steel research international

Cover image for Vol. 85 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Online ISSN: 1869-344X


  1. 1 - 83
  1. Full Papers

    1. A Three Dimensional Model to Characterize the Centerline Segregation in CC Slabs

      Tobias Brune, Katharina Kortzak, Dieter Senk, Nils Reuther and Markus Schäperkötter

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400015

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      The centerline segregation in CC slabs results of different discrepancies. The former explanation that mainly the effect of bulging is reasonably for macrosegregation in thick slabs is disproved. In reality, the quasi periodicity of segregations in longitudinal direction, results of the independence of regions within continuous casting slabs.

    2. Phase-Field Modeling of the Dendrite Growth Morphology with Influence of Solid–Liquid Interface Effects

      Joao Rezende, Dieter Senk and Dennis Hüttenmeister

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300398

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      Segregation during casting of high manganese steels may impair their mechanical properties. Simulations by the phase-field method may be utilized to investigate the development of microsegregation during solidification. By utilizing the sessile-drop values for the interface energy, simulations were run aiming at investigating its effect on the dendrite morphology.

    3. Microstructure and Properties of 15Cr-5Ni-1Mo-1W Martensitic Stainless Steel

      Chenna Krishna S, Narendra Kumar Gangwar, Abhay K. Jha, Bhanu Pant and Koshy M. George

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400035

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      The effect of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties is studied using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, tensile testing, and X-ray diffraction. Combination of solution treatment (1050°C), cryo treatment (−70°C), and aging (500°C) yield good strength and ductility with yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of 1050 and 1235 MPa, respectively retaining a ductility of 20.4%.

    4. Hybrid MATLAB and LabVIEW with T-S Cloud Inference Neural Network to Realize a Flatness Intelligent Control System

      Xiuling Zhang, Liang Zhao, Jiayin Zang, Hongmin Fan and Long Cheng

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400024

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      In this paper, T-S cloud inference neural network is proposed. It is a new neural network constructed by cloud model and T-S fuzzy neural network. Based on the new neural network, Virtual Flatness Intelligent Control System is successfully developed by hybrid MATLAB and LabVIEW. Graphical programming language is utilized to realize flatness pattern recognition, flatness prediction, and flatness control.

    5. CFD-Modeling of Heavy Oil Injection into Blast Furnace – Atomization and Mixing in Raceway-Tuyere Area

      Ari Vuokila, Markus Riihimäki and Esa Muurinen

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300316

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      Auxiliary fuel injection into the blast furnace has many benefits in blast furnace operation. Increase of oil injection levels has proven challenging. CFD model is developed to study injection of heavy oil in terms of atomization and mixing. Properly designed nozzle is shown to improve mixing significantly allowing higher injection levels.

    6. Prediction of Secondary-Dendrite Arm Spacing for Binary Alloys by Means of a Phase-Field Model

      Alexandre F. Ferreira, Ever G de Melo and L. de-Olivé Ferreira

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300423

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      In materials science, the phase-field model is widely used as one of the powerful computational methods to simulate the formation of complex microstructures during solidification and phase transformation of metals and alloys. In the present study, the secondary-arm spacing for Fe–C binary alloys is numerically predicted using a phase-field model in a two-dimensional domain.

    7. Oxidation of Water Atomized Metal Powders

      Fredrik Persson, Anders Eliasson and Pär G. Jönsson

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300466

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      This study focuses on the oxidation of water atomized metal powders. Pilot tests are performed for iron powders alloyed with manganese and carbon. The particle shape and the oxides are determined using optical and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray micro-analysis. In addition, equilibrium calculations are carried out to enable a comparison of the experimental data with equilibrium values.

    8. Microstructure and Properties of Nanoduplex Bainite–Austenite Steel for Ultra-High-Strength Plates

      Bogdan Garbarz and Wojciech Burian

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300453

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      Basing on experimentally determined continuous cooling transformation (CCT) and time–temperature–transformation (TTT) diagrams, measurements of mechanical properties and examination of microstructure an optimized chemical composition of a nanostructured bainite–austenite steel intended for production of plates is proposed. The optimized composition enables to manufacture ultra-high-strength plates up to 15 mm in thickness.

    9. Prediction of Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steels After Hot and Cold Forming by Means of Fast Microstructure Analysis

      Daniel Šimek, Anja Oswald, Rosita Schmidtchen, Mykhaylo Motylenko, Gunter Lehmann and David Rafaja

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300252

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      A new method for fast microstructure analysis of heavily deformed, F–P steels has been developed, based on X-ray diffraction (XRD). The method provides information about residual stresses and microstructure defects occurring in the material and therefore allows reliable estimation of strength properties of steel C45 after hot and cold deformation.

    10. Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm to Optimize Variable Drawbead Geometry for Tailor Welded Blanks Made of Dissimilar Steels

      Krishnaswamy Hariharan, Ngoc-Trung Nguyen, Nirupam Chakraborti, Myoung-Gyu Lee and Frédéric Barlat

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300471

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      Tailor welded blanks made by joining twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) and low carbon steel are studied using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. The results of finite element simulations on them are captured in metamodels of weld line movement and formability by using the recently developed Evolutionary Neural Network (EvoNN) algorithm. Both are then simultaneously optimized to obtain a Pareto front, leading to some most preferable forming conditions.

    11. Low Pressure Effects in SEN-Stopper Region in Continuous Casting

      Maria Thumfart and Mirko Javurek

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300448

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      Low pressures arising in the stopper rod gap are analyzed. The criteria for degassing of liquid steel are investigated. A mathematical model is presented for a two-phase flow situation (liquid steel/gas) in the SEN considering pressure distribution, throughput, geometrical parameters, amount of gas in the SEN and pressure loss coefficient at the stopper rod.

