Drug Testing and Analysis

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Mario Thevis

Impact Factor: 3.276

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 67/261 (Pharmacology & Pharmacy)

Online ISSN: 1942-7611

VIEW

  1. 1 - 75
  1. Research articles

    1. Changes in patterns of injecting drug use in Hungary: a shift to synthetic cathinones

      Anna Péterfi, Anna Tarján, Gergely Csaba Horváth, Tