steel research international

Cover image for Vol. 87 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Online ISSN: 1869-344X

  1. Full Papers

    1. Effect of CaO/SiO2 and Al2O3 on Viscous Behaviors of the Titanium-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag

      Cong Feng, Mansheng Chu, Jue Tang, Yating Tang and Zhenggen Liu

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500355

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      In this study, the viscous behaviors of titanium-bearing BF slag are investigated by rotating spindle method. Then, the effects of CaO/SiO2 and Al2O3 on the viscosity, activation energy for viscous flow, and break point temperature of slag are obtained. Besides, the mechanisms on the variation of viscosity and activation energy for viscous flow are acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    2. Deformation Structure and Recrystallization of Ferritic FeSi Steels

      Jürgen Schneider, Armin Franke, Anett Stöcker and Rudolf Kawalla

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500447

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      The evolution of microstructure and texture after final annealing will be analyzed by metallographic studies and EBSD for ferritic FeSi steels. The obtained experimental results altogether demonstrate clearly the effect of different misoriented substructures after cold rolling due to nonuniform strain, on recrystallization behavior for the ferritic FeSi steels. The deformation structure after cold rolling depends sensitively on the microstructure after hot rolling.

  2. Communications

    1. Investigation of Simulation Parameters for Flash-Reduced Forging of Two-Cylinder Crankshafts

      Bernd-Arno Behrens, Malte Stonis, Thoms Blohm, Tilmann Rüther and Gürbüz Güzey

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500279

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      Flash-reduced forging enable a cost-efficient industrial forging for crankshafts with flashless preforming and a conventional final forging with flash. To increase the forecast quality of simulations for future process design, the conventional forging is simulated and compared with industrial forging trials. With this information a new, more efficient forging sequence can be developed.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Design Exploration to Determine Process Parameters of Ladle Refining for an Industrial Application

      Rishabh Shukla, Ravikiran Anapagaddi, Amarendra K. Singh, Jitesh H. Panchal, Farrokh Mistree and Janet K. Allen

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500392

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      In industry, ladle refining of steel has a significant impact on the cleanliness and composition of advanced high-strength steel. A model-based design framework is developed to explore the process design space and predict set points to meet given requirements. The method is useful for designing a process with fewer plant trials and can be instantiated for other unit operations, which in turn, helps to reduce the cost and time associated with scaling production from laboratory to industrial scale.

  4. Essay

    1. Research on Metal-Forming Technologies at the TU Bergakademie Freiberg − Practice Oriented and Strongly Material Related

      Wolfgang Lehnert

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600043

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      The article gives an overview on the historical development, specific features, and achievements of research on metal-forming technologies at the Institute of Metal Forming at the TU Bergakademie Freiberg. The institutes focus is mainly on production technologies for long and flat products as well as on bulk metal forming. Specific strengths are the development of resource-efficient process chains and experimental research from laboratory up to near-production pilot scale.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Successful Preheating of Pulverized Hard Coal and Lignite for Blast Furnace PCI

      Frank Splittgerber, Jens Lahr, Nicole Haustein and Bernd Lychatz

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500451

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      In the blast furnace, the conversion in the reaction zone can be increased by preheating injection coals. The aim of this article is to show that an appropriate preheating capacity can be reached by means of the fluidized bed technology. For this purpose, data from pulverized hard coals (PC) and pulverized lignites (PL) are used.

  6. Editorials

    1. 250th Anniversary of TU Bergakademie Freiberg

      Klaus-Dieter Barbknecht

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600044

  7. Full Papers

    1. On the Carbon Solubility in Expanded Austenite and Formation of Hägg Carbide in AISI 316 Stainless Steel

      Thomas L. Christiansen, Kenny Ståhl, Bastian K. Brink and Marcel A. J. Somers

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500415

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      Low-temperature carburizing of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316 leads to formation of expanded austenite. Hägg carbide (χ-M5C2) develops when the carbon content in the expanded austenite exceeds the metastable solubility limit which is 4.74 wt% carbon. This decomposition reaction takes place at temperatures as low as 380 °C. Hägg carbide is transformed into M7C3 carbide upon prolonged thermal exposure.

    2. Finite Element-Based Modeling of Strain Hardening in Metal Forming

      Michael Terhorst, Oksana Ozhoga-Maslovskaja, Daniel Trauth, Patrick Mattfeld and Fritz Klocke

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500375

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      Different forming strategies, e.g., forming with different temperatures or punch velocities, lead to different levels of strain hardening even though the same component geometry is reached. This article proposes a methodology for numerical strain hardening computation for evaluation of different forming strategies.

    3. Particles Precipitation in Ti- and Al-Deoxidized Hadfield Steels

      Dimitrios Siafakas, Taishi Matsushita, Åsa Lauenstein, Sven Ekerot and Anders E. W. Jarfors

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500400

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      The in situ particles precipitation in Ti- and Al-deoxidized Hadfield steel is investigated. The present study explores the type, sequence of formation, and chemical composition as well as the mechanisms behind the in situ formation of particles during traditional deoxidation treatment of Hadfield steels. SEM–EDS and Thermo-Calc are utilized for the analysis.