    12. Horizontal Single Belt Casting of Aluminum and Steel

      Roderick I. L. Guthrie and Mihaiela Isac

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300105

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      We present ab-initio predictions of instantaneous heat fluxes from liquid metals freezing on a cooling substrate. We note that instantaneous heat fluxes depend on the material properties of the two phases and an interfacial gas phase, on surface topography and possible interfacial chemical reactions. We consider these in the HSBC (Horizontal Belt Casting) Process for the production of AA6111 aluminum alloy sheet for automobiles.

    13. Model Reduction for Cold Rolling Processes

      Jens Seidel and Oliver G. Ernst

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300220

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      The numerical simulation of cold rolling processes is considered. To accelerate the calculation for parameter variations such as hardening or friction coefficients a model reduction approach is applied. In particular, the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) combined with the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) is considered and allows to speed-up the simulation time dramatically.

    14. Multiscale Analysis of Processing-Microstructure-Mechanical Behavior Interrelationships of UFG Microalloyed Steels

      Krzysztof Muszka and Janusz Majta

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300178

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      This paper discusses the interrelationships between processing parameters, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of microalloyed ultrafine-grained steels. Grain refinement possibilities of microalloyed steels using Advanced Thermomechanical Processing and Severe Plastic Deformation routes were studied. Based on that, in the second part of the work, the recent work on multiscale modeling has been revised in the light of its potential application to simulation of chosen SPD processes.

    15. Interfacial Reaction between Iron-Based Alloys and Polycrystalline α-Al2O3

      Tobias Dubberstein, Andreas Jahn, Michael Lange, Hans-Peter Heller and Piotr R. Scheller

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300445

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      The effect of temperature, atmosphere, and the elemental concentrations of boron and phosphorous in iron and CrMnNi steel on the wettability of polycrystalline α-Al2O3 has been studied. The contact angle of TRIP/TWIP as-cast steel on alumina substrates decreases with an increased phosphorous content. The findings are of major importance for a better infiltration efficiency of open foam ceramics.

    16. Self-Consistent Modeling of Texture Evolution in TWIP Steel During Uniaxial Tension

      Ahmed A. Saleh, Elena V. Pereloma and Azdiar A. Gazder

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300167

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      Typical of fcc materials, texture measurements during the uniaxial tensile loading of a fully recrystallized TWIP steel returns a relatively stronger 〈111〉 and a weaker 〈100〉 double fiber texture. The VPSC model successfully tracked the texture evolution by detailing the contribution of slip and twinning when latent hardening effects are included or excluded.

    17. Selection of Parameters of the Heat Treatment Thermal Cycle for Rails with Respect to the Wear Resistance

      Danuta Szeliga, Roman Kuziak, Tadeusz Zygmunt, Jan Kusiak and Maciej Pietrzyk

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300177

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      The paper is about the design of the thermal cycle for perlitic rails heat treatment with respect to the maximum of the wear resistance. The FE simulation of controlled cooling of rails coupled with microstructure evolution model, related to the rolling surface hardness, has been used. Sensitivity analysis has been applied to select the parameters with the largest influence on the process. The best thermal cycle has been determined.

    18. Transformations in the Iron–Manganese–Oxygen–Carbon System Resulted from Treatment of Solar Energy with High Concentration

      Javier Mochón, Íñigo Ruiz-Bustinza, Alfonso Vázquez, Daniel Fernández, Julia María Ayala, María Florentina Barbés and Luis Felipe Verdeja

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300377

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      Wastes from the iron and steel industry make up a by-product whose exploitation requires high energy consumption. High temperature concentrated thermal solar energy could permit the generation of a high quality product achieving a “zero waste” generation, and a zero energy consumption of traditional fossil fuels.

    19. Adaptive Projection-Based Interpolation as a Pre-Processing Tool in the Finite Element Workflow for Elasticity Simulations of the Dual Phase Microstructures

      Marcin Sieniek, Maciej Paszyński, Łukasz Madej and Damian Goik

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300168

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      The paper presents a significant performance improvement to the workflow used in modeling boundary-value problems in complex materials. We discuss a procedure for solving boundary-value problems and finding a representation of a given microstructure in a desired functional base. Developed approach is validated during investigation of a linear elastic deformation of a dual phase ferritic–martensitic steel under thermal loading conditions.

    20. TiN/NbC Compound Particle Formation during Thin Slab Direct Rolling of HSLA Steel

      Youryeol Lee and Bruno C. De Cooman

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300280

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      Two-phase compound particles are formed during the rough rolling of Ti-added Nb HSLA steel when the processing of an ISP line is simulated. The particles are composed of a TiN-type cube-shaped core and an NbC-type cap-shaped deposit. The cap-shaped deposits formed epitaxially on one of the {100} facets of the cube-shaped precipitate. The formation of these precipitates is considered to be one of the main reasons why some HSLA steel compositions are less suitable for processing in thin slab direct rolling lines.

    21. Inclusion Evolution and Estimation during Secondary Refining in Calcium Treated Aluminum Killed Steels

      Die Yang, Xinhua Wang, Guangwei Yang, Pengyuan Wei and Jinping He

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300393

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      The present research aims at the industrial investigation of inclusions in ladle furnace treatment. It is expected that a clear idea about evolution of inclusions in the liquid steel during secondary refining can be provided to plant for producing high cleanliness LCAK steels. A thermodynamic model that predicts the composition of inclusions in calcium treated, aluminum killed steels is also presented.

    22. Modeling Static and Dynamic Kinetics of Microstructure Evolution in Type 316 Stainless Steel

      Eduardo Dupin, Akira Yanagida and Jun Yanagimoto

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300173

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      Inverse analysis, which couples a thermomechanical FE analysis with data from single- and double-compression tests, is used to obtain the microstructure kinetics of type 316 stainless steel. In the FE analysis, a proposed flow curve is substituted independently on every element, which compensates the effect of inhomogeneous distributions of deformation and temperature in the samples.

