steel research international

Cover image for Vol. 87 Issue 12

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Online ISSN: 1869-344X

VIEW

  1. 1 - 89
  1. Full Papers

    1. Effect of Prior Microstructure and Heating Rate on the Austenitization Kinetics of 39NiCrMo3 Steel

      Mattia Spezzapria, Alessio G. Settimi, Luca Pezzato, Michele F. Novella, Michele Forzan, Fabrizio Dughiero, Stefania Bruschi, Andrea Ghiotti, Katya Brunelli and Manuele Dabalà

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600267

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      In this work, the austenitization of the low alloy steel 39NiCrMo3 is studied in order to develop the continuous heating transformation diagrams (CHT) for different prior microstructures, varying the heating rate. It is shown that prior microstructure and also heating rate significantly affect the kinetics of austentization processes. Moreover the various mechanism of austenite formation for each microstructures are described.

  2. Reviews

    1. Electromagnetic Field Assisted Metallic Materials Processing: A Review

      Zhuo Zhao, Yanquan Chai, Shihong Zheng, Lisha Wang and Yanping Xiao

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600273

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      An overview and discussion on a range of electromagnetic effects, including magnetic damping, magnetic levitation, pinch effect, as well as magnetic texture, and thermoelectric magnetic effect, etc., on the metallic materials morphology or flow behavior as well as on the corresponding particles. Recent development in improving the magnetic flux density has enable more significant magnetic effects on weakly magnetic materials.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Modeling of Solidification in Continuous Casting Round Billet with Mold Electromagnetic Stirring (M-EMS)

      Leonardo B. Trindade, José Ernesto A. Nadalon, André C. Contini and Rodrigo C. Barroso

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600319

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      A fully couple flow of molten steel, heat transfer, and solidification of a continuous casting round billet under mold electromagnetic stirring are investigate with fluid flow and electromagnetic simulations. The results indicate that the M-EMS produces a reduction of the temperature and an increasing of solid fraction in the strand center and a thinner shell close to the stirrer center.

    2. Effect of Ferrite Lattice Vacancies on Creep Rate of the Steel X20CrMoV121 in the Range 763–913 K

      Franc Vodopivec, Fevzi Kafexhiu and Borut Žužek

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600315

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      The effect of vacancies content and mobility, as well as of glide stress on creep rate of steel X20 is examined in range of creep tests 550–640 °C. It is found that the effect of increase of vacancies content prevails. With inclusion of the corresponding parameter, the difference of calculated and experimental creep rate is diminshed to the accuracy of assessment of carbide particles.

    3. Recycling Carbonaceous Industrial/Commercial Waste as a Carbon Resource in Iron and Steelmaking

      Irshad Mansuri, Rita Khanna and Veena Sahajwalla

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600333

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      High temperature pyrolysis investigations are reported on three commercial waste polymers, namely waste CDs (compact discs), carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs), and Bakelite. All these waste products contain high levels of carbons in their residual chars, and could be used as valuable carbon resources in a variety of iron/steelmaking applications.

  4. Editorials

  5. Full Papers

    1. Effect of Thermal Exposure on the Charpy Impact Properties of Thermo-Mechanically Treated Reinforcement Steel Bar

      Md. Basiruddin Sk., Badirujjaman Syed, Arya Chatterjee, Arijit Lodh, Saurabh Kundu and Debalay Chakrabarti

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600286

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      Very limited studies are available on the measurement of residual mechanical properties of thermally affected reinforced steel bars on the aspect of microstructure-texture-residual stress. However, considering the wide application of TMT rebar in construction sector (especially in Indian sub-continent), in order to ensure structural safety this area needs a serious emphasis, and authors investigation is dealt with these issues.

    2. Study on the Equilibrium of Slag and Hot Metal at Tapping with Respect to Sulfur

      Adolfo Firmino Timoteo Condo, David Lindström and Du Sichen

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600336

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      Collected slag and hot metal samples at tapping are re-melted in a graphite crucible and stirred at different stirring times. The results show evidently that sulfur is transferred from hot metal to slag, which lead to an increase in the sulfur partition from its initial value. The results strongly indicate non-equilibrium between slag and hot metal at tapping.

    3. Effects of Reduction Pretreatment on the Internal Quality of Casting Billets

      Yuwei Wang, Qingwu Cai, Gaosheng Li and Wei Yu

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600337

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      Reduction pretreatment is a novel process to improve the internal qualities of casting billets. The reduction could not only cause considerable plastic strain to close porosity, but also crush coarse dendrites and liquid core to decrease segregation. The figure shows a more homogeneous microstructure composed of fine pearlite and granular ferrite can be obtained after reduction pretreatment.

    4. Dynamic Transformation during the Simulation of Plate Rolling in an X70 Steel

      Samuel F. Rodrigues, Clodualdo Aranas Jr., Fulvio Siciliano and John J. Jonas

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600388

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      The occurrence of dynamic transformation during plate rolling reduces the levels of the flow curves. The amounts of DT ferrite produced and retained increase with pass number and with decrease in temperature. The critical strain for the onset of DT is 0.025 on average due to the presence of strain retained from the preceding passes. More ferrite is produced when the interpass times are short as longer intervals favor retransformation.

    5. Investigation of Solidification, Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Continuous Casting of Steel Using an Advanced Modeling Approach

      Pilvi Tuulia Hietanen, Seppo Louhenkilpi and Shan Yu

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600355

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      Advanced computational fluid dynamics modeling is used to show that convection dominates the superheat distribution. In-house programs are used to provide temperature-dependent material properties and realistic boundary conditions to increase the accuracy of this coupled model, which is used to show that the superheat distribution is highly localized and leads to shell thinning in bloom casting.

    6. Investigation of Reduction Mechanism and Kinetics of Vanadium Titanomagnetite Carbon Composite Hot Briquette at 1173–1373 K

      Wei Zhao, Hongtao Wang, Zhenggen Liu, Mansheng Chu, Ziwei Ying and Jue Tang

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600306

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      In this paper, the isothermal reduction of vanadium titanomagnetite carbon composite hot briquette (VTM-CCB), simulated Blast Furnace condition at the temperature range of 1173–1373 K, is investigated in an electric resistance furnace. The aim is to explore the reduction behavior, phase transitions, and rate controlling steps of VTM-CCB during reduction. All these provide theoretical basis for the blast furnace smelting VTM-CCB.

    7. Modeling Slag Behavior When Using Micro-Bubble Swarms for the Deep Cleaning of Liquid Steel in Tundishes

      Sheng Chang, Sa Ge, Zongshu Zou, Mihaiela M. Isac and Roderick I. L. Guthrie

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600328

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      Slag layer behaviors under gas bubbling are investigated in a full-scaled water model tundish. A novel ladle shroud is employed to produce micro-bubbles, as small as 0.54 mm in diameter, in order to control the formation of “slag eye” during gas injection. The corresponding three-dimensional numerical model is developed to predict the area and shape of the “slag eye.”

    8. Influence of Cu on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties for an Extremely Low Carbon Steel During Isothermal Process

      Mingxue Sun, Weina Zhang, Zhenyu Liu and Guodong Wang

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600344

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      This paper investigates the phase transformation mode, Cu precipitation behavior during isothermal process and their influences on mechanical properties of an extremely low carbon steel. Growth of Cu precipitates from spherical to ellipsoidal shaped occurs in association with transformation from 9R to twinned fcc structure. Cu can effectively strengthen the matrix at a slight expense of ductility and toughness.

    9. Determination of Material Constants in Ductile Fracture Criterion for Tubular Materials with Conical Flaring Test

      Zicheng Zhang, Xiangwei Kong, Mohammad Ali Mirzai and Ken-Ichi Manabe

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600258

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      In this work, a new method is proposed to obtain the tube material constants of Oyane ductile fracture criterion. This method is based on combining FEM simulation and experiment of tube flaring test. The accurate prediction of flaring limits of three different steel tubes are successfully obtained with the material constants determined by the new method.

    10. Prediction of Nitrogen Content of Steel Melt during Stainless Steel Making Using AOD Converter

      Sudipta Patra, Jagadish Nayak, Lokesh Kumar Singhal and Snehanshu Pal

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600271

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      In this paper, prediction of nitrogen content in steel melt with respect to blowing time for making different grades (e.g., 304L, 204Cu, and 18Cr–18Mn–0.5N (HNS)) of stainless steel using AOD converter has been performed considering the influence of the bath temperature and composition variation as well as the kinetics of nitrogen absorption and desorption in steel melt.

    11. Microstructure and Properties’ Evaluation of W18Cr4V Modified by Fe–Zr–Nb–N–B Nano-Powder Inoculants

      Chunxiang Cui, Hefei Gao and Lichen Zhao

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600318

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      Microstructures of HSS modified by Fe–Zr–Nb–N–B nano-powder inoculants after complete heat treatment are presented as the thinner acicular martensite in austenite grain, the smaller carbides particles within the grains homogeniously, as shown in the TOC Figure. The carbide particles in inoculants formed by in situ reaction play the role of heterogeneous nucleation and dispersion strengthening in HSS matrix.

    12. Study on Slopping Prevention in the BOF Steelmaking Process

      Peiyuan Ni, Teodor Haglund and Mikael Ersson

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600399

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      A new method to prevent slopping in BOF is proposed in this paper, by simply blowing gas at the top of the foam surface. The physical experiment results show that the foam height can be effectively decreased by the top blowing gas. The gas flow velocity from the top blowing nozzle outlet is found to be the key factor for a decreased foam height. Around 48% of the foam height, with an initial foam height of 145 mm, is destroyed by the top blowing gas in this study.

    13. Effect of TiO2 and FeO on the Viscosity and Structure of Blast Furnace Primary Slags

      Ke Xin Jiao, Jian Liang Zhang, Zhi Yu Wang, Chun Lin Chen and Yan Xiang Liu

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600296

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      This paper presents the effects of TiO2 and FeO on the viscosities of CaO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–TiO2–FeO slag by the rotating cylinder method. The structural characterization of the quenched samples are also studied by Fourier transform infra-red and Raman spectroscopy. Besides, the mechanisms on the variation of slag viscosity slags are acquired.

    14. Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Properties of the FeO–SiO2–V2O3 Systems

      Weijun Huang, Min Chen, Xiang Shen, Shan Yu, Nan Wang and Lei Xu

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600324

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      Based on the existing model using reliable data from literatures and experimental studies, this study optimizes and assesses the phase diagram of FeO–SiO2–V2O3 systems to understand on the evolution of phase compositions, physico-chemical properties and slagging mechanism of vanadium slag during process. The results show that the calculated phase diagrams are well consistent with experimental data.

    15. Experimental Validation and Numerical Analysis of the Swirling Flow in a Submerged Entry Nozzle and Mold by Using a Reverse TurboSwirl in a Billet Continuous Casting Process

      Haitong Bai, Mikael Ersson and Pär Jönsson

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600339

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      A new design of the SEN by reverse TurboSwirl is introduced to generate a swirling flow for the continuous casting process. Numerical simulations are used to simulate the strong swirling flow. Then a water model experiment is carried out to validate the simulation by measuring the axial and tangential velocities using an ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP).

    16. Dynamic Optimization Model of Flatness Target Curve Based on Hybrid Intelligent Algorithm

      Zhu-Wen Yan, He-Nan Bu and Dian-Hua Zhang

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600326

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      By the intelligent strategy of dynamic optimization in flatness target curve, the potential of the flatness control system can be completely fulfilled and the satisfying strip flatness can be speedily obtained. And in the hybrid intelligent algorithm of ZOGE, both the searching definiteness and the randomness are taken into account.

    17. Effect of Continuous Annealing Temperature on Microstructure and Properties of Ultra-Purified Ferritic Stainless Steel

      Shaoheng Sun, Aimin Zhao, Qinghua Zeng and Hongxiang Yin

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600347

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      This paper presents the effect continuous annealing temperature on mechanical properties, formability, texture, and corrosion resistance of ultra-purified ferritic stainless steel. The relationship between texture and corrosion resistance has been researched emphatically. It indicates that the higher volume fractions of {111}<uvw> fiber texture, the higher relative frequency of low energy grain boundaries, and the better corrosion resistance.

