liu, Li-Jun Wang and Kuo Chih Chou

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300438

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      The potentiodynamic polarization test was employed to investigate the effects of rare earth addition on the resistance to pitting corrosion of spring steel. The resistance to pitting corrosion was improved by decreasing the initiation of the pitting corrosion. However, excessive amount of Ce would result in the decrease of resistance to pitting corrosion. The optimal composition of Ce in this study was 0.053%.

    14. Universal Secondary Cooling Structure for Round Blooms Continuous Casting of Steels in Various Diameters

      Mujun Long, Zhihua Dong, Junhao Sheng, Dengfu Chen and Chunmei Chen

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300457

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      Based on the thermodynamic calculations, the optimal universal secondary cooling structure, and cooling system for continuous casting of round blooms in various diameters are studied by discussing the temperature recovery, temperature fluctuation, and solidified shell growth with a 2D heat transfer model. The results contribute to the efficiency and flexibility of round blooms continuous casting process.

    15. Inclusion Behavior under a Swirl Flow in a Submerged Entry Nozzle and Mold

      Ying Yang, Pär G. Jönsson, Mikael Ersson and Keiji Nakajima

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300462

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      It can be seen in a no-swirl flow case that the inclusions are concentrated in the upper part of a mold, which consists of the meniscus/stagnant region (from Z = 0.12 to −0.3 m) and the circulation flow region (from Z = −0.3 to −1.1 m). However, it is found for a swirl flow case that the inclusions are concentrated in the upper part of a mold, which consists of the meniscus region (from Z = 0.12 to 0.05 m) and the circulation flow region (from Z = 0.05 to −0.5 m). Moreover, all inclusions are more easily removed to a meniscus for a swirl-flow case than for a no-swirl flow case.

    16. New Energy Saving Technology for Producing Hadfield Steel to High Gouging Applications

      Mohamed Kamal El Fawkhry, Ayman Mohamed Fathy and Mamdouh Mahmoud Eissa

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300388

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      Cementite is commonly failure causing phase in steel alloys, in particular in high manganese steel. The new ladle treatment technology is used for treating molten Hadfield steel by iron base modifiers with (Mg +Ca[BOND]Si). Pseudo-eutectic is forming between austenite and cementite as a result of the ladle treatment. A new eutectic is well dispersed throughout the austenite matrix, and accordingly supplies the steel with high toughness accompanied with excellent abrasion resistance without high energy heat treatment process.

    17. Simulation of the Effect of Steel Flow Velocity on Slag Droplet Distribution and Interfacial Area Between Steel and Slag

      Petri Sulasalmi, Ville-Valtteri Visuri, Aki Kärnä and Timo Fabritius

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400026

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      A novel approach, which combines CFD-modeling and regression analysis is applied to examine slag droplet distribution and generation rate with different steel flow velocities. Three phase CFD calculations are carried out for determining the shape of the distributions and then Rossin–Rammler–Sperling distribution function is fitted to the data, which enable estimating the birthrates of the emulsified droplets.

    18. Development and Evaluation of CaO–SiO2 Based Mould Fluxes for Casting High Aluminum TRIP Steel

      Xiaojin Fu, Guanghua Wen, Qiang Liu, Ping Tang, Juzhong Li and Wei Li

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300473

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      The content of SiO2, B2O3, and MnO decreases while the content of Al2O3 increases during the beginning 11 min of the casting. Eleven minutes after the start of casting, the content of each component of the liquid slag remains almost the same, which indicates that the slag–metal reaction reached dynamic equilibrium at that time.

    19. Mechanical Properties, Formability, and Corrosion Behavior of Dual Phase Weathering Steels Developed by an Inter-Critical Annealing Treatment

      Tarek Allam and Mahmoud Abbas

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400033

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      Inter-critical annealing treatments are conducted on hot-rolled weathering steel aiming at improving its mechanical and formality properties by generating DP microstructures. The developed DP-weathering steels achieve 23–25% increase in strength compared to the ferrite/pearlite weathering steel. Generating DP microstructure improve the formability to a large extent and accelerate the nucleation of the characteristic (atmospheric corrosion resistance) FeOOH layer.

