Cancer Cytopathology

Cover image for Vol. 124 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Celeste N. Powers, MD, PhD

Impact Factor: 3.737

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 13/76 (Pathology); 67/211 (Oncology)

Online ISSN: 1934-6638

Associated Title(s): Cancer, CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians

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  1. 1 - 38
  1. Original Articles

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Analytical validity of a microRNA-based assay for diagnosing indeterminate thyroid FNA smears from routinely prepared cytology slides

      Hila Benjamin, Temima Schnitzer-Perlman, Alexander Shtabsky, Christopher J. VandenBussche, Syed Z. Ali, Zdenek Kolar, Fabio Pagni, Rosetta Genomics Group, Dganit Bar and Eti Meiri

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21731

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      Analytical validation of a novel molecular assay for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology using stained fine-needle aspiration smears is described. The results demonstrate the assay's robustness to various physical processing conditions.

  2. Commentary

    1. Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP): A changing paradigm in thyroid surgical pathology and implications for thyroid cytopathology

      Zubair W. Baloch, Raja R. Seethala, William C. Faquin, Mauro G. Papotti, Fulvio Basolo, Guido Fadda, Gregory W. Randolph, Steven P. Hodak, Yuri E. Nikiforov and Susan J. Mandel

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21744

      The change in the diagnosis of noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma to noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (ie, not carcinoma) will have significant impact on the risk of malignancy for categories according to The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology, and especially for the indeterminate categories.

    2. HPV vaccination in Southern Africa: A jab of hope in the fight against cervical cancer

      Pamela Michelow and Cynthia Firnhaber

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21738

      Cervical cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths in Southern Africa. Human papillomavirus vaccination offers a chance to markedly reduce this burden of disease, although challenges with vaccine delivery need to be overcome.

  3. Review Articles

    1. Fine-needle aspiration and core needle biopsy: An update on 2 common minimally invasive tissue sampling modalities

      Paul A. VanderLaan

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21742

      Fine-needle aspiration and core needle biopsy are minimally invasive sampling modalities that have unique benefits and limitations. Appreciating these differences can help the cytopathologist choose the proper biopsy for a given clinical setting.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Nuclear grade based on transbronchial cytology is an independent prognostic factor in patients with advanced, unresectable non-small cell lung cancer

      Kyuichi Kadota, Yumi Miyai, Naomi Katsuki, Yoshio Kushida, Toru Matsunaga, Masaya Okuda, Hiroyasu Yokomise, Nobuhiro Kanaji, Shuji Bandoh and Reiji Haba

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21736

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      In the current study, the authors perform nuclear morphometric analysis of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The results indicate that nuclear diameter appears to be independently associated with patient outcome.

    2. Quantitative phase imaging to improve the diagnostic accuracy of urine cytology

      Hoa V. Pham, Liron Pantanowitz and Yang Liu

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21734

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      The use of a simple, label-free quantitative phase imaging system for quantifying the cell and nuclear dry mass with nanometer sensitivity is presented. This method shows promise for providing a quantitative diagnosis for urothelial malignancy from urine cytology.

    3. The value of a transformation zone component in anal cytology to detect HSIL

      Jennifer M. Roberts, Fengyi Jin, Julia K. Thurloe, Deborah Ekman, Marjorie K. Adams, Ross L. McDonald, Clare Biro, I. Mary Poynten, Andrew E. Grulich, Annabelle Farnsworth and on behalf of The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC) Study Team

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21730

      In contrast to cervical cytology, the presence of a transformation zone (TZ) component may be an important indicator of sample quality for anal cytology. The authors report that negative anal cytology specimens without a TZ component appear to be more likely to be falsely negative than those with an adequate TZ component.

    4. Diagnostic concordance of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma subtypes between biopsy and cytology specimens obtained during the same procedure

      Mojgan Ebrahimi, Manon Auger, Sungmi Jung and Richard S. Fraser

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21739

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      Subtyping of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma can be achieved in most cases by considering findings in both biopsy and cytology specimens, and concordance in subtyping between cytology and biopsy specimens can be reached in a high percentage (89.2%) of cases.

    5. Fine-needle aspiration of soft tissue perineurioma: A comparative analysis of cytomorphology and immunohistochemistry with benign and malignant mimics

      Eric J. Yang, Jason L. Hornick and Xiaohua Qian

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21725

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      Soft tissue perineurioma, an underrecognized, benign peripheral nerve sheath neoplasm, has significant morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with its benign and malignant mimics. A practical diagnostic approach in limited biopsy material is to provide a differential diagnosis and to exclude low-grade sarcoma.

    6. Morphologists overestimate the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio

      Mingjuan L. Zhang, Alan X. Guo and Christopher J. VandenBussche

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21735

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      The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology sets quantitative nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio cutoff values as criteria for several of its diagnostic categories. Herein, the authors survey morphologists and nonmorphologists and find that all groups had a tendency to overestimate the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, especially at ratios near the cutoff values defined by The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology.

  5. Editorial

    1. You have free access to this content
      MicroRNA signatures in cytopathology: Are they ready for prime time?

      Francisco Beca and Fernando Schmitt

      Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21728

      In this issue of Cancer Cytopathology, Mancuso et al evaluate the use of a defined microRNA signature as a prognostic factor in small cell lung cancer. This editorial briefly comments on their article and shares views on the use of microRNA panels in contemporary practice in cytopathology.See also pages 000-000.

  6. Original Articles

    1. Prognostic impact of a 3-MicroRNA signature in cytological samples of small cell lung cancer

      Giuseppe Mancuso, Enrica Bovio, Ottavio Rena, Eltjona Rrapaj, Francesca Mercalli, Claudia Veggiani, Alessia Paganotti, Silvano Andorno and Renzo Boldorini

      Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21729

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      A specific microRNA signature is potentially useful for predicting survival for patients with small cell lung cancer. MicroRNA expression analysis is feasible with routine cytological samples, regardless of the sample source or the processing and fixation methods. See also pages 000-000.

    2. Digital holographic microscopy as screening tool for cervical cancer preliminary study

      Nazim Benzerdjeb, Christian Garbar, Philippe Camparo and Henri Sevestre

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21727

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      This preliminary study demonstrates for the first time that digital holographic microscopy is a suitable technique for screening gynecologic cervical samples. Although the criteria and parameters for holographic analysis need better definition, holographic analysis eventually may be performed automatically and could provide an instantaneous, cost-effective diagnosis from a closed vial with the preservation of all cellular material.

    3. Clinical significance of atypical glandular cells in Pap tests: An analysis of more than 3000 cases at a large academic women's center

      Dinesh Pradhan, Zaibo Li, Rebecca Ocque, Stell Patadji and Chengquan Zhao

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21724

      Some patients with Papanicolaou tests showing atypical glandular cells (14.4%) have precancerous or malignant lesions on histologic follow-up. Atypical glandular cell subtypes and ages significantly affect histological follow-up results.

    4. A superior method for cell block preparation for fine-needle aspiration biopsies

      Ronald Balassanian, Geoffrey D. Wool, Jill C. Ono, Jolanta Olejnik-Nave, Molinda M. Mah, Brenda J. Sweeney, Hava Liberman, Britt-Marie Ljung and Martha B. Pitman

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21722

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      In the current study, a statistically validated comparison of 3 different fine-needle aspiration biopsy cell block methods (saline plasma thrombin, HistoGel, and collodion bag) is performed. The results indicate that the collodion bag is a superior technique for cell block preparations.

    5. Cytologic features of angiosarcoma: A review of 26 cases diagnosed on FNA

      Rachel L. Geller, Kim Hookim, Harold C. Sullivan, Lauren N. Stuart, Mark A. Edgar and Michelle D. Reid

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21726

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      Angiosarcomas show a range of cytomorphologic features that, though not specific, make them potentially recognizable on cytology. However, immunocytochemistry and a high index of suspicion are required for an accurate diagnosis.

  7. Editorial

    1. You have free access to this content
      High apoptotic index in urine cytology is associated with high-grade urothelial carcinoma

      Dorothy L. Rosenthal

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21723

      In this issue, Yang and colleagues report that, using a high apoptotic index as a feature, the 2 categories “high-grade urine cytology” (HGUC) and “atypical urothelial cells, cannot exclude HGUC,” yield almost equal numbers of samples that, when combined, result in a tissue diagnosis of HGUC 79% of the time. The authors conclude that adding a high apoptotic index to the traditional cytologic features of urothelial carcinoma can improve the sensitivity of urinary cytology for detecting HGUC.

