steel research international

Cover image for Vol. 87 Issue 7

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Online ISSN: 1869-344X

VIEW

  1. 1 - 100
  1. Full Papers

    1. Arrhenius-Type Constitutive Model and Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of 20Cr2Ni4A Alloy Carburizing Steel

      Wei Wang, Jun Zhao, Rui Xue Zhai and Rui Ma

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600196

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      The Arrhenius-type constitutive equation with Zener–Hollomon parameter for 20Cr2Ni4A steel is determined to describe the deformation behavior. The kinetic model and kinematic model of dynamic recrystallization for 20Cr2Ni4A steel are established to describe the dynamic recrystallization behavior; the model of dynamic recrystallization grain size for 20Cr2Ni4A steel is also constructed.

    2. Attraction Force Estimations of Al2O3 Particle Agglomerations in the Melt

      Changji Xuan, Andrey V. Karasev, Pär Göran Jönsson and Keiji Nakajima

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600090

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      The influences of van der Waals force, wettability, and solid phase sintering are systematically studied for the Al2O3 agglomeration. A function of Hamaker constant of liquid iron changes with surface tension, which is pointed out. The difference between cavity bridge force and van der Waals force is smaller than seven times.

    3. A Comparative Study of Microstructure and Texture Evolution in Cu-Bearing and Nb-Bearing Grain Oriented Silicon Steels

      Yang Wang, Feng Fang, Xiang Lu, Yuan-Xiang Zhang, Yun-Bo Xu, Guang-Ming Cao, Cheng-Gang Li, R. Devesh Kumar Misra and Guo-Dong Wang

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600181

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      The microstructure and texture evolution between Cu-bearing and Nb-bearing silicon steel is compared. The mainly grain growth inhibitors in Cu-bearing and Nb-bearing silicon steels are CuMnS and NbCN, respectively. The results indicate that the pinning strength of Nb-particles is much stronger than Cu-particles, and the Goss zone (Region II) in Nb- bearing hot rolled sheets, which act as the nuclei for secondary recrystallization is reduced. Therefore, the magnetic properties of Nb-bearing silicon steel are inferior, compared to Cu-bearing silicon steels.

    4. The Oxidation and Decomposition Behavior of Carbonate Iron Ore

      Yating Tang, Mansheng Chu, Jue Tang, Lin You and Zhenggen Liu

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600129

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      In this work, the preoxidation part of a new beneficiation process for carbonate iron ore is studied by the single factor experiments. Besides, X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy are used to investigate the main phase and structure transformations during the oxidation. Meanwhile, through thermoanalysis, the thermal decomposition kinetics of carbonate iron ore are also conducted for this processing.

  2. Communications

    1. A Theoretical Scaling Equation for Designing Physical Modeling of Gas–Liquid Flow in Metallurgical Ladles

      Shan Yu, Zong-Shu Zou, Lei Shao and Seppo Louhenkilpi

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600156

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      In the present work, a theoretical scaling equation embodying liquid density and surface tension is deduced by analyzing the governing equation of plume rise velocity for physical modeling of gas–liquid flow in metallurgical ladles. The advantage of the scaling equation is demonstrated by comparing the calculated order of prototype gas flow rate with the one based on measured gas fractions.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Generating Mechanism of Large Heterogeneous Carbonitrides with Multiple Layers in H13 + Nb Bar

      You Xie, Guoguang Cheng, Lie Chen, Yandong Zhang and Qingzhong Yan

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600119

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      A great number of micron-sized precipitates exist in H13 + Nb bar. These precipitates include oxide cores and outer carbonitrides. The carbonitride can be further classified into Ti–V-rich one, Nb-rich one, and V-rich one. These large precipitates are generated in liquid steel during solidification. The generating mechanism can be well speculated by Thermo-Calc and be helpful to further control.

    2. Effect of Magnesium Addition on Behavior of Collision and Agglomeration between Solid Inclusion Particles on H13 Steel Melts

      Gang Du, Jing Li, Zhong-Bing Wang and Cheng-Bin Shi

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600185

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      The formation sequence of MgO · Al2O3 cluster is the same as that of alumina cluster, but the MgO · Al2O3 clusters cannot form the outside branch and attract more distant particles. The collision, agglomeration and growth of inclusions, as well as the formation of clusters in H13 steel can be effectively impeded by the adding of magnesium.

    3. Early Stages of Cu Precipitation in 15-5 PH Maraging Steel Revisited – Part II: Thermokinetic Simulation

      Georg Stechauner, Sophie Primig and Ernst Kozeschnik

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600085

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      The authors investigate the Cu-precipitation and two DSC peaks in 15-5 PH steel by the means of thermokinetic modeling. The simulations indicate that the exothermic reactions come from the nucleation of Fe-rich Cu clusters and their subsequent transformation into pure Cu composition. The findings support the experimental findings of part I.

    4. Early Stages of Cu Precipitation in 15–5 PH Maraging Steel Revisited − Part I: Experimental Analysis

      Sophie Primig, Georg Stechauner and Ernst Kozeschnik

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600084

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      During continuous aging with a heating rate around 15 K min–1 of as-quenched 15-5 PH maraging steel in a differential scanning calorimeter, two exothermal reactions are observed. These DSC signals are attributed to the nucleation and growth of Fe-rich Cu clusters in the lower temperature range, followed by Cu-enrichment of these clusters and seamless transformation into bcc-Cu precipitates at higher temperatures.

    5. Application of Bayer Red Mud-Based Flux in the Steelmaking Process

      Yanling Zhang, Fengshan Li, Ruimin Wang and Dongdong Tian

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600140

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      Using Bayer red mud-based flux in simulated steelmaking processes show that good slag fluidity is observed during the entire process. The dephosphorization ratio can be more than 85%, and the final [P] can be lowered to less than 0.005%. No rephosphorization phenomenon is observed in the whole experiment.

    6. Comprehensive Electric Arc Furnace Model for Simulation Purposes and Model-Based Control

      Amirhossein Fathi, Yadollah Saboohi, Igor Škrjanc and Vito Logar

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600083

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      A comprehensive EAF model used to evaluate the main EAF processes along with their effects on overall energy and mass balance. The model is computationally light and it is designed to estimate the unmeasured process values or to optimize the operation of the EAF in order to reduce power-on time, energy or raw material use.

    7. Catalytic Behavior of Potassium Vapor on Coke Gasification Reaction

      Jian Bo Zhong, Jian Liang Zhang, Ke Jiang Li, Zheng Jian Liu, Guang Wei Wang, Run Sheng Xu and Di Zhao

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600152

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      The present work indicates that the catalysis of potassium vapor on coke gasification will be enhanced with the increase of potassium content in coke, and reach a limitation when the content of potassium exceeds 3.5 wt%. And the catalysis of potassium vapor on coke gasification is mainly embodied by reducing gasification temperature and increasing the pre-exponential factor, which may mean increasing active carbon sites.