    20. Study on Mathematical Modeling of Combined Top and Bottom Blowing VOD Refining Process of Stainless Steel

      Ji-He Wei and Yi Li

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400042

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      A mathematical model for the combined top and bottom blowing VOD refining of stainless steel is proposed. It is applied to 20 heats of 409L-grade steel refining in a 120 t VOD vessel, good results are obtained. The influences of the related factors and the optimization of blowing technology are examined from the model predictions.

    21. Analysis of Operation Parameters Affecting Hot Metal Temperature in COREX Process

      Sheng-li Wu, Ming-yin Kou, Jing Sun, Wei Shen and Kai-ping Du

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300415

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      A calculation model has been developed to study the relationship between parameters and hot metal temperature. The results show that for every 10 K increase in hot metal temperature, the tuyere oxygen volume, metallization, fuel rate, and coke rate should increase by 714.3 m3 h−1, 6.4%, 90.9 kg tHM−1, and 29.4 kg tHM−1, respectively, while the coal rate should decrease by 115.7 kg tHM−1.

    22. Investigation of Slag Foaming by Additions of Briquettes in the EAF during Stainless Steel Production

      Arkadiy Davydenko, Andrey Karasev, Gunnar Lindstrand and Pär Jönsson

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400036

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      This study is focused on an investigation of slag foaming by briquettes additions in the EAF during the stainless steel production. The briquettes produced for industrials trials are characterized and used for slag foaming on an industrial scale. The obtained results are compared with calculations.

    23. Experimental Study of Phase Equilibria in CaO–SiO2–MgO–Al2O3–V2O3 Slags

      Yang Yang, Lidong Teng and Seshadri Seetharaman

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400017

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      Phase relationships in the CaO[BOND]SiO2[BOND]MgO[BOND]Al2O3[BOND]V2O3 slags are studied using gas-slag equilibration technique. The slag samples are equilibrated in a gas mixture of CO, CO2 and Ar gases at oxygen partial pressures of 10−5 Pa and 0.21 × 105 Pa at temperatures 1773–1823 K (1500–1550 °C). The impacts of slag basicity, temperature and oxygen partial pressure on the phase equilibria are investigated. Vanadium distribution between the slags and solid Pt and phase compositions are analysed using SEM, EDS and XRD techniques. Activities of VO1.5 in slags are also calculated.

    24. The Precise Prediction of Rolling Forces in Heavy Plate Rolling Based on Inverse Modeling Techniques

      Johannes Lohmar, Markus Bambach, Gerhard Hirt, Thomas Kiefer and Daniel Kotliba

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300431

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      The aim of this paper is to obtain valid material parameters for semi-empirical material models directly from industrial rolling operations. The principle idea here is to use inverse modeling techniques. Sound roll force predictions thus can be enabled without conducting time and cost intensive laboratory tests. The validity of the proposed concept is demonstrated using demanding test cases.

    25. The Hot Strength of Industrial Cokes – Evaluation of Coke Properties that Affect Its High-Temperature Strength

      Juho A. Haapakangas, Juha A. Uusitalo, Olli J. Mattila, Stanislav S. Gornostayev, David A. Porter and Timo M. J. Fabritius

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300450

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      The strength of metallurgical coke is vital for efficient blast furnace operation. The hot strength of industrial cokes is studied by using a Gleeble 3800 thermomechanical simulator. The properties of coke that could affect their hot strength are determined and discussed.

    26. Characterization of Briquettes Used for Slag Foaming in the EAF during Stainless Steel Production

      Arkadiy Davydenko, Saman Mostafaee, Andrey Karasev and Pär Jönsson

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300482

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      This study is focused on a characterization of briquettes, which are used for slag foaming and waste product reduction in the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) during the stainless steel production. The experimental data is compared with calculations according to the obtained results.

    27. High Temperature Phase Stability and Heat Capacity of Fe-0.28Mn-0.55Si-0.045C (Mass%) Magnetic Alloy: A Calorimetric Study

      Haraprasanna Tripathy, Raju Subramanian, Vijayashanthi Nagoor Kani, Raj Narayan Hajra, Arun Kumar Rai, Mythili Rengachari, Saroja Saibaba and Tammana Jayakumar

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300456

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      Thermal stability and phase transformation characteristics of Fe-0.28Mn-0.55Si-0.045C alloy by calorimetry. Upon heating, following sequence of phase changes occur: αferro + (Fe,Mn)3C [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] αpara + (Fe,Mn)3C [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] α + γ [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] γ [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] γ + δ [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] δ [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] δ + L [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] L. Liquidus = 1780 K; Solidus = 1777 K upon slow cooling. Δ°Hα[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]γ = 16.02 ± 2 J g−1; Δ°Hγ[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]δ = 21.72 ± 2 J g−1; Δ°Hδ[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]L = 258 ± 18 J g−1; inline image. Debye–Grüneisen formalism for modeling the vibrational contribution and Hillert–Jarl phenomenological model for magnetic contributions to heat capacity.

    28. Finite-Element Analysis of Porosity Closure by Heavy Reduction Process Combined with Ultra-Heavy Plates Rolling

      Xinkai Zhao, Jiongming Zhang, Shaowu Lei and Yuanning Wang

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300481

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      In this paper, a two-step strategy is preceded using THERCAST3D to obtain the information of solidification firstly. Then, a software FORGE3D is used to simulate the heavy reduction and ultra-heavy plates rolling. The aim is to find out the closing behavior of porosity voids in slabs in the process of heavy reduction combined with low compression ratio rolling.

    29. Analysis of Spalling in Roughing Mill Backup Rolls of Wide and Thin Strip Hot Rolling Process

      Qiang Dong, Jian-guo Cao, Hong-bo Li, Yun-song Zhou, Tan-li Yan and Wu-zhou Wang

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300476

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      Spalling causes of backup rolls in a roughing mill of a hot strip mill are investigated in this paper. The dominant cyclic stress applied on backup rolls is contact stress and its distributions in whole service periods of work and backup roll indicate that roll wear has significant impact on backup roll spalling.

    30. A Three Dimensional Model to Characterize the Centerline Segregation in CC Slabs

      Tobias Brune, Katharina Kortzak, Dieter Senk, Nils Reuther and Markus Schäperkötter

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400015

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      The centerline segregation in CC slabs results of different discrepancies. The former explanation that mainly the effect of bulging is reasonably for macrosegregation in thick slabs is disproved. In reality, the quasi periodicity of segregations in longitudinal direction, results of the independence of regions within continuous casting slabs.

    31. Phase-Field Modeling of the Dendrite Growth Morphology with Influence of Solid–Liquid Interface Effects

      Joao Rezende, Dieter Senk and Dennis Hüttenmeister

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300398

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      Segregation during casting of high manganese steels may impair their mechanical properties. Simulations by the phase-field method may be utilized to investigate the development of microsegregation during solidification. By utilizing the sessile-drop values for the interface energy, simulations were run aiming at investigating its effect on the dendrite morphology.

    32. Microstructure and Properties of 15Cr-5Ni-1Mo-1W Martensitic Stainless Steel

      Chenna Krishna S, Narendra Kumar Gangwar, Abhay K. Jha, Bhanu Pant and Koshy M. George

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400035

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      The effect of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties is studied using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, tensile testing, and X-ray diffraction. Combination of solution treatment (1050°C), cryo treatment (−70°C), and aging (500°C) yield good strength and ductility with yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of 1050 and 1235 MPa, respectively retaining a ductility of 20.4%.

    33. Hybrid MATLAB and LabVIEW with T-S Cloud Inference Neural Network to Realize a Flatness Intelligent Control System

      Xiuling Zhang, Liang Zhao, Jiayin Zang, Hongmin Fan and Long Cheng

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400024

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      In this paper, T-S cloud inference neural network is proposed. It is a new neural network constructed by cloud model and T-S fuzzy neural network. Based on the new neural network, Virtual Flatness Intelligent Control System is successfully developed by hybrid MATLAB and LabVIEW. Graphical programming language is utilized to realize flatness pattern recognition, flatness prediction, and flatness control.

    34. CFD-Modeling of Heavy Oil Injection into Blast Furnace – Atomization and Mixing in Raceway-Tuyere Area

      Ari Vuokila, Markus Riihimäki and Esa Muurinen

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300316

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      Auxiliary fuel injection into the blast furnace has many benefits in blast furnace operation. Increase of oil injection levels has proven challenging. CFD model is developed to study injection of heavy oil in terms of atomization and mixing. Properly designed nozzle is shown to improve mixing significantly allowing higher injection levels.

