steel research international

Cover image for Vol. 85 Issue 8

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Online ISSN: 1869-344X

  1. Full Papers

    1. Behavior of Transformation-Induced Plasticity during Adiabatic Shear Bands Formation in High Manganese Steels

      Xiurong Sun, Huizhen Wang, Ping Yang and Weimin Mao

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300381

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      This work demonstrates that at high strain rate of over 104 s−1 high manganese TRIP steel possesses higher work hardening rate than pure copper and an armor steel containing martensite. TRIP effect occurs smoothly outside shear bands and is suppressed inside them, and it can postpone shear band formation. Dynamic recrystallization proceeds in α′-martensite involved in shear bands.

    2. Experimental Investigation of Hot Stamping of Ultra High Strength Steel

      Li-Qiang Zhang, Wen-Fang Tan and Luo-Xing Li

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300246

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      The paper shows that the spring-back angles are greatly reduced after hot stamping. The part strength is obviously improved. The mechanical properties and microstructures in the part show an inhomogeneous phenomenon due to the different cooling condition. The sidewall of the part has a higher tensile strength and a lower elongation compared with the other locations.

    3. Non-Metallic Inclusions in TWIP Steel

      Changling Zhuang, Jianhua Liu, Zhenli Mi, Haitao Jiang, Di Tang and Guoxuan Wang

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300354

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      In this study, research work has been carried out to investigates endogenous inclusions formed in Fe–25Mn–3Si–3Al TWIP steels in laboratorial ingot, and mold casting after AOD steelmaking and electroslag remelting (ESR) process at industrial plant, respectively. The research shows that AlN and Al2O3 inclusions are found as dominating inclusions. According to thermodynamics, the research finds that AlN inclusions formed in Fe–25Mn–3Si–3Al steels generate in liquid steel, and related experimental results prove this point.

    4. Microstructure and Texture of Strip Cast Grain-Oriented Silicon Steel after Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Hot Rolling

      Hong-Yu Song, Hui-Hu Lu, Hai-Tao Liu, Hao-Ze Li, Dian-Qiao Geng, R. Devesh K. Misra, Zhen-Yu Liu and Guo-Dong Wang

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300385

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      The effects of hot rolling methods on the microstructure and texture evolution of strip cast grain-oriented silicon steel are investigated. The microstructure of both symmetrically and asymmetrically hot rolled strips consist of ferrite and pearlite. However, compared with the symmetrically hot rolled strip, the asymmetrically hot rolled strip exhibits more dispersive microstructure and much stronger Goss texture.

    5. Reverse Transformation from Ferrite/Pearlite to Austenite and Its Influence on Structure Inheritance in Spring Steel 60Si2MnA

      Chaolei Zhang, Leyu Zhou, Xiang Liu, Xiaodan Wu and Yazheng Liu

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300386

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      Reverse transformation from a ferrite/pearlite to austenite is investigated in spring steel 60Si2MnA with various pearlite fineness obtained by isothermal transformation. Effects of heating temperature, holding time and interlamellar spacing on the reverse transformation are analyzed and the mechanism of the structure inheritance in the spring steel during heat treatment process is discussed.

    6. Formation and Properties of Mixed Ferritic–Martensitic Microstructures in the Air-Hardening Steel LH800

      Olexandr Grydin, Florian Nuernberger, Ying Zou, Mirko Schaper and Alexander Brosius

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300420

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      The experimental study presents results of the formation of a dual phase microstructure and the depending property evolution in a low carbon air-hardening steel. Varied fractions of ferrite and martensite are achieved by varying both austenization temperature and soaking time. Correlations between strength properties and microstructural parameters such as phase content and ferrite grain size are determined.

    7. Reduction Behavior of Self-Reducing Pellet (SRP) for Low Height Blast Furnace

      Pruet Kowitwarangkul, Alexander Babich and Dieter Senk

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300399

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      The reduction behaviors of self-reducing pellets (SRPs) under the thermal reserve zone (TRZ) simulated conditions have been investigated with the context of their possible use in the small BF. The crushing strengths and properties of SRPs after both methods of hardening, fire-hardening, and cement-bonded curing, were investigated as well.

    8. Effect of the Heat Treatment on the Chromium Partition in Cr-Containing Industrial and Synthetic Slags

      Galina Jelkina Albertsson, Fredrik Engström and Lidong Teng

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300231

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      Influence of the slag composition and the heat-treatment profile on the chromium immobilization and slag stability in Cr-containing industrial and synthetic slags are studied extensively at the conditions close to industrial. An attempt is made to minimize the environmental and economical impact by cutting down the treatment time and the soaking temperature.

    9. Optimal Control of a Cooling Line for Production of Hot Rolled Dual Phase Steel

      Wolfgang Bleck, Dietmar Hömberg, Ulrich Prahl, Piyada Suwanpinij and Nataliya Togobytska

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300253

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      In this paper, the optimal control of a cooling line for production of dual phase steel in a hot rolling process is discussed. The optimal cooling strategy for the adjustment of desired dual phase microstructure has been found by means of mathematical control theory. The results have been verified in hot rolling experiments at the pilot hot rolling mill.

    10. Online Visualization during Open Die Forging and Optimization of Pass Schedules**

      Dirk Rosenstock, Dominik Recker, Martin Franzke, Gerhard Hirt, Dieter Sommler, Klaus-J. Steingießer, Andreas Tewes, Ralf Rech, Bodo Gehrmann, Stefan Kirchhoff and Rolf Lamm

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300396

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      To achieve high quality open die forged workpieces, the monitoring and controlling of workpiece properties throughout the open die forging process is of particular importance. Due to the fact, that these values cannot be measured directly for the inner part of an ingot during the process, fast calculation models are used to evaluate workpiece properties online.

    11. Investigation of Precipitate in Polygonal Ferrite in a Ti-Microalloyed Steel Using TEM and APT

      Hai-Long Yi, Lei-Zhou Long, Zhen-Yu Liu and Guo-Dong Wang

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300230

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      Transmission electron micrograph and atom probe tomography are used to characterize the distribution, sizes and compositions of precipitates in ferrite matrix for a Ti microalloyed steel. The dispersion and interphase nano-precipitates are observed, and these precipitates are titanium carbide. The atomic ratio of Ti/C is about 0.55, and the average Guinier radius of nano-precipitate is about 4.3 nm.

    12. Modeling Study of Nitrogen Removal from the Vacuum Tank Degasser

      Shan Yu, Jyrki Miettinen and Seppo Louhenkilpi

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300262

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      This paper presents an integrated CFDs model for simulating the nitrogen removal in an industrial vacuum tank degasser (VTD). The effect of various elements on denitrogenation rate in the VTD is studied. The model is validated, and good agreements were found. The model has proven to be a useful and accurate tool for predicting final nitrogen content of liquid steel in the plant.

    13. An Experimental and Thermodynamic Study of Non-Metallic Inclusions in High Si Stainless Steels Regarding Clogging During Casting

      Erik Roos, Andrey Karasev and Pär Göran Jönsson

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300368

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      Characteristics of non-metallic inclusions are investigated in high Si-containing (1.9 and 2.7% Si) stainless steel grades with respect to clogging problems during casting. The obtained results and thermodynamic calculations using Thermo-Calc and FactSage show that the main reason of clogging during casting of these steels having larger than 0.003% of Al is relatively high contents of spinel MgO[BOND]Al2O3 inclusions and clusters in liquid steel.

    14. Influence of the Microalloying Elements on the Temporary Inhibition of Static Recrystallization by Strain-Induced Precipitates

      Manuel Gómez, Alberto Quispe and Sebastián F. Medina

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300356

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      Recrystallization and precipitation kinetics have been characterized in more than twenty microalloyed steels with a broad range of chemical compositions, by means of laboratory hot deformation tests. From this analysis, novel empirical equations are proposed to illustrate the strong variation in the extent of temporary blockage of recrystallization by precipitates in Nb, V, Al, and Ti-microalloyed steels.

    15. Evaluation of Fracture Micromechanisms in a Fine-Grained Dual Phase Steel during Uniaxial Tensile Deformation

      Navid Saeidi, Fakhreddin Ashrafizadeh, Behzad Niroumand and Frédéric Barlat

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300344

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      SEM and EBSD analysis are involved in studying ductile fracture mechanism in a high-strength dual phase steel. Detailed microstructural analysis reveals that interface decohesion at triple junctions of ferrite–ferrite–martensite is the dominant void nucleation mechanism. EBSD analysis also reveals that void nucleation is predominantly promoted by the increase of ferrite–ferrite grain boundary misorientation with strain.

    16. Rate of Hydrogen Desorption in Mold Stream Degassing Process

      Suguru Yamamoto, Masaru Tanaka and Koji Kajikawa

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300334

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      The rate of hydrogen desorption in the mold stream degassing process was measured to investigate the effect of hydrogen partial pressure. Experiments were conducted on 10.5 mass% Cr steel, 100 ton scale ingots. The hydrogen desorption reaction was controlled by metal side mass transfer at the gas/metal interface. And the value of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient was estimated to be approximately 5.18 s−1.