Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 4

Editor-in-Chief: Professor Brandon L. Weeks

Online ISSN: 1932-8745

Author Guidelines

NIH Public Access Mandate
For those interested in the Wiley-Blackwell policy on the NIH Public Access Mandate, please visit our policy statement.

Visit the new Author Services today! Features include:

  • Free access to your article for 10 of your colleagues; each author of a paper may nominate up to 10 colleagues. This feature is retrospective—even articles already published offer this feature for free colleague access.
  • Access in perpetuity to your published article.
  • Production tracking for your article and easy communication with the Production Editor via e-mail.
  • A list of your favorite journals with quick links to the Editorial Board, Aims & Scope, Author Guidelines and if applicable the Online Submission website; journals in which you have tracked production of an article are automatically added to your Favorites.
  • Guidelines on optimizing your article for maximum discoverability.

Publication Forms

Author Guidelines

Note to NIH Grantees
Submitting Your Manuscript
File Requirements
Cover Figures
Color Figures
Unacceptable Figure Formats
Research Article Format
Short Notes
Units and Abbreviations
Page proofs and Reprints
Copyright/License Agreement
Conflict of Interest
Contact Information

Online Only in 2013

Given that the majority of SCANNING’s readers and subscribers access the journal exclusively online, the journal will be published in online-only format effective with the 2013 volume. This is a positive move towards reducing the environmental impact caused by the production and distribution of printed journal copies. Published articles will continue to be disseminated quickly through the journal’s broad network of indexing services, including ISI, MEDLINE and Scopus. Articles will also continue to be discoverable through popular search engines such as Google. All color images will now be published free of charge.

Note to NIH Grantees
Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see

Search Engine Optimization for Your Paper
Consult our SEO Tips for Authors page in order to maximize online discoverability for your published research. Included are tips for making your title and abstract SEO-friendly, choosing appropriate keywords, and promoting your research through social media.

Submitting Your Manuscript

SCANNING has a completely digital submission, review, and production process. We therefore ask for production-quality files at submission of your article. Following the guidelines below will expedite the processing, review, and publication of your article should it be accepted. Manuscripts submitted in incorrect formats will be returned for resubmission. Please submit your manuscript online at SCANNING's ScholarOne Manuscripts site (formerly Manuscript Central).

  • Enter User ID and Password. If you have forgotten your account information, enter your email address under “Password Help” to receive an email with your account information. If you do not already have an account, click on “Create an Account.”

  • Follow the instructions carefully. Please review that your submission has been uploaded correctly before clicking the “Submit” button.

  • On completion of a successful submission a confirmation screen with manuscript number will appear and you will receive an email confirming that the manuscript has been received by the Journal. If this does not happen, please check your submission and/or contact tech support at

File Requirements

Text: Submit your text in DOC, DOCX, or RTF format. Do not embed figures or tables in this document; these should be submitted as separate files; however, figure and table legends should be included in your text document immediately following your references.

Formulae should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals in round brackets. Tables should be typed on separate pages, clearly spaced and numbered in sequence with Roman numerals. Their position in the manuscript should be indicated clearly in the relevant margin. Figures should be cited as "Figure 4" or (Fig. 4A); all panels of a figure must have a label in the lower-left corner (A, B, C, etc.).

Tables: Tables should be created with a word processor and saved in either DOC, DOCX, or RTF format. Do not embed tables in your text.

Figures: Figures must be submitted in TIFF or EPS format. DO not embed figures in your text document. To ensure the highest print quality, figures should be submitted according to the following minimum resolutions:

  • 1200 dpi (dots per inch) for black and white line art (simple bargraphs, charts, etc.)
  • 300 dpi for halftones (black and white photographs)
  • 600 dpi for combination halftones (photographs that also contain line art such as labeling or thin lines)

This specification means that a figure which you wish to be printed at a size, for example, of 2 x 2 inches will be 2,400 dots wide (black and white line art), or 600 dots wide (halftone). Vector-based figures (e.g., figures created in Adobe Illustrator) should be submitted in EPS format.

Figure sizes should be no more than 5 inches in width and 6 inches in height.

Cover Figures
Authors are encouraged to submit figures that illustrate their research for possible use on the cover of the issue in which their article appears. This artwork is submitted with the understanding that it has not been published elsewhere, that the author has the copyright, and that the author grants Wiley Periodicals permission to publish it as a cover image if selected. Color images should be in RGB format at the following resolutions: 300dpi for figures without any text; 600dpi for figures containing pictures and text (including labels, thin lines, arrows); 1200dpi for black and white images (line drawings, graphs, charts).

Color Figures

In addition to the above resolution guidelines, color figures must be submitted in RGB colorspace. Color figures are published at no charge.

Unacceptable Figure Formats
Do not submit figures in any of the following formats: JPG, GIF, PSD, CRD, PCT, PPT, PDF, XLS, DOC, BMP, 123 (or other Lotus formats).

For further guidance on preparing digital figure files, authors are encouraged to visit: Cadmus Applications. To ensure that your digital graphics are suitable for print, please go to Rapid Inspector. This is a free, stand-alone software application that will help you to inspect and verify illustrations directly from your computer. If you have trouble uploading your figures, please contact the editorial office for assistance.