  8. Original Articles

    1. High apoptotic index in urine cytology is associated with high-grade urothelial carcinoma

      Chi-Shun Yang, Shaoxiong Chen, Harvey M. Cramer and Howard H. Wu

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21720

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      Urinary cytology is a useful, noninvasive and inexpensive test for screening patients with hematuria, or monitoring patients with prior history of urothelial carcinoma. Excluding the ileal conduit specimens, the presence of frequent pyknosis or karyorrhexis in the urine cytology is significantly associated with high-grade urothelial carcinoma.

    2. Can the careHPV test performed in mobile units replace cytology for screening in rural and remote areas?

      Adriana T. Lorenzi, José Humberto T. Fregnani, Júlio César Possati-Resende, Márcio Antoniazzi, Cristovam Scapulatempo-Neto, Stina Syrjänen, Luisa L. Villa and Adhemar Longatto-Filho

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21718

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      The human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test is an important tool that is used to improve screening programs. The HPV DNA test allows for the detection of early HPV-induced lesions in women, thereby enabling clinicians to provide the best possible follow-up.

    3. Cytopathologic features of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: A recently described variant to be considered in the differential diagnosis of clear cell renal epithelial neoplasms

      Sadia Sayeed, Kathryn G. Lindsey, Alexander S. Baras, Christopher Jackson, Celeste N. Powers, Cora Uram-Tuculescu and Steven C. Smith

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21721

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      Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma is a recently adopted, markedly indolent variant of renal cell carcinoma, the cytopathologic features of which have not been studied. Because of the key prognostic issues in comparison with clear cell tumors in the differential diagnosis, this study reviews a series of cases sampled in cytology preparations and finds distinctive features that in an appropriate clinical and immunophenotypic context may enable its prospective recognition.

    4. The cytomorphological features of low-grade urothelial neoplasms vary by specimen type

      Mingjuan L. Zhang, Dorothy L. Rosenthal and Christopher J. VandenBussche

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21716

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      Urinary tract washing specimens from patients with low-grade urothelial neoplasia (LGUN) appear to be significantly more likely to contain certain atypical features (the presence of cytoplasmic tails and nuclear eccentricity) than voided urine specimens from patients with LGUN and urinary tract washing specimens from patients with benign follow-up. This suggests that urinary tract washing may improve the detection of LGUN, although these specimens are much more likely to be diagnosed as indeterminate rather than given a definitive diagnosis of LGUN.

    5. Detection of PIK3CA mutations, including a novel mutation of V344G in exon 4, in metastatic lung adenocarcinomas: A retrospective study of 115 FNA cases

      Derek B. Allison, Mohammed T. Lilo, Susan Geddes, Aparna Pallavajjalla, Frederic Askin, Edward Gabrielson, Gang Zheng and Qing Kay Li

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21714

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      Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (P1K3CA) mutation is detected in 7 of 115 cases of metastatic adenocarcinoma (6.1%). Interestingly, a novel mutation for non–small cell lung carcinoma, p.V344G in exon 4, is detected in 2 cases.

    6. Chondroblastic osteosarcoma: Cytomorphologic characteristics and differential diagnosis on FNA

      Christopher J. VandenBussche, Srividya Sathiyamoorthy, Paul E. Wakely Jr and Syed Z. Ali

      Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21715

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      The authors identify the most commonly observed cytomorphological features in a case series of 17 cases of chondroblastic osteosarcoma found at 2 institutions: the presence of epithelioid tumor cells with round-to-oval nuclear borders, often discohesive and with a plasmacytoid appearance, in combination with some amount of matrix material. Careful review of the cytomorphological characteristics together with other clinicoradiological data can help to distinguish chondroblastic osteosarcomas from other morphologically similar entities, such as chondroblastoma, chondrosarcoma, and chondroid chordoma.