    4. Low-Cost Grain Oriented Silicon Steels Manufactured by Continuous Annealing

      Yide Jiao, Ping Yang, Ning Zhang and Weimin Mao

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500423

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      Fully secondarily recrystallized structure with magnetic properties of P1.7 = 2.04 W kg−1 and B8 = 1.76 T is obtained at temperature of 1050 °C within 10 min in the condition of two-stage cold rolling. It is proved that new type of grain oriented steels can be produced by continuous annealing, which can replace non-oriented steels used in medium and small size transformers to reduce cost.

    5. Influence of Martensite Fraction on Tensile Properties of Quenched and Partitioned (Q&P) Martensitic Stainless Steels

      Qiuliang Huang, Christina Schröder, Horst Biermann, Olena Volkova and Javad Mola

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500472

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      Q&P-processed Fe–Cr–C, Fe–Cr–C–Co, and Fe–Cr–C–N stainless steels containing various martensite fractions are tensile tested at temperatures between 20 and 200 °C. A higher fraction of martensite increases the tensile strength and the stability of untransformed austenite. The increase in the stability of austenite in turn displaces the temperature associated with maximum tensile elongation to lower temperatures.

    6. Determination of Viscosity for Liquid Fe–Cr–Mn–Ni Alloys

      Tobias Dubberstein, Hans-Peter Heller, Olga Fabrichnaya, Christos G. Aneziris and Olena Volkova

      Version of Record online: 26 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500470

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      The viscosity of liquid Cr–Mn–Ni steel (16% Cr, 7% Mn) alloyed with 3–20% nickel is measured using a vibrating finger viscometer. The variation of viscosity is discussed in the context of nickel content, primary solidification structure, melt coordination number, and the sample superheating according to the calculated liquidus temperatures of the phase diagram.

    7. The Influence of Plastic Deformation on the Corrosion Behavior of a Cast High-Alloy CrMnNi TRIP Steel

      Marcel Mandel, Fabian Böhme, Michael Hauser, Marco Wendler, Friedrich Tuchscheerer and Lutz Krüger

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500406

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      The electrochemical corrosion characteristic of a CrMnNi TRIP steel cast alloy is analyzed in dependence of plastic deformation in a 5 wt% sodium chloride solution. Cyclic voltammetry is carried out and reveals a strong dependency at forward polarization, whereas at reverse scan the behavior is dominated by pitting corrosion.

    8. Effect of Particle Size and Carbide Band on the Flow Behavior of Ferrite–Cementite Steel

      Siming Ma, Xincun Zhuang and Zhen Zhao

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500438

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      Microstructure-based representative volume element (RVE) models are employed for simulating the mechanical properties of steel with ferrite and spheroid cementite phases. Different RVE parameters and microstructure features are investigated for modeling the effect of carbide band. The experimental flow curve is well fitted by RVE simulation considering GND effect. The adverse effects of carbide band are also analyzed.

    9. Measurements of the Velocity of Drops in a Melt Atomization Process Using Particle Image Velocimetry

      Clemens Kirmse and Humberto Chaves

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500360

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      The two-dimensional velocity distribution of ligaments and drops produced by an industrial vacuum inert gas atomization facility is measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The melt jet breaks up into a hollow cone spray at approximately 60 mm from the nozzle. The velocity at this point is in the range of 160 m s–1.

    10. Influence of Natural and Accelerated Carbonation of Steel Slags on Their Leaching Behavior

      Marina Spanka, Tim Mansfeldt and Ruth Bialucha

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500370

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      Main topic of this research project is the investigation of the influence of natural and accelerated carbonation of steel slags on their leaching behavior. The achieved results show that carbonation can lead to a significant decreased leaching of aluminum, calcium, chromium, fluoride, and molybdenum but to an increased leaching for silicon and vanadium.

    11. Application of a Modified Stress−Strain Approach for the Fatigue-Life Prediction of a Ferritic, an Austenitic and a Ferritic–Austenitic Duplex Steel under Isothermal and Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue

      Dirk Kulawinski, Roman Kolmorgen and Horst Biermann

      Version of Record online: 11 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500410

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      Isothermal and thermo-mechanical fatigue experiments on three different steels are evaluated to generate fatigue-life descriptions. A modified stress–strain approach including a crack growth change with temperature is introduced. It provided appropriate life predictions within the scatter band of a factor of two for a wide temperature range from 100 to 600 °C for all three steels.

    12. Effect of Rare-Earth Cerium on Impurity Tin-Induced Hot Ductility Deterioration of SA508-III Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel

      Shenhua Song and Shufu Sun

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500425

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      Impurity tin can severely deteriorate the hot ductility of SA508-III reactor pressure vessel steel, but a minor addition of rare-earth cerium can suppress this tin-induced hot ductility deterioration. Grain boundary segregation of tin is mainly responsible for the hot ductility deterioration, whereas the segregation of cerium is mainly responsible for the suppression of the deterioration.

    13. Austenitic Grain Growth Behavior during Austenization in an Aluminum-Alloyed 5% Cr–Mo–V Steel

      Sha-Sha Li, Yao-Hui Liu, Yu-Lai Song, Ling-Nan Kong, Tuan-Jie Li and Ren-Hang Zhang

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201500427

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      The austenitic grain growth behavior of an aluminum-alloyed 5% Cr–Mo–V steel has been investigated in a wide range of austenitizing temperatures and holding times. The results indicate that high content of Al addition can significantly accelerate the austenite grain growth, mainly because the high content of Al affected the Zener drag and solute drag on the grain growth.