steel research international

Cover image for Vol. 85 Issue 12

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Online ISSN: 1869-344X

  1. Full Papers

    1. Numerical Investigation of Free-Surface Flows under the Influence of Magnetic Fields

      Yong Ma and Gunther Brenner

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400104

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      Visualization of the computed free surface flow with inflow disturbances for different magnetic fields imposed in the marked region. The color represents the magnitude of velocity.

    2. Austenite Transformation Behaviour of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steels under Hot Tensile Test

      Hongfei Li, Guangwei Fan, Yan He, Jingang Bai, Caili Zhang and Peide Han

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400032

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      The initial secondary austenite phase (γ′) transformation occurs only in the cooling process and under hot tensile test condition. The γ′ precipitates in the temperature range of 950–1150 °C. The γ′/δ phase interface is coherent at 950 °C. However, the γ′/δ phase interface is not coherent at 1100 °C.

    3. Study of Inclusions in High Sulfur, Al-Killed Ca-Treated Steel via Experiments and Thermodynamic Calculations

      Wagner Viana Bielefeldt and Antônio Cezar Faria Vilela

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400112

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      In the production of special steels, inclusions have a significant influence on final product quality. The main objective of this study is to conduct a thermodynamic study aimed at preventing clogging problems during continuous casting (CC) and the formation of undesirable inclusions. Alumina (Al2O3), spinels, and calcium sulfide (CaS) are potential sources of defects during rolling and steel forging.

    4. Formability of AHSS under an Attach–Detach Forming Mode

      Omid Majidi, Frédéric Barlat, Myoung-Gyu Lee and Dong-Jin Kim

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400001

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      The FE simulation results demonstrate that the thinning tendency is limited by the simultaneous effects of friction coefficient reduction and springback after each detachment. It explains the increased drawability when the non-conventional forming mode is used compared to the conventional V-mode, as shown by the cup-drawing test results.

    5. Influence of B2O3 and TiO2 on Viscosity of Titanium-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag

      Yanhong Gao, Lingtao Bian and Zhongyu Liang

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400039

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      All the viscosities are within 0.2 Pa s for high temperature (over 1633 K in this experiment), which is less than that of the B-free slag. However, the value increases sharply when temperature is below break point temperature. In addition, an increase in the value of B2O3 content reduces significantly break point temperature and descent rate of temperature rises with increasing B2O3 content.

    6. Effects of MnO and CaO/SiO2 Mass Ratio on Phase Formations of CaO[BOND]Al2O3[BOND]MgO[BOND]SiO2[BOND]CrOx Slag at 1673 K and PO2=10−10 atm

      Qifeng Shu, Qingyun Luo, Lijun Wang and Kuochih Chou

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400117

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      Manganese is found to be enriched in spinel and liquid. The spinel increases in size with increasing of MnO and decreasing of CaO/SiO2 ratio. Disintegration is found in samples with increased MnO content and CaO/SiO2 ratio, which can be interpreted by increase of the size of Ca2SiO4 with increase of MnO content and CaO/SiO2 ratio.

    7. An Independent Modeling Approach for Prediction of Hardenability in Steels

      Neethi Sushanthi and Joydeep Maity

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400054

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      The cooling curves are generated for 1080 steel through explicit finite difference based model considering constant values of thermal conductivity and specific heat. Grange–Kiefer approach is extended for determination of 50% transformation nose of CCT diagram. The cooling curves are solved against 50% transformation nose of CCT diagram. The Du/D versus D plots are generated for both finite and infinite severity of quenchant. The DC predicted by the model closely matches with the experimental DC showing only 8% deviation.

    8. A Model for Homogenization of Solid Alloying Admixtures in an Induction Crucible Furnace

      Mihails Ščepanskis, Andris Jakovičs, Egbert Baake and Bernard Nacke

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400118

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      The paper presents a methodology for identification of homogenization time of alloying inclusions in an induction crucible furnace where particles are admixed from a free surface of a melt. The methodology is based on the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Euler-Lagrange calculation of inclusions and a regression model for size of the inclusions and their density. The regression model avoids the repeated LES calculations and, therefore, is suitable for an optimization task.

  2. Technical Note

    1. Numerical Study about the Influence of Small Casting Speed Variations on the Metallurgical Length in Continuous Casting of Steel Slabs

      Josef Domitner, Menghuai Wu and Andreas Ludwig

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400059

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      The influence of small casting speed variations (715–735 mm min−1) on the metallurgical length in steel continuous casting is numerically investigated. The numerical simulations are based on an Eulerian two-phase solidification model. For a given casting configuration, the effects of strand surface bulging, shrinkage feeding, and mechanical softreduction are considered in different simulation cases.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Finite Element Analysis of Manufacturing Micro Lubrication Pockets in High Strength Steels by Hot Micro-Coining

      Adam Szurdak and Gerhard Hirt

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300475

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      The manufacturing of micro lubrication pockets in stainless steel AISI 304 by hot micro-coining is investigated conducting finite element simulations and complementing experiments. Suitable process parameters and process limits are determined in this work. Process limits occurred for the coining of high strength materials at low process temperatures due to plastic deformation of the die.

    2. Change of M23C6 Particles Size and Spacing by Tempering a High-Chromium Creep Resistant Steel at 800–550 °C

      Franc Vodopivec, Fevzi Kafexhiu and Borut Žužek

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400013

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      M23C6 particles size, number and dissolution velocity were deduced for tempering of a X20 steel at 800 to 550 °C. The dissolution of small particles increases the particle spacing for above one order of magnitude more than particles coarsening. By creep tests above 550 °C, particles spacing and creep rate are increased significantly by dissolution of small particles.

    3. Design of Magnetic Fields for Half and Full Type Electromagnetic Swirl Flow Generators

      Ying Yang, Pär G. Jönsson, Zhijian Su, Jicheng He and Keiji Nakajima

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300463

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      Two kinds of a full type and a half type electromagnetic swirl flow generators (EMSFG) are studied. Moreover, those two type devices with different magnetomotive forces, frequencies as well as core distances are also investigated. Furthermore, the distribution of the magnetic flux intensity in molten steel and EMSFG and the distribution of the Lorentz force in molten steel are discussed by using different EMSFG structures and electromagnetic parameters.

    4. Study on Desulfurization Abilities of Some Commonly Used Desulfurization Agents

      David Lindström and Du Sichen

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400031

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      The desulfurization abilities of some commonly used agents, namely fluidized CaO, CaC2, commercial-CaO, Mg, MgO, CaO · MgO, and mixtures of commercial-CaO–Mg are studied and compared under the same experimental conditions in a laboratory furnace at 1773 K. The desulfurization mechanisms of CaO · MgO, commercial-CaO, and mixtures of commercial-CaO and Mg are also studied.

    5. Use of Artificial Intelligence in Classification of Mill Scale Defects

      Szymon Lechwar, Łukasz Rauch and Maciej Pietrzyk

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400016

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      In this study, a classification model is developed for real-time prediction of various kinds of mill scales at typical hot rolling mill (HRM). In order to obtain input data, the automatic surface inspection system (ASIS) is used together with its classification model. Thereafter, novel procedure is introduced for further boosting of the accuracy of predictions by the use of hybrid classification concept.

    6. Microstructure and Properties of Laser-Clad Mo2NiB2 Cermet Coating on Steel Substrate

      Qianlin Wu, Wenge Li, Ning Zhong and Guoqing Wang

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400065

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      A novel method to synthesize Mo2NiB2 boride cermet coating on Q235 steel substrate, consisting of Mo2NiB2-type ternary boride as a reinforced phase and a γ-(Fe, Ni) base binder, is realized with laser cladding technique. The wear resistance of the Q235 substrate is greatly improved. As compared to 304 stainless steel, lower corrosion rate is obtained for the coating and pitting corrosion disappeare in particular.

    7. Using a Mathematical Model of Counter-Current Flow in a Blast Furnace to Evaluate Reducibility of Iron-Ore-Bearing Raw Materials

      Pavlina Pustejovska, Jiri Tuma, Vladimir Stanek, Jiri Kristal, Simona Jursova and Jiri Bilik

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400055

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      The paper deals with a mathematical model of counter-current flow in a blast furnace for a complex evaluation of iron-ore bearing raw materials reducibility. It is based on laboratory tests results and model calculation to predict the parameters of the reduction process and specific consumption of carbon in the blast furnace by Rist.

    8. Research of Strain Aging in Pipeline Steel with a Ferrite/Martensite Dual-Phase Microstructure

      Xiurong Zuo and Rutao Li

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300465

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      The high-deformability pipeline steel with a ferrite/martensite dual-phase microstructure exhibits a superior strain aging resistance aging at 200–250°C for 5–15 min. The yield ratios are below 0.77 and the pipe still exhibits continuous yielding behavior, meanwhile tensile strength, uniform elongation and impact toughness do not experience significant change.

    9. About Electrical Properties of Chromite Pellets – Effect of Reduction Degree

      Anne M. Heikkilä, Juho H. Pussinen, Olli J. Mattila and Timo M. J. Fabritius

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400023

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      Chromite pellets, which are used as a part of SAF charge, are considered. The electrical behavior as a function of reduction degree of the chromite pellets is studied. It is found out that increase in reduction degree decreased the electrical conductivity measured in room temperature.

    10. Formation Conditions of Ti2O3, MgTi2O4, Mg2TiO4, and MgAl2O4 in Ti–Mg–Al Complex Deoxidation of Molten Iron

      Hideki Ono, Keiji Nakajima, Shingo Agawa, Toshio Ibuta, Ryota Maruo and Tateo Usui

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400034

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      The relationships of the compounds in the Mg–Ti–Al–O system in equilibrium with molten iron are clarified at temperatures ranging from 1873 to 1973 K, and the thermodynamic calculations are conducted in avoiding Al2O3 or spinel MgAl2O4 formation and for inclusion control. It is shown that the equilibrium relations between those compounds and the composition of solutes in steel at 1973 K.

    11. Compositional Evolution of Oxide Inclusions in Austenitic Stainless Steel during Continuous Casting

      Ja-Yong Choi, Sun-Koo Kim, Youn-Bae Kang and Hae-Geon Lee

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300486

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      Composition evolution and number density of oxide inclusions in austenitic stainless steel during continuous casting are demonstrated by plant data as well as mathematical modeling. Origin of the inclusions is argon oxygen decaburization (AOD) slag, and the inclusions grow by subsequent oxide formation due to decrease of solubility limit of O, Al, Mn, Si, etc, during casting. A simple mathematical model is presented to account for the composition evolution.

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