steel research international

Cover image for Vol. 86 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Online ISSN: 1869-344X


  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 120
  1. Full Papers

    1. Enhancement in the Modeling of Temperature and Strain Rate-Dependent Plastic Hardening Behavior of a Sheet Metal

      Dohyun Leem, Hyuk-Jong Bong, Frederic Barlat, Myoung-Gyu Lee, Jung-Han Song and Daeyong Kim

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500006

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      In this study, viscoplastic hardening behavior of aluminum alloy 3003 sheet is measured and modeled. Three different hardening models are utilized to fit experimental stress–strain data. Evaluation on each model for flow stress prediction convinces that the modified Hollomon/Voce law with additional inline image function improves prediction accuracy.

  2. Research News

    1. Dynamic Magneto-Optical Imaging of Domains in Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel

      Hendryk Richert, Heidemarie Schmidt, Sandra Lindner, Morris Lindner, Benjamin Wenzel, Rocco Holzhey and Rudolf Schäfer

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500013

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      The article presents the use of sensitive magneto-optical indicator film (MOIF) imaging as a comprehensive method for characterizing magnetic domains in grain-oriented electrical steels (GOES). MOIF imaging provides magnetic flux density distribution with a lateral resolution of 25 μm. Most important findings are (i) temporal resolution of 1 ms and (ii) the ability to be used on top of standard isolation layers.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Nitrogen Solubility in High-Manganese Steel Grades

      Dieter Senk, Kevin Christmann, Stephan Geimer and Dominik Rzehak

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400557

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      In this work, the variation of nitrogen content in molten steel is investigated as a function of the manganese content at varied nitrogen partial pressures in atmosphere. Previous works are compared to the experimental results of this study at the Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University. Furthermore, a second order interaction coefficient was determined for nitrogen partial pressures from 60 to 1013 mbar and [Mn] content up to 30 wt%.

    2. Modeling of Microstructure Evolution with Dynamic Recrystallization in Finite Element Simulations of Martensitic Steel

      Thomas Josef Baron, Kirill Khlopkov, Thomas Pretorius, Daniel Balzani, Dominik Brands and Jörg Schröder

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400576

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      A metallurgical material description of the flow behavior for finite element (FE) simulations was developed. During hot compression tests, the dynamic microstructure evolution is modeled on the example of high-strength martensitic steel MS-W 1200. An analysis of the flow behavior identified a strong correlation between the dynamic recrystallization kinetics and the initial microstructure.

    3. Modelling of Crack Initiation in a G42CrMo4 Steel With Non-Metallic Inclusions

      Sebastian Henschel and Lutz Krüger

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400567

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      The effect of non-metallic inclusions on the crack resistance of the cast steel G42CrMo4 is investigated at temperatures of –40 and 20 °C. The crack initiation toughness is described by existing models. Due to the inhomogenous distribution of non-metallic inclusions along the crack front, local characteristics have to be measured for a good estimation of the crack initiation toughness.

    4. A Composite Modeling Analysis of the Deformation Behavior of Medium Manganese Steels

      Radhakanta Rana, Paul J. Gibbs, Emmanuel De Moor, John G. Speer and David K. Matlock

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400577

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      A simple and robust composite model with different assumed flow behaviors for the individual microstructural constituents and stability functions for the metastable austenite is presented and shown to accurately predict the tensile properties of a medium Mn steel. Strategies for controlling austenite fractions and stability in medium Mn steels are also discussed.

    5. Effect of Bainitic Packet Size Distribution on Impact Toughness and its Scattering in the Ductile–Brittle Transition Temperature Region of Q&T Mn-Ni-Mo Bainitic Steels

      Kun Shi, Hong Hou, Jiang-Biao Chen, Ling-Ti Kong, Han-Qian Zhang and Jin-Fu Li

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400596

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      In impact tests of Q&T Mn-Ni-Mo bainitic steels within the ductile-brittle transition temperature region, a critical bainitic packet size exists, when the micro-crack formed in the bainitic packets with a size exceeding it propagates into an adjacent packet, cleavage fracture will occur. Besides, the probability of finding bainitic packets larger than this critical size influences significantly the impact toughness scattering in the DBTT region.

    6. Occurrence Sequence of Deformation-Induced ε-Martensite and Mechanical Twinning in an Fe–17Mn–3Si–0.6C High Manganese Steel

      Renlong Xiong, Shanling Wang, Huabei Peng, Haitao Si and Yuhua Wen

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400383

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      Figure shows the relationship between the critical stress for the mechanical twinning (σT) calculated by Byun model and that for the deformation-induced ε-martensite determined by different proof stresses of the Fe–17Mn–3Si–0.6C steel. The predicted occurrence sequence is in accordance with the experimental result when the critical stress for the deformation-induced ε-martensite is determined by the 0.01% proof stress.

    7. Effect of Nozzle Blockage on Circulation Flow Rate in Up-Snorkel during the RH Degasser Process

      Bohong Zhu, Qingcai Liu, Dong Zhao, Shan Ren, Minren Xu, Baocheng Yang and Bing Hu

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400524

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      Nozzles blockage inside up-snorkel frequently occurs in the actual RH process, this kind of undesirable phenomenon seriously affects the circulation flow rate. Studies show that circulation flow rate changes with the different blockage layers and modalities. This work also investigates the acceptable blockage number based on experiment of water model and numerical simulation.

    8. Effect of Grain Boundary-Magnetic Domain Interaction on the Magnetization Behavior of Non-Oriented Electrical Steels

      Hadi Pirgazi, Roumen H. Petrov and Leo A.I. Kestens

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400608

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      To obtain a better understanding of the interaction between grain boundaries (GBs) and magnetic domains, the density of free magnetic poles at GBs is taken into account. Three-dimensional EBSD experiments were carried out to measure the GB inclination from which the free pole density is derived. Magnetization behavior is more accurately modeled when the GB characteristics are taken into consideration.

    9. Impact Toughness of Medium-Mn Transformation-Induced Plasticity-Aided Steels

      Koh-ichi Sugimoto, Hikaru Tanino and Junya Kobayashi

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400585

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      The impact toughness of 0.2% C–1.5% Si–(1.5–5.0)% Mn (mass%) transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-aided steels with bainitic ferrite and/or martensite structure matrices produced by isothermal transformation process below the martensite start temperature is investigated for automotive body applications. The highest Charpy impact absorbed value and lowest ductile–brittle transformation temperature is achieved in 1.5% Mn steel.

    10. Numerical Investigation of the Free Surface in a Model Mold

      Amjad Asad, Christoph Kratzsch and Rüdiger Schwarze

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400600

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      In the present paper, Numerical simulation is conducted by means of OpenFOAM® with aim to capture the transient behavior of the free surface. The numerical prediction is validated by using recent experimental results, where a good overall agreement is shown. The flow pattern, time-averaged free surface profile and spatio-temporal plots of the meniscus elevation are indicated.