    23. Application of High Speed Continuous Casting on Low Carbon Conventional Slab in SGJT

      Linping Li, Xinhua Wang, Xiaoxuan Deng, Xiaolian Wang, Yiming Qin and Chenxi Ji

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300426

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      Comparison of fluid flow pattern between well and mountain-bottom SEN is developed by water model and mathematical simulation at 2.3 m min−1. Due to a weaker upward recirculation, the well-bottom SEN is more suitable for the sound high speed continuous casting.

    24. Two-Scale Modeling of Grain Size and Phase Transformation Effects

      Thomas Böhlke, Rudolf Neumann and Florian Rieger

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300200

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      A nonlinear homogenization scheme is applied to model grain size and phase transformation effects. The macroscopic material behavior is described only based on micro-mechanical constitutive models. Regarding the grain size dependent flow behavior of polycrystals, a log-normal distributed grain size is approximated by an analytical expression. In the context of phase transformation phenomena, the thermo-mechanically strongly coupled Greenwood-Johnson effect is modeled based on the micro-mechanical approach.

  2. Editorials

    1. Preface

      Piotr R. Scheller

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300444

    2. Preface

      Wolfgang Bleck and Maciej Pietrzyk

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400030

  3. Full Papers

    1. Behaviors of Normal Grain Growth in Polycrystalline Fe–3%Si Alloys

      Weimin Mao, Maohua Zhang and Ping Yang

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300350

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      Very low activation enthalpy and pre-exponential factor for normal boundary migration are obtained in Fe–3%Si–MnS alloy. The atoms should be pre-activated before they jump over moving boundaries. The predominant migrations of strongly curved boundaries and triple junctions in polycrystals increase the pre-activation energy and reduce the activation enthalpy and pre-exponential factor, which differs from those in bicrystals.

    2. Impact of the Microstructure on the U–O Forming Simulations of a Ferrite–Pearlite Pipeline Tube

      Gottfried Laschet, Mohit Shukla, Thomas Henke, Patrick Fayek, Markus Bambach and Ulrich Prahl

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300247

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      A multi-scale approach, involving a two-level homogenization and a localization analysis after macro-simulation, is used to predict the impact of different ferrite-pearlite microstructures on the U-O forming process of a pipeline steel. Effective plastic flow curves of the X65 steel are derived for a central and surficial microstructure (see figure). Their anisotropy is noticeable and the effect of reduced lamella spacing of pearlite at the skin is quantified.

    3. Behavior of Transformation-Induced Plasticity during Adiabatic Shear Bands Formation in High Manganese Steels

      Xiurong Sun, Huizhen Wang, Ping Yang and Weimin Mao

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300381

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      This work demonstrates that at high strain rate of over 104 s−1 high manganese TRIP steel possesses higher work hardening rate than pure copper and an armor steel containing martensite. TRIP effect occurs smoothly outside shear bands and is suppressed inside them, and it can postpone shear band formation. Dynamic recrystallization proceeds in α′-martensite involved in shear bands.

    4. Experimental Investigation of Hot Stamping of Ultra High Strength Steel

      Li-Qiang Zhang, Wen-Fang Tan and Luo-Xing Li

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300246

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      The paper shows that the spring-back angles are greatly reduced after hot stamping. The part strength is obviously improved. The mechanical properties and microstructures in the part show an inhomogeneous phenomenon due to the different cooling condition. The sidewall of the part has a higher tensile strength and a lower elongation compared with the other locations.

    5. Non-Metallic Inclusions in TWIP Steel

      Changling Zhuang, Jianhua Liu, Zhenli Mi, Haitao Jiang, Di Tang and Guoxuan Wang

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300354

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      In this study, research work has been carried out to investigates endogenous inclusions formed in Fe–25Mn–3Si–3Al TWIP steels in laboratorial ingot, and mold casting after AOD steelmaking and electroslag remelting (ESR) process at industrial plant, respectively. The research shows that AlN and Al2O3 inclusions are found as dominating inclusions. According to thermodynamics, the research finds that AlN inclusions formed in Fe–25Mn–3Si–3Al steels generate in liquid steel, and related experimental results prove this point.

    6. Microstructure and Texture of Strip Cast Grain-Oriented Silicon Steel after Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Hot Rolling

      Hong-Yu Song, Hui-Hu Lu, Hai-Tao Liu, Hao-Ze Li, Dian-Qiao Geng, R. Devesh K. Misra, Zhen-Yu Liu and Guo-Dong Wang

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300385

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      The effects of hot rolling methods on the microstructure and texture evolution of strip cast grain-oriented silicon steel are investigated. The microstructure of both symmetrically and asymmetrically hot rolled strips consist of ferrite and pearlite. However, compared with the symmetrically hot rolled strip, the asymmetrically hot rolled strip exhibits more dispersive microstructure and much stronger Goss texture.

    7. Reverse Transformation from Ferrite/Pearlite to Austenite and Its Influence on Structure Inheritance in Spring Steel 60Si2MnA

      Chaolei Zhang, Leyu Zhou, Xiang Liu, Xiaodan Wu and Yazheng Liu

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300386

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      Reverse transformation from a ferrite/pearlite to austenite is investigated in spring steel 60Si2MnA with various pearlite fineness obtained by isothermal transformation. Effects of heating temperature, holding time and interlamellar spacing on the reverse transformation are analyzed and the mechanism of the structure inheritance in the spring steel during heat treatment process is discussed.