    18. Precipitation Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Vanadium-Added TRIP-Assisted Annealed Martensitic Steel

      Lili Li, Hao Yu, Chenghao Song, Jun Lu, Junli Hu and Tao Zhou

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600234

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      The precipitation behavior and microstructural evolution of vanadium-added TRIP-assisted annealed martensitic (TAM) steel are investigated using 3DAP. According to the 3DAP analysis, C, Mn and V atoms segregating at interface between retained austenite and BCC phases, and they can make the interface more stabilization by effectively pin the interface.

    19. Simulation of Edge Defects Behavior of Slabs in the Sizing Press and Roughing Mill of a Hot Strip Mill

      Farzad Foadian, Claus P. Antoine and Heinz Palkowski

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600357

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      In this work, the behavior of defects in steel slabs in sizing press and roughing mill is studied. Different slabs with different geometries are chosen and initially are simulated ideally (without having any defects). After verifying the models, the defects are inserted to the different cases and slabs are simulated having defects.

    20. The Effect of Heating Rate on the Recrystallization Behavior in Cold Rolled Ultra Low Carbon Steel

      Felipe Manuel Castro Cerda, Florian Vercruysse, Tuan Nguyen Minh, Leo Kestens, Alberto Monsalve and Roumen Petrov

      Version of Record online: 10 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600351

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      Peak-annealing experiments applying different heating rates are carried out in cold-rolled ultra low-carbon steel. The increase in the heating rate has an impact on the fraction and the grain size of recrystallized ferrite. Texture components of ferrite are significantly affected by the heating rate in early stages of recrystallization.

    21. 1-Step “Quenching and Partitioning” of the Press-Hardening Steel 22MnB5

      Lars O. Wolf, Florian Nürnberger, Dmytro Rodman and Hans Jürgen Maier

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600307

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      The combination of an intercritical annealing process with a quenching and partitioning process allows to adapt the mechanical properties of the low-alloyed steel 22MnB5. The heating in the two-phase region allows customizing the ferrite-austenite ratio and to achieve an increased alloy concentration in the austenite. Due to an interrupted quenching and overaging the martensite is tempered in the TRIP-assisted steel.

    22. Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Rotary Hearth Furnace Using a Thermodynamic Model

      Binay Kumar, Srinibash Mishra, Gour Gopal Roy and Prodip Kumar Sen

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600265

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      A three zone thermodynamic model with coal pyrolysis is developed for the estimation of sponge quality and composition, outlet gas quantity, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from a rotary hearth furnace (RHF). Use of different coals and external fuel gases is discussed. Emissions vary from 1.29 to 1.34 ton CO2/ton of sponge and are comparable to blast furnace production route.

    23. Direct Alloying Steel with Chromium by Briquettes Made from Chromite Ore, Mill Scale, and Petroleum Coke

      Xianfeng Hu, Lena Sundqvist Ökvist, Johan Eriksson, Qixing Yang and Bo Björkman

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600247

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      Induction furnace trials in three different scales are carried out to investigate the effect of using briquettes made from chromite ore, mill scale, and petroleum coke for directly alloying steel with chromium. It is found that a higher Cr to (Cr + Fe) mass ratio in the briquette(s) leads to a higher Cr yield in the steel.

    24. Study of Phase Transformations in Steel X38CrMoV5-1 Using Dilatometry and Differential Thermal Analysis

      Ana Pastor, Pilar Valles and Sebastián F. Medina

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600229

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      The aim of this study is to characterize X38CrMoV5-1 steel from the point of view of phase transformations. Phase transformation temperatures, AC1 and AC3, and CCT diagrams are determined by carrying out dilatometry and DTA tests. These results are useful to optimize a heat treatment, as well as the mechanical properties in steel parts employed in a safety braking application.

    25. Effect of Combined Cyclic Heat Treatment on AISI 1080 Steel: Part II-Mechanical Property Evaluation

      Alok Mishra, Chandan Mondal and Joydeep Maity

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600215

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      A distinctive plain carbon eutectoid steel consisting of dispersed nano-sized cementite particles in a martensite matrix is developed with an application of typical cyclic heat treatment that involves a combination of reconstructive and displacive phase transformations in successive two heat treatment cycles resulting in ultrahigh strength (UTS = 2016 MPa) along with reasonable ductility (%Elongation = 11).

    26. Study of Effective Transient Thermal Resistances of Different Heat Transfer Sections during Solidification of Steel Ingot

      Chao-Jie Zhang, Yan-Ping Bao, Min Wang and Le-Chen Zhang

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600268

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      The effective transient thermal resistances of different heat transfer sections during solidification of steel ingots are calculated. The restrictive steps of heat transfer of the early-stage, mid-stage and late-stage of solidification are heat transfers through the mold and ingot/mold interface, heat transfer through the outer wall of the mold, and heat transfers through the solidified shell, respectively.

    27. Kinetics of Hydrogen Reduction of Magnetite Concentrate Particles in Solid State Relevant to Flash Ironmaking

      Mohamed Elzohiery, Hong Yong Sohn and Yousef Mohassab

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600133

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      The kinetics of magnetite concentrate reduction by hydrogen has been measured for developing and designing a novel flash ironmaking process. The figure shows a schematic of the laminar-flow reactor system used in this work.

    28. Reduction Kinetics of Hongge Vanadium Titanomagnetite-Oxidized Pellet with Simulated Shaft Furnace Gases

      Wei Li, Gui-Qin Fu, Man-Sheng Chu and Miao-Yong Zhu

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600228

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      The present work investigates the reduction kinetics of Hongge vanadium titanomagnetite (HVTM)-oxidized pellet with simulated gas compositions of dry pulverized coal gasification, water–coal slurry gasification, Midrex, and HYL-III. The aim is to provide scientific direction for reactor design and operational parameter determination of gas-based shaft furnace, as well as theoretical and technical basis for the comprehensive utilization of HVTM.

    29. The Integration Effects on Flatness Control in Hot Rolling of Electrical Steel

      Yan-Lin Li, Jian-Guo Cao, Ning Kong, Dun Wen, Heng-Hao Ma and Yun-Song Zhou

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600208

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      A 3D finite element mode for elastic deformation of rolls is built by ANSYS. The integration effects of lubrication, ASR (asymmetry self-compensating work rolls) work roll and varying contact length back-up roll (VCR) contours are comparatively analyzed. The actual production with non-oriented electrical steel rolling process has proved that the rate of measured crown is increased. The FEM model for investigating the effects of roll shifting strategy on strip crown.

    30. Processing of Clad Steel Strips Consisting of a High Manganese and Stainless Steel Pairing Produced by Twin-Roll Casting

      Dennis Münster, Bowen Zhang and Gerhard Hirt

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600285

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      Clad steel strips produced by twin-roll casting are hot rolled and annealed. The influence of these processing steps onto the clad strip and its bond is analyzed. It could be shown that hot rolling improves the bonding strength significantly in comparison to the as-clad strip, while the chosen annealing strategy has a weakening effect on the bond.

    31. Hot Deformation Behavior and Processing Map of 40MnBH Alloy Steel

      Rong-Xia Chai, Chuan-Wei Zhang, Wei Guo and Feng Zhang

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600281

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      The processing maps, flow stress behavior, and microstructure at different deformation conditions of 40MnBH steel are investigated. The processing maps reveal that with the increase in the degree of compression, the instability regions decrease. The results of processing maps are verified through the microstructures. The optimal hot deformation conditions may be changed following the change of compression degree.

    32. The Effect of Basicity and Calcium Fluoride on Glass-Ceramic Production and Iron Recovery from Copper Slag

      Zhihong Yang and Zhenghai Ma

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600145

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      Glass-ceramics are prepared and iron is extracted from iron-rich copper slag. With increasing the basicity, the sulfur content of the recovered iron greatly decreases, while the properties of the prepared glass-ceramics firstly increase and then decrease. The substitution of CaF2 for CaO obviously increases the sulfur content of the recovered iron and negatively affects the properties of the glass-ceramics.

    33. Hydrodynamics Method and Its Application in Hot Strip Rolling

      Si Li, Zhigang Wang, Jinhua Ruan, Changming Liu and Zengbing Xu

      Version of Record online: 6 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600220

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      A hydrodynamics method (HM) has been developed to predict the contact stresses in hot strip rolling. The theoretical curves at the friction hill and the neutral plane predicted by the HM lead to a better solution than those by the Amontons–Coulomb friction model (ACM) and the Absolute constant friction model (AFM).

    34. A Constitutive Equation for the Flow and Densification Behaviors of Powder Metallurgy Fe–0.5C–2Cu Steel at Elevated Temperatures

      Biao Guo, Jinqing Ao, Yi Xu and Zhongwei Meng

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600224

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      The flow and densification behaviors of PM Fe–0.5C–2Cu steel are investigated by hot compression tests. The flow and densification behaviors are greatly affected by the hot deformation parameters. A constitutive equation is proposed to characterize the flow and densification behaviors. The proposed constitutive equation has good prediction accuracy in dynamic flow stress and relative density.

    35. An Ab Initio Study of Carbon-Induced Ordering in Austenitic Fe–Mn–Al–C Alloys

      Tobias A. Timmerscheidt and Richard Dronskowski

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600292

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      Short-range ordering around carbon interstitials in face-centered cubic (fcc) Fe–Mn–Al is studied by density-functional theory, considering the configuration of Fe, Mn, Al atoms in the first three coordination spheres. An improved model of short-range ordering in austenitic Fe–Mn–Al–C is proposed that allows for the prediction of energy differences between configurations where carbon is in different octahedral sites.

    36. Influence of Rolling Reduction on Secondary Recrystallization and Magnetic Properties in Strip-Cast Grain-Oriented 4.5%Si Steel

      Xiang Lu, Feng Fang, Yuanxiang Zhang, Yang Wang, Guo Yuan, Yunbo Xu, Guangming Cao, R. Devesh K. Misra and Guodong Wang

      Version of Record online: 29 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600255

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      Grain-oriented silicon steel containing 4.5 wt%Si is successfully developed by strip casting, and the effect of second rolling reduction on secondary recrystallization and magnetic properties is studied in detail. The results indicate that increasing second rolling reduction leads to the increase in sharpness of secondary grains to ideal Goss orientation, and therefore significantly optimizes the magnetic properties.

    37. A Water Experiment Benchmark to Evaluate Numerical Models for the Motion of Particles in Continuous Casting Tundish

      Alexander Vakhrushev, Menghuai Wu, Andreas Ludwig, Gerald Nitzl, Yong Tang, Gernot Hackl and Raimund Wincor

      Version of Record online: 28 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600276

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      A water experiment benchmark is presented to evaluate the numerical models for the particle motion in a continuous casting tundish. The particles are optically tracked and additionally are captured by instrumented wooden frames at the water surface. A simulation of water flow and motion of the particles by using the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach is performed.

    38. The Effect of Screw Design on Solid Behaviors and the Interaction between Solid and Screws in COREX Shaft Furnace

      Zi Long Qiu, Zhi Guo Luo, Feng Wang, Hai Qi Nie, Ren Chen and Zong Shu Zou

      Version of Record online: 27 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600259

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      In this paper, a three-dimensional cylindrical COREX-3000 shaft furnace model at full scale is established based on DEM. The old and modified screws of the furnace are investigated in aspects of the profile coefficient of screws, the descending velocities of burdens, the interactive force distribution, the abrasive wear of screws, and the power draw.

    39. Investigation on the Reduction Behavior of Coal Composite Pellet at Temperatures between 1373 and 1573 K

      Hyunsik Park, Il Sohn, Michiel Freislich and Veena Sahajwalla

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600169

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      Reduction characteristics of coal composite pellets are investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at temperature ranges between 1376 K (1100 °C) and 1573 K (1300 °C). Kinetic analysis is carried out by weight loss measurement and infrared (IR) gas analysis. Phase changes by X-ray diffraction confirm the different reduction behavior of composite pellets depending on coal type and temperatures.