    8. Effects of Strain and Deformation Temperature on Bainitic Transformation in a Fe–C–Mn–Si Alloy

      Haijiang Hu, Guang Xu, Li Wang and Mingxing Zhou

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600170

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      The effects of strain and deformation temperature on bainitic transformation are investigated. The amount of bainite first increases and then decreases with strain at a certain deformation temperature. The peak value strain (PVS) increases with the increase of ausforming temperature, whereas the corresponding maximum amount of bainitic transformation decreases.

    9. The Effect of Bake-Hardening Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Dual-Phase Steels

      Ali Ramazani, Sonja Bruehl, Mahmoud Abbasi, Wolfgang Bleck and Ulrich Prahl

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600060

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      The effect of bake-hardening (BH) parameters, namely pre-strain, baking temperature, and holding time, on yield strength increment of DP steels with different martensite volume fractions is investigated. The results show that maximum yield strength is obtained as optimum values of BH parameters are applied. The increment of pre-strain enhances the Lüders band and decreases the yield strength increment.

    10. Dynamic Tensile Testing of Ultrahigh Strength Hot Stamped Martensitic Steels

      Tom Taylor, Stephen Danks and George Fourlaris

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600144

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      Tensile testing over strain rates of 0.001–200 s–1 is performed on four hot stamped (HS) martensitic steels, including 22MnB5 and 38MnB5. The unique response of 38MnB5 to increasing strain rate, marked by significantly higher tensile strength and ductility, gives rise to significantly higher toughness than 22MnB5 at the higher strain rates.

    11. Cumulative Fatigue Damage: CDM-Based Engineering Rule and Life Prediction Aspect

      Nikolaos D. Batsoulas

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600048

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      A novel methodology for fatigue life prediction of metallic components under variable amplitude loading is proposed. The Continuum Damage Mechanics approach, which relates the damage rate to that of cyclic loading through the damage function, is employed. A versatile damage function is presented. The result is a fatigue damage engineering rule. A wide range of fatigue data are used to validate the proposed rule.

    12. Tensile Behavior of Cast and Electron Beam Welded Interstitially Strengthened High-Alloy TRIP Steel

      Lars Halbauer, Ralf Eckner, Marco Wendler, Olga Fabrichnaya, Anja Buchwalder, Lutz Krüger, Rolf Zenker and Horst Biermann

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600028

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      The research program investigates the tensile behavior of a newly developed, interstitial hardened, high-alloy TRIP steel. For different temperatures, the tensile behavior of the base material and welded samples is studied. The differences of the martensite evolution during deformation are discussed on the basis of microstructural analysis and different simulation approaches.

    13. Characterization and Analysis of Non-Metallic Inclusions in Low-Carbon Fe–Mn–Si–Al TWIP Steels

      Hongbo Liu, Jianhua Liu, Susanne K. Michelic, Shaobo Shen, Xiaofeng Su, Bowei Wu and Hao Ding

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600131

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      The present work mainly characterizes the non-metallic inclusions in low-carbon Fe–Mn–Si–Al TWIP steels produced by argon oxygen decarburization–electroslag remelting (AOD-ESR)-forging method. Single Al(O)N and MnS(Se)–Al(O)N aggregates are two main kinds of inclusions in TWIP–AOD ingots. The formation, growth, and dissolution of AlN and MnS inclusions formed in steel before and after ESR process are analyzed based on thermodynamics and kinetics.

    14. Borides Effect on the Workability and Microstructure Evolution of As-Cast Borated Stainless Steel under Hot Compression

      Xuan Zhou, Mingjia Wang, Chu Chen and Hongchang Zhao

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600041

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      Boride effect on strength depends on the temperature. And boride can be the particle-stimulated nucleation (PSN) sites, but the fraction is small. Cavities will occur by: (i) boride cracking; (ii) vacancy condensation at boride–matrix interface; and (iii) debonding of boride–matrix interface. Moreover, cracks almost originate from cavities around borides and propagate mainly via debonding at boride–matrix interface and original grain boundary.

    15. Effect of Thermal Charging of Hydrogen on the Microstructure of Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel

      Han-Jin Kim, M. P. Phaniraj, Ju-Heon Kim, Young-Su Lee, Dong-Ik Kim, Jin-Yoo Suh, Joonho Lee, Jae-Hyeok Shim and Seong-Jun Park

      Version of Record online: 9 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600063

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      The tensile behavior of hydrogen-charged 304-type austenitic stainless steel, with and without prestrain, is investigated. Under the same hydrogen charging conditions, the prestrained specimen retains less hydrogen than the solution-treated specimen. Comparison of flow stress and microstructure of hydrogen-charged specimens with specimens aged in vacuum at 300 °C shows that hydrogen enhances the formation of martensite.

    16. Gas-Based Direct Reduction of Hongge Vanadium Titanomagnetite-Oxidized Pellet and Melting Separation of the Reduced Pellet

      Wei Li, Gui-Qin Fu, Man-Sheng Chu and Miao-Yong Zhu

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600120

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      A novel clean process is proposed to dispose Hongge vanadium titanomagnetite (HVTM) in this paper, in which iron and titanium-rich slag are obtained by gas-based direct reduction of HVTM-oxidized pellet and melting separation of the reduced pellet. The results provide theoretical and technical bases for the comprehensive utilization of HVTM and increase the recovery rates of Fe, Ti, V, and Cr.

  4. Communications

    1. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 18%Mn TWIP/TRIP Steels Processed by Warm or Hot Rolling

      Andrey Belyakov, Rustam Kaibyshev and Vladimir Torganchuk

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600123

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      Two Fe–18%Mn steels with carbon content of 0.4 or 0.6% C are processed by thermo-mechanical processing under conditions of warm or hot rolling. Both processings improve the mechanical properties of the present steels. The yield strength comprises 300–360 MPa after rolling at 1100 °C and 850–950 MPa after rolling at 500 °C.

  5. Full Papers

    1. The Influence of Microstructure and Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Clean Steels

      Niclas Ånmark, Andrey Karasev and Pär Göran Jönsson

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600111

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      This study focuses on the evaluation of the machinability of different carburizing steel grades by using a cemented carbide cutting tool during semi-finishing of steel. Correlations between the microstructure (average grain size, micro hardness, and carbon equivalent) and the content of non metallic inclusions to the cutting tool life are established.

    2. Fast Numerical Simulation of Symmetric Flat Rolling Processes for Inhomogeneous Materials Using a Layer Model − Part I: Basic Theory

      Matthias Schmidtchen and Rudolf Kawalla

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600047

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      A general non-isothermal layer model for symmetric but inhomogeneous rolling conditions is presented. It is based on an extended slab theory with an additional layer thickness model for NS-layers of arbitrary mechanical properties. Internal stresses at the entrance and exit of the roll gap are predicted as a closing condition for the derived set of kinematic and kinetic equations.

    3. The Effect of Intercritical Annealing on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ferritic–Martensitic Two-Phase Steels

      Lars Oliver Wolf, Florian Nürnberger, Dmytro Rodman and Hans Jürgen Maier

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600107

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      The combined process of intercritical annealing and press-hardening opens up new possibilities of adapting the mechanical properties of components. The two-phase microstructure of dual-phase and partial martensitic steels can be set by the austenite content in the annealing process. This, however, requires precise knowledge about the effects of annealing time and temperature on the microstructural evolution in the low-alloyed steels used.