    35. Prediction of Secondary-Dendrite Arm Spacing for Binary Alloys by Means of a Phase-Field Model

      Alexandre F. Ferreira, Ever G de Melo and L. de-Olivé Ferreira

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300423

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      In materials science, the phase-field model is widely used as one of the powerful computational methods to simulate the formation of complex microstructures during solidification and phase transformation of metals and alloys. In the present study, the secondary-arm spacing for Fe–C binary alloys is numerically predicted using a phase-field model in a two-dimensional domain.

    36. Oxidation of Water Atomized Metal Powders

      Fredrik Persson, Anders Eliasson and Pär G. Jönsson

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300466

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      This study focuses on the oxidation of water atomized metal powders. Pilot tests are performed for iron powders alloyed with manganese and carbon. The particle shape and the oxides are determined using optical and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray micro-analysis. In addition, equilibrium calculations are carried out to enable a comparison of the experimental data with equilibrium values.

    37. Microstructure and Properties of Nanoduplex Bainite–Austenite Steel for Ultra-High-Strength Plates

      Bogdan Garbarz and Wojciech Burian

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300453

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      Basing on experimentally determined continuous cooling transformation (CCT) and time–temperature–transformation (TTT) diagrams, measurements of mechanical properties and examination of microstructure an optimized chemical composition of a nanostructured bainite–austenite steel intended for production of plates is proposed. The optimized composition enables to manufacture ultra-high-strength plates up to 15 mm in thickness.

    38. Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm to Optimize Variable Drawbead Geometry for Tailor Welded Blanks Made of Dissimilar Steels

      Krishnaswamy Hariharan, Ngoc-Trung Nguyen, Nirupam Chakraborti, Myoung-Gyu Lee and Frédéric Barlat

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300471

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      Tailor welded blanks made by joining twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) and low carbon steel are studied using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. The results of finite element simulations on them are captured in metamodels of weld line movement and formability by using the recently developed Evolutionary Neural Network (EvoNN) algorithm. Both are then simultaneously optimized to obtain a Pareto front, leading to some most preferable forming conditions.

    39. Low Pressure Effects in SEN-Stopper Region in Continuous Casting

      Maria Thumfart and Mirko Javurek

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300448

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      Low pressures arising in the stopper rod gap are analyzed. The criteria for degassing of liquid steel are investigated. A mathematical model is presented for a two-phase flow situation (liquid steel/gas) in the SEN considering pressure distribution, throughput, geometrical parameters, amount of gas in the SEN and pressure loss coefficient at the stopper rod.

    40. Inclusion Evolution and Estimation during Secondary Refining in Calcium Treated Aluminum Killed Steels

      Die Yang, Xinhua Wang, Guangwei Yang, Pengyuan Wei and Jinping He

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300393

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      The present research aims at the industrial investigation of inclusions in ladle furnace treatment. It is expected that a clear idea about evolution of inclusions in the liquid steel during secondary refining can be provided to plant for producing high cleanliness LCAK steels. A thermodynamic model that predicts the composition of inclusions in calcium treated, aluminum killed steels is also presented.

    41. Application of High Speed Continuous Casting on Low Carbon Conventional Slab in SGJT

      Linping Li, Xinhua Wang, Xiaoxuan Deng, Xiaolian Wang, Yiming Qin and Chenxi Ji

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300426

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      Comparison of fluid flow pattern between well and mountain-bottom SEN is developed by water model and mathematical simulation at 2.3 m min−1. Due to a weaker upward recirculation, the well-bottom SEN is more suitable for the sound high speed continuous casting.

    42. Reduction Behavior of Self-Reducing Pellet (SRP) for Low Height Blast Furnace

      Pruet Kowitwarangkul, Alexander Babich and Dieter Senk

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300399

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      The reduction behaviors of self-reducing pellets (SRPs) under the thermal reserve zone (TRZ) simulated conditions have been investigated with the context of their possible use in the small BF. The crushing strengths and properties of SRPs after both methods of hardening, fire-hardening, and cement-bonded curing, were investigated as well.


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