    40. Toward Unraveling the Importance of Deformed Microstructure before TRIP Heat Treatment in Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steels

      Saeed Deldar, Hamed Mirzadeh and Mohammad Habibi Parsa

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600275

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      The tensile strength, ductility, strain-hardening capability, and TRIP effect are found to be significantly impaired by the recrystallization annealing of cold-rolled sheets. This is explained based on the distribution of the retained austenite phase, strength of ferritic matrix, and the deformation-induced martensitic transformation.

  6. Communications

    1. The Local Characterization of Individual Phase Mechanical Properties Using Nano-Indentation and In Situ Scanning Probe Microscopy in an Advanced High Strength Steel

      Mahdi Karam-Abian, Abbas Zarei-Hanzaki and Hamid Reza Abedi

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600274

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      The present work aims to characterize the mechanical behavior of micro-constituents in the advanced high strength steel through conducting sharp nano-indentations at various loading conditions. The in situ imaging by scanning probe microscopy is employed to target the proper position at each phase and also to precise measurement of the possible piling-up or sinking-in effects.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Influence of Heat Treatment Schedule on the Tensile Properties and Wear Behavior of Dual Phase Steels

      Hamid Ashrafi, Sorour Sadeghzade, Rahmatollah Emadi and Morteza Shamanian

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600213

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      Effect of processing route on the microstructure, tensile properties, and wear behavior of DP steels is investigated. The DP steel with fine and fibrous martensite, obtained from IQ heat treatment, exhibits the highest values of UTS and TE. The wear resistance of produced DP steels changes in the order of SQ < IA < IQ.

    2. Estimation of Internal Cracking Risk in the Continuous Casting of Round Bars

      Guillermo Poltarak, Sergio Ferro and Carlos Cicutti

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600223

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      A modeling methodology is developed to assess the risk of hot-tearing in round billets, consisting of a thermo-mechanical model followed by the codification of failure criteria. A cracking indicator is then obtained and applied to evaluate the effect of pinch-roll compression. Finally, influence of operative variables on the cracking risk is analyzed. Model results present a good agreement with cracked bar macro-etchings.

    3. Effect of Melt Rate on Surface Quality and Solidification Structure of Mn18Cr18N Hollow Ingot during Electroslag Remelting Process

      Xu Chen, Zhouhua Jiang, Fubin Liu, Jia Yu and Kui Chen

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600186

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      A new method for manufacturing Mn18Cr18N steel has been developed based on hollow ESR ingot. A mathematical model of ESR hollow ingot based on the CAFE method has been developed to reveal the morphology of the grain growth and the evolution process of the macrostructure. The optimized technical parameters have been summarized based on the simulation and experiment results.

    4. Formation and Evolution of Non-Metallic Inclusions during Deoxidation by Al Addition in BOF Crude Steel

      Yunguang Chi, Zhiyin Deng and Miaoyong Zhu

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600218

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      Industrial steel samples are taken to investigate the types of inclusions in BOF crude steel, and their sources are discussed. Laboratory experiments are also carried out to study the formation and evolution of inclusions during deoxidation by Al addition in BOF crude steel.

    5. Effect of Fine Grained Dual Phase Steel on Bake Hardening Properties

      Nattavut Ormsuptave and Vitoon Uthaisangsuk

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600150

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      DP steel with fine grain structure is generated by a combination of constrained groove pressing and following intercritical annealing. The subgrain size of about 0.47 mm is achieved. The fine grained DP steel shows improved bake hardenability, because applied severe plastic deformation leads to enhanced heterogeneous nucleation sites for precipitation and accelerated carbon diffusion to phase boundaries during baking.

    6. Glide Stress by Stationary Creep of Tempered Martensite with Polyhedral Particles

      Franc Vodopivec, Fevzi Kafexhiu, Borut Žužek and Bojan Podgornik

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600200

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The interaction acting stress (σa) – polyhedral particles is examined by a model based on linear mechanics. The glide component (σg) of acting stress decreases to σg = 0.023 σa, governing gliding velocity and creep rate. The gliding velocity gv = 558 nm s−1 and ferrite lattice glide resistance Rg = 3.16 × 10−13 N are calculated.

    7. Effect of Oxygen-Coal Lance Configurations on Coal Combustion Behavior

      Zhenfeng Zhou, Hailong Huo, Guang Wang, Qingguo Xue, Xuefeng She and Jingsong Wang

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600197

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      A three-dimensional coal combustion model is developed to simulate the lance–blowpipe–tuyere-raceway of a blast furnace. The coal flow and combustion behaviors are investigated under different oxygen enrichment ways of oxygen-coal and oxygen-coal double lances. The burnout is very different under different oxygen enrichment ways. The increase in the coal burnout is very obvious under special local oxygen enrichment ways.

    8. Usefulness of Non-Uniform Heating and Quenching Method for Residual Stress of Bimetallic Roll: FEM Simulation Considering Creep Behavior

      Nao-Aki Noda, Kejun Hu, Yoshikazu Sano, Katsma Ono and Yusuke Hosokawa

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600165

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      The residual stress is investigated for bimetallic roll after non-uniform heating and quenching in comparison with the one after uniform heating and quenching. The usefulness of non-uniform heating quenching is discussed for reducing the risk of thermal barrel breakage. In this FEM simulation, the effect of creep on stress relaxation is also considered.

    9. Influence of Cr2O3 and B2O3 on Viscosity and Structure of High Alumina Slag

      Ren Ze Xu, Jian Liang Zhang, Zhi Yu Wang and Ke Xin Jiao

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600241

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The viscosity of slag containing 2 wt% Cr2O3 and 1 wt% B2O3 is similar to the viscosity of Cr-free and B-free slag, which indicates the viscosity increment resulted from the addition of 2 wt% Cr2O3 can be eliminated by adding 1–2.5 wt% B2O3. So the addition of B2O3 can reduce the viscosity and improve the fluidity of Cr2O3-containing slag.