    8. Formation and Properties of Mixed Ferritic–Martensitic Microstructures in the Air-Hardening Steel LH800

      Olexandr Grydin, Florian Nuernberger, Ying Zou, Mirko Schaper and Alexander Brosius

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300420

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      The experimental study presents results of the formation of a dual phase microstructure and the depending property evolution in a low carbon air-hardening steel. Varied fractions of ferrite and martensite are achieved by varying both austenization temperature and soaking time. Correlations between strength properties and microstructural parameters such as phase content and ferrite grain size are determined.

    9. Reduction Behavior of Self-Reducing Pellet (SRP) for Low Height Blast Furnace

      Pruet Kowitwarangkul, Alexander Babich and Dieter Senk

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300399

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      The reduction behaviors of self-reducing pellets (SRPs) under the thermal reserve zone (TRZ) simulated conditions have been investigated with the context of their possible use in the small BF. The crushing strengths and properties of SRPs after both methods of hardening, fire-hardening, and cement-bonded curing, were investigated as well.

    10. Effect of the Heat Treatment on the Chromium Partition in Cr-Containing Industrial and Synthetic Slags

      Galina Jelkina Albertsson, Fredrik Engström and Lidong Teng

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300231

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      Influence of the slag composition and the heat-treatment profile on the chromium immobilization and slag stability in Cr-containing industrial and synthetic slags are studied extensively at the conditions close to industrial. An attempt is made to minimize the environmental and economical impact by cutting down the treatment time and the soaking temperature.

    11. Optimal Control of a Cooling Line for Production of Hot Rolled Dual Phase Steel

      Wolfgang Bleck, Dietmar Hömberg, Ulrich Prahl, Piyada Suwanpinij and Nataliya Togobytska

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300253

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      In this paper, the optimal control of a cooling line for production of dual phase steel in a hot rolling process is discussed. The optimal cooling strategy for the adjustment of desired dual phase microstructure has been found by means of mathematical control theory. The results have been verified in hot rolling experiments at the pilot hot rolling mill.

  4. Reviews

    1. Environmental Metallurgy: Continuity or New Discipline?

      Jean-Pierre L. Birat

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300279

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      The environment is considered as an externality in metallurgy as it is often in economics. However, because of the present massive interaction of the anthroposphere with the biosphere, this may not longer be a viable option. A new field, environmental metallurgy, is emerging.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Use of Cold Liquid Metal Models for Investigations of the Fluid Flow in the Continuous Casting Process

      Klaus Timmel, Thomas Wondrak, Michael Röder, Frank Stefani, Sven Eckert and Gunter Gerbeth

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300034

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      The paper presents two experimental facilities for modeling the continuous casting process of steel. The facilities operate with low melting point liquid metals. A selection of results from both experimental setups will be shown, e.g., regarding the effect of an electromagnetic brake on the flow in the mould.

    2. Online Visualization during Open Die Forging and Optimization of Pass Schedules

      Dirk Rosenstock, Dominik Recker, Martin Franzke, Gerhard Hirt, Dieter Sommler, Klaus-J. Steingießer, Andreas Tewes, Ralf Rech, Bodo Gehrmann, Stefan Kirchhoff and Rolf Lamm

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300396

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      To achieve high quality open die forged workpieces, the monitoring and controlling of workpiece properties throughout the open die forging process is of particular importance. Due to the fact, that these values cannot be measured directly for the inner part of an ingot during the process, fast calculation models are used to evaluate workpiece properties online.

    3. Meso-Scopic Analysis of Strain Path Change Effect on the Hardening Behavior of Dual-Phase Steel

      Jinjin Ha, Jinwoo Lee, Ji Hoon Kim, Frédéric Barlat and Myoung-Gyu Lee

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300186

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      A simplified microstructure of Dual-phase steel was constructed in Representative Volume Element (RVE) model. Martensite phase was represented by three types of configuration – elongated, large spherical, and small spherical – and two different volume fractions. The effects of martensitic inclusion on complex macroscopic mechanical responses, especially focusing on Bauschinger effect under tension-compression and tension-orthogonal tension conditions, were analyzed. Moreover, simple one-dimensional analytical model was suggested to explain the strain path change effect in DP steels.

    4. Influence of Deformation on Phase Transformation and Precipitation of Steels for Oil Country Tubular Goods

      Alexander Timoshenkov, Piotr Warczok, Mihaela Albu, Jürgen Klarner, Ernst Kozeschnik, Gerald Gruber and Christof Sommitsch

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300198

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      This work presents different modeling approaches for the description of the microstructure evolution in a typical C–Mn micro-alloyed steel for pipes and tubes in the oil field industry. A comparison between the continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram of the material with no deformation and the DCCT diagram after single- and multiple-step deformation is presented and with experiments validated.

    5. Investigation of Precipitate in Polygonal Ferrite in a Ti-Microalloyed Steel Using TEM and APT

      Hai-Long Yi, Lei-Zhou Long, Zhen-Yu Liu and Guo-Dong Wang

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300230

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      Transmission electron micrograph and atom probe tomography are used to characterize the distribution, sizes and compositions of precipitates in ferrite matrix for a Ti microalloyed steel. The dispersion and interphase nano-precipitates are observed, and these precipitates are titanium carbide. The atomic ratio of Ti/C is about 0.55, and the average Guinier radius of nano-precipitate is about 4.3 nm.

    6. Modeling Study of Nitrogen Removal from the Vacuum Tank Degasser

      Shan Yu, Jyrki Miettinen and Seppo Louhenkilpi

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300262

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      This paper presents an integrated CFDs model for simulating the nitrogen removal in an industrial vacuum tank degasser (VTD). The effect of various elements on denitrogenation rate in the VTD is studied. The model is validated, and good agreements were found. The model has proven to be a useful and accurate tool for predicting final nitrogen content of liquid steel in the plant.