    7. Comparison between cytospin and liquid-based cytology in urine specimens classified according to the Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology

      Patrizia Straccia, Tommaso Bizzarro, Guido Fadda and Francesco Pierconti

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21709

      The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology category of atypical urothelial cells is easily recognized using the ThinPrep method compared with conventional cytospin preparation. In the current study, only the atypical urothelial cells that were diagnosed using the ThinPrep method appeared to correlate with cases that were negative for carcinoma or cases of low-grade urothelial carcinoma.

    8. Role of Epstein-Barr virus status and immunophenotypic studies in the evaluation of exfoliative cytology specimens from patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders

      Sarah E. Gibson, Jennifer Picarsic, Steven H. Swerdlow and Liron Pantanowitz

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21694

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      Atypical lymphoid proliferations are common in exfoliative cytology specimens from patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. Ancillary studies, including immunophenotyping and Epstein-Barr virus evaluations, are critical for a proper diagnosis, and they are particularly useful in evaluating polymorphic specimens that may cytologically overlap with benign disorders.

  9. Clinician's Corner

  10. Original Articles

    1. Histologic and clinical follow-up of thyroid fine-needle aspirates in pediatric patients

      Kristen L. Partyka, Eric C. Huang, Harvey M. Cramer, Shaoxiong Chen and Howard H. Wu

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21713

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      With thyroid fine-needle aspiration, the risk of malignancy, not including papillary microcarcinoma, for the pediatric population (≤18 years old) is 2% for benign aspirates, 21% for atypia of undetermined significance, 57% for follicular neoplasm, and 100% for suspicious or malignant aspirates.

    2. Time consumed by microscopic and nonmicroscopic tasks in image-assisted gynecologic screening: Implications for workload assessment

      Andrew A. Renshaw, Dawn Underwood, Ghada Aramoni, Beverly Cash, Maureen Croyle, Dave Deeds, Sandra Dolar, Stephen Gmitro, Nancy Ray, Debbie Sabo, Julie A. Shorie, Bridgette Springer, Dana Weber Moffsinger and Tarik M. Elsheikh

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21711

      Cases with and without full manual review (FMR) were found to take an average of 5.9 minutes and 3.0 minutes to screen, respectively, and 1 additional minute between slides. Approximately 60% and 30% of screening time is occupied by nonmicroscopic activities for field of view (FOV) and FMR cases, respectively. The US Food and Drug Administration/Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services workload limits significantly underestimate the time needed to screen FOV-only cases, but appear to be adequate for FMR plus FOV cases.

    3. The impact of FNAC in the management of salivary gland lesions: Institutional experiences leading to a risk-based classification scheme

      Esther Diana Rossi, Lawrence Q. Wong, Tommaso Bizzarro, Gianluigi Petrone, Antonio Mule, Guido Fadda and Zubair M. Baloch

      Version of Record online: 9 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21710

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      The role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is analyzed in the evaluation of salivary gland lesions regardless of the cytologic preparation used. The authors discuss and explore the possibility of classifying FNAC specimens of salivary gland lesions into risk-based diagnostic categories for the effective management of patients.

    4. Napsin A/p40 antibody cocktail for subtyping non-small cell lung carcinoma on cytology and small biopsy specimens

      Michiya Nishino, Mai P. Hoang, Patricia Della Pelle, Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Tiffany G. Huynh, Eugene J. Mark and Mari Mino-Kenudson

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21707

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      Subtyping non-small cell lung carcinoma cases into adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma can be critical for treatment depending on stage and for tissue management. An antibody cocktail targeting napsin A and p40 can accurately subtype the majority of cases of non-small cell lung carcinoma on 1 slide of cell block or small biopsy specimens.

    5. Should the BK polyomavirus cytopathic effect be best classified as atypical or benign in urine cytology specimens?

      Derek B. Allison, Matthew T. Olson, Mohammed Lilo, Mingjuan L. Zhang, Dorothy L. Rosenthal and Christopher J. VandenBussche

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21705

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      When urinary cytology cases with polyoma (BK) virus are reclassified from atypical to benign, the diagnostic rate for the atypical category is reduced from 24.8% to 20.7%. However, patients with new-onset hematuria have a high rate of high-grade urothelial carcinoma on follow-up, and this calls into question whether the reclassification of specimens with such findings into the benign category is appropriate.