    10. Characterization of MnS Particles in Heavy Rail Steels Using Different Methods

      Xuewei Zhang, Lifeng Zhang, Wen Yang and Yuanchi Dong

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600080

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The morphology of MnS changed from elliptical and spherical near the surface of bloom to strip-like, petal-like, polyhedral, and irregular in the center of bloom gradually. The size of both pure MnS particles and complex inclusions which consisted of a MnS outer layer and an oxide core increased from the edge to the center of bloom.

    11. Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Oxygen Jets at High Ambient Temperature

      Ziliang Li and Daqiang Cang

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600209

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The applicability of existing two-equation turbulence models has certain limitations on simulating supersonic jet at different ambient temperatures. The standard k–ϵ model and the realizable k–ϵ model are applicable to the simulation of supersonic jet at room temperature. Meanwhile, the standard k–ω turbulence model is superior to the other models when simulating the supersonic jet at high temperature.

    12. Utilization of Waste HDPE for Sustainable EAF Steelmaking: Carbon Dissolution into Liquid Steel

      Somyote Kongkarat, Benya Cherdhirunkorn and Raumporn Thongreang

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600168

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Blends of HDPE with metallurgical coke are used as a carburizing material in EAF steelmaking. The blend can significantly enhance the dissolution of carbon into liquid steel compared to pure coke, but this strongly depends on HDPE concentration in the blend. Blend H3 shows the overall carbon dissolution rate of 15.2 × 10−3 s−1, whereas it is 0.3 × 10−3 s−1 for coke alone.

    13. Non-Metallic Inclusion Behaviors in a New Tundish and SEN Design Using a Swirling Flow during Continuous Casting of Steel

      Peiyuan Ni, Lage Tord Ingemar Jonsson, Mikael Ersson and Pär Göran Jönsson

      Version of Record online: 4 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600155

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The behaviors of non-metallic inclusions in a new tundish design enabling a swirling flow SEN are investigated using a Lagrangian tracking scheme. Large non-metallic inclusions of different densities show a large difference under a “reflect” boundary condition at tundish walls. In the swirling flow SEN, a much smaller number of large Al2O3 inclusions touches the wall compared to Ce2O3 inclusions.

    14. Distribution of Zn, Pb, K, and Cl in Blast Furnace Lining

      Verena Trinkel, Philipp Aschenbrenner, Christoph Thaler, Helmut Rechberger, Ole Mallow and Johann Fellner

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600153

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The paper presents investigations on the distribution of Pb, Zn, Cl, and K in the lining of a blast furnace aiming at identifying particularly stressed zones. Samples obtained at the end of the furnace's campaign are analyzed for the respective elements in order to characterize their distribution over the furnace height and their penetration depth.

    15. Application of New Generation Electromagnetic Stirring in Electric Arc Furnace

      Lidong Teng, Michael Meador and Pär Ljungqvist

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600202

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electromagnetic stirring (ArcSave) plays an important role in the modern electric arc furnaces operation and the key process benefits with ArcSave: (i) reduced process time and increased productivity; (ii) reduced electrical energy consumption; (iii) increase yield of scrap and ferroalloys; and (iv) increased operation safety and reliability.

    16. Optimization of Phosphorous in Steel Produced by Basic Oxygen Steel Making Process Using Multi-Objective Evolutionary and Genetic Algorithms

      Snehanshu Pal and Chandan Halder

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600193

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      Prediction of optimal solution for the conflicting objectives namely, minimization of end blow phosphorous content and maximization of end blow bath temperature has been performed in this paper. The analysis of Pareto front reveals that a low level of end blow phosphorous content is possible up to a certain critical value of end blow temperature.

    17. Vanadium Microalloyed 0.25 C Cast Steels Showing As-Forged Levels of Strength and Ductility

      Andrii G. Kostryzhev, Erick U. Morales-Cruz, Jorge Zuno-Silva, Edgar Cardoso-Legorreta, Ismael Ruiz-Lopez and Elena V. Pereloma

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600166

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In 0.25 wt% carbon cast steels with ferrite–pearlite microstructures both strength and ductility increase with vanadium additions. Microalloying with 0.04–0.12 wt% V results in 730–750 MPa of yield stress, 955–1000 MPa of ultimate tensile strength, and 12.3–21.5% of elongation to failure, which correspond to the values observed in hot forged and thermo-mechanically processed steels with similar compositions.

    18. Arrhenius-Type Constitutive Model and Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of 20Cr2Ni4A Alloy Carburizing Steel

      Wei Wang, Jun Zhao, Rui Xue Zhai and Rui Ma

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600196

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Arrhenius-type constitutive equation with Zener–Hollomon parameter for 20Cr2Ni4A steel is determined to describe the deformation behavior. The kinetic model and kinematic model of dynamic recrystallization for 20Cr2Ni4A steel are established to describe the dynamic recrystallization behavior; the model of dynamic recrystallization grain size for 20Cr2Ni4A steel is also constructed.

    19. Attraction Force Estimations of Al2O3 Particle Agglomerations in the Melt

      Changji Xuan, Andrey V. Karasev, Pär Göran Jönsson and Keiji Nakajima

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600090

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The influences of van der Waals force, wettability, and solid phase sintering are systematically studied for the Al2O3 agglomeration. A function of Hamaker constant of liquid iron changes with surface tension, which is pointed out. The difference between cavity bridge force and van der Waals force is smaller than seven times.

    20. A Comparative Study of Microstructure and Texture Evolution in Cu-Bearing and Nb-Bearing Grain Oriented Silicon Steels

      Yang Wang, Feng Fang, Xiang Lu, Yuan-Xiang Zhang, Yun-Bo Xu, Guang-Ming Cao, Cheng-Gang Li, R. Devesh Kumar Misra and Guo-Dong Wang

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600181

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      The microstructure and texture evolution between Cu-bearing and Nb-bearing silicon steel is compared. The mainly grain growth inhibitors in Cu-bearing and Nb-bearing silicon steels are CuMnS and NbCN, respectively. The results indicate that the pinning strength of Nb-particles is much stronger than Cu-particles, and the Goss zone (Region II) in Nb- bearing hot rolled sheets, which act as the nuclei for secondary recrystallization is reduced. Therefore, the magnetic properties of Nb-bearing silicon steel are inferior, compared to Cu-bearing silicon steels.