    7. Effect of Finishing Hot-Working Temperature on Microstructure of Thermomechanically Processed Mn–Al Multiphase Steels

      Adam Grajcar, Paweł Skrzypczyk, Roman Kuziak and Klaudiusz Gołombek

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300227

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      The study clarifies the effects of Mn addition and Nb microaddition as well as finishing hot-working temperature on the hot deformation resistance and microstructure of four medium-Mn–Al-containing thermomechanically processed steels. Physical simulation of thermomechanical hot strip rolling was carried out under various conditions of finishing hot-working temperature varying in a range between 950 and 750 °C. The finishing deformation temperature has a crucial effect on flow stresses and retained austenite content.

    8. An Experimental and Thermodynamic Study of Non-Metallic Inclusions in High Si Stainless Steels Regarding Clogging During Casting

      Erik Roos, Andrey Karasev and Pär Göran Jönsson

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300368

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      Characteristics of non-metallic inclusions are investigated in high Si-containing (1.9 and 2.7% Si) stainless steel grades with respect to clogging problems during casting. The obtained results and thermodynamic calculations using Thermo-Calc and FactSage show that the main reason of clogging during casting of these steels having larger than 0.003% of Al is relatively high contents of spinel MgO[BOND]Al2O3 inclusions and clusters in liquid steel.

    9. Influence of the Microalloying Elements on the Temporary Inhibition of Static Recrystallization by Strain-Induced Precipitates

      Manuel Gómez, Alberto Quispe and Sebastián F. Medina

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300356

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      Recrystallization and precipitation kinetics have been characterized in more than twenty microalloyed steels with a broad range of chemical compositions, by means of laboratory hot deformation tests. From this analysis, novel empirical equations are proposed to illustrate the strong variation in the extent of temporary blockage of recrystallization by precipitates in Nb, V, Al, and Ti-microalloyed steels.

    10. Micromodeling of the Diffusion-Controlled Equiaxed Peritectic Solidification

      Andriy Burbelko, Jacek Początek, Daniel Gurgul and Marek Wróbel

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300174

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      The model of solute's diffusion is introduced for the simulation of the diffusion-controlled equiaxed solidification. Averaged Voronoi Polyhedron is adopted as the shape of the analyzed domain. As opposed to known solutions based on the spherical domains, proposed one takes into account smaller volume fraction of the peripheral regions of the grain due to grains impingements and predicts true volume fraction and composition of the vanishing intercrysalline liquid.

    11. Determination of Mechanical Properties of Polycrystals by Using Crystal Plasticity and Numerical Homogenization Schemes

      Maria Baiker, Dirk Helm and Alexander Butz

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300202

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      In this work a virtual testing concept is applied to extend the experimental data set for metal forming simulations. The behavior of polycrystalline microstructures is modeled by using finite element solutions in combination with crystal plasticity. The success of the strategy is validated for the mild steel DC04 where key material values are predicted successfully.

    12. Nitrogen and Ausforming to Improve Stainless Martensitic Steels

      Hans Berns, Nikolaj Krasokha and Merlin Seifert

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300299

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      Nitrogen enhances the pitting resistance of stainless martensitic steels. The solubility may be raised by alloying and by pressure. In both cases, the stability of retained austenite (RA) will increase and may lower the achievable hardness. To overcome this predicament, ausforming is applied, which consists of cold working and subsequent transformation of RA to martensite during cooling.

    13. Coupling of Crystal Plasticity Finite Element and Phase Field Methods for the Prediction of SRX Kinetics after Hot Working

      Onur Güvenç, Markus Bambach and Gerhard Hirt

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300191

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      In this work, crystal plasticity finite element method is applied to the static recrystallization of a high manganese steel (X60Mn23). The hardening behavior is captured by CPFEM and its output is used to generate an input for the phase field study of static recrystallization using a developed dedicated mapping scheme. The proposed method is able to predict the main features of the static recrystallization kinetics.

    14. Severe Plastic Deformation of Large-Scale Nb-Microalloyed Steel Billet by Multi-Directional Forging Process

      Ahmed I. Z. Farahat, Abdel-Wahab El-Morsy and Taher A. El-Bitar

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300265

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      Fine-grained materials produced through multi-direction forging process have the greatest potential for large-scale industrial applications because they make use of equipment that has many similarities with that used in conventional deformation processing. The characterization of the microstructure revealed that the grain size is significantly smaller after processing by multi-direction forging process in comparison with unidirectional forging process.

    15. Inclusion Development in Steel During Ladle Metallurgical Treatment - A Process Simulation Model – Part: Industrial Validation

      Piotr R. Scheller and Qifeng Shu

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300375

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      A comprehensive model for inclusion development in gas stirred ladles developed by the authors is validated in the industrial ladle treatment processes. It can be used for the process simulation and optimization. The important factors, like stirring intensity, reaction between steel and slag as well as refractory material, and the conditions needed for separation and floatation of non-metallic inclusions are taken into account

    16. Microstructure-Based Modeling of Deformation in Steels Based on Constitutive Relationships from Micropillar Compression

      En-Yu Guo, Sudhanshu S. Singh, Hu-xiao Xie, Jason J. Williams, Tao Jing and Nikhilesh Chawla

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300217

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      Microstructure-based finite element modeling has been performed on different microstructures of an austenitic-ferritic stainless steel using the constitutive behavior of individual phase obtained from micropillar compression tests. The simulated plastic strain and stress distribution reveal the effect of area fraction, morphology as well as the distribution of ferrite phase on the mechanical properties of the material.