    6. The performance of anal cytology as a screening test for anal HSILs in homosexual men

      Fengyi Jin, Andrew E. Grulich, I. Mary Poynten, Richard J. Hillman, David J. Templeton, Carmella L.H. Law, Annabelle Farnsworth, Suzanne M. Garland, Christopher K. Fairley, Jennifer M. Roberts and On behalf of the SPANC Study Team

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21702

      In a largely community-based cohort of homosexual men in Sydney, Australia, liquid-based anal cytology appears to have a higher specificity in older men while maintaining a sensitivity that is similar to that of cervical cytology. Sensitivity appears to be higher among those with more extensive high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and individuals with metaplastic cells present on cytology.

  11. Commentary

    1. Thyroid FNA: New classifications and new interpretations

      David N. Poller, Zubair W. Baloch, Guido Fadda, Sarah J. Johnson, Massimo Bongiovanni, Alfredo Pontecorvi and Béatrix Cochand-Priollet

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21703

      The main goals of the symposium entitled “Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration: New Classifications and New Interpretations” are the presentation and discussion of the thyroid fine-needle aspiration terminologies most commonly used, an analysis of their respective advantages and limitations, and a statement of how ancillary techniques could reduce the number of indeterminate cases.

  12. Original Articles

    1. Usefulness of translocation-associated immunohistochemical stains in the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasms

      Wen-Chi Foo, Vickie Y. Jo and Jeffrey F. Krane

      Version of Record online: 16 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21693

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      An immunohistochemical panel with MYB, KIT, PLAG1 and HMGA2 on fine-needle aspiration cell blocks aids in distinguishing adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and pleomorphic adenoma (PA) from each other and from other salivary gland neoplasms. MYB and KIT expression is associated with ACC whereas PLAG1 or HMGA2 expression characterizes PA.

    2. FNA smears as a potential source of DNA for targeted next-generation sequencing of lung adenocarcinomas

      Amanda L. Treece, Nathan D. Montgomery, Nirali M. Patel, Chris J. Civalier, Leslie G. Dodd, Margaret L. Gulley, Jessica K. Booker and Karen E. Weck

      Version of Record online: 16 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21699

      Diff-Quik–stained fine-needle aspiration cytology smears are a source of easily extracted high-quality DNA suitable for targeted next-generation sequencing. In 1 year of clinical utilization, 100% of fine-needle aspiration smears submitted for sequencing yielded adequate DNA for sequencing with equal or higher quality measures in comparison with other specimen types.

  13. Commentary

    1. Validation of immunocytochemistry as a morphomolecular technique

      Perry Maxwell and Manuel Salto-Tellez

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21692

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      Cytology-specific validations are at the core of the management of uncertainty and in meeting accreditation standards. We advocate that the main cytology preanalytic variables contributing toward quality should be identified and controlled. In addition, the validation of Immunocytochemistry (ICC) should take the same rigorous approach that other molecular pathology techniques follow. A three-step validation protocol is offered here where the end result is a comprehensive, morphomolecular approach to ICC, with an emphasis on therapeutic ICC.

    2. Highlights for the cytology community from the 2015 American Thyroid Association clinical guidelines on the management of thyroid nodules and well-differentiated thyroid cancer

      Erik K. Alexander, William C. Faquin and Jeffrey F. Krane

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21662

      The 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines reinforce the central role of thyroid fine-needle aspiration in the management of patients with concerning thyroid nodules. Of particular note to the cytology community, the guidelines endorse: 1) nodule selection for fine-needle aspiration based on size and ultrasonographic risk stratification; 2) adoption of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology; and 3) a role for molecular testing in the management of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology results.

    3. Detection and characterization of circulating tumor cells in lung cancer: Why and how?

      Véronique J. Hofman, Marius Ilie and Paul M. Hofman

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cncy.21651

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      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. It has a poor prognosis, with a survival rate of 15% after 5 years for all pTNM stages of disease. The poor prognosis is mainly due to the fact that diagnosis is made at a late inoperable stage. New approaches aimed at improving the quality and length of life among these patients are urgently needed. These advances are expected to come from noninvasive, predictive, and personalized new tests, recently referred to as “liquid biopsies,” which are used for diagnostic, prognostic, and theragnostic purposes.

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