  6. Communications

    1. Effect of Inhibitor Particles on Normal Grain Growth before Secondary Recrystallization of Grain-Oriented Electrical Steels

      Weimin Mao and Huiping Ren

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600114

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      A reasonable and simple analytic equation for normal grain growth including effects of Zener drag induced by inhibitor particles in grain-oriented electrical steels is deduced, while migration of quadruple junction points is the determined mechanism of grain growth, which can only be inhibited by the particles if grain size becomes large enough.

  7. Essays

    1. The Development of Education in Ferrous Metallurgy at the Bergakademie Freiberg

      Heinz-Joachim Spies

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600011

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      With the lectures of Abraham Gottlob Werner on ironworks knowledge in 1788, ferrous metallurgists could obtain a specialized academic education in Germany for the first time. He was followed almost 100 years later by Adolf Ledebur, who influenced the development of ferrous metallurgy worldwide and who garnered worldwide recognition for the contribution of the Bergakademie in Freiberg to ferrous metallurgy. In the 20th Century, it was primarily Eduard Maurer – one of the inventors of the first industrially produced stainless steels – who left an indelible stamp on ferrous metallurgy in Freiberg.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Effect of Austenitization and Tempering on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a 5 wt% Cr Cold Work Tool Steel

      Muhammad Arbab Rehan, Anna Medvedeva, Berne Högman, Lars-Erik Svensson and Leif Karlsson

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600012

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      The effects of austenitization and tempering temperatures are studied for a 5 wt% Cr cold work tool steel. The aim is to understand the influence on microstructure and mechanical properties. The best combination of mechanical properties is achieved by austenitization at 1020 or 1050 °C followed by tempering at 525 °C.

    2. The Role of MgO Powder in Preventing Defluidization during Fluidized Bed Reduction of Fine Iron Ores with Different Iron Valences

      Zhan Du, Qingshan Zhu, Yafeng Yang, Chuanlin Fan, Feng Pan, Haoyan Sun and Zhaohui Xie

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600122

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      The role of MgO powder in preventing defluidization during fluidized bed reduction of fine iron ores with different iron valences is investigated. Microstructure observation and diffusion activation energy estimation demonstrate that the required MgO content to prevent defluidization is the same at 973 K, whereas it is sequenced as m(Fe2O3) > m(Fe3O4) > m(FeO) at 1073 and 1173 K.

    3. Optimum Deformation Criteria and Flow Behavior Description of Boron-Alloyed Steel through Numerical Approach

      Sarallah Hamtaei, Abbas Zarei-Hanzaki and Alireza Mohamadizadeh

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600042

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      The paper deals with modeling the flow behavior of boron micro-alloyed steel, which plays a significant role in automotive industry. To this end, different constitutive equations are developed in order to present the most reliable solution. The results are also used to determine optimum deformation parameters by efficiency maps, which also show the occurrence of deformation-induced ferrite transformation (DIFT).

    4. Influencing Parameter Study on Primary Breakup of Free Falling Steel Melt Jets Using Volume of Fluid Simulation

      Sebastian Neumann, Tobias Dubberstein, Humberto Chaves, Clemens Kirmse and Rüdiger Schwarze

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500338

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      The free falling liquid steel jet behavior is numerically investigated using implicit large eddy simulations and the volume of fluid approach. The research focuses on primary breakup phenomena near the nozzle, quantifying the influence of process and constructional parameters. The jet behavior shows distinct inflow and nozzle design dependencies, which influence the jet shape and disintegration into ligaments or droplets.

    5. Investigation on Improvement of Center Porosity with Heavy Reduction in Continuously Cast Thick Slabs

      Zhigang Xu, Xinhua Wang and Min Jiang

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600061

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      In order to improve the center porosity of slabs, the heavy reduction process of START (Solidification Terminal Advanced Reduction Technique) is developed. START is implemented with 9 mm heavy reduction in the first segment and 3 mm reduction in the second segment accounting for the uneven solidification. As a result, center porosities along the slab width are significantly improved.

    6. Mechanical Properties and Transformation Behaviors of Ti–Zr Killed Low-Carbon Steels with High-Temperature Hot-Rolling Process

      Chao Wang, Guodong Wang, Zhaodong Wang and Raja Devesh Kumar Misra

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600057

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      The experimental low-carbon steels are deoxidized with Ti and Zr to form effective inclusions for intragranular ferrite nucleation. High-temperature hot-rolling process is adopted and coarse prior austenite grains are formed. However, the as-transformed microstructure is significantly refined due to inclusion-induced acicular ferrite formation and, meanwhile, the mechanical properties are also remarkably improved.

    7. Casting of Fe–CrMnNi and ZrO2-Based Metal–Matrix Composites and Their Wear Properties

      Richard Acker, Stefan Martin, Klaus Meltke and Gotthard Wolf

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500471

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      A metal–matrix composite of a metastable austenitic–martensitic CrMnNi-TRIP-steel and 14% metastable zirconium dioxide ceramic is produced by gravity fed casting. The infiltration of the porous ceramic foam by liquid melt is increased through additions of sulfur. Its increased wear resistance is examined in a three-body abrasive wear test and compared to other wear materials.

    8. Three-dimensional DEM Study of Coal Distribution in the Melter Gasifier of COREX

      Yang You, Qin-Fu Hou, Zhi-Guo Luo, Hai-Feng Li, Heng Zhou, Ren Chen and Zong-Shu Zou

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500481

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      A three-dimensional discrete element method model is established and validated for studying the coal distribution in a COREX melter gasifier. First, the effects of chute angle and rotational speed are examined. Second, the formation of an asymmetrical burden pile and the underlying mechanisms are analyzed. Last, particle size segregation and velocity distribution are investigated.

    9. Effect of Sn on the Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Ultra-Purified 17% Cr Ferritic Stainless Steel

      Xiang-Jun Zhang, Fei Gao and Zhen-Yu Liu

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600059

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      The present paper investigates the influence of Sn on pitting corrosion of ferritic stainless steels in chloridion medium. Proper Sn addition can effectively improve pitting potential, while excessive addition (about 0.33 wt%) can deteriorate pitting corrosion resistance. The content of Sn in ferritic stainless steels should be optimized within 0.1–0.23 wt% to obtain better corrosion resistance.

    10. Effect of Cr Content on Microstructure and Impact Toughness in the Simulated Coarse-Grained Heat-Affected Zone of High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels

      Gang Huang, Xiang Liang Wan and Kai Ming Wu

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500424

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      The relationship of Cr content and heat input welding to area fraction of acicular ferrite grains in the simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zone of high-strength low-alloy steels is investigated. The area fraction of acicular ferrite decreases with increasing both Cr content and heat input welding.