    21. The Oxidation and Decomposition Behavior of Carbonate Iron Ore

      Yating Tang, Mansheng Chu, Jue Tang, Lin You and Zhenggen Liu

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600129

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      In this work, the preoxidation part of a new beneficiation process for carbonate iron ore is studied by the single factor experiments. Besides, X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy are used to investigate the main phase and structure transformations during the oxidation. Meanwhile, through thermoanalysis, the thermal decomposition kinetics of carbonate iron ore are also conducted for this processing.

  8. Communications

    1. A Theoretical Scaling Equation for Designing Physical Modeling of Gas–Liquid Flow in Metallurgical Ladles

      Shan Yu, Zong-Shu Zou, Lei Shao and Seppo Louhenkilpi

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600156

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      In the present work, a theoretical scaling equation embodying liquid density and surface tension is deduced by analyzing the governing equation of plume rise velocity for physical modeling of gas–liquid flow in metallurgical ladles. The advantage of the scaling equation is demonstrated by comparing the calculated order of prototype gas flow rate with the one based on measured gas fractions.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Generating Mechanism of Large Heterogeneous Carbonitrides with Multiple Layers in H13 + Nb Bar

      You Xie, Guoguang Cheng, Lie Chen, Yandong Zhang and Qingzhong Yan

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600119

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A great number of micron-sized precipitates exist in H13 + Nb bar. These precipitates include oxide cores and outer carbonitrides. The carbonitride can be further classified into Ti–V-rich one, Nb-rich one, and V-rich one. These large precipitates are generated in liquid steel during solidification. The generating mechanism can be well speculated by Thermo-Calc and be helpful to further control.

    2. Effect of Magnesium Addition on Behavior of Collision and Agglomeration between Solid Inclusion Particles on H13 Steel Melts

      Gang Du, Jing Li, Zhong-Bing Wang and Cheng-Bin Shi

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600185

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      The formation sequence of MgO · Al2O3 cluster is the same as that of alumina cluster, but the MgO · Al2O3 clusters cannot form the outside branch and attract more distant particles. The collision, agglomeration and growth of inclusions, as well as the formation of clusters in H13 steel can be effectively impeded by the adding of magnesium.

    3. Early Stages of Cu Precipitation in 15-5 PH Maraging Steel Revisited – Part II: Thermokinetic Simulation

      Georg Stechauner, Sophie Primig and Ernst Kozeschnik

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600085

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The authors investigate the Cu-precipitation and two DSC peaks in 15-5 PH steel by the means of thermokinetic modeling. The simulations indicate that the exothermic reactions come from the nucleation of Fe-rich Cu clusters and their subsequent transformation into pure Cu composition. The findings support the experimental findings of part I.

    4. Early Stages of Cu Precipitation in 15–5 PH Maraging Steel Revisited − Part I: Experimental Analysis

      Sophie Primig, Georg Stechauner and Ernst Kozeschnik

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600084

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      During continuous aging with a heating rate around 15 K min–1 of as-quenched 15-5 PH maraging steel in a differential scanning calorimeter, two exothermal reactions are observed. These DSC signals are attributed to the nucleation and growth of Fe-rich Cu clusters in the lower temperature range, followed by Cu-enrichment of these clusters and seamless transformation into bcc-Cu precipitates at higher temperatures.

    5. Application of Bayer Red Mud-Based Flux in the Steelmaking Process

      Yanling Zhang, Fengshan Li, Ruimin Wang and Dongdong Tian

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600140

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using Bayer red mud-based flux in simulated steelmaking processes show that good slag fluidity is observed during the entire process. The dephosphorization ratio can be more than 85%, and the final [P] can be lowered to less than 0.005%. No rephosphorization phenomenon is observed in the whole experiment.

    6. Comprehensive Electric Arc Furnace Model for Simulation Purposes and Model-Based Control

      Amirhossein Fathi, Yadollah Saboohi, Igor Škrjanc and Vito Logar

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600083

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      A comprehensive EAF model used to evaluate the main EAF processes along with their effects on overall energy and mass balance. The model is computationally light and it is designed to estimate the unmeasured process values or to optimize the operation of the EAF in order to reduce power-on time, energy or raw material use.

    7. Catalytic Behavior of Potassium Vapor on Coke Gasification Reaction

      Jian Bo Zhong, Jian Liang Zhang, Ke Jiang Li, Zheng Jian Liu, Guang Wei Wang, Run Sheng Xu and Di Zhao

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600152

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The present work indicates that the catalysis of potassium vapor on coke gasification will be enhanced with the increase of potassium content in coke, and reach a limitation when the content of potassium exceeds 3.5 wt%. And the catalysis of potassium vapor on coke gasification is mainly embodied by reducing gasification temperature and increasing the pre-exponential factor, which may mean increasing active carbon sites.

    8. Effects of Strain and Deformation Temperature on Bainitic Transformation in a Fe–C–Mn–Si Alloy

      Haijiang Hu, Guang Xu, Li Wang and Mingxing Zhou

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600170

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The effects of strain and deformation temperature on bainitic transformation are investigated. The amount of bainite first increases and then decreases with strain at a certain deformation temperature. The peak value strain (PVS) increases with the increase of ausforming temperature, whereas the corresponding maximum amount of bainitic transformation decreases.

    9. Dynamic Tensile Testing of Ultrahigh Strength Hot Stamped Martensitic Steels

      Tom Taylor, Stephen Danks and George Fourlaris

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600144

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      Tensile testing over strain rates of 0.001–200 s–1 is performed on four hot stamped (HS) martensitic steels, including 22MnB5 and 38MnB5. The unique response of 38MnB5 to increasing strain rate, marked by significantly higher tensile strength and ductility, gives rise to significantly higher toughness than 22MnB5 at the higher strain rates.