    17. Evaluation of Fracture Micromechanisms in a Fine-Grained Dual Phase Steel during Uniaxial Tensile Deformation

      Navid Saeidi, Fakhreddin Ashrafizadeh, Behzad Niroumand and Frédéric Barlat

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300344

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      SEM and EBSD analysis are involved in studying ductile fracture mechanism in a high-strength dual phase steel. Detailed microstructural analysis reveals that interface decohesion at triple junctions of ferrite–ferrite–martensite is the dominant void nucleation mechanism. EBSD analysis also reveals that void nucleation is predominantly promoted by the increase of ferrite–ferrite grain boundary misorientation with strain.

    18. Creep-Induced Microstructure Evolution of Type 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel during Continuous Annealing Processing

      Heeyong Park and Bruno C. De Cooman

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300142

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      The superplastic creep behavior of duplex stainless steel during continuous annealing processing is associated with the grain boundary diffusion in the steady state creep stage. Continuous dynamic recrystallization of ferrite was observed during the creep deformation and static recrystallization of austenite is observed in the early stage of the creep deformation. The 3D phase morphology is investigated in specimens annealed with and without an applied stress. The stress applied during continuous annealing has a clear influence on the phase morphology which changes from an elongated and pancaked microstructure into a microstructure with austenite islands embedded in a ferrite matrix. The 3D microscopy of the morphology of the ferrite and austenite phase reveals a combination of phase boundary sliding and the pinch-off of austenite-austenite grain boundaries by growing ferrite grains.

    19. Effect of Mg–Ti Deoxidation on the Formation Behavior of Equiaxed Crystals During Rapid Solidification of Iron Alloys

      Jun Seok Park and Joo Hyun Park

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300203

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      The effect of Mg–Ti deoxidation on the solidification structure of advanced high strength steel is investigated by observing the solidification structure and also the inclusion particles. Even with very low disregistry between delta iron and MgO (3.97%), the MgO itself does not work as an effective catalyst, indicating that there is another criterion for determining a good catalyst.

    20. Investigation of Neutral Axis Shifting in Rotary Draw Bending Processes for Tubes

      Bernd Engel and Hassan Raheem Hassan

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300333

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      Investigation of Neutral Axis Shifting in Rotary Draw Bending Processes for Tubes” shows how to calculate the neutral axis shifting for different bending angles using advanced geometrical model and finite element simulation. The advanced geometrical model is presented to calculate the neutral axis shifting for different bending angles based on the basic geometrical model. The Finite Element Model of rotary draw bending is performed in PAM-TUBE program to predict the wall thickness distribution, the maximum strain distribution, and the neutral axis shifting toward the inner-bow of the tube. The finite element simulation gave results close to the geometrical model results. In addition, the effect of the different materials (Al alloy and stainless steel alloy) on the rotary draw bending process is compared.

    21. In Situ Quantification of Micro-Segregation that Occurs During the Solidification of Steel

      Stefan Griesser, Mark Reid, Robert Pierer, Christian Bernhard and Rian Dippenaar

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300024

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      We present a method for the in situ quantification of micro-segregation during the solidification of steel by using HTLSCM in combination with the concentric solidification technique. Investigations of the influence of different alloying elements and cooling rates on the solidification behavior of steel are conducted and benchmarked against computational modeling results.

    22. Characterization of the Bendability of Press-Hardened 22MnB5 Steel

      Won Seok Choi and Bruno C. De Cooman

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300276

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      Uncoated press hardened 22MnB5 steel is subject to decarburization and oxidation phenomena occurring during austenitization. The softening of the subsurface resulting from decarburization causes a significant improvement of the bendability. The re-homogenization of carbon profile occurs once a continuous oxide film is formed at the surface. As a result, the bendability of the press hardened 22MnB5 steel is reduced.

    23. Effect of Microstructural and Morphological Parameters on the Formability of BCC Metal Sheets

      Gérald Franz, Farid Abed-Meraim and Marcel Berveiller

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300166

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      In this study, an elastic–plastic self-consistent (EPSC) polycrystalline model is coupled with a bifurcation-based localization criterion to investigate relationships between microstructural and morphological properties and formability of single-phase BCC steels. The interest in such a combined theoretical-numerical prediction tool is to classify materials in terms of ductility and to optimize material properties or to design new grades of steel with enhanced in-use mechanical properties.

    24. A Study of Post-Combustion in an AOD Flue

      Zhili Song, Mikael Ersson and Pär Jönsson

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300307

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      The current study focus on the effects of the fan pressures of an AOD off-gas flue on the post-combustion in the whole AOD converter system. The temperature and the gas compositions in the AOD system were investigated. The results showed that different fan pressures have a strong effect on the post-combustion in the flue.

    25. Rate of Hydrogen Desorption in Mold Stream Degassing Process

      Suguru Yamamoto, Masaru Tanaka and Koji Kajikawa

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300334

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      The rate of hydrogen desorption in the mold stream degassing process was measured to investigate the effect of hydrogen partial pressure. Experiments were conducted on 10.5 mass% Cr steel, 100 ton scale ingots. The hydrogen desorption reaction was controlled by metal side mass transfer at the gas/metal interface. And the value of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient was estimated to be approximately 5.18 s−1.

    26. Structural Behavior of Al3+ in Mould Flux Glasses of CaO–SiO2–Al2O3–Na2O–CaF2 System

      Yi Min, Ming Zhong, Jian Huang, Chengjun Liu and Maofa Jiang

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300291

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      In the liquid mould flux of CaO–SiO2–Al2O3–Na2O–CaF2 system, Si–O tetrahedrons are the dominant structure species, and the degree of polymerization decreases with the increasement of basicity and the decreasement of Al2O3 content. Al–O tetrahedrons and Al3+ cations coexist in the liquid mould flux, and the mole fraction of Al–O tetrahedrons increases with the increasement of basicity and Al2O3 content.