    11. End Temperature Prediction of Molten Steel in LF based on CBR–BBN

      Kai Feng, Dongfeng He, Anjun Xu and Hongbing Wang

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400512

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      Bayesian belief network (BBN) is proposed to evaluate the reliability of cases to revise similarity algorithm in case-based reasoning (CBR) and obtain optimum correction coefficient to improve the control level about the end temperature of molten steel in ladle furnace (LF) refining. The result show that the CBR–BBN has higher prediction accuracy than ordinary CBR and BPNN.

    12. Isothermal Crystallization Study of (2CaO · SiO2–3CaO · P2O5) Solid Solution in the 45 mass% CaO-30 mass% SiO2-20 mass% FeOt-5 mass% P2O5 System at 1623 K

      Senlin Xi and Wanlin Wang

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400582

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      The isothermal crystallization study of the (2CaO · SiO2–3CaO · P2O5) solid solution demonstrates that the phosphorus distribution ratio between the (2CaO · SiO2–3CaO · P2O5) solid solution and the liquid phase during the isothermal crystallization process is increased rapidly during the initial stage from 10 s to 60 s, then it reduces gradually; after 1800 s, it reaches to a steady value.

    13. Development of Mold Flux for Heat-Resistant Alloy Containing Al and Ti

      Wei Yan, Weiqing Chen, Yindong Yang, Carsten Lippold and Alex McLean

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400598

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      Integrated studies from theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments and field trial are conducted to optimize the mold flux for heat-resistant alloy containing Al and Ti. The results present modified mold flux with reduced melting temperature, good lubrication, and low crystalline fraction, promotes heat transfer which enhances thickening and strengthening of the initial shell, all of which contribute to improved slab quality.

    14. Study on Yield Function and Plastic Potential Under Non-Associated Flow for Accurate Earing Prediction in Cup Drawing

      Mariana Paulino and Jeong Whan Yoon

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400566

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      Prediction of more than four ears in a cup drawing process can be successfully achieved by considering flexible combinations of two different yield criteria under the framework of Non-Associated Flow Rule. The use of Hill (1948) model for the yield function and Yld2000-2d for plastic potential is shown to lead to accurate prediction of up to eight ears at alow computational cost.

    15. Microstructure Evolution of a New Dual-Phase Steel via Multi-Pass Compression Deformation in the (α + γ) Region

      Chunling Zhang, Yuting Kong, Mengmeng Zhang, Jinfeng Yang and Dayong Cai

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400526

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      Ferrite grain refinement was prominent at the initial pass deformation, and the average grain size reached 1.8μm after the fifth pass deformation. The LAGBs continuously transformed into HAGBs with increasing strain, and their misorientation increases gradually, thus caused the occurrence of grain refinement. The main refinement mechanism is the DRX of ferrite at the later pass deformation.

    16. Microstructure Development and Mechanical Properties of Low-Silicon-Content TRIP-Assisted Steels after Coiling Process

      Seyed Mohammad Kazem Hosseini, Abbass Zarei-Hanzaki and Steve Yue

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400525

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      Thermomechanical control processing (TMCP) of TRIP-assisted steels is introduced as a potential energy saving alternative to the common processing route of cold-roll and two-stage heat treatment process. The present research indicates that an outstanding balance of strength–ductility can be achieved through development of a multiphase microstructure when it is subject to a typical multi-stages cooling/deformation program followed by short bainitic holding.

    17. Microstructural Evolutions and Properties of Partially Austenitizing and Austempered Ductile Irons

      Jhewn-Kuang Chen, Bi-Ting Chen and Jui-Shen Tsai

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400603

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      The intercritically asutenitized and 673 K austempered ductile iron (ADI) achieves impact energy four times that of the as-cast FCD700 by Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) effect. Its toughness is also superior to that of conventional ADI.

    18. Influence of MgO/Al2O3 Ratio on Viscosity of Blast Furnace Slag With High Al2O3 Content

      Xuefei Zhang, Tao Jiang, Xiangxin Xue and Binsheng Hu

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400523

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      In this paper, the viscosity and break point temperature of SO2−CaO−Al2O3−MgO−TiO2−FeO slag with the MgO/Al2O3 ratio from 0.39 to 0.86 and Al2O3 concentration from 14.84 wt% to 24.84 wt% are studied. According to the isograms of viscosity and break point temperature,a preferential portion of slag constituent for optimal blast furnace operation hasbeen brought out.

    19. Modeling Flow Turbulence in a Continuous Casting Slab Mold Comparing the use of Two Bifurcated Nozzles with Square and Circular Ports

      Ismael Calderón-Ramos, R. D. Morales and María Salazar-Campoy

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400538

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      Turbulence of liquid steel flows in a slab caster mold are studied through physical modeling and mathematical simulations. Velocity spikes at the meniscus are identified by PIV measurements. Flux entrainment is determined by capillary number that includes the velocity spikes. LES simulations and physical modeling measurements observe very good agreement.

  4. Research Articles

    1. Investigation on the Influence of the Arc Region on Heat and Mass Transport in an EAF Freeboard using Numerical Modeling

      Jacqueline C. Gruber, Thomas Echterhof and Herbert Pfeifer

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400513

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      The goal of the CFD- model presented is to investigate the flow field, energy flows and post-combustion within an EAF freeboard (flat-bath phase). The biggest challenge is to model the influence of the electric arc region. The results show the progress achieved so far and the challenges that still have to be overcome.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Viscosity Model for Iron Blast Furnace Slags in SiO2–Al2O3–CaO–MgO System

      Chen Han, Mao Chen, Weidong Zhang, Zhixing Zhao, Tim Evans, Anh V. Nguyen and Baojun Zhao

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400340

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      An improved viscosity model has been developed for blast furnace slag in SiO2–Al2O3–Cao–MgO system. A large number of viscosity data has been collected and critically evaluated for the model optimization. This new model has a reduced number of equations and parameters compared to the original Urbain model. The predictions of this model show lowest deviation in existing viscosity models for blast furnace slags.

    2. Study of the Acid Pickling of Low-Alloyed Steels by Using a Descaling Workstation Simulating the Production Line

      László Péter, Orsolya Sánta, Gabriella Koós, József Földi, Balázs Verő, József Bátonyi, Petra Schwarczenbarth, Kornél Mach, Ibolya Kardos, Gergely G. Gyerák, Balázs Vehovszky and Robert D. Lerner

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400564

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      A laboratory-scale workstation has been constructed to study the acid pickling of steel sheets under conditions that are analogous to the production line. The weight loss due to the scale removal as well as the overpickling rate has been measured for various steel grades. The role of various process parameters like immersion time and pulling rate has been studied.

    3. Influence of Temperature and Tempering Conditions on Thermal Conductivity of Hot Work Tool Steels for Hot Stamping Applications

      Stephan Hafenstein, Ewald Werner, Jens Wilzer, Werner Theisen, Sebastian Weber, Christina Sunderkötter and Mischa Bachmann

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400597

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      The thermal conductivity of hot work tools steels is markedly dependent on the amount of alloying elements solved in the metallic matrix. The thermal conductivity increases with decreasing tempering hardness due to an enhanced depletion of alloying elements in the metallic matrix at higher tempering temperatures.

