steel research international

Cover image for Vol. 89 Issue 1

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Online ISSN: 1869-344X


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  1. Full Papers

    1. Establishing a Novel Methodology to Correlate the Macroscopic and Microscopic Degree of Sintering in Magnetite Pellets during Induration

      Telkicherla Kamesh Sandeep Kumar, Martin Simonsson, Nurni Neelakanta Viswanathan, Hesham Ahmed, Charlotte Andersson, Abdel-Hady A. El-Geassy and Bo Björkman

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700366

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      Sintering degree is an important quality parameter for pellets during induration. A novel methodology is developed, in this study, to estimate the sintering degree microscopically in a quantitative manner using the distance transform on mosaic optical microstructures of the pellet. Correlations are established with the sintering degree determined at macroscopic levels.

  2. Communications

    1. The Influence of Continuous Cooling Rate on Nano-Precipitation Behavior of a Ti-Bearing Steel undergone Hot Deformation

      Fengqin Ji, Chengning Li, Wenwen Song and Guodong Wang

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700361

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      In the hot deformed steel, interphase precipitation and random precipitation occur even in the same ferrite grain at low cooling rate, and only random precipitates exist at higher cooling rate. Interphase precipitation prefers to occur in the final transformation stage.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Microstructural Evolution and Dynamic Partitioning Behavior in Quenched and Partitioned Steels

      Yun-Jie Li, Dong Chen, Xiao-Lei Li, Jian Kang, Guo Yuan, R. Devesh Kumar Misra and Guo-Dong Wang

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700326

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      This work investigates the direct quenching and partitioning processes in low carbon steel. The volume fraction of retained austenite and the hardness are stable at quenching temperature of 240–320 °C. The Q&P processing window is first discussed and an appropriate processing window of coiling temperature between 200 and 320 °C plus low cooling rate less than 0.1 °C s−1 is proposed.

    2. Keyword

      Analysis of the Alkali Flow in Ironmaking Reactors by a Thermochemical Approach: Blast Furnace

      Anton Pichler, Franz Hauzenberger, Johannes Schenk, Hugo Stocker and Christoph Thaler

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700303

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      Alkalis are generally known as harmful elements for ironmaking processes. To get knowledge about the alkali streams, an alkali model is developed. Connected with an empiric slag zone and a multi stage model, the stable alkali compounds are calculated by a thermochemical program. The alkali-bearing streams show the distribution and enrichment in specific furnace areas. Additionally, a modification of the model is done to investigate the influence of chlorine and fluorine.

    3. Influence of TiO2 on the Viscosity of a High Alumina Slag and on Carbon Brick Corrosion

      Ren Ze Xu, Jian Liang Zhang, Ru Ye Ma, Ke Xin Jiao and Yong An Zhao

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700353

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      The slag viscosity increases with the decreasing temperature and decreases with the addition of TiO2. It can be considered that TiO2 may behave as a network modifier in the present system and the addition of TiO2 could promote to simplify the slag network structures, consequently reducing the viscosity of the slags.

    4. Keyword

      Enhancing Strength of Nanolaminate 1045 Steel Prepared by Aluminothermic Reaction through Multiple Warm Rolling

      Zhengning Li, Fuan Wei, Peiqing La and Jie Sheng

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700304

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      In this paper, the nanolaminate pearlite 1045 steel is rolled at 600 °C with different thickness reduction. The nanolaminate cementites are crushed gradually with the increase of thickness reduction, and the dislocation density increases gradually, meanwhile the tensile strength is improved greatly. It possess the key combination of three characteristics-namely, high density dislocation, nanolamination, and second-phase particles.

