Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems


The Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model

Guest Editor(s): B. Stevens

Description: This special section is devoted to the scientific description of the MPI-ESM, the Earth System Model developed by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. The MPI has a long history of developing high-quality coupled models. This newest generation of our coupled model is the first to systematically incorporate the carbon cycle and represent dynamic vegetation, but equally important is its improved representation of basic physical processes. The papers in this section present a description of the MPI-ESM, and an initial evaluation---including the development of several novel configurations and features.

  1. Regular Articles

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    2. Regular Articles
    1. You have full text access to this Open Access content
      MAC-v1: A new global aerosol climatology for climate studies (pages 704–740)

      Stefan Kinne, Declan O'Donnel, Philip Stier, Silvia Kloster, Kai Zhang, Hauke Schmidt, Sebastian Rast, Marco Giorgetta, Tom F. Eck and Bjorn Stevens

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jame.20035

      Key Points

      • Aerosol monthly climatology for global modeling
      • Aerosol direct radiative effects
      • Temporal change in aerosol direct radiative forcing
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      Forcing and feedback in the MPI-ESM-LR coupled model under abruptly quadrupled CO2 (pages 676–691)

      K. Block and T. Mauritsen

      Version of Record online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jame.20041

      Key Points

      • Effective climate sensitivity could be considered a function of climate state
      • Fast cloud and temperature adjustments contribute to forcing
      • Feedbacks and fast adjustments in MPI-ESM-LR are documented
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      Climate and carbon cycle changes from 1850 to 2100 in MPI-ESM simulations for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (pages 572–597)

      Marco A. Giorgetta, Johann Jungclaus, Christian H. Reick, Stephanie Legutke, Jürgen Bader, Michael Böttinger, Victor Brovkin, Traute Crueger, Monika Esch, Kerstin Fieg, Ksenia Glushak, Veronika Gayler, Helmuth Haak, Heinz-Dieter Hollweg, Tatiana Ilyina, Stefan Kinne, Luis Kornblueh, Daniela Matei, Thorsten Mauritsen, Uwe Mikolajewicz, Wolfgang Mueller, Dirk Notz, Felix Pithan, Thomas Raddatz, Sebastian Rast, Rene Redler, Erich Roeckner, Hauke Schmidt, Reiner Schnur, Joachim Segschneider, Katharina D. Six, Martina Stockhause, Claudia Timmreck, Jörg Wegner, Heinrich Widmann, Karl-H. Wieners, Martin Claussen, Jochem Marotzke and Bjorn Stevens

      Version of Record online: 17 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jame.20038

      Key Points

      • The climate feedback in MPI-ESM is non-linear and depends on the forcing history
      • Ocean heat uptake is reduced in a warmer climate.
      • Patterns of temperature and precipitation changes are robust for RCP26/45/85.
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      Representation of natural and anthropogenic land cover change in MPI-ESM (pages 459–482)

      C. H. Reick, T. Raddatz, V. Brovkin and V. Gayler

      Version of Record online: 18 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jame.20022

      Key Points

      • Description of models for natural and anthropogenic land cover change
      • Accounting for the preferential allocation of pastures on former grasslands
      • Accounting for land use change induced by changes in natural vegetation
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      Characteristics of the ocean simulations in the Max Planck Institute Ocean Model (MPIOM) the ocean component of the MPI-Earth system model (pages 422–446)

      J. H. Jungclaus, N. Fischer, H. Haak, K. Lohmann, J. Marotzke, D. Matei, U. Mikolajewicz, D. Notz and J. S. von Storch

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jame.20023

      Key Points

      • documentation the performance of MPIOM in the new MPI-ESM coupled system
      • Assessment of impact of ocean resolution
      • Specific investigation of the Agulhas region
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      Seasonal aspects of the quasi-biennial oscillation in the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model and ERA-40 (pages 406–421)

      Thomas R. Krismer, Marco A. Giorgetta and Monika Esch

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jame.20024

      Key Points

      • Phase Alignment of QBO westerly jets at 5 hPa in spring and fall due to SAO
      • Seasonal varying propagation of jets initiated in spring and fall
      • Propagation rates modulated by varying wave forcing and momentum advection
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      Land contribution to natural CO2 variability on time scales of centuries (pages 354–365)

      Rainer Schneck, Christian H. Reick and Thomas Raddatz

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jame.20029

      Key Points

      • Quantification of natural C cycle variability on centennial time scales.
      • Natural C cycle variability is caused by the land and is buffered by the ocean.
      • Natural C cycle variability is mainly caused by LAI variations.
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      Global ocean biogeochemistry model HAMOCC: Model architecture and performance as component of the MPI-Earth system model in different CMIP5 experimental realizations (pages 287–315)

      Tatiana Ilyina, Katharina D. Six, Joachim Segschneider, Ernst Maier-Reimer, Hongmei Li and Ismael Núñez-Riboni

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000178

      Key Points

      • Evaluation of the model HAMOCC within CMIP5 experiments
      • Ocean biogeochemistry in an Earth system model
      • Ocean carbon cycle in idealized CMIP5 experiments
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      Combined evaluation of MPI-ESM land surface water and energy fluxes (pages 259–286)

      Stefan Hagemann, Alexander Loew and A. Andersson

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000173

      Key Points

      • MPI-ESM has considerably improved surface SW radiation fluxes compared to ECHAM5
      • Coupling to ocean model leads to improved precipitation over Ganges/B.catchment
      • MPI-ESM is suited for climate change studies on land surface water/energy fluxes
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      Arctic sea-ice evolution as modeled by Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth system model (pages 173–194)

      Dirk Notz, F. Alexander Haumann, Helmuth Haak, Johann H. Jungclaus and Jochem Marotzke

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jame.20016

      Key Points

      • Simulations of Arctic sea ice with MPI-ESM agree well with observations
      • Estimates of sea-ice volume trends depend on choice of atmospheric reanalysis
      • Modeled sea-ice evolution significantly lags behind CO2 concentration changes
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      Atmospheric component of the MPI-M Earth System Model: ECHAM6 (pages 146–172)

      Bjorn Stevens, Marco Giorgetta, Monika Esch, Thorsten Mauritsen, Traute Crueger, Sebastian Rast, Marc Salzmann, Hauke Schmidt, Jürgen Bader, Karoline Block, Renate Brokopf, Irina Fast, Stefan Kinne, Luis Kornblueh, Ulrike Lohmann, Robert Pincus, Thomas Reichler and Erich Roeckner

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jame.20015

      Key Points

      • To describe ECHAM6, as it was configured for participation in CMIP5
      • To describe the climate of ECHAM6
      • To describe the climate sensitivity of ECHAM6
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      Tropical precipitation and convection changes in the Max Planck Institute Earth system model (MPI-ESM) in response to CO2 forcing (pages 85–97)

      Traute Crueger, Cathy Hohenegger and Wilhelm May

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jame.20012

      Key Points

      • Convection scheme obeys climate change rules derived from CRM except over land
      • Link to land surface processes yields different precipitation sensitivity to CO2
      • Tropical deep convection gets less frequent (-5.5%/K) and deeper (3.8 %/K)
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      Response of the middle atmosphere to anthropogenic and natural forcings in the CMIP5 simulations with the Max Planck Institute Earth system model (pages 98–116)

      H. Schmidt, S. Rast, F. Bunzel, M. Esch, M. Giorgetta, S. Kinne, T. Krismer, G. Stenchikov, C. Timmreck, L. Tomassini and M. Walz

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jame.20014

      Key Points

      • Middle atmosphere features of the MPI-ESM and external data are described
      • Middle atmosphere response to climate forcing in CMIP5 simulations is discussed
      • Future middle atmosphere evolution depends strongly on the emission scenario
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      Madden-Julian oscillation as simulated by the MPI Earth System Model: Over the last and into the next millennium (pages 71–84)

      Jonathan J. Schubert, Bjorn Stevens and Traute Crueger

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000180

      Key Points

      • The MJO varies on interannual to interdecadal time scales
      • Solar variability and volcanoes may have influenced the MJO strength marginally
      • CO2 increased by 1% per year over 150 yrs show the MJO to strengthen by 11%
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      Evaluation of vegetation cover and land-surface albedo in MPI-ESM CMIP5 simulations (pages 48–57)

      V. Brovkin, L. Boysen, T. Raddatz, V. Gayler, A. Loew and M. Claussen

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000169

      Key Points

      • Two metrics are proposed to evaluate vegetation cover simulated by ESMs
      • On a global scale, tree cover is satisfactory simulated by MPI-ESM
      • Land-surface albedois evaluated using the net surface radiation
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      Climate and climate change in a radiative-convective equilibrium version of ECHAM6 (pages 1–14)

      D. Popke, B. Stevens and A. Voigt

      Version of Record online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000191

      Key Points

      • ECHAM6 is configured to run in RCE with a mixed-layer ocean
      • RCE similar to tropics in mean vertical structure and overturning circulation
      • Lower climate sensitivity in RCE than in full GCM although feedbacks are present
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      Factors controlling the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone on an aquaplanet

      Benjamin Möbis and Bjorn Stevens

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000199

      Key Points

      • Aquaplanet simulations with Nordeng (Tiedtke) scheme show a single (double) ITCZ
      • ITCZ depends on feedback loop involving convective heating & Hadley circulation
      • High humidity sensitivity of the convection scheme prevents a double ITCZ
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      The role of stratosphere-troposphere coupling in the occurrence of extreme winter cold spells over northern Europe

      Lorenzo Tomassini, Edwin P. Gerber, Mark P. Baldwin, Felix Bunzel and Marco Giorgetta

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000177

      Key Points

      • Significant connection between cold spells and weak stratospheric polar vortex
      • The strong stratospheric warmings cause polar tropopause height to decrease
      • Anomalies in the residual mean meridional circulation are not key
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      Impact of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice in past and future climates as simulated by MPI-ESM

      Erich Roeckner, Thorsten Mauritsen, Monika Esch and Renate Brokopf

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000157

      Key Points

      • Melt ponds tend to enhance the ice albedo feedback
      • Notable impact on Arctic sea ice patterns
      • Notable impact on centennial Arctic sea ice trends
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      Tuning the climate of a global model

      Thorsten Mauritsen, Bjorn Stevens, Erich Roeckner, Traute Crueger, Monika Esch, Marco Giorgetta, Helmuth Haak, Johann Jungclaus, Daniel Klocke, Daniela Matei, Uwe Mikolajewicz, Dirk Notz, Robert Pincus, Hauke Schmidt and Lorenzo Tomassini

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000154

      Key Points

      • Global climate models are tuned out of necessity
      • Model tuning is not often described and discussed
      • We attempt to de-mystify tuning

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