  9. Reviews

    1. Melting, Remelting, and Casting for Clean Steel

      John Campbell

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600093

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      The casting of steels usually involves pouring, which is now known to introduce masses of oxides. The oxides necessary entrain in the liquid in a double form, entraining air (as spherical bubbles or flat bubbles called bifilms). These features are largely unrecognized, and the bifilms not easily detected, but often control properties, particularly the failure properties including fracture and corrosion. The elimination of such defects is discussed.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Influence of Silicon on Desulfurization of Al-Killed Steel by CaO–Al2O3 Slag Contained FeO and MnO

      Jianfei Xu, Fuxiang Huang, Xinhua Wang and Cailiang Jing

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600053

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      For the heats with different silicon contents, (FeO + MnO) content in slag after desulfurization varied in a wide range. It was much higher for Si-free liquid steel, while lower for Si-containing liquid steel. As a result, more obvious differences in desulfurization efficiency between Si-free steel and Si-containing steel can be seen.

    2. Effects of Process Parameters on Spot Welding of TRIP and Quenching and Partitioning Steels

      Pasquale Russo Spena, Luca Cortese, Manuela De Maddis and Franco Lombardi

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600007

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      Dissimilar spot welding of a quenching and partitioning (Q&P) and a TRIP steel is investigated here, quality of spot welds being examined in terms of microstructure and mechanical properties. The effects of clamping force, welding current, and time on shear strength of spot welds are discussed. Metal expulsion is also detected by monitoring welding electrical parameters and its effect on joint quality assessed.

    3. Flatness Control Strategy Based on Delay Compensation for Cold Rolling Mill

      Wang Pengfei, Peng Yan, Wang Dongcheng, Sun Jie, Zhang Dianhua and Liu Hongmin

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600065

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      For low-speed rolling processes, the Smith predictive control can ensure good dynamic characteristics. The adjusting time and the steady-state error of the system are very small, which is almost the same as there is no time delay. Moreover, the simulated flatness and flatness deviation are also steady except the initial stage, as shown in figure (time delay τ = 0.5 s).

    4. Evolution of Microstructure and Properties of Steel 22MnB5 due to Short Austenitization with Subsequent Quenching

      Anatolii Andreiev, Olexandr Grydin and Mirko Schaper

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600086

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      Combination of rapid heating with press hardening for production of crash-relevant elements of “body-in-white” promises significant reduction of heating duration and production area with improvement of mechanical properties of finished components. The steel 22MnB5 after rapid heating to austenitization temperature, soaking within 2 s, and subsequent quenching exhibits up to 10% increased strength properties and significantly reduced decarburized layer thickness in comparison with material processed by means of conventional technology.

    5. Effect of Material Processing and Imposed Mechanical Stress on the Magnetic, Mechanical, and Microstructural Properties of High-Silicon Electrical Steel

      Nora Leuning, Simon Steentjes, Kay Hameyer, Markus Schulte and Wolfgang Bleck

      Version of Record online: 28 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600039

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      Non grain-oriented electrical steel is used as magnetic core material for electrical machines. Thus, electromagnetic properties are pivotal for this material's function. Detrimental effects of changes in microstructure, residual, as well as external stresses due to mechanical processing need to be studied in order to improve NGO processing, prevent deterioration and optimize electrical machines.

    6. The Strip Steel Surface Defect Recognition Based on Multiple Support Vector Hyper-Sphere with Feature and Sample Weights

      Rongfen Gong, Chengdong Wu, Maoxiang Chu and Xiaoping Liu

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600049

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      In this work, eight classes of strip steel surface defects are classified by FSW-MSVH classifier. The novel classifier adopts clustering information, Relief-F, one-versus-rest, and TSVH techniques. And it solves the problems of abnormal samples, weakly relevant features, and multi-class classification. So, FSW-MSVH multi-class classifier has superiority in accuracy and speed.

    7. Effect of Cooling Process on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of X100 Pipeline Steel

      Xiao-Guang Zhou, Cai-You Zeng, Hao Yang, Liang-Yu Ma, Zhen-Yu Liu, Di Wu and Guo-Dong Wang

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500411

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      The effects of cooling rate and finish cooling temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of X100 pipeline steel have been investigated by thermo-mechanical simulation experiment and hot rolling experiment. Meanwhile, the results reveal that the mixed microstructure consisting of fine bainitic ferrite lath, fine M/A islands, and dispersed precipitation play an important role in increasing the strength and toughness of X100 pipeline steel.

    8. Stress Analysis of a Continuous Casting Process, on the Basis of the Element-Free Galerkin Formulation

      Juan C. Álvarez Hostos, Eli S. Puchi Cabrera and Alfonso D. Bencomo

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600019

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      In this work, the advantages of the element-free Galerkin technique, in comparison with the commons mesh-based methods, are used to solve the thermomechanical problem involved in a continuous casting (CC) process of a steel round billet. This research proposes a novel approach to predict the performance of a CC process, including a robust integration of the non-conservative strain components without requiring a mesh for discretizing the problem domain.

    9. Equilibrium between Carbon and FeO-Containing Slag in CO–CO2–H2O Atmosphere by FactSage Calculation

      Yan Wu, Hiroyuki Matsuura, Zhangfu Yuan and Fumitaka Tsukihashi

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500482

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      A thermodynamic analysis of carbon gasification process with FeO–CaO–SiO2 slag as heat carrier in CO–CO2–H2O atmosphere is performed using FactSage 6.3 under steady temperature condition. The effects of initial FeO content in slag, the mass%CaO/mass%SiO2 ratio of slag, slag temperature, and added carbon amount upon the production of H2 and CO gases are investigated.

    10. An End-to-End Steel Strip Surface Defects Recognition System Based on Convolutional Neural Networks

      Li Yi, Guangyao Li and Mingming Jiang

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600068

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      Visual surface inspection system is playing an important part in the industrial production of steel strip. In this paper, an end-to-end surface defects recognition system based on the deep convolutional neural networks is proposed for real-time steel strip surface defects recognition. This system directly uses the defect image as input and defect category as output, learns defect features from the training of network, which avoids the separation between feature extraction and image classification.

    11. Austenite Evolution and Solute Partitioning during Thermal Cycling in the Intercritical Range of a Medium-Mn Steel

      Maria-Ioanna Tzini, Panagiota Sarafoglou, Andreas Stieben, Gregory Haidemenopoulos and Wolfgang Bleck

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600050

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      The evolution of austenite volume fraction and solute partitioning during thermal cycling in the intercritical range of a 4.5Mn steel are studied. The evolution of austenite during thermal cycling in the intercritical range comprises of forward, inverse, and stagnant stages. Due to the low diffusivity in austenite, wells form in the composition profiles in austenite of Mn and C.

    12. Anisotropic Compressive Properties and Energy Absorption Efficiency of Porous Twisted Short Fiber Materials

      Fei Wu, Zhaoyao Zhou, Bibo Yao and Zhiyu Xiao

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500475

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      Novel porous twisted short fiber materials (PTSFMs) with spatial composite intertexture structure are produced by compaction following with sintering of twisted short fibers by using a rotary multi-cutter tool to cut steel wire ropes. Porous structures of the PTSFMs exhibit a big difference in the through-thickness and in-plane directions, which results in the anisotropic compressive property and energy absorption efficiency.