    27. Calculation Model of Using Appropriate High Reactivity Coke in Blast Furnace

      Shengli Wu, Ying Sun, Mingyin Kou and Wei Shen

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300302

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      In the study, thermal reserve zone and high temperature zone were investigated and a calculation model has been established to study the influences of high reactivity coke on iron oxide reduction, shaft efficiency, and fuel rate. Moreover, the industrial practice is analyzed by concluding an index namely the proportion of high reactivity coke taking Boudouard reaction in blast furnace (PCTBR).

    28. Numerical and Physical Modeling of Liquid Steel Active Flow in Tundish with Subflux Turbulence Controller and Dam

      Adam Cwudziński

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300284

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      This paper presents the results of a computer simulation and laboratory experiments (water model) carried out to describe the hydrodynamics of steel active flow in the one-strand tundish. In order to obtain a complete hydrodynamic picture in the tundish furniture variants tested, the computer simulations were performed for both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

    29. Numerical Modelling of Dissipation Phenomena in a New Ladle Shroud for Fluidynamic Control and Its Effect on Inclusions Removal in a Slab Tundish

      Gildardo Solorio-Diaz, Rodolfo Davila-Morales, Jose de Jesus Barreto-Sandoval, Hector Javier Vergara-Hernández, Angel Ramos-Banderas and Sergio Ricardo Galvan

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300224

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      A mathematical model is developed to study the dissipation phenomena inside a new design of ladle shroud and its effects on flow patterns and inclusion removal rate. Its performance is evaluated in a conventional slab tundish. The velocity of the entry jet is decreased and the bulk flow is well controlled, the inclusion removal rate is improved, compared to those arrangements where Turbulence Inhibitors are used.

    30. Desulfurization of Hot Metal Through In Situ Generation of Magnesium in 30-kg Molten Iron Bath-Influence of Inert Gas Flow Rate

      Anil Kumar, Zachariah Elanjickal Chacko, Madurai Malathi, Kesri Mino Godiwalla, Satish Kumar Ajmani and Srinivasan Ranganathan

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300374

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      In situ generation of magnesium was used for desulfurizing 30-kg liquid iron bath, under conditions close to industrial operation. This is the first experimental investigation of this scale ever to be reported. The experiments showed that the sulfur level in the liquid iron bath could be brought down from about 700 ppm to about 250 ppm at 1673 K. Mass transfer kinetics as well as flow rate of inert gas controls the degree of desulfurization.

    31. Fundamental Investigations on the Corrosion of ZrO2–C Refractories during Interaction with a Casting Mould Meniscus Slag

      Anup Kumar, Rita Khanna, John Spink and Veena Sahajwalla

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300336

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      The article describes fundamental investigations on the corrosion of ZrO2–C refractories. The figure shows the structural evolution of zirconia grains during exposure to slag at 1550 °C: elemental mapping of zirconia granules.

    32. Dynamic Recrystallization (DRX) Analysis of Heavy Reduction Process with Extra-Thickness Slabs

      Xinkai Zhao, Jiongming Zhang, Shaowu Lei and Yuanning Wang

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300277

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      In this paper, a two-step strategy was preceded using software THERCAST3D firstly to study the solidification process. Then, a special forging product FORGE3D had been used, based on the former results to study the rear reduction process. The aim is to find the differences of distribution of stress–strain and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) for slabs between two types of segment.

    33. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of the TRIP Effect in 1.4301 Austenitic Stainless Steel Under Static Loading

      Satyapriya Gupta, Raphael Twardowski, Pawel Kucharczyk and Sebastian Münstermann

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300223

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      In the numerical design of TRIP assisted steel components the transformation of austenite to martensite and the accompanying change of plasticity must be considered to ensure a reliable stress analysis. The influence of the TRIP effect on the properties of the 1.4301 austenitic stainless steel is studied experimentally and numerically. The ability of the phase transformation model to quantitatively describe this effect for various loading conditions is evaluated.

    34. Comparison of a Fluid and a Solid Approach for the Numerical Simulation of Friction Stir Welding with a Non-Cylindrical Pin

      Philippe Bussetta, Narges Dialami, Romain Boman, Michele Chiumenti, Carlos Agelet de Saracibar, Miguel Cervera and Jean-Philippe Ponthot

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300182

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      The aim of the paper is to present and compare a fluid and a solid approach applied to the numerical simulation of the friction stir welding process with non-cylindrical pins. Both approaches use the Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian formalism in order to avoid mesh distorsions that would inevitably appear while using a more classical approach such as the updated Lagrangian formalism.

    35. Investigation of Skull Formation in a Blast Furnace Hearth

      Yongfu Zhao, Dong Fu, Louis W. Lherbier, Yan Chen, Chenn Q. Zhou and John G. Grindey

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300305

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      This is the first comprehensive work of using integrated heat transfer, fluid flow dynamics and solidification numerical simulation to investigate skull formation phenomena in a blast furnace hearth. The impact of hearth design and furnace operation parameters on skull formation is examined and compared with operating experience of United States Steel blast furnaces.

    36. Effects of Ultrasound on the Degassing of Molten Steel in the RH Refining Process

      Minren Xu, Qingcai Liu, Dongran Ma, Guofang Wu, Bin Hu and Lihua Ma

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300222

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      Vacuum degassing with ultrasound can reduce the hydrogen level and the time to reach the steady-state plateau hydrogen content in molten steel. When vacuum degassing assisted by ultrasonic was used, about 9 min was required to reach the steady-state plateau hydrogen content, however, more than 20 min were required when just using vacuum degassing. And molten steel reached lower steady-state plateau hydrogen content in vacuum degassing assisted by ultrasonic.

