steel research international

Cover image for Vol. 86 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Online ISSN: 1869-344X

  1. Full Papers

    1. Isothermal Crystallization Study of (2CaO · SiO2–3CaO · P2O5) Solid Solution in the 45 mass% CaO-30 mass% SiO2-20 mass% FeOt-5 mass% P2O5 System at 1623 K

      Senlin Xie and Wanlin Wang

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400582

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      The isothermal crystallization study of the (2CaO · SiO2–3CaO · P2O5) solid solution demonstrates that the phosphorus distribution ratio between the (2CaO · SiO2–3CaO · P2O5) solid solution and the liquid phase during the isothermal crystallization process is increased rapidly during the initial stage from 10 s to 60 s, then it reduces gradually; after 1800 s, it reaches to a steady value.

    2. Development of Mold Flux for Heat-Resistant Alloy Containing Al and Ti

      Wei Yan, Weiqing Chen, Yindong Yang, Carsten Lippold and Alex McLean

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400598

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      Integrated studies from theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments and field trial are conducted to optimize the mold flux for heat-resistant alloy containing Al and Ti. The results present modified mold flux with reduced melting temperature, good lubrication, and low crystalline fraction, promotes heat transfer which enhances thickening and strengthening of the initial shell, all of which contribute to improved slab quality.

    3. Study on Yield Function and Plastic Potential Under Non-Associated Flow for Accurate Earing Prediction in Cup Drawing

      Mariana Paulino and Jeong Whan Yoon

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400566

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      Prediction of more than four ears in a cup drawing process can be successfully achieved by considering flexible combinations of two different yield criteria under the framework of Non-Associated Flow Rule. The use of Hill (1948) model for the yield function and Yld2000-2d for plastic potential is shown to lead to accurate prediction of up to eight ears at alow computational cost.

    4. Microstructure Evolution of a New Dual-Phase Steel via Multi-Pass Compression Deformation in the (α + γ) Region

      Chunling Zhang, Yuting Kong, Mengmeng Zhang, Jinfeng Yang and Dayong Cai

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400526

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      Ferrite grain refinement was prominent at the initial pass deformation, and the average grain size reached 1.8μm after the fifth pass deformation. The LAGBs continuously transformed into HAGBs with increasing strain, and their misorientation increases gradually, thus caused the occurrence of grain refinement. The main refinement mechanism is the DRX of ferrite at the later pass deformation.

    5. Microstructure Development and Mechanical Properties of Low-Silicon-Content TRIP-Assisted Steels after Coiling Process

      Seyed Mohammad Kazem Hosseini, Abbass Zarei-Hanzaki and Steve Yue

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400525

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      Thermomechanical control processing (TMCP) of TRIP-assisted steels is introduced as a potential energy saving alternative to the common processing route of cold-roll and two-stage heat treatment process. The present research indicates that an outstanding balance of strength–ductility can be achieved through development of a multiphase microstructure when it is subject to a typical multi-stages cooling/deformation program followed by short bainitic holding.

    6. Microstructural Evolutions and Properties of Partially Austenitizing and Austempered Ductile Irons

      Jhewn-Kuang Chen, Bi-Ting Chen and Jui-Shen Tsai

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400603

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      The intercritically asutenitized and 673 K austempered ductile iron (ADI) achieves impact energy four times that of the as-cast FCD700 by Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) effect. Its toughness is also superior to that of conventional ADI.

    7. Influence of MgO/Al2O3 Ratio on Viscosity of Blast Furnace Slag With High Al2O3 Content

      Xuefei Zhang, Tao Jiang, Xiangxin Xue and Binsheng Hu

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400523

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      In this paper, the viscosity and break point temperature of SO2−CaO−Al2O3−MgO−TiO2−FeO slag with the MgO/Al2O3 ratio from 0.39 to 0.86 and Al2O3 concentration from 14.84 wt% to 24.84 wt% are studied. According to the isograms of viscosity and break point temperature,a preferential portion of slag constituent for optimal blast furnace operation hasbeen brought out.

    8. Modeling Flow Turbulence in a Continuous Casting Slab Mold Comparing the use of Two Bifurcated Nozzles with Square and Circular Ports

      Ismael Calderón-Ramos, R. D. Morales and María Salazar-Campoy

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400538

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      Turbulence of liquid steel flows in a slab caster mold are studied through physical modeling and mathematical simulations. Velocity spikes at the meniscus are identified by PIV measurements. Flux entrainment is determined by capillary number that includes the velocity spikes. LES simulations and physical modeling measurements observe very good agreement.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Investigation on the Influence of the Arc Region on Heat and Mass Transport in an EAF Freeboard using Numerical Modeling

      Jacqueline C. Gruber, Thomas Echterhof and Herbert Pfeifer

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400513

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      The goal of the CFD- model presented is to investigate the flow field, energy flows and post-combustion within an EAF freeboard (flat-bath phase). The biggest challenge is to model the influence of the electric arc region. The results show the progress achieved so far and the challenges that still have to be overcome.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Viscosity Model for Iron Blast Furnace Slags in SiO2–Al2O3–CaO–MgO System

      Chen Han, Mao Chen, Weidong Zhang, Zhixing Zhao, Tim Evans, Anh V. Nguyen and Baojun Zhao

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400340

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      An improved viscosity model has been developed for blast furnace slag in SiO2–Al2O3–Cao–MgO system. A large number of viscosity data has been collected and critically evaluated for the model optimization. This new model has a reduced number of equations and parameters compared to the original Urbain model. The predictions of this model show lowest deviation in existing viscosity models for blast furnace slags.