    13. Evolution of Non-Metallic Inclusions from FeTi70R Alloys during Alloying of Fe–40Ni–20Cr Steels

      Hans E.O. Kellner, Andrey V. Karasev, Arashk Memarpour and Pär G. Jönsson

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500428

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      To understand how FeTi70R affects Ni-based alloys, the macro inclusions in FeTi70R are investigated. Laboratory experiments are performed to see how these inclusions evolve in the melt and how different parameters affect their evolution. Industrial samples are taken to confirm if these inclusions exist during production and if they affect the quality.

    14. Effect of Pre-Rolling Heat Treatments on the Bond Strength of Cladded Galvanized Steels in a Cold Roll Bonding Process

      Illia Hordych, Dmytro Rodman, Florian Nürnberger, Christian Hoppe, Hans Christian Schmidt, Guido Grundmeier, Werner Homberg and Hans Jürgen Maier

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600021

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      The bond strength of cold-rolled cladded galvanized steel can be increased using a pre-rolling heat-treatment, if a certain amount of brittle compounds is introduced at the interface prior to rolling. The heat treatment can also substitute the typically employed brushing process.

    15. Evaluation of Void Nucleation and Development during Plastic Deformation of Dual-Phase Steel DP600

      Kerim Isik, Gregory Gerstein, Till Clausmeyer, Florian Nürnberger, A. Erman Tekkaya and Hans Jürgen Maier

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500483

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      The evolution of voids in a dual-phase steel, DP600 (containing ferrite matrix and martensite), is investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The specimens prepared by ion beam slope cutting are used to observe small voids (minimum area 0.05 μm2). The quantitative evaluation of the void volume fraction enables the identification of material parameters for a Gurson-type model.

    16. Effect of Hot Rolling on Texture, Precipitation, and Magnetic Properties of Strip-Cast Grain-Oriented Silicon Steel

      Yang Wang, Yuan-Xiang Zhang, Xiang Lu, Feng Fang, Guang-Ming Cao, Cheng-Gang Li, Yun-Bo Xu, R. Devesh Kumar Misra and Guo-Dong Wang

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600009

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      In conventional process, the Goss texture is formed during hot rolling and mainly distributed at subsurface layer. In our study, the hot rolling reduction is limited, and the hot-rolled Goss texture is weak. But the cold rolling process can form Goss texture and distributed homogeneously through the thickness. Thus, the primary annealed sheets had a relatively strong Goss texture.

    17. Microstructure of Non-Metallic Inclusions Identified in Cast Steel 42CrMo4 after Metal Melt Filtration by Novel Foam Filters

      Anja Weidner, Dominik Krewerth, Birgit Witschel, Marcus Emmel, Anne Schmidt, Johannes Gleinig, Olena Volkova, Christos G. Aneziris and Horst Biermann

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500462

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      The complex microstructure of non-metallic inclusions occurring after metal melt filtration using carbon-bonded magnesia and alumina coated carbon-bonded alumina filters is investigated by combined EBSD/EDS measurements. Furthermore, studies on the three-dimensional morphology are performed by deep-etching experiments. The majority of inclusion clusters are of mixed type consisting of alumina, manganese sulfides, mullite, spinel, and TiOx.

    18. Corrosion of Carbon Free and Bonded Refractories for Application in Steel Ingot Casting

      Jens Fruhstorfer, Steffen Dudczig, Patrick Gehre, Gert Schmidt, Nora Brachhold, Leandro Schöttler and Christos G. Aneziris

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600023

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      Alumina and alumina–zirconia–titania matrix materials are corroded stronger than mullite matrix materials. During corrosion of the mullite refractory, a high-viscous melt forms at the steel-refractory interface which retards the further attack. The carbon containing samples are negligibly corroded. Surprisingly, the nanoscaled additives in the carbon containing samples show no influence on the corrosion.

    19. Effects of Coiling Temperature after Hot Rolling on Microstructure, Texture, and Magnetic Properties of Non-Oriented Electrical Steel in Strip Casting Processing Route

      Hai-Tao Liu, Hua-Long Li, Juergen Schneider, Yi Liu and Guo-Dong Wang

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500351

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      Relatively higher temperature of coiling has a similar effect as the conventional hot band normalizing on improving recrystallization microstructure, texture, and magnetic properties. Hence, hot band normalizing might be omitted in the fabrication of high-performance non-oriented electrical steels using the novel and compact strip casting production route.

    20. Reductive Heating Experiments on BOF-Slag: Simultaneous Phosphorus Re-Distribution and Volume Stabilization for Recycling

      Tung-Hsin Su, Huai-Jen Yang, Yu-Chen Lee, Yen-Hong Shau, Eiichi Takazawa, Ming-Fong Lin, Jin-Luh Mou and Wei-Teh Jiang

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500441

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      The reductive heating experiments on the basicity-modified BOF-slag at 1400–1600 °C result in silicate–metal segregation. The phosphorus in C2S is mostly converted to Fe2P in the metal domain. The silicate domain is composed of akermanite and merwinite with low phosphorus contents of »0.1% and absence of volumetrically unstable free-lime; it is, therefore, recyclable.

    21. Effect of Chromium and Water Vapor of Low Carbon Steel on Oxidation Behavior at 1050 °C

      Zhi-Feng Li, Guang-Ming Cao, Yong-Quan He, Zhen-Yu Liu and Guo-Dong Wang

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500429

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      The increase of Cr content in low carbon steel enhances the formation of Cr-enrich layer, which suppresses the ions diffusion and thus reduces the oxidation rate. In wet air, the H2O react with the Cr2O3 in the Cr-enrich layer, resulting in amount of voids. Therefore, the protective ability of Cr-enrich layer is decreased, and the oxidation rate is increased in comparison to dry air.

    22. Effect of Starting Microstructure through Severe Plastic Deformation and Ultra-Rapid Annealing of Low-Carbon Steel

      Mohammad Ali Mostafaei and Mohsen Kazeminezhad

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500474

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      Severe plastic deformation followed by ultra-rapid annealing is performed on the low-carbon steels with different starting microstructures: one microstructure contains carbides and the other contains pearlites. The effects of initial microstructures on the formation of refined final microstructure are discussed on the basis of the interaction between ferrite recrystallization and austenite transformation.

    23. The Novel Technique of Grain Refinement in the Aluminum-Free Ultrahigh Carbon Steel

      Qing Suo Liu, Mei Ju Zhao, Hai Xia Zhang, Na Li, Wei Dong Shi and Jing Wang

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500426

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      For the designed aluminum-free UHCS, the structure can be refined by a simple three-parameter heat-treatment process. The process can suppress the precipitation of large blocky carbide and avoid the formation of pearlitic structure with larger interlamellar spacing. Therefore, the excellent mechanical properties can be obtained for the steel.

    24. A New Tundish Design to Produce a Swirling Flow in the SEN During Continuous Casting of Steel

      Peiyuan Ni, Lage Tord Ingemar Jonsson, Mikael Ersson and Pär Göran Jönsson

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500407

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      A new cylindrical tundish is designed with the aim to produce a swirling flow in SEN. The results show that a swirl flow in the SEN of the new tundish is successfully obtained, with the tangential velocity of 1.6 m s−1 in SEN. The swirl flow phenomena, slag entrainment possibility, and wall shear stress in the new system are investigated.

    25. Residual Stress Simulation for Hot Strip Bimetallic Roll during Quenching

      Nao-Aki Noda, Kejun Hu, Yoshikazu Sano, Katsma Ono and Yusuke Hosokawa

      Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500430

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      The residual stress is investigated for high speed steel bimetallic roll during quenching by FEM elastic-plastic simulation. The optimum residual stress distribution is discussed to minimize the center tensile stress and to produce the surface compressive stress in the range of 200–500 MPa. Predicting the residual stress is realized by changing shell–core ratio, diameter, phase transformation, and material heat treatment process.

    26. Mathematical Modeling of Inclusions Deposition at the Upper Tundish Nozzle and the Submerged Entry Nozzle

      Enif Gutiérrez, Saul Garcia-Hernandez and José de Jesús Barreto

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500422

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      The non-uniform inclusion deposition at the nozzle wall is explained by a numerical and analytical study of the flow patterns inside the nozzle. The results show two zones of high inclusion deposition: at the upper tundish nozzle (UTN) and at the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) ports. Both are identified close to a low static pressure and a high turbulent kinetic energy dissipation zones.

    27. Effect of CaO/SiO2 and Al2O3 on Viscous Behaviors of the Titanium-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag

      Cong Feng, Mansheng Chu, Jue Tang, Yating Tang and Zhenggen Liu

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500355

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      In this study, the viscous behaviors of titanium-bearing BF slag are investigated by rotating spindle method. Then, the effects of CaO/SiO2 and Al2O3 on the viscosity, activation energy for viscous flow, and break point temperature of slag are obtained. Besides, the mechanisms on the variation of viscosity and activation energy for viscous flow are acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    28. Deformation Structure and Recrystallization of Ferritic FeSi Steels

      Jürgen Schneider, Armin Franke, Anett Stöcker and Rudolf Kawalla

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500447

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      The evolution of microstructure and texture after final annealing will be analyzed by metallographic studies and EBSD for ferritic FeSi steels. The obtained experimental results altogether demonstrate clearly the effect of different misoriented substructures after cold rolling due to nonuniform strain, on recrystallization behavior for the ferritic FeSi steels. The deformation structure after cold rolling depends sensitively on the microstructure after hot rolling.

    29. Design Exploration to Determine Process Parameters of Ladle Refining for an Industrial Application

      Rishabh Shukla, Ravikiran Anapagaddi, Amarendra K. Singh, Jitesh H. Panchal, Farrokh Mistree and Janet K. Allen

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500392

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      In industry, ladle refining of steel has a significant impact on the cleanliness and composition of advanced high-strength steel. A model-based design framework is developed to explore the process design space and predict set points to meet given requirements. The method is useful for designing a process with fewer plant trials and can be instantiated for other unit operations, which in turn, helps to reduce the cost and time associated with scaling production from laboratory to industrial scale.

  11. Essay

    1. Research on Metal-Forming Technologies at the TU Bergakademie Freiberg − Practice Oriented and Strongly Material Related

      Wolfgang Lehnert

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600043

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      The article gives an overview on the historical development, specific features, and achievements of research on metal-forming technologies at the Institute of Metal Forming at the TU Bergakademie Freiberg. The institutes focus is mainly on production technologies for long and flat products as well as on bulk metal forming. Specific strengths are the development of resource-efficient process chains and experimental research from laboratory up to near-production pilot scale.

  12. Full Papers

    1. Successful Preheating of Pulverized Hard Coal and Lignite for Blast Furnace PCI

      Frank Splittgerber, Jens Lahr, Nicole Haustein and Bernd Lychatz

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500451

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      In the blast furnace, the conversion in the reaction zone can be increased by preheating injection coals. The aim of this article is to show that an appropriate preheating capacity can be reached by means of the fluidized bed technology. For this purpose, data from pulverized hard coals (PC) and pulverized lignites (PL) are used.

  13. Editorials

    1. 250th Anniversary of TU Bergakademie Freiberg

      Klaus-Dieter Barbknecht

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600044

  14. Full Papers

    1. On the Carbon Solubility in Expanded Austenite and Formation of Hägg Carbide in AISI 316 Stainless Steel

      Thomas L. Christiansen, Kenny Ståhl, Bastian K. Brink and Marcel A. J. Somers

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500415

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      Low-temperature carburizing of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316 leads to formation of expanded austenite. Hägg carbide (χ-M5C2) develops when the carbon content in the expanded austenite exceeds the metastable solubility limit which is 4.74 wt% carbon. This decomposition reaction takes place at temperatures as low as 380 °C. Hägg carbide is transformed into M7C3 carbide upon prolonged thermal exposure.

    2. Finite Element-Based Modeling of Strain Hardening in Metal Forming

      Michael Terhorst, Oksana Ozhoga-Maslovskaja, Daniel Trauth, Patrick Mattfeld and Fritz Klocke

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500375

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      Different forming strategies, e.g., forming with different temperatures or punch velocities, lead to different levels of strain hardening even though the same component geometry is reached. This article proposes a methodology for numerical strain hardening computation for evaluation of different forming strategies.

    3. Particles Precipitation in Ti- and Al-Deoxidized Hadfield Steels

      Dimitrios Siafakas, Taishi Matsushita, Åsa Lauenstein, Sven Ekerot and Anders E. W. Jarfors

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500400

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      The in situ particles precipitation in Ti- and Al-deoxidized Hadfield steel is investigated. The present study explores the type, sequence of formation, and chemical composition as well as the mechanisms behind the in situ formation of particles during traditional deoxidation treatment of Hadfield steels. SEM–EDS and Thermo-Calc are utilized for the analysis.

    4. Low-Cost Grain Oriented Silicon Steels Manufactured by Continuous Annealing

      Yide Jiao, Ping Yang, Ning Zhang and Weimin Mao

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500423

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      Fully secondarily recrystallized structure with magnetic properties of P1.7 = 2.04 W kg−1 and B8 = 1.76 T is obtained at temperature of 1050 °C within 10 min in the condition of two-stage cold rolling. It is proved that new type of grain oriented steels can be produced by continuous annealing, which can replace non-oriented steels used in medium and small size transformers to reduce cost.

    5. Influence of Martensite Fraction on Tensile Properties of Quenched and Partitioned (Q&P) Martensitic Stainless Steels

      Qiuliang Huang, Christina Schröder, Horst Biermann, Olena Volkova and Javad Mola

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500472

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      Q&P-processed Fe–Cr–C, Fe–Cr–C–Co, and Fe–Cr–C–N stainless steels containing various martensite fractions are tensile tested at temperatures between 20 and 200 °C. A higher fraction of martensite increases the tensile strength and the stability of untransformed austenite. The increase in the stability of austenite in turn displaces the temperature associated with maximum tensile elongation to lower temperatures.