    10. Effect of Thermal Charging of Hydrogen on the Microstructure of Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel

      Han-Jin Kim, M. P. Phaniraj, Ju-Heon Kim, Young-Su Lee, Dong-Ik Kim, Jin-Yoo Suh, Joonho Lee, Jae-Hyeok Shim and Seong-Jun Park

      Version of Record online: 9 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600063

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The tensile behavior of hydrogen-charged 304-type austenitic stainless steel, with and without prestrain, is investigated. Under the same hydrogen charging conditions, the prestrained specimen retains less hydrogen than the solution-treated specimen. Comparison of flow stress and microstructure of hydrogen-charged specimens with specimens aged in vacuum at 300 °C shows that hydrogen enhances the formation of martensite.

    11. Gas-Based Direct Reduction of Hongge Vanadium Titanomagnetite-Oxidized Pellet and Melting Separation of the Reduced Pellet

      Wei Li, Gui-Qin Fu, Man-Sheng Chu and Miao-Yong Zhu

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600120

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel clean process is proposed to dispose Hongge vanadium titanomagnetite (HVTM) in this paper, in which iron and titanium-rich slag are obtained by gas-based direct reduction of HVTM-oxidized pellet and melting separation of the reduced pellet. The results provide theoretical and technical bases for the comprehensive utilization of HVTM and increase the recovery rates of Fe, Ti, V, and Cr.

  10. Communications

    1. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 18%Mn TWIP/TRIP Steels Processed by Warm or Hot Rolling

      Andrey Belyakov, Rustam Kaibyshev and Vladimir Torganchuk

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600123

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two Fe–18%Mn steels with carbon content of 0.4 or 0.6% C are processed by thermo-mechanical processing under conditions of warm or hot rolling. Both processings improve the mechanical properties of the present steels. The yield strength comprises 300–360 MPa after rolling at 1100 °C and 850–950 MPa after rolling at 500 °C.

  11. Full Papers

    1. The Influence of Microstructure and Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Clean Steels

      Niclas Ånmark, Andrey Karasev and Pär Göran Jönsson

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600111

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study focuses on the evaluation of the machinability of different carburizing steel grades by using a cemented carbide cutting tool during semi-finishing of steel. Correlations between the microstructure (average grain size, micro hardness, and carbon equivalent) and the content of non metallic inclusions to the cutting tool life are established.

    2. The Effect of Intercritical Annealing on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ferritic–Martensitic Two-Phase Steels

      Lars Oliver Wolf, Florian Nürnberger, Dmytro Rodman and Hans Jürgen Maier

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600107

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      The combined process of intercritical annealing and press-hardening opens up new possibilities of adapting the mechanical properties of components. The two-phase microstructure of dual-phase and partial martensitic steels can be set by the austenite content in the annealing process. This, however, requires precise knowledge about the effects of annealing time and temperature on the microstructural evolution in the low-alloyed steels used.

    3. Investigation on Improvement of Center Porosity with Heavy Reduction in Continuously Cast Thick Slabs

      Zhigang Xu, Xinhua Wang and Min Jiang

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600061

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In order to improve the center porosity of slabs, the heavy reduction process of START (Solidification Terminal Advanced Reduction Technique) is developed. START is implemented with 9 mm heavy reduction in the first segment and 3 mm reduction in the second segment accounting for the uneven solidification. As a result, center porosities along the slab width are significantly improved.

    4. Effect of Sn on the Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Ultra-Purified 17% Cr Ferritic Stainless Steel

      Xiang-Jun Zhang, Fei Gao and Zhen-Yu Liu

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600059

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The present paper investigates the influence of Sn on pitting corrosion of ferritic stainless steels in chloridion medium. Proper Sn addition can effectively improve pitting potential, while excessive addition (about 0.33 wt%) can deteriorate pitting corrosion resistance. The content of Sn in ferritic stainless steels should be optimized within 0.1–0.23 wt% to obtain better corrosion resistance.

  12. Reviews

    1. Melting, Remelting, and Casting for Clean Steel

      John Campbell

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600093

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      The casting of steels usually involves pouring, which is now known to introduce masses of oxides. The oxides necessary entrain in the liquid in a double form, entraining air (as spherical bubbles or flat bubbles called bifilms). These features are largely unrecognized, and the bifilms not easily detected, but often control properties, particularly the failure properties including fracture and corrosion. The elimination of such defects is discussed.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Flatness Control Strategy Based on Delay Compensation for Cold Rolling Mill

      Wang Pengfei, Peng Yan, Wang Dongcheng, Sun Jie, Zhang Dianhua and Liu Hongmin

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600065

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      For low-speed rolling processes, the Smith predictive control can ensure good dynamic characteristics. The adjusting time and the steady-state error of the system are very small, which is almost the same as there is no time delay. Moreover, the simulated flatness and flatness deviation are also steady except the initial stage, as shown in figure (time delay τ = 0.5 s).

    2. Stress Analysis of a Continuous Casting Process, on the Basis of the Element-Free Galerkin Formulation

      Juan C. Álvarez Hostos, Eli S. Puchi Cabrera and Alfonso D. Bencomo

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600019

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this work, the advantages of the element-free Galerkin technique, in comparison with the commons mesh-based methods, are used to solve the thermomechanical problem involved in a continuous casting (CC) process of a steel round billet. This research proposes a novel approach to predict the performance of a CC process, including a robust integration of the non-conservative strain components without requiring a mesh for discretizing the problem domain.

    3. An End-to-End Steel Strip Surface Defects Recognition System Based on Convolutional Neural Networks

      Li Yi, Guangyao Li and Mingming Jiang

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600068

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Visual surface inspection system is playing an important part in the industrial production of steel strip. In this paper, an end-to-end surface defects recognition system based on the deep convolutional neural networks is proposed for real-time steel strip surface defects recognition. This system directly uses the defect image as input and defect category as output, learns defect features from the training of network, which avoids the separation between feature extraction and image classification.

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