    37. Effect of Ca–Si Modifiers on the Carbide Precipitation of As-Cast Hadfield Steel

      Mohamed K. El-Fawkhry, Ayman M. Fathy and Mamdouh M. Eissa

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300068

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      The effect of Ca–Si ladle treatment on molten Hadfield steel has been investigated by means of optical microscope, Image analyzer software, ESM, hardness test, impact toughness test, and wear abrasion resistance measurements. The results indicate that the needle-like cementite is transformed into granular γ-austenite + (Fe,Mn)3 eutectic through ladle treatment by Ca–Si modifiers. Impact toughness of as-cast condition is exceeded 200%.

    38. Effect of Water Vapor Content in H2–H2O–CO–CO2 Mixtures on the Equilibrium Distribution of Manganese between CaO–MgOsat–SiO2–Al2O3–FeO–P2O5 Slag and Molten Iron

      M. Yousef Mohassab-Ahmed and Hong Yong Sohn

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300251

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      For the first time, the effect of water vapor on the distribution of Mn between slag and molten iron has been studied for MgO-saturated CaO-FeO-Al2O3-SiO2-MnO (0.2-0.8 wt%)-P2O5 (0.1-0.9 wt%) slags in the temperature range 1550-1600°C under CO/CO2/H2/H2O, H2/H2O, and CO/CO2 with pO2 = 10-10∼10-9 atm. Water in the gas atmosphere was found to decrease LMn.

    39. Influence of Formation and Coarsening of the Laves Phase on the Mechanical Properties of Heat-Resistant Ferritic Steels

      Simon Klein, Nilofar Nabiran, Sebastian Weber and Werner Theisen

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300257

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      To improve mechanical properties of ferritic heat-resistant steels at high temperature, steels were developed that contain a certain amount of Laves phase. In the present work, the effect of its precipitation and coarsening on mechanical properties at room temperature was investigated. It was found, that the Laves phase rises DBTT, but retards grain coarsening and therefore stabilizes mechanical properties during annealing.

    40. Visualization of the Flow in a Mold of Continuous Casting by Contactless Inductive Flow Tomography and Mutual Inductance Tomography

      Thomas Wondrak, Sven Eckert, Gunter Gerbeth, Frank Stefani, Klaus Timmel, Anthony J. Peyton, Natasa Terzija and Wuliang Yin

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300075

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      The contactless inductive flow tomography developed at the Helmholtz–Zentrum Dresden–Rossendorf is applied to a model of a continuous caster to measure the two-dimensional flow field in a slab caster mold. For Argon injection into the SEN transitions between double-roll and single-roll flows were observed.

    41. Growth Behavior of Intragranular Ferrite Idiomorphs in an Fe–0.09%C–1.48%Mn–0.2Si Steels

      Lin Cheng, Kaiming Wu and Xiangliang Wan

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300256

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      Intragranular ferrite idiomorph can beformed at both low and high undercoolings. At high undercooling, ferrite idiomorph formed prior to acicular ferrite. However, it gradually lost its morphological characteristics with increasing holding and the acicular ferrite began to dominate the microstructure. Growth kinetics of ferrite idiomorph was similar to that of ferrite allotriomorph and fell between paraequilibrium and local equilibrium prediction limits.

    42. Influence of Cold Rolling on Microstructural Evolution in 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

      Sudipta Pramanik, Supriya Bera and Swarup Kumar Ghosh

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300293

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      The influence of cold rolling on the microstructural changes of 2205 duplex stainless steel is investigated. During cold rolling, phase constituents in general, become flattened and fragmented as well as austenite transformed into acicular strain-induced α′ martensite. The volume percent of martensite phase is quantified by X-ray diffraction and image analysis techniques.

    43. Experimental Quantification of the Austenite-Stabilizing Effect of Mn in CrMnNi As-Cast Stainless Steels

      Marco Wendler, Javad Mola, Lutz Krüger and Andreas Weiß

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300271

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      In this study, the austenite-stabilizing effect of manganese in as-cast Fe–(12–16)Cr–(0–13)Mn–6Ni (concentrations in wt%) stainless steels is investigated. The well known Schaeffler-diagram is used for the prediction of the microstructure at room temperature. The best match between observed microstructures and the Schaeffler-diagram is obtained by defining the manganese efficiency coefficient in the Ni-equivalent formula as a quadratic equation of the Cr-equivalent.

    44. Influence of Reoxidation in Tundish on Inclusion for Ca-Treated Al-Killed Steel

      Guangwei Yang, Xinhua Wang, Fuxiang Huang, Wanjun Wang, Yuqun Yin and Chunxia Tang

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300243

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      Inclusions of RH refining, tundish, slab, and plate are investigated on API-X70 pipeline steel. It is found that reoxidation in tundish converts the well-modified liquid calcium aluminates into solid Al2O3-rich inclusions and the number dramatically increased. Reoxidation in tundish put the calcium treatment and strong capacity of inclusion removal during RH treatment in vain. The ratio of liquid inclusions is proportional to average CaO/Al2O3 in inclusions.

    45. Modeling of Spray Cooling during Induction Hardening of Spur Gearwheels Made from 42CrMo4 Hardening and Tempering Steel

      Dmytro Rodman, Viacheslav Boiarkin, Florian Nürnberger, Andrej Dalinger and Mirko Schaper

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300201

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      Volume fraction of martensite in the tooth during quenching using 0.3 MPa air and 0.3 MPa water pressures after 2 s (a), 2.2 s (b) and 2.4 s (c). A numerical model was introduced describing the quenching process using spray cooling subsequent to induction heating. The model serves to predict the temperature development and the hardening results in the form of microstructural and hardness distributions, residual stresses, and distortion. To verify the model experimentally measured hardening results of spur gearwheels made from 42CrMo4 hardening and tempering steel were used.


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