    5. Solidification Behavior of CaO–SiO2–Al2O3 Mold Fluxes Containing MgO and Low TiO2 Content Using Single Hot Thermocouple Technique (SHTT): Continuous-Cooling-Transformation (CCT) and Viscosity Analysis

      Daniel dos Reis Silva, Antônio Cezar Faria Vilela, Nestor Cezar Heck, Hans-Peter Heller and Olena Volkova

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700246

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      The effect of the MgO and low TiO2 addition on the crystallization behavior and viscosity of the CaO–SiO2–Al2O3 mold flux is investigated by means of SHTT and rotating viscometer. Break temperatures (Tbr) are compared to the onset crystallization temperatures from CCT experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis are used to determine crystalline phases.

    6. Inclusion Characteristics and Acicular Ferrite Nucleation in Ti-Containing Weld Metals of X70 Pipeline Steel

      Bingxin Wang, Xianghua Liu and Guodong Wang

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700316

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      This paper investigates the correlation of potential of acicular ferrite nucleation and phase constituents characteristics of inclusions. The results show formation of a considerable amount of spinel causes strong Mn enrichment in the inclusions, resulting in the development of Mn-depleted zone in matrix around the inclusions, which enhances the capability of inclusions nucleating intragranular acicular ferrite.

    7. Effects of Mo Content on Low-Angle Misorientation Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of YS 550 MPa-Grade Steels for Offshore Structures

      In Kim, Myungjin Lee, Yoonsuk Choi and Namhyun Kang

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700278

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      This paper presents the effect of Mo content on mechanical properties and low-angle misorientation microstructure related to low temperature toughness of YS 55 MPa grade steel for offshore structures. The relationship between tensile/yield strength and charpy toughness at −60 °C has been researched by microstructural view. As the Mo content increases, the fraction of BF with high-dislocation density and low-angle misorientation increases, therefore increasing strength and decreasing the toughness.

    8. keyword

      A Method to Estimate the Microstructures of Low-Alloy Cold-Rolled TRIP Steels

      Bo Fu, Xiaoyang Sun, Wangyue Yang, Longfei Li and Zhenye Zhao

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700309

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      A simple method to predict the microstructures of cold-rolled TRIP steels is founded. This method is based on simulations and calculations of two-step heat treatment processes with Thermo-Calc and DICTRA. Relationship between heat treatment parameters and final microstructures of TRIP steels are established through the method. Thus, optimization of microstructures for TRIP steels can be realized without amounts of experiments by using this method.

    9. Keyword

      HAZ Properties of Nb Microalloyed High Strength Pipeline Steels

      Jörg Wiebe, Wolfgang Scheller and Charles Stallybrass

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700252

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      An experimental investigation is carried out in which the niobium content of low carbon laboratory heats is varied between 0.02 and 0.105%. These heats are thermo-mechanically rolled to a wall thickness of 25 mm and subsequently used for double submerged arc welding trials. It is found that high levels of toughness in the heat-affected zone can be reached regardless of the Nb content up to high values of 0.105%.

    10. Implications of Accelerated Solidification Rates Seen in Belt Casting on Precipitation in Nb Bearing Steels

      Carl Slater, Andrii Kostryzhev, Olexandra Marenych and Claire Davis

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700358

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      This paper highlights the implications that increasing the solidification rate (such as those seen in near net shape casting) has on the precipitation kinetics of high strength low alloy steel (Nb bearing steel). Due to the high microsegregation and the reduced back diffusion seen in the near net-shape castings, Nb precipitates are formed much sooner in the steel making process, and therefore at higher temperatures. This leads to fewer but larger precipitates.

    11. Co-Precipitation Behavior of MnS and AlN in a Low-Carbon Steel

      Martin Lückl, Tomasz Wojcik, Erwin Povoden-Karadeniz, Sabine Zamberger and Ernst Kozeschnik

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700342

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      In the present work, the simultaneous precipitation of MnS and AlN particles in low-carbon steel and their effect on hot ductility is investigated. This co-precipitation behavior is studied by hot tensile tests, transmission electron microscopy, as well as accompanying thermokinetic simulations with the software package MatCalc.