    2. Study of the Acid Pickling of Low-Alloyed Steels by Using a Descaling Workstation Simulating the Production Line

      László Péter, Orsolya Sánta, Gabriella Koós, József Földi, Balázs Verő, József Bátonyi, Petra Schwarczenbarth, Kornél Mach, Ibolya Kardos, Gergely G. Gyerák, Balázs Vehovszky and Robert D. Lerner

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400564

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      A laboratory-scale workstation has been constructed to study the acid pickling of steel sheets under conditions that are analogous to the production line. The weight loss due to the scale removal as well as the overpickling rate has been measured for various steel grades. The role of various process parameters like immersion time and pulling rate has been studied.

    3. Influence of Temperature and Tempering Conditions on Thermal Conductivity of Hot Work Tool Steels for Hot Stamping Applications

      Stephan Hafenstein, Ewald Werner, Jens Wilzer, Werner Theisen, Sebastian Weber, Christina Sunderkötter and Mischa Bachmann

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400597

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      The thermal conductivity of hot work tools steels is markedly dependent on the amount of alloying elements solved in the metallic matrix. The thermal conductivity increases with decreasing tempering hardness due to an enhanced depletion of alloying elements in the metallic matrix at higher tempering temperatures.

    4. Element-Free Galerkin Formulation by Moving Least Squares for Internal Energy Balance in a Continuous Casting Process

      Juan C. Álvarez Hostos, Eli S. Puchi Cabrera and Alfonso D. Bencomo

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400352

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      In this work, the mesh-less weak formulation Element-Free Galerkin (EFG) is employed in order to overcome the aforementioned situation. The results have proven the reliability of the EFG method for dealing with the nonlinear heat transfer problem within a continuous casting process.

    5. Post-Deformation Microstructure and Texture Characterization of Fe–18Mn–0.6C–1.5Al TWIP Steel

      Ching-Tun Peng, Mark D. Callaghan and Huijun Li

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400403

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      We investigate the effect of different deformation mechanisms and grain orientation on mechanical twinning in a Fe–18Mn–0.6C–1.5Al TWIP Steel, using microstructure characterization by electron back-scattered diffraction. Samples are deformed in tension and in compression with various strain rates at different strains. Under the same amount of deformation, the less twinning boundaries are disclosed in compression.

    6. Comparative Investigation of Phase Transformation Behavior as a Function of Annealing Temperature and Cooling Rate of Two Medium-Mn Steels

      Katharina Steineder, Reinhold Schneider, Daniel Krizan, Coline Béal and Christof Sommitsch

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400551

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      Two low-carbon medium-Mn steels with a lean Mn-content of 3.5 wt% and a commonly reported one of 5 wt%, respectively, were investigated by means of dilatometry. The microstructural evolution was thoroughly studied (SEM/EBSD/XRD)—focusing on the mechanisms of austenite stabilization.

  4. Communications

    1. Combination of In Situ Microscopy and Calorimetry to Study Austenite Decomposition in Inclusion Engineered Steels

      Wangzhong Mu, Hiroyuki Shibata, Peter Hedström, Pär Göran Jönsson and Keiji Nakajima

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500008

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      The present work provides a combination of in situ confocal laser scanning microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry to study austenite decomposition in inclusion engineered steels. The figure shows the continuous cooling transformation diagram of the steel with Ti2O3 addition. It is noted that the hybrid methodology could provide vital details of solid-state phase transformations within the field of inclusion engineering.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Investigation on Resistance Spot Welding of TWIP Steel Sheets

      Pasquale Russo Spena, Manuela De Maddis, Franco Lombardi and Matteo Rossini

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400336

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      New austenitic high-manganese TWIP steels have been proposed for the fabrication of car-body components, due to their excellent combination of strength and ductility. A widespread usage of TWIP steel grades is conditional on the employment of resistance spot welding to assemble car body components. For this reason, this work aims at investigating the effect of welding parameters on the mechanical and microstructural responses of TWIP weld spots.

    2. Application of MPE Model to Iron Ore Sintering, Ironmaking and Steelmaking Processes

      Chunlin Chen

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400359

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      A short review of the available models and databases in the Multi-Phase Equilibrium (MPE) package developed by CSIRO are outlined in this paper. Some examples on the validation of the model and databases against published experimental data on slag liquidus, sulphur capacity, phosphorus partitioning and viscosity etc. are shown. Finally, a few examples on application of MPE to iron ore sintering, ironmaking and steelmaking are also presented.

    3. Liquid Absorbability of Iron Ores and Large Limonite Particle Divided Adding Technology in the Sintering Process

      Shengli Wu and Guoliang Zhang

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400300

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      The objective of this study is to understand the influence of large icon ore particles on the bonding strength of sinter body. So liquid absorbability reflecting the reaction ability of large icon ore particles with bonding phase is proposed, and LLP-DAS technology is proposed and tested aiming to weak the negative influence of limonite liquid absorbability on the sinter strength.

    4. Investigations of Flow Pattern in the SEN Regarding Different Stopper Rod Geometries

      Björn Greis, Rüdiger Bahrmann, Antje Rückert and Herbert Pfeifer

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400319

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      Due to an ever-increasing demand for product quality, a comprehensive understanding of the flow behavior of molten steel inside the continuous casting process is necessary. In the present study the flow at the SEN entry section is investigated regarding different geometries of the stopper rod tip and varying volume flows as well as the connected influences to the mold flow using a 1:1 water model of a CSP-mold.