BioFactors

Cover image for Vol. 40 Issue 4

Edited By: Angelo Azzi

Impact Factor: 3.0

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 57/123 (Endocrinology & Metabolism); 130/291 (Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Online ISSN: 1872-8081

Associated Title(s): Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, IUBMB Life

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  • Endocannabinoids and energy homeostasis: An update

    Endocannabinoids and energy homeostasis: An update

    Effects of endocannabinoid overactivity on energy homeostasis. Functional relationships among the ECS, hypothalamic, cortico-limbic, and viscero-sensorial circuits and some peripheral signals participating in energy balance regulation. Please see the text for further details. Abbreviations: 3 V, third ventricle; ARC, arcuate nucleus; CRH, corticotropin-releasing hormone; DMH, dorsomedial hypothalamus; IL-6, interleukine 6; LH, lateral hypothalamus; ME, mediane eminence; MOB, main olfactory bulb; NAc, accumbens nucleus; NLRP3, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor 3; NTS, nucleus of the solitary tract; PBN, parabrachial nucleus; PVH, periventricular hypothalamus; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha; TRH, thyrotropin releasing hormone; VLDL, very low density lipoprotein; VMH, ventromedial hypothalamus; VTA, ventral tegmental area.

  • Nutraceuticals and regulation of adipocyte life: Premises or promises

    Nutraceuticals and regulation of adipocyte life: Premises or promises

    Nutraceutical and dietary agents affecting the adipocyte cell life. Preadipocytes can replicate or differentiate into mature fat cells. They can also undergo apoptosis. Differentiating preadipocytes accumulate lipid and subsequently develop into mature adipocytes. Mature adipocytes can undergo apoptosis or lipolysis. Brown-like adipocytes can transdifferentiate from mature white adipocytes. Abbreviations: CA, Citrus aurantium; RR, Rhodiola rosea; RO, Rosmarinus officinalis; SM, Silybum marianum; TO, Taraxacum officinale; CF, caffeine; CL, Curcuma longa; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; RE, resveratrol; SR, Salacia reticulate; FX, fucoxanthin; OL, olive oil. Red arrows: stimulation; T-arrows: inhibition.

  • Regulation of mitochondrial morphology by lipids

    Regulation of mitochondrial morphology by lipids

    Proposed roles for lipid signals in mitochondrial fission and fusion. Phosphatidic acid (PA) produced at the mitochondrial surface through the cleavage of cardiolipin (CL) by MitoPLD facilitates Mitofusin (Mfn)-mediated mitochondrial fusion of the outer mitochondrial membrane. Fusion of the inner membrane is coordinately performed by l- and s-Mgm1 (Opa1), which requires CL for both localization and activity. The promotion of fusion by PA is terminated by its catabolism by Lipin 1b, which is recruited to the mitochondrial surface by a PA-binding domain and dephosphorylates PA to generate diacylglycerol (DAG), or by PA-phospholipase A1 (PA-PLA1), which cleaves PA to generate lyso-PA (LPA). Production of DAG or LPA at the expense of PA promotes mitochondrial fission; reduced Lipin 1b or PA-PLA1 activity decreases fission, resulting in mitochondrial tubule elongation. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is important for lipid mixing in mitochondrial membranes during fusion, although how this affects fusion efficiency is unknown. IMM, inner mitochondrial membrane; OMM, outer mitochondrial membrane. See text for additional details.

  • Role of trace elements (Zn, Sr, Fe) in bone development: Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence study of rat bone and tooth tissue

    Role of trace elements (Zn, Sr, Fe) in bone development: Energy dispersive X‐ray fluorescence study of rat bone and tooth tissue

    Areas on the surface of measured bones: (a) parietal bone - A and A', frontal bone - B and B' of skull, (b) ramus – C, body – D of mandible and incisor - E, (c) upper epiphysis - F, diaphysis - G and lower epiphysis - H of femur, (d) upper epiphysis - I, diaphysis - J and lower epiphysis - K of tibia.