    12. Keyword

      Rolling Temperature Tailoring of Nanocrystalline Phases and Tensile Properties of Exceptional Nanocrystalline/Microcrystalline 316L Stainless Steel

      Miwen Yuan, Yijun Han, Peiqing La, Fuan Wei and Fuliang Ma

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700263

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      When being rolled at the temperature of 873 K with the 70% thickness reduction, 316L stainless steels obtain a typical bimodal structure and achieves a super balance of high strength and considerable ductility (σ0.2 = 702 MPa, EL. = 20%). The nano grains fraction of approximately 50% is the optimized structure for bimodal grain size 316L stainless steel.

    13. On the Cobalt − Tungsten/Chromium Balance in Martensitic Creep Resistant Steels

      Hao Yu, Wei Xu and Sybrand van der Zwaag

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700320

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      In this work, the newly designed creep steels strengthened by Laves phase and M23C6 are computationally compared with existing Co-containing creep steels. The effect of Co element on the characteristics of Laves phase and M23C6 in new steels, in particular the volume fraction, coarsening rate, and precipitation strengthening factor is explored systematically. The binary analyses of Co–M balance are also investigated.

    14. Behavior of Spot Segregation in Continuously Cast Blooms and the Resulting Segregated Band in Oil Pipe Steels

      Yuan Ji, Peng Lan, Hao Geng, Qian He, Chengjia Shang and Jiaquan Zhang

      Version of Record online: 5 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700331

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      Microscopic dendritic morphology and spot segregation in round blooms produced by different intensities of M-EMS are investigated to elucidate their effect on the segregated bands in hot-rolled steel pipes. According to the experimental results, enlarging the columnar zone and minimizing the center equiaxed crystal zone are effective to reduce the spot segregation and decrease the occurrence of the segregated bands.

    15. Clarification of the Dissolution of Solid CaO and the Phosphorus-Enrichment Capability of Calcium Silicates in the Multiphase Slag Based on the Ion and Molecule Coexistence Theory

      Senlin Xie, Wanlin Wang, Daoyuan Huang, Hongchao Li and Yong Du

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700317

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      An ion and molecule coexistence theory based on the thermodynamic model has been developed in this article. According to the calculated mass action concentration of the related structural units, the reaction mechanism between solid CaO and the liquid slag in the multi-phase slag is explained, and the phosphorus-enrichment capability of calcium silicates is probed.

    16. Formation Mechanism of Complex Oxide Inclusions in 55SiCr Spring Steels

      Yang Liu, Ying Zhang, Lifeng Zhang, Ying Ren, Ping Shen and Yan Luo

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700277

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      In the current study, the complex oxides are extracted from steel samples with different methods. Based on the wettability between the molten steel, solid MgO inclusions and liquid inclusions, a mechanism for the formation of complex oxides is suggested, that is, the solid core is wrapped by liquid inclusions in the molten steel.

    17. Effect of the Fluid-Dynamic Structure on the Mixing Time of a Ladle Furnace

      Renato González-Bernal, Gildardo Solorio-Diaz, Angel Ramos-Banderas, Enrique Torres-Alonso, Constantin A. Hernández-Bocanegra and Roberto Zenit

      Version of Record online: 25 SEP 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700281

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      Fluid Dynamics Structure (FDS) in an agitated Ladle Furnace (LF) by gas bottom injection, plays a key role to homogenize steel bath when ferroalloys are released during steel refining operations. Experimental observation shows that inclusive increasing gas flow rate for a single injection does not diminish the mixing time parameter.

    18. Modeling MIDREX Based Process Configurations for Energy and Emission Analysis

      Sidhartha Sarkar, Rahul Bhattacharya, Gour Gopal Roy and Prodip Kumar Sen

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700248

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      A natural gas (NG) based MIDREX shaft model has been developed for prediction of energy and emissions. Alternative fuels to MIDREX shaft namely Coke Oven Gas and Syngas from coal gasification have also been examined. Processing of parallel streams of NG-MIDREX-EAF and BF-BOF for crude steel production appears to have a potential to reduce emissions at identical energy consumption as BF-BOF route.


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