    4. Element-Free Galerkin Formulation by Moving Least Squares for Internal Energy Balance in a Continuous Casting Process

      Juan C. Álvarez Hostos, Eli S. Puchi Cabrera and Alfonso D. Bencomo

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400352

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      In this work, the mesh-less weak formulation Element-Free Galerkin (EFG) is employed in order to overcome the aforementioned situation. The results have proven the reliability of the EFG method for dealing with the nonlinear heat transfer problem within a continuous casting process.

    5. Post-Deformation Microstructure and Texture Characterization of Fe–18Mn–0.6C–1.5Al TWIP Steel

      Ching-Tun Peng, Mark D. Callaghan and Huijun Li

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400403

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      We investigate the effect of different deformation mechanisms and grain orientation on mechanical twinning in a Fe–18Mn–0.6C–1.5Al TWIP Steel, using microstructure characterization by electron back-scattered diffraction. Samples are deformed in tension and in compression with various strain rates at different strains. Under the same amount of deformation, the less twinning boundaries are disclosed in compression.

    6. Comparative Investigation of Phase Transformation Behavior as a Function of Annealing Temperature and Cooling Rate of Two Medium-Mn Steels

      Katharina Steineder, Reinhold Schneider, Daniel Krizan, Coline Béal and Christof Sommitsch

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400551

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      Two low-carbon medium-Mn steels with a lean Mn-content of 3.5 wt% and a commonly reported one of 5 wt%, respectively, were investigated by means of dilatometry. The microstructural evolution was thoroughly studied (SEM/EBSD/XRD)—focusing on the mechanisms of austenite stabilization.

  6. Communications

    1. Combination of In Situ Microscopy and Calorimetry to Study Austenite Decomposition in Inclusion Engineered Steels

      Wangzhong Mu, Hiroyuki Shibata, Peter Hedström, Pär Göran Jönsson and Keiji Nakajima

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500008

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      The present work provides a combination of in situ confocal laser scanning microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry to study austenite decomposition in inclusion engineered steels. The figure shows the continuous cooling transformation diagram of the steel with Ti2O3 addition. It is noted that the hybrid methodology could provide vital details of solid-state phase transformations within the field of inclusion engineering.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Investigation on Resistance Spot Welding of TWIP Steel Sheets

      Pasquale Russo Spena, Manuela De Maddis, Franco Lombardi and Matteo Rossini

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400336

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      New austenitic high-manganese TWIP steels have been proposed for the fabrication of car-body components, due to their excellent combination of strength and ductility. A widespread usage of TWIP steel grades is conditional on the employment of resistance spot welding to assemble car body components. For this reason, this work aims at investigating the effect of welding parameters on the mechanical and microstructural responses of TWIP weld spots.

    2. Application of MPE Model to Iron Ore Sintering, Ironmaking and Steelmaking Processes

      Chunlin Chen

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400359

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      A short review of the available models and databases in the Multi-Phase Equilibrium (MPE) package developed by CSIRO are outlined in this paper. Some examples on the validation of the model and databases against published experimental data on slag liquidus, sulphur capacity, phosphorus partitioning and viscosity etc. are shown. Finally, a few examples on application of MPE to iron ore sintering, ironmaking and steelmaking are also presented.

    3. Liquid Absorbability of Iron Ores and Large Limonite Particle Divided Adding Technology in the Sintering Process

      Shengli Wu and Guoliang Zhang

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400300

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      The objective of this study is to understand the influence of large icon ore particles on the bonding strength of sinter body. So liquid absorbability reflecting the reaction ability of large icon ore particles with bonding phase is proposed, and LLP-DAS technology is proposed and tested aiming to weak the negative influence of limonite liquid absorbability on the sinter strength.

    4. Investigations of Flow Pattern in the SEN Regarding Different Stopper Rod Geometries

      Björn Greis, Rüdiger Bahrmann, Antje Rückert and Herbert Pfeifer

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400319

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      Due to an ever-increasing demand for product quality, a comprehensive understanding of the flow behavior of molten steel inside the continuous casting process is necessary. In the present study the flow at the SEN entry section is investigated regarding different geometries of the stopper rod tip and varying volume flows as well as the connected influences to the mold flow using a 1:1 water model of a CSP-mold.

    5. Modeling the Effect of Asymmetric Rolling on Mechanical Properties of Al–Mg Alloys

      José Joaquim de Almeida Grácio, Gabriela Vincze, Jeong Whan Yoon, Rui Pedro Ramos Cardoso, Edgar Fernand Rauch and Frédéric Gérard Barlat

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500024

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      The mechanical behaviour of AA5182 produced by conventional rolling (CR), asymmetric rolling-continuous (ASRC) and asymmetric rolling-reversed (ASRR) is investigated and modeled with a rate dependent crystal plasticity finite element method and VPSC model. The strain-based and stress-based formability is predicted by M-K theory combined with Yld2000 model. The new ASRR process preserves the formability and improves strength relatively to CR.

    6. Effect of Mg Addition on the Characterization of γ-α Phase Transformation During Continuous Cooling in Low Carbon Steel

      Xiaobing Li, Yi Min, Chengjun Liu and Maofa Jiang

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400517

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      The influences of Mg on the phase transformation and mechanical properties in low carbon steel were investigated, and the effects of Mg on the pearlite characteristic and the formation of bainite phase have been discussed. It is concluded that the pearlite transformation is delayed and the bainite transformation is promoted by adding 0.0026 %Mg.

    7. Strain Hardening Behavior Prediction Model For Automotive High Strength Multiphase Steels

      Antonella Dimatteo, Valentina Colla, Gianfranco Lovicu and Renzo Valentini

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400544

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      The requirement of new steel grades for auto-body in order to reduce weight, save energy and improve safety leads to the production of advanced steel grades. The study analyses the flow curves of DP and TRIP steels through a strain hardening prediction . The chosen interpolating formula shows a very effectively reproduction of both the stress-strain curve and its derivative.

    8. Numerical Investigation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Phenomenon Inside a Single Strand Tundish of Slab Caster

      Anurag Tripathi, Anil Kumar, Satish Kumar Ajmani, J. B. Singh and Vinay V. Mahashabde

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400530

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      The current work investigates different aspects of well-shaped bottom tundish. The results obtained shows that well-shaped bottom tundish produces better performance as compared to tundishes having flat bottom. It is also noticed that throughput effect(between 2 and 3.5 tonnes min−1) on flow characteristics of this tundish will not be significant and will only lead to change in theoretical residence time.

    9. Influences of Microstructure Characteristics on Forming Limit Behavior of Dual Phase Steels

      Thipwipa Sirinakorn, Sawitree Sodjit and Vitoon Uthaisangsuk

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400584

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      Micromechanics based RVE models were applied to predict failure occurrences in various DP microstructures by considering plastic strain instability. Influences of morphologies and properties of constituent phases on localization were discussed with regard to governing stress states. Higher strain gradients in DP microstructures with lower MPF could lead to local high work-hardening rates that resulted in delayed localization.