  • Antidiabetic effect of nepodin, a component of Rumex roots, and its modes of action in vitro and in vivo

    Antidiabetic effect of nepodin, a component of Rumex roots, and its modes of action in vitro and in vivo

    Effect of nepodin treatment on the translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in cultured L6 myocytes. L6 myotubes were preincubated in Krebs-Henseleit-HEPES buffer (KHH buffer) without glucose for 2 h and were then incubated with 11 mM glucose in KHH buffer containing 30 μΜ nepodin or 1 mM 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) for the indicated times. Subcellular membrane fractions of the L6 myotubes were prepared by a rapid plasma membrane preparation method. The plasma membrane fractions (20 μg) were subjected to SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analyses using anti-GLUT4 and anti-Na+/K+-ATPase antibodies (A). L6 myoblasts were transfected with pFN21A (HaloTag®7)-Mock control vector and pFN21A (HaloTag®7)-Glut4 expression vector. After culture for 36 h, L6 myoblasts were incubated in KHH buffer without glucose for 2 h and for another 30 min in KHH buffer containing 11 mM glucose without or with 30 μM nepodin. Scale bars, 20 μm (B).

  • Tenascin-C is increased in atherothrombotic stroke patients and has an anti-inflammatory effect in the human carotid artery

    Tenascin‐C is increased in atherothrombotic stroke patients and has an anti‐inflammatory effect in the human carotid artery

    Model of Tenascin-C blockade effects on the TLR-4 signalling pathway. Endogenous ligand binding at the cell surface leads to recruitment of specific adaptor molecules to the TLR-signalling domain on the cytoplasmic side of the receptor, which activates the downstream transcription factor, NF-KB, leading to increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines . Blockade of the FBG domain of Tn-C that binds to TLR-4 led to an increase in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a concomitant increase in the expression of TLR-4 in the tissue. These results suggest blockade of Tn-C binding to TLR-4 enabled another endogenous ligand/s to upregulate expression of TLR-4 and these cytokines and that Tn-C binding reduces cytokine secretion resulting in an anti-inflammatory effect.

  • Endocannabinoids and energy homeostasis: An update
  • Nutraceuticals and regulation of adipocyte life: Premises or promises
  • Regulation of mitochondrial morphology by lipids
  • Role of trace elements (Zn, Sr, Fe) in bone development: Energy dispersive X‐ray fluorescence study of rat bone and tooth tissue
  • Antidiabetic effect of nepodin, a component of Rumex roots, and its modes of action in vitro and in vivo
  • Tenascin‐C is increased in atherothrombotic stroke patients and has an anti‐inflammatory effect in the human carotid artery

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2014 BioFactors - Wiley Young Investigator Award

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On behalf of the IUBMB, BioFactors, and Wiley, it is with great pleasure and honor that we announce Juewon Kim as the recipient of the 2014 BioFactors - Wiley Young Investigator Award for his article, A DAF-16/FoxO3a-dependent longevity signal is initiated by antioxidants.

Mr. Kim is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Tokyo in Chiba, Japan, where he earned a Masters Degree in Biological Sciences, and is a Senior Researcher at Amorepacific Inc. in the Beauty Food Research Institute where he conducts basic research for biological cosmetics as well as basic and applied research for functional food. He will be honored with the 2014 BioFactors - Wiley Young Investigator Award at the 15th IUBMB - 24th FAOBMB - TSBMB Conference this October 21 - 26, in Taipei, Taiwan, and his award-winning article will be FREELY available online through the conference.

Please join us in congratulating Mr. Kim as the recipient of the annual BioFactors – Wiley Young Investigator Award!

15th IUBMB - 24th FAOBMB - TSBMB International Conference, Taipei, Taiwan

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Transition: from Basic to Translational

15th IUBMB - 24th FAOBMB - TSBMB International Conference

Open Access Highlight

Click below to read this OnlineOpen Review Article in BioFactors for FREE:

Novel insights on interactions between folate and lipid metabolism
Robin P. da Silva, Karen B. Kelly, Ala Al Rajabi, René L. Jacobs
Volume 40, Issue 3, May/June 2014

Folate is an essential B vitamin required for the maintenance of AdoMet-dependent methylation. The liver is responsible for many methylation reactions that are used for post-translational modifications of proteins, methylation of DNA, and the synthesis of hormones, creatine, carnitine, and phosphatidylcholine. Conditions where methylation capacity is compromised, including folate deficiency, are associated with impaired phospatidylcholine synthesis resulting in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis. Read the full article FREE!

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