    6. Determination of Viscosity for Liquid Fe–Cr–Mn–Ni Alloys

      Tobias Dubberstein, Hans-Peter Heller, Olga Fabrichnaya, Christos G. Aneziris and Olena Volkova

      Version of Record online: 26 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500470

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      The viscosity of liquid Cr–Mn–Ni steel (16% Cr, 7% Mn) alloyed with 3–20% nickel is measured using a vibrating finger viscometer. The variation of viscosity is discussed in the context of nickel content, primary solidification structure, melt coordination number, and the sample superheating according to the calculated liquidus temperatures of the phase diagram.

    7. The Influence of Plastic Deformation on the Corrosion Behavior of a Cast High-Alloy CrMnNi TRIP Steel

      Marcel Mandel, Fabian Böhme, Michael Hauser, Marco Wendler, Friedrich Tuchscheerer and Lutz Krüger

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500406

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      The electrochemical corrosion characteristic of a CrMnNi TRIP steel cast alloy is analyzed in dependence of plastic deformation in a 5 wt% sodium chloride solution. Cyclic voltammetry is carried out and reveals a strong dependency at forward polarization, whereas at reverse scan the behavior is dominated by pitting corrosion.

    8. Effect of Particle Size and Carbide Band on the Flow Behavior of Ferrite–Cementite Steel

      Siming Ma, Xincun Zhuang and Zhen Zhao

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500438

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      Microstructure-based representative volume element (RVE) models are employed for simulating the mechanical properties of steel with ferrite and spheroid cementite phases. Different RVE parameters and microstructure features are investigated for modeling the effect of carbide band. The experimental flow curve is well fitted by RVE simulation considering GND effect. The adverse effects of carbide band are also analyzed.

    9. Measurements of the Velocity of Drops in a Melt Atomization Process Using Particle Image Velocimetry

      Clemens Kirmse and Humberto Chaves

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500360

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      The two-dimensional velocity distribution of ligaments and drops produced by an industrial vacuum inert gas atomization facility is measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The melt jet breaks up into a hollow cone spray at approximately 60 mm from the nozzle. The velocity at this point is in the range of 160 m s–1.

    10. Application of a Modified Stress−Strain Approach for the Fatigue-Life Prediction of a Ferritic, an Austenitic and a Ferritic–Austenitic Duplex Steel under Isothermal and Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue

      Dirk Kulawinski, Roman Kolmorgen and Horst Biermann

      Version of Record online: 11 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500410

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      Isothermal and thermo-mechanical fatigue experiments on three different steels are evaluated to generate fatigue-life descriptions. A modified stress–strain approach including a crack growth change with temperature is introduced. It provided appropriate life predictions within the scatter band of a factor of two for a wide temperature range from 100 to 600 °C for all three steels.

    11. Effect of Rare-Earth Cerium on Impurity Tin-Induced Hot Ductility Deterioration of SA508-III Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel

      Shenhua Song and Shufu Sun

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500425

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      Impurity tin can severely deteriorate the hot ductility of SA508-III reactor pressure vessel steel, but a minor addition of rare-earth cerium can suppress this tin-induced hot ductility deterioration. Grain boundary segregation of tin is mainly responsible for the hot ductility deterioration, whereas the segregation of cerium is mainly responsible for the suppression of the deterioration.

    12. Austenitic Grain Growth Behavior during Austenization in an Aluminum-Alloyed 5% Cr–Mo–V Steel

      Sha-Sha Li, Yao-Hui Liu, Yu-Lai Song, Ling-Nan Kong, Tuan-Jie Li and Ren-Hang Zhang

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500427

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      The austenitic grain growth behavior of an aluminum-alloyed 5% Cr–Mo–V steel has been investigated in a wide range of austenitizing temperatures and holding times. The results indicate that high content of Al addition can significantly accelerate the austenite grain growth, mainly because the high content of Al affected the Zener drag and solute drag on the grain growth.

    13. Characterization of the Acicular Ferrite in Al-Deoxidized Low-Carbon Steel Combined with Zr and Mg Additions

      Yi Min, Xiaobing Li, Zhe Yu, Chengjun Liu and Maofa Jiang

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500440

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      The formation of acicular ferrite in the as-casted microstructures is investigated by adding Zr and Mg into Al-killed low-carbon steel. The nuclei inclusions are identified as Al2O3–MgO–MnS and Al2O3–MgO–ZrO2–MnS multiphase particles with size in the range of 1.5–3.0 μm. These compounds are followed by Al2O3–MgO–ZrO2, Al2O3–MgO, and Al2O3 in decreasing order of effectiveness for acicular ferrite.

    14. A Novel Variable Scale Grid Model for Temperature Self-Adaptive Control: An Application on Plate Cooling Process after Rolling

      Tian Zhang, Qian Xie, Bingxing Wang, Zhiqiang Wu, Zhaodong Wang and Guodong Wang

      Version of Record online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500344

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      An online variable scale grid (VSG) self-adaptive model for cooling temperature control is developed based on distance-weighted method. It can obviously improve the precision of temperature results by considering the effect of influence factors on heat transfer process and increase the calculated efficiency by using meshing and clustering.

    15. Functional Coatings on Carbon-Bonded Ceramic Foam Filters for Steel Melt Filtration

      Enrico Storti, Steffen Dudczig, Marcus Emmel, Paolo Colombo and Christos G. Aneziris

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500446

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      Carbon-bonded ceramic foam filters are dipped in a steel melt at 1650 °C under an oxygen-free argon atmosphere. After only 30 s of immersion, Al2O3–MgO–C filters exhibit a new coating layer consisting of MgAl2O4. A special coating based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes, pre-applied on Al2O3–C filters, improves the collection of endogenous alumina inclusions from the melt.

    16. Induction Heat Treatment of Sheet-Bulk Metal-Formed Parts Assisted by Water–Air Spray Cooling

      Hans-Bernward Besserer, Andrej Dalinger, Dmytro Rodman, Florian Nürnberger, Philipp Hildenbrand, Marion Merklein and Hans Jürgen Maier

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500404

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      By cold bulk forming processes applied to sheet metal, components with massive secondary functional elements can be produced. Due to this three-dimensional cold-forming operations unfavorable tensile residual stresses can remain in the components’ surface area. By induction heat treating and subsequent water–air spray cooling, it is possible to induce compressive residual stress and improve mechanical properties of the workpieces.

    17. Experimental Simulation of Thermally Induced Stresses during Cooling of Continuously Cast Steel Slabs

      Michael Schöbel, Simon Großeiber, Sergiu Ilie and Guillermo Requena

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500369

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      The continuous casting process is established for rapid production of steel slabs. Heterogeneous cooling and deformation of semisolid steel cause problems by superimposed thermal, transformation, and deformation stresses. This work describes an approach in qualifying transformation stress gradients by in situ neutron diffraction. The results might help to improve simulation models and give insights into stress-inducing mechanisms during steel production.

    18. Characterization and Sulfuric Acid Leaching of Ferrochrome Converter (CRC) Dust

      Hannu Tapani Makkonen, Antti Kekki, Eetu-Pekka Heikkinen, Timo Fabritius, Jari Aromaa and Olof Forsén

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500348

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      This paper presents the results of characterization and sulfuric acid leaching of ferrochrome converter (CRC) dust. Take-off of solid particles during charging and ejection of liquid droplets are important formation mechanisms. The effects of mineralogy and microstructure, e.g., the existence of zincite and encapsulation phenomenon, on the hydrometallurgical treatment are evaluated.

    19. Multiple Criteria in a Top Gas Recycling Blast Furnace Optimized through a k-Optimality-Based Genetic Algorithm

      Kaibalya Mohanty, Tamoghna Mitra, Henrik Saxén and Nirupam Chakraborti

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500359

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      The strategy of optimum top gas recycling in a blast furnace is thoroughly examined using a steel plant simulator and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms. Several data-driven cost functions are constructed and simultaneously optimized. The results are expected to be quite useful toward the futuristic design of an efficient and environment friendly blast furnace operation causing a minimum possible environmental CO2 emission.

    20. Behavior of Alkali-Bearing Minerals in Coking and Blast Furnace Processes

      Stanislav S. Gornostayev, Eetu-Pekka Heikkinen, Jyrki J. Heino, Satu M. M. Huttunen and Timo M. J. Fabritius

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500295

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      The behavior of alkali-bearing minerals is characterized from coking coals to feed and blast furnace (BF) coke. Under BF conditions, Na is transferred to molten phase above 1000 °C, while K occurs in leucite until 1434 °C. There are two alkali-bearing phases at the end of the coking process – albite and leucite. The formation of intercalates under BF starts at 1127–1136 °C.

    21. Effect of Holding Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Multiphase Steel

      Zi Yong Hou, Di Wu, Shu Xin Zheng, Xiao Long Yang, Zhuang Li and Yun Bo Xu

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500331

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      The influence of holding temperature on microstructures and mechanical properties of the multiphase steel is investigated by means of electron microscopy and uniaxial tensile test, respectively. The results show the holding temperature is vital for the microstructure, and an excellent combination of strength-ductility of the present multiphase steel is explained in terms of their specific microstructure.

    22. Effect of Strain Rate on Deformation-Induced Martensitic Transformation of Quenching and Partitioning Steels

      Shuhui Li, Danqing Zou, Cedric Xia and Ji He

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500363

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      A deformation induced martensite to austenite transformation kinetic model, which accounts for effect of temperature and strain rate during deformation, is proposed to describe the transformation behavior of Quenching and Partitioning steel under different conditions. The model indicates that the influence of deformation induced heating at quasi-static strain rate on DIMT is obvious. But it is insufficient to explain strain rate dependent DIMT solely.

    23. Effect of Al Content on the Evolution of Non-Metallic Inclusions in Si–Mn Deoxidized Steel

      Xiaofeng Cai, Yanping Bao, Lu Lin and Chao Gu

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500305

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      There are three solid phases Al2O3, SiO2, and 3Al2O3 · 2SiO2 and liquid phase equilibrated with the liquid steel. When the concentration of Si and Al is low, the liquid stability region is wide. SiO2 inclusions may be produced in high Si content while Al2O3 may be produced in a high Al content. The liquid inclusion region narrows as the Si content in molten steel increases.

    24. Optimization of Top Gas Recycle Blast Furnace Emissions with Implications of Downstream Energy

      Rajeev Kumar Sahu, Chandan Halder and Prodip Kumar Sen

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500312

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      A methodology for optimization of Top Gas Recycle Blast Furnace output data has been presented. This paper has used outputs from an existing Top Gas Recycle Blast Furnace model. Both non-linear and linear modeling approaches have been discussed. The focus of the optimization approach is to examine the downstream energy produced under optimal conditions.

    25. Microalloyed Low-Carbon Multiphase Steels

      Volker Flaxa and Sascha Kluge

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500352

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      Increasing forming properties of cold-rolled low carbon multiphase sheet steels by means of microalloying and heat treatment are described. To balance the gap between high strength and high formability ensuring optimal microstructure is essential. The present study shows how to adjust mechanical and technological properties to fit demanding requirements.

    26. Modeling Study of Slag Emulsification During Ladle Change-Over Using a Dissipative Ladle Shroud

      Saul Garcia-Hernandez, Rodolfo D. Morales, Jose de Jesus Barreto, Ismael Calderon-Ramos and Enif Gutierrez

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500299

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      A ladle shroud concept and design to assist in the reduction of slag emulsification in the tundish during ladle change-over operations is studied using modeling techniques for a water–oil–air phase system. The proposed ladle shroud dissipates the turbulent kinetic energy before the water enters the tundish model, promoting low intense mixing patterns; the amount of oil emulsification is reduced significantly.

    27. Comparison Between Segregation of High-Manganese Steels from 2-D Phase-Field Simulations, 1-D Analytical Theories, and Solidification Experiments

      Celso Alves, Joao Rezende and Dieter Senk

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500310

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      The present investigation shows a study comparing the microsegregation from 2-D phase-field simulation with experimental result, 1-D analytical theories and DICTRA® simulation. The focus is on the solidification of a Fe–Mn binary alloy with high manganese content (23 wt%), which is comparable to the manganese content of high manganese steel (HMnS) grades.

    28. Kinetic Study on the Oxidation of Elements in Hot Metal during Vanadium-Extraction Process

      Weijun Huang, Shan Yu, Xiang Shen, Lei Xu, Nan Wang and Min Chen

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500333

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      Based on the mechanism analysis of vanadium extraction from the V-containing hot metal, a kinetic model of elements oxidation during process has been established. The results show that the calculated values according to the models are well consistent with practical measured values of the composition and temperature of the bath.

    29. Study on the Effect of Aging on the Ability of Calcium Carbide for Hot Metal Desulfurization

      Adolfo Firmino Timoteo Condo, David Lindström, Niklas Kojola and Du Sichen

      Version of Record online: 7 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500278

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      Industrial trials and laboratory study were carried out in order to investigate the effect of aging on the ability of CaC2 in hot metal desulfurization. In the laboratory, Ca(OH)2 outer layer was formed by exposing CaC2 in air at a room temperature. Thereafter, the aged CaC2 was employed for desulfurization and the results explain well the industrial findings that storage time of CaC2 within the limit of industrial practice has no appreciable effect on its ability of desulfurization.

    30. Microstructural Characterization and Hardening Mechanism of Steel for Large Size Bearing Ring Under Fast Heating and Short Soaking Time Condition

      Bo Jiang, Zhengqiang Dong, Leyu Zhou, Chaolei Zhang and Yazheng Liu

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500120

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      The effects of Ni and cooling rate on the microstructure changes of steel for large size bearing ring under fast heating and short soaking time condition are analyzed in this article. Besides, the hardening mechanism of the increase in hardness due to the addition of Ni and the increase of cooling rate are also discussed.

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