    10. Heat Transfer Symmetry of the Strip Surface Due to Agroup Oblique Slot Jet Impingement After Hot Rolling

      Jianhui Shi, Guo Yuan, Lianyun Jiang, Zhenlei Li, Kuo Zhao and Guodong Wang

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400529

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      The heat transfer symmetry of single group oblique slot jet impingement for the flow and geometric parameters is investigated numerically using the CFD code. The numerical calculations are performed for 96 combinations, and the results provide a certain reference for improving the stability and uniformity of micro heat transfer during the high strength cooling process.

    11. Influence of Cold Work on Pitting Corrosion and Cavitation Erosion of High Interstitial FeCrMnCN Austenites

      Philipp Niederhofer, Sabine Siebert, Stephan Huth, Werner Theisen and Hans Berns

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400381

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      High interstitial austenitic stainless steels offer a unique combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Their mechanical properties can even be improved by cold working. In this study, different FeCrMnCN alloys are investigated by means of pitting corrosion and cavitation testing. The results show higher cavitation resistance and no significant deterioration of corrosion properties due to the prestraining.

    12. New Developments in Martensitic Stainless Steels Containing C + N

      M. Seifert, S. Siebert, S. Huth, W. Theisen and H. Berns

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400503

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      This paper deals with alloying of martensitic stainless steels with nitrogen. At atmospheric pressure boiling of the melt has to be avoided. A primary ferritic solidification lowers the soluble N-content which can be estimated by Thermo-Calc®. Alloying with other elements can be helpful to prevent primary ferritic solidification. This may lead to a new processing route called ausformingThis paper presents the research on thermodynamic analysis of dephosphorization process and establishment of the multi-level recursive regression model for the prediction of end-point phosphorus content during BOF steelmaking process. The verification with the data taken from three steel plants indicates that the hit rate of the model is above 84% when predictive errors of the model are within ±0.005%.

    13. κ-Phase Formation in Fe–Mn–Al–C Austenitic Steels

      Wenwen Song, Wei Zhang, Jörg von Appen, Richard Dronskowski and Wolfgang Bleck

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400587

      We report the recent study on the κ-phase precipitation in Fe–Mn–Al–C austenitic steels by a combined approach of ab initio theoretical calculations and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results show that the long-range ordered κ-phase already starts precipitating from the austenitic matrix as early as 15 min during aging at 600 °C in Fe-30Mn-8Al-1.2C steel. Up to 9 h aging, the lattice misfit between the κ-phase and the austenite matrix still maintains being very small (less than 2%) which may lead to an effective coherent precipitation hardening.

    14. Online Monitor and Control of Cooling Temperature on Run-out Table of Hot Strip Mill

      Hai-Jun Li, Li-Gang Li, Yong-Lin Li and Guo-Dong Wang

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400269

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      The progression of the strip temperature on run-out cooling table can only be measured at a few positions due to the difficult ambient conditions. Taking values easily measured, such as finishing temperatures FDT, strip velocity, acceleration rate, value actual on/off status, etc. as auxiliary variables, online monitor function of cooling temperature on run-out table of hot strip mill is developed using soft-sensing technique in this work. With help of this online monitor function, a new control method is put forward to eliminate the effect of velocity disturbance on strip temperature on run-out cooling table.

    15. Phase Equilibria of Fluoride-Free Boracic Mould Flux for Steel Continuous Casting

      Yaru Cui, Lin Wang, Jian Yang, Jianqiang Zhang, Yasushi Sasaki and Oleg Ostrovski

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400354

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      This paper analyzes phase composition of fluoride-free mould fluxes containing B2O3, TiO2, Na2O, and MgO using the thermochemical software FACTSage. The phase equilibria of these boracic mould fluxes calculated are in reasonable agreement with the experimental phase characterization results and therefore can provide the guidance for boracic flux composition selection.

    16. Manufacture of Gradient Microstructures of Magnesium Alloys Using Two-Stage Extrusion Dies

      Yeong-Maw Hwang, Tze-Hui Huang and Sergei Alexandrov

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400571

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      A two-stage extrusion die with a straight channel part and a conical part as shown in the figure is designed to manufacture gradient microstructures of magnesium alloys. Hot extrusion experiments with a die of an inclination angle of 150 are conducted to obtain a product with grain sizes of 17 µm at the center and 4 µm at the edge of the product.

    17. Numerical and Physical Simulations of a Combined Top-Bottom-Side Blown Converter

      Xiaobin Zhou, Mikael Ersson, Liangcai Zhong and Pär G. Jönsson

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400376

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      A cavity is formed due to the momentum from the top jets in the bath of the top-bottom-side blown converter. A horizontal flow resulting from side blowing is produced and this is expected to stir the regions formed by bottom blowing to enhance the agitation of the bath.

    18. A Study of Cluster Characteristics in Liquid Stainless Steel and in a Clogged Nozzle

      Diana Janis, Andrey Karasev, Ryo Inoue and Pär G. Jönsson

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400316

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      Clusters of Al2O3 inclusions in a liquid stainless steel and in a clogged ZrO2 nozzle after casting are studied during a pilot plant trial. It is found that most of the Al2O3 inclusions (>80%) are transformed from a spherical into regular (with sharp edges) shape after 6 min of holding time. While the sizes of inclusions in the clogged nozzle and liquid steel are similar, the frequency of spherical inclusions in the clogged nozzle is 2–4 times larger compared to that in the melt.

    19. Improvement of HAZ Toughness of Steel Plate for High Heat Input Welding by Inclusion Control with Mg Deoxidation

      Jian Yang, Longyun Xu, Kai Zhu, Ruizhi Wang, Lejun Zhou and Wanlin Wang

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400313

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The effect of Mg content on the evolution behavior of inclusions in the steel plates with Mg deoxidation is investigated based on the experimental studies and thermodynamic calculations. The HAZ toughness of steel plates after welding with heat input of 400 kJ cm is greatly improved by inclusion control with Mg deoxidation.

    20. Densification Process of MgO Bearing Pellets

      Fengman Shen, Qiangjian Gao, Guo Wei, Xin Jiang and Yansong Shen

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400372

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The densification process of MgO bearing pellets are investigated. MgO addition has a negative effect on the densification process of pellets. With the addition of MgO bearing additive from 0 to 2.0 %, the pore size and porosity of product pellets increases gradually, and the densification ratio of pellets decreases from 46.3 to 28.6%.

    21. Effect of Stirring Practice on Sulphur and Nitrogen Refining as well as Inclusion Removal in Ladle Treatment

      Charlotte Médioni, Pär G. Jönsson and Du Sichen

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400501

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The effect of different stirring conditions during ladle treatment on the steel cleanliness is studied. The results shows that vacuum degassing increases the amount of inclusions larger than 10 μm and that subsequent induction stirring suggests a possible positive effect on the inclusion removal. A shortening of the vacuum degassing time from 24 to 15 min does not affect the nitrogen refining and sulfur refining substantially. (The figure shows the VTD station.