Article Types

SCANNING accepts the following article types for review:

I.Research Articles
II.Short Notes

I. Research Articles
The layout of Research Articles should follow the guidelines below:

Title Page
Materials and Methods
Figure and Table Legends (if applicable)

Title page: The following information should be given on the title page:

1. Title of paper (not more than 100 characters)
2. Short running title (about 50 characters)
3. Author(s) name(s) including initials
4. Department(s) and institution(s) at which work was done
5. The full name and address including zip code and email address of the author to whom all the correspondence, proofs, and requests for reprints should be addressed
6. Acknowledgment of receipt of grants which supported the work
7. A list of up to five key words to be used for indexing purposes

Abstract: Briefly and clearly describe what is new and interesting in the article.

Introduction: This section should help the reader by providing some context for the paper such as the goals and aims of the work, what questions or hypotheses are being investigated, and the relationship of the research to any previous studies. It is also helpful to readers to preview the general nature of experiments that will be described and analyzed, and to provide a description of any points of dispute, or conflicts in the existing literature, that will be examined.

Materials and Methods: This section should list the sources, grades, and names of suppliers of all materials used, with their addresses given in a form which would allow any reader to contact the author’s sources of supply directly. Likewise, authors should give the names and cities of manufacturers of commercially available instruments which they have used. In the event that novel prototype or homemade equipment has been used, adequate details of manufacture should be given including the qualities or specifications of material used and the required engineering tolerances.

Results: This section should provide the reader with the numerical data, or images, or spectra, which are the basis of the discussion that will be presented, and the conclusions that will be drawn, in the next sections of the paper. If the volume of the results is too large it may be preferable to provide critical examples in the text and make the rest of the data available as supplemental material because page space in the journal is limited.

Discussion: In this section the data presented in the results section should be analyzed in relationship to the aims set out in the Introduction. The reader should be directed towards key features of the results, or trends in the data, and procedures such as the means employed to determine the precision and accuracy of any numerical values derived should be explained. Equations inserted in the text should be numbered sequentially and symbols or variables used in an equation should be identified in the first line of text following that equation.

Conclusion: This section should briefly summarize the contents of the paper, relate the results to the initial hypotheses or experimental aims, identify any unanswered questions, and note any future needs or plans for additional work.

References should be given in the text in one of the following forms, for example: Reimer (1967) or (Schwarz 1959). If there are three or more authors use the form Reimer et al. (1966) or (Reimer et al. 1966). If more than one paper published in the same year by the same author or group of authors is quoted, use the form (Schwarz 1965a) etc. The list of references should be organized in the alphabetical order of the first authors' names. References which have six or more authors should list the first three authors followed by “et al.” The titles of the journals should be abbreviated according to Index Medicus.

References to journals should be set out as given in the following example:
Abela GS, Aziz K. 2004. Cholesterol crystals rupture biological membranes and human plaques during acute cardiovascular events-a novel insight into plaque rupture by scanning electron microscopy. Scanning 28:1-10.

References to books should be given as follows:
Reimer L, Pfefferkorn G. 1977. Rasterelektronenmikroskopie. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer.

References to books which are the proceedings of series of conferences or symposia
well known to SCANNING readers should be given as in the following example:
Robinson VNE. 1977. Scanning electron microscope environmental cells Scanning Electron Microscopy 1976/I, IITRI, Chicago. p 91–100.

Figure and Table Legends: If applicable, compile these on a separate page at the end of the manuscript file.

II. Short Notes
Short Notes are eligible for expedited peer review. They must report completed work, not preliminary findings: they are an alternative format for describing smaller pieces of work. The manuscript should follow the organization of a Research Article with the following exceptions: main text is not divided into sections; Methods are briefly described within text, not figure legends. Main text, including figure legends, 2500 words; combined total of tables and figures, three; abstract, 150 words; no restrictions on the number of references..

III. Reviews
Short perspective-type or longer comprehensive reviews can range between 5 and 20 journal pages (950 words/page) in length. Authors interested in submitting a review should e-mail a short proposal to the Editor before submitting the completed manuscript. Manuscripts should be arranged like a Research Article with the following exceptions: omit the Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion sections; replace Conclusion with Future Directions or Short Perspectives.

Units and Abbreviations

Units: Units, quantities, and formulae should be expressed according to the recommendation of the Système International (SI-units), for example the unit nm should be used instead of A and Pa (Pascal) or mbar instead of Torr.

Abbreviations: Keep abbreviations to a minimum. Define each abbreviation on its first use. Please do not invent new abbreviations but use those which are standard in SCANNING.

Page proofs and Reprints

Page proofs: One set of page proofs will be sent to the author or, in the case of a group of authors, to the corresponding author only. Proofs should be checked carefully. Printer’s errors should be clearly indicated in the margin. To avoid delays in publication, proofs should be returned within 48 hours, to: SCANNING Production,

Reprints: Reprints may be purchased at

Copyright/License Agreement

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.
For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement:
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:
CTA Terms and Conditions
For authors choosing OnlineOpen:
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA
To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit
If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:


If you are reproducing/modifying tables, figures, and/or data from other sources, you must obtain permission for publication from the appropriate sources prior to submitting your manuscript to SCANNING.
Permission Request Form

Conflict of Interest

SCANNING requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, that might be perceived as influencing an author’s objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include but are not limited to patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker’s fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal.

If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and to collectively list in the cover letter (if applicable) to the Editor-in-Chief, in the manuscript (in the footnotes, Conflict of Interest or Acknowledgments section), and in the online submission system ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.

Contact Information