    22. 2D Springback and Twisting of Ultra-Thin Stainless Steel U-Shaped Parts

      Cong Hanh Pham, Sandrine Thuillier and Pierre-Yves Manach

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400569

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The aim of this work is to investigate numerically the springback and twisting of U-shaped elongated parts made of ultra-thin stainless steel after deep drawing, and to compare with an experimental database. In order to enhance twisting, the blank is set in a misaligned position with respect to the tools. Finite element simulations for different mesh sizes are carried out.

    23. Effect of Cerium on Characteristic of Inclusions and Grain Boundary Segregation of Arsenic in Iron Melts

      Wenbin Xin, Bo Song, Mingming Song and Gaoyang Song

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400332

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This paper investigates the effect of Ce on the composition, formation mechanism of arsenious rare earth inclusions and arsenic segregation to grain boundary. The results indicate that the types of arsenious inclusions are mainly Ce-S-O+Ce-S-As and Ce-S-As+Ce-As complex inclusion and the Ce-As type inclusion is the CeAs phase formed during solidification. Furthermore, adding Ce prevents grain boundary segregation of arsenic.

    24. Coalescence Characteristics of Supersonic Jets From Multi-Nozzle Oxygen Lance in Steelmaking BOF

      Mingming Li, Qiang Li, S. B. Kuang and Zongshu Zou

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400506

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The coalescence characteristics of supersonic jets from the multi-nozzle oxygen lance in BOFs are investigated by numerical simulations with respect to ambient temperature, nozzle inclination angle and number under various operational conditions. The critical condition where the jets are not interacted with each other is identified, and the possible impinging modes and splashing patterns in the molten bath are predicted.

    25. CFD Modeling of a Supersonic Top Blown Lance in a CAS-OB Process: Development of Gas Heat and Mass Transfer Correlation

      Aki Kärnä, Mika P. Järvinen and Timo Fabritius

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400206

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A series of CFD simulations are created to determine heat and mass transfer coefficients for supersonic impinging jet in the CAS-OB process. The flow model is first adjusted and validated with available experimental data. The resulting correlations are important in calculating chemical reactions in process modeling software.

    26. Effect of Mo on Nano-Precipitation Behavior and Microscopic Mechanical Characteristics of Ferrite

      Yang Xu, Ming-Xue Sun, Yan-Lei Zhou, Zhen-Yu Liu and Guo-Dong Wang

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400310

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This paper investigates the effects of Mo addition on phase transformation, precipitation behavior and the mechanical properties of ferrite on a micro and nano scale. The experimental results indicate that Mo could refine ferrite, nano-precipitates and sheet spacing. The values of nanohardness for Nb-Ti-Mo steel and Nb-Ti steel are 4.41 and 4.13 GPa, respectively.

    27. Study on Desulfurization Ability of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 and CaO–CaF2 Slags at 1600 °C

      Xin Hao, Xinhua Wang and Wanjun Wang

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400401

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The desulfurization abilities of CaO-Al2O3-10% SiO2 and CaO–CaF2 slags used in secondary refining process are studied and compared under the same experimental conditions in a vacuum induction furnace at 1600 °C. The desulfurization mechanism is proposed through thermodynamic analysis using FactSage 6.4. Industrial experiments are also conducted to confirm the mechanism.

    28. Toward CFD Modeling of Slag Entrainment in Gas Stirred Ladles

      Ao Huang, Harald Harmuth, Marianne Doletschek, Sandra Vollmann and Xuezhi Feng

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400373

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this work, an optimized CFD model developed on the analytical framework for boundary conditions identification is applied for LES simulations of slag entrainment and agrees well with physical model experiments. It can be employed in CFD modeling of slag entrainment in gas stirred ladles with respect to predicting critical purging conditions, and further slag/steel and refractory/slag mass transfer.

    29. Numerical Analysis of Coupled Turbulent Flow and Macroscopic Solidification in a Round Bloom Continuous Casting Mold with Electromagnetic Stirring

      Bingzhi Ren, Dengfu Chen, Hongdan Wang and Mujun Long

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400178

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A 3D mathematical model was developed and applied to study the electromagnetic field, turbulent flow and macroscopic solidification in a round bloom mold with rotary electromagnetic stirrer. The research shows that the calculated rotational motion weakens significantly when solidification is taken into account, and the steady flow will become unstable accompanying bias flow with the increase of stirring intensity.

    30. In-Situ Study of Crystallization Behavior of a Mold Flux Using Single and Double Hot Thermocouple Technique

      Jian Yang, Yaru Cui, Lin Wang, Yasushi Sasaki, Jianqiang Zhang, Oleg Ostrovski and Yoshiaki Kashiwaya

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400346

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Crystallization behavior of a mold flux for low carbon steel casting is investigated using SHTT and DHTT. CCT and TTT diagrams indicate that the critical cooling rate is 7 °C s−1 and the shortest incubation time is 15 s at 1000 °C. DHTT experiment suggests that the mold flux will establish a three-layer structure – glassy layer, crystalline layer and liquid layer in continuous casting operation.

    31. Processing Map and Hot Deformation Characteristics of 21Cr-11Ni-N-RE Lean Austenitic Heat-Resistant Steel

      Lei Chen, Hongyan Xue, Xiaocong Ma, Miao Jin, Hongjun Long, Tianqiao Mao and Jianfeng Wang

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400545

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hot deformation behavior of 21Cr-11Ni-N-RE steel is investigated. Processing maps, hot deformation equation and prediction modeling of peak stress and strain are obtained. Optimum hot working domain is at 1423–1473 K and 1–10 s−1 because complete DRX occurs. Flow instability (at 1173–1223 K and 1–10 s−1) caused by twinning bands of flow localization and localized kinking should be avoided.

    32. Corrosion Resistance of the Welded Joint of Submarine Pipeline Steel with Ferrite Plus Bainite Dual-Phase Microstructure

      YiPeng Wang, XiuRong Zuo and JinLing Li

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400309

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this work, we have studied corrosion resistance of welded joint of X65 submarine pipeline steel with ferrite plus bainite dual-phase microstructure. We have also finished the pitting diameter statistics and analyze the forming mechanism of pitting corrosion induced by inclusion. Finally, the reason of the difference in corrosion resistance are studied, from the view of microstructure.

    33. Study of Lattice Strain Evolution in Stainless Steel Under Tension: The Role of Self-Consistent Plasticity Model

      X. Q. Guo, P. D. Wu, H. Wang and X. B. Mao

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400570

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The recently developed large strain elastic visco-plastic self-consistent (EVPSC) model, with various popular self-consistent schemes, is used to study the lattice strain evolution in a stainless steel under uniaxial tension. It is found that, among the self-consistent schemes examined, the Affine and Meff self-consistent schemes give the best results.

    34. Fully coupled numerical analysis of high frequency induction heating and warm sheet metal forming

      Jong Han Park, Jong Bong Kim and Keun Park

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400580

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study concerns warm forming of aluminum alloy sheets with the aid of high frequency induction heating. To validate the rapid and localized heating capability of induction heating, an electromagnetic-thermal coupled simulation is performed. A thermo-mechanical coupled analysis is then conducted to investigate the effect of the localized induction heating on the formability improvement of aluminum alloys.

    35. Optimal Control Algorithm for Continuous Casting Process by Using Fuzzy Logic

      Tomas Mauder, Cenek Sandera and Josef Stetina

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400213

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      3D numerical model of temperature field for continuous casting was created and verified. The coupling optimization-numerical approach for increasing the quality of casting steel is proposed. The optimization algorithm is based on fuzzy logic. The results show good efficiently, robustness, and general applicability.

  8. Communications

    1. Study on Extraction of Iron From Chromite

      Qing Zhao, Chengjun Liu, Bo Zhang, Maofa Jiang, Jie Qi, Henrik Saxén and Ron Zevenhoven

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400521

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This work demonstrated the feasibility of extraction of iron from chromite by carbothermic reduction and hydrochloric acid leaching. A chromite concentrate containing nearly 52% of Cr2O3% was finally prepared, and 71.3% of the iron was extracted as a magnetite by-product. Moreover, Cr/Fe ratio of chromite was increased from 1.7 to 5.8 in this study.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Effect of Si and Ce Contents on the Nozzle Clogging in a REM Alloyed Stainless Steel

      Erik Roos, Andrey Karasev and Pär Göran Jönsson

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400344

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Effect of cerium and silicon contents on the nozzle clogging in a REM-alloyed stainless steel is investigated during casting of pilot trials with low (<0.5%), middle (≈0.8−1.4%) and high (≈1.5−1.9%) silicon concentrations . It is found that the nozzle clogging drastically increases at the total concentrations of Si ≥1.5% and Ce ≥0.05% in the casted steel. Overall, concentration of soluble Ce in the casted steel larger than 250 ppm leads to fast nozzle clogging.

    2. Tensile Properties of Sheet Metals at Intermediate Strain Rates with Pre-Strain

      Seok Bong Kim and Hoon Huh

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400250

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Dynamic tensile tests were conducted to obtain the tensile properties of sheet metals for auto-body at intermediate strain rates ranged from 1 to 100 s−1 with the pre-strain of 2-10%. The flow stress does not trace the unique stress-strain curve according to the pre-strain at intermediate strain rates. This paper proposes a flow stress model for a pre-strained sheet metal to accurately describe the stress-strain curve.

    3. The Influence of Swirl Flow on the Flow Field, Temperature Field and Inclusion Behavior when Using a Half Type Electromagnetic Swirl Flow Generator in a Submerged Entry and Mold

      Ying Yang, Pär G. Jönsson, Mikael Ersson, Zhijian Su, Jicheng He and Keiji Nakajima

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400330

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      It can be seen that the inclusions separation to the meniscus increases when using a swirl flow. Moreover, it is observed that for the two half type cases (44000 and 88000 AT), the inclusion removal ratios are a little bit higher than for the full type case (44000 AT). However, for the no-swirl flow case, most of the inclusion removal ratios occur within the order of 1%. In addition, the period of “Float up at meniscus” is from 0 to 60 s for both the no-swirl flow case and all swirl flow cases (half type 44000, 88000 AT, and full type 44000 AT).

    4. Application of FEG-SEM and EBSD Methods for the Analysis of the Restoration Processes Occurring During Continuous Annealing of Dual-Phase Steel Strips

      Krzysztof Radwański

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400361

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      The paper presents results of the investigation aimed at the identification and qualitative and quantitative characterization of changes occurring in the structure of cold rolled DP steel during annealing in temperature range 600–700 °C. The investigation is conducted mostly by means of SEM combined with EBSD method. The mechanisms of processes leading to subgrains formation related to static recovery as well as to the processes connected with formation and growth of new grains in the examined material are described.

    5. A Novel Approach for Utilization of Ultra-Fines Iron Ore in Sintering Process

      Elsayed A. Mousa, Alexander Babich and Dieter Senk

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400368

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The utilization of mini-pellets in the sintering process becomes necessary to cope the ultra-fine iron ore generation. The present studyinvestigated the effect mini-pellets on the sintering performance. The ultra-fines iron ore were pelletized (4–9 mm) and cured with a novel CO2. The influence of cured and uncured mini-pellets on the efficiency of the sintering process is intensively studied.

    6. Springback Reduction in Tailor Welded Blank with High Strength Differential by Using Multi-Objective Evolutionary and Genetic Algorithms

      Ngoc-Trung Nguyen, Krishnaswamy Hariharan, Nirupam Chakraborti, Frédéric Barlat and Myoung-Gyu Lee

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400263

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A non-constant blank holder force (BHF) approach giving different BHF-punch stroke profiles on two sides of a tailor-welded blank (TWB) is applied to minimize springback deformation and forming severity. This lead to a bi-objective optimization problem whose trade-off solutions of the two conflicting objectives are then computed by the Predator-Prey Genetic Algorithm.

    7. Material Flow Analysis of CO2 Emissions from Blast Furnace and Basic Oxygen Furnace Steelmaking Systems in China

      Wenqing Xu, Wanjie Cao, Tingyu Zhu, Yinjiao Li and Bin Wan

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400228

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The inline image of each process varies significantly in China. As for the highest percentage of parts, the inline image of blast furnace iron making is the most of all process; however, the inline image of casting is the least. The inline imagein the same process is affected to a greater extent by firm size than by the main production equipment scale in China.

    8. A robust prediction method of surface deflection using stoning simulation and curvature analysis

      Wan-Jin Chung, Yun-Chan Chung and Woo-Sung Kim

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400581

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      This work proposes a new robust prediction method that uses stoning simulation and curvature analysis sequentially. First, for reliable detection of surface deflection, stoning simulation was utilized. Next, for the accurate quantification, curvature analysis with adaptive span was applied. In a shallow rectangular drawing with inner rectangular embossing, the reliable detection and the accurate quantification of surface deflection is demonstrated.

    9. Characterization of Coal Burnout in the Raceway of an Ironmaking Blast Furnace

      Yansong Shen and Aibing Yu

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400333

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      This paper confirms that rather than coal burnout at the end of coal plume in the raceway that was widely used in the past, coal burnout calculated over the whole raceway surface is a more reliable indicator representing coal combustion efficiency in the raceway, and cannot be replaced by the former. It should be employed in the future when examining the combustibility of specific coals under blast furnace conditions.

    10. Exploration of Straw Fiber as Reducing Agent Utilization in Rotary Hearth Furnace Process for Direct Reduced Iron Production

      Hongliang Han, Dongping Duan and Peng Yuan

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400382

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Compared with common reducing agents, strawfiber has better reduction effect, and straw fiber carbon-containing pellets possess higher compressive strength and larger volumetric shrinkage. So straw fiber can be used in the rotary hearth furnace process for direct reduced iron production, and it is beneficial to increase the thickness of the whole material layer in rotary hearth furnace.

    11. Numerical Analysis of Temperature Distribution and Its Optimization for Thin Foils in Micro Deep Drawing Assisted by Resistance Heating

      Qiu Zheng, Tetsuhide Shimizu and Ming Yang

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400574

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Finite element models for the numerical analysis of micro deep drawing process assisted by resistance heating are developed. Coupled thermal-electrical procedure and coupled thermal-displacement dynamic explicit procedure are conducted for the analysis of temperature distribution and material deformation, respectively. The process parameters are optimized to obtain uniform temperature distribution. The influence of temperature distribution on material deformation is discussed.

    12. Experimental Study on Burden Descending Behavior in COREX Shaft Furnace with AGD Beams

      Heng Zhou, Zhigou Luo, Zongshu Zou, Tao Zhang and Yang You

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400237

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This work is focused on investigating burden descending behavior in a new-design COREX shaft furnace. The effects of operational parameters on solid flow pattern are examined. The influence of Areal Gas Distribution (AGD) beams on burden descending behavior is also evaluated. The investigation reveals that the AGD beams affect the solid flow significantly and lead to poor adaptability of furnace to abnormal operations.

    13. Strongly Nonlinear Dynamics of Torsional Vibration for Rolling Mill's Electromechanical Coupling System

      Shuang Liu, Baoping Sun, Shuangshuang Zhao, Jianxiong Li and Wenming Zhang

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400216

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A torsional vibration model of rolling mill main drive system driven by salient pole synchronous motor is established with the electromechanical coupling effect taken into account. The periodic solutions of the strongly nonlinear torsional vibration system are obtained by using the IHB method. The effects of different electrical and mechanical parameters on the system amplitude-frequency property and vibration displacement characteristics are analyzed.

    14. High-Temperature Phase Stability of 9Cr–W–Ta–V–C Based Reduced Activation Ferritic–Martensitic (RAFM) Steels: Effect of W and Ta Additions

      Ravi Kirana, Subramanian Raju, Rengachari Mythili, Saroja Saibaba, Tammana Jayakumar and Ellappan Rajendra Kumar

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400183

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Knowledge based approach to designing power plant steels calls for accurate information on high temperature phase & microstructural stability. In the present study, Dynamic Calorimetry, Electron Microscopy, together with Thermodynamic Simulations, have been carried out to rationalize the observed high temperature phase phase transformation behaviour of W and Ta added Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) Steel.

    15. Characterization of Low Cycle Fatigue Performance of New Ferritic P92 Steel at High Temperature: Effect of Strain Amplitude

      Xiaowei Wang, Jianming Gong, Yanping Zhao, Yanfei Wang and Minghao Yu

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400246

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Influence of strain amplitude on the low cycle fatigue behavior of P92 steel is studied. Continuous cyclic softening can be divided into three stages. Prediction of the low cycle fatigue life is performed based on a modified life prediction model and the newly adopted lifetime end criterion. The stress-strain hysteresis loops at different strain amplitudes are also modeled based on time-independent cyclic plasticity model.

  10. Full Paper

    1. Interaction Between Deformation-Induced and Thermal Martensite in High-Manganese TRIP Steel

      Haiyan Yang, Jing Li and Ping Yang

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400297

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In-situ observation and EBSD reveal the interaction of deformation-induced and thermal martensite which is manifested by the formation means of deformation-induced α′-M. Two means exist: nucleation in the intersection of two thin ε-M plates and direct growth of existing thermal α′-M in thick ε-M plates. Good content consistency exists between thermal and deformation-induced martensite which quantitatively demonstrate the interaction between the two.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Melting Properties and Viscosity of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3 System

      Lin Wang, Yaru Cui, Jian Yang, Chen Zhang, Dexiang Cai, Jianqiang Zhang, Yasushi Sasaki and Oleg Ostrovski

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400353

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this paper, the melting properties and viscosity of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3 fluxes are measured with a mass ratio of CaO/SiO2 from 0.83 to 1.5 and B2O3 concentration from 5 to 9 wt%; flux viscosity is described using modified NPL model. The results of this investigation will provide basis for further development of fluorine-free boracic mould fluxes.

    2. Numerical Simulation of Single Argon Bubble Rising in Molten Metal Under a Laminar Flow

      Yonggui Xu, Mikael Ersson and Pär Jönsson

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400355

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The fundamental aspects of rising argon bubbles in molten metal for a laminar flow are investigated by numerical simulations. The bubbling dynamics inside the liquid phase is studied in terms of the bubble's trajectory, shape and terminal velocity over a wide range of bubble diameters. Furthermore, simulations of jet droplets formation at the interface are qualitatively analyzed.

    3. Effect of Size Distribution of Coke Breeze on Sintering Performance

      Mingshun Zhou, Shufeng Han, Lin Wang, Xin Jiang, Libing Xu, Liwei Zhai, Jie Liu, Hui Zhang, Xili Qin and Fengman Shen

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400262

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In case of practical sinter production, the time of high temperature zone (+1200 °C) is relatively lower, thermocouple 1 and thermocouple 2 are 170 and 330 s, respectively. While in case of maximum tumble strength, they are 190 and 370 s, respectively. Therefore, the effect of coke breeze size on the sintering temperature profile is the essential for sintering performances.

    4. Numerical Analysis of Titanium Compounds in Blast Furnace Hearth During Titania Addition

      Keisuke Matthew Komiyama, Bao-Yu Guo, Habib Zughbi, Paul Zulli and Ai-Bing Yu

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400305

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The addition of titania into the Blast Furnace may promote Ti-rich scaffolds along the damaged hearth lining. A Computational Fluid Dynamics model is used to investigate the solid particles formation behavior in the hearth during titania addition. Results show the profile of the particle rich layer along the hearth bottom matches well with the equilibrium temperature isotherm of the incoming hot metal solution.

    5. Corrosion Investigation of Duplex Stainless Steels in Chlorinated Solutions

      Mohaddeseh Kahram, Majid Asnavandi, Pramod Koshy and Charles Christopher Sorrell

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400293

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Failed 2205 duplex stainless steel bolts and nuts received from industry and failure analysis is done. Crevice corrosion and pitting are the main reasons of damages. Corrosion behavior of 2205 stainless steel in chlorinated seawater is also studied.

    6. Effect of Tempering Temperature on Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of 5% Cr Steel via Electro-Slag Casting

      Jian Liu, Hao Yu, Juan Wang, Tao Zhou and Chenghao Song

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400358

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      This paper investigates the effect of tempering temperature on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of the novel 5% Cr steel processed by electro-slag casting which can be a candidate material as components in blast furnace top gas recovery turbine unit. The results indicate that the microstructure and carbides which precipitated during tempering have a strong effect on the mechanical properties.

    7. Comparing the Hot Ductility Behaviour of Low-Carbon Microalloyed Nb-V-Ti Steels During Two Thermal Cycling Routes: Solutionizing and Precipitation Treatments

      Mohamed Lamine Fares, Abderrazek Darsouni and Jean Le Coze

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400339

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The hot ductility behavior of V-Nb-Ti steel is investigated in wrought and cast conditions after two thermal cycles (i.e., solutionizing and precipitation treatments). The results, in terms of ductility trough, show difference due to distinct micromechanisms that occur prior and after tensile testing at various temperatures and strain rates. A relationship between these results and the ensuing embrittlement is attempted.

    8. Influence of Alloying Elements, Heat Treatment, and Temperature on the Thermal Conductivity of Heat Treatable Steels

      Jens Wilzer, Jakob Küpferle, Sebastian Weber and Werner Theisen

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400294

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      This work deals with the thermal conductivity of non-alloyed steel C45 and corrosion resistant steel X42Cr13. Tempering affects both the electronic and the phononic contribution to thermal conductivity. Furthermore, thermal conductivity of steel X42Cr13 increases with temperature, which can be traced back to the electronic contribution. These results are useful for the development and improvement of tool steels.

    9. Effect of Oxidizing Slag on Cleanliness of IF Steel during Ladle Holding Process

      Yiming Qin, Xinhua Wang, Linping Li and Fuxiang Huang

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400349

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      By comparing the differences of slag composition, steel composition and inclusion morphology between two processes of different slag oxidability, the effect of oxidizing slag on cleanliness of IF steel production during ladle holding process is investigated. A attempt is made to determine which parameters, such as (CaO)/(Al2O3), (T.Fe) etc., can be adjusted to improve the cleanliness of molten steel during ladle holding process.

    10. Influence of Coke Reactivity on Softening-Melting Dropping Behavior of Iron-Bearing Burden

      Biyang Tuo, Jianli Wang, Yanli Yao and Junjie Yang

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400314

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The influences of the different reactivity cokes on softening-melting dropping of iron-bearing burden are studied. With the rise of coke reactivity, ΔT1 of iron-bearing burden increases, while ΔT2 and ΔT3 reduce, charge column permeability improves and the SMDV is decreased.

    11. Effect of Glaze on the Corrosion Behavior of ZrO2–Graphite Insert of the Submerged Entry Nozzle in the Continuous Casting of Steel

      Anup Kumar, Rita Khanna, Muhammad Ikram-ul-Haq, John Spink and Veena Sahajwalla

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400266

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      This work highlights the importance of compositional control and coating thickness of the glaze material on the ZrO2–graphite refractory insert in submerged entry nozzles (SEN). The degradation of the partially stabilized ZrO2 grains starts during pre-heating itself due to the formation of reaction products. Corrosion in later stages is caused by the fragmentation of the aggregate phase and structural damage.

    12. Reduction Process of Pellet Containing High Chromic Vanadium–Titanium Magnetite in Cohesive Zone

      Jianxing Liu, Gongjin Cheng, Zhenggen Liu, Mansheng Chu and Xiangxin Xue

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400212

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      This paper discusses the softening and melting characteristics, peripheral textures, microstructure of internal core and phase transition of valuable components (Fe, V, Ti, and Cr) of pellet containing high chromic vanadium–titanium magnetite in the cohesive zone of the BF. The Ti(C,N), VN, VC, and FeCr2O4 can be generated in the reduction process.

    13. Flow and Solidification in Billet Continuous Casting Machine with Dual Electromagnetic Stirrings of Mold and the Final Solidification

      Dongbin Jiang and Miaoyong Zhu

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400281

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      Coupling the electromagnetic field, fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification, a 3D numerical model is developed to simulate the billet continuous casting process of high carbon steel with dual electromagnetic stirrings in the this paper. The calculation results help us to understand the fluid flow and solidification during the strand solidification.

    14. Direct Numerical Simulation of Inclusion Cluster Floating Behavior in Molten Steel Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

      Yao Wang, Hong Li, Luofang Guo, Xiaonan Yu and Bao Zhou

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400192

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      A three-dimensional fractal structure model is introduced to quantify the morphology of inclusion clusters, and the floating behavior of different inclusion clusters is simulated directly using lattice Boltzmann method to investigate the effect of morphology on the floating velocity. By introducing the fractal dimension, an equation for the floatation velocity of cluster-shaped inclusions is derived from the simulation results.

    15. Precipitation Characteristics in a Low-Carbon Vanadium–Titanium-Bearing Steel

      Jun Chen and Guo-Dong Wang

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400275

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      The precipitation hardening attracts more and more researchers' attentions due to its higher strengthening effect and relatively lower brittle vector. The objective of the present work is to investigate the chemical composition, crystal structure, and lattice parameter of nanometer-sized carbides in a low-carbon vanadium–titanium-bearing steel and the orientation relationships between precipitates and ferrite matrix using transmission electron microscope.

    16. Numerical, Physical, and Industrial Studies of Liquid Steel Chemical Homogenization in One Strand Tundish with Subflux Turbulence Controller

      Adam Cwudziński

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400207

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      The object of investigation is an one-strand slab tundish. For the set zone of alloy feeding, numerical simulations, laboratory experiments (with a physical water model), and industrial experiments are carried out. The hybrid pulse-step method for introduction of an alloy addition to liquid steel is developed. In the tundishes with STC and dam, a reduction in mixing time is noted.

  12. Technical Notes

    1. Microalloying Effect on the Activation Energy of Hot Deformation

      Moo-Young Seok, In-Chul Choi, Yakai Zhao, Dong-Hyun Lee, Jung-A. Lee and Jae-il Jang

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400255

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      In this study, through a series of hot compression tests of four different microalloyed steels, we systematically explore the influences of Nb, V, Ti, and Mo on the Q and have directly compared the effect of each element in a quantitative manner.

  13. Full Papers

    1. Numerical Simulation of Flow-Induced Wall Shear Stresses in Three Different Shapes of Multi-Strand Steelmaking Tundishes

      Md Irfanul Haque Siddiqui and Pradeep Kumar Jha

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400217

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      Numerical investigation of the effect of three different tundish shapes, i.e., boat, T-shape, and V-shape on generation of wall shear stress are carried out. Average wall shear stress value is maximum for V-shape tundish as compared to other two configuration tundishes. Similarity in variation of wall shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy is observed at different walls.

    2. Mathematical Modeling of Nitrogen Removal from the Vacuum Tank Degasser

      Shan Yu, Jyrki Miettinen, Lei Shao and Seppo Louhenkilpi

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400093

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      This paper is focused on predicting nitrogen removal from the vacuum degasser specially taking into account the multi-component effect of steel composition. An integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed. Two operating diagrams are obtained to give the correlations between chemical reaction rate constant, initial nitrogen content, and final nitrogen content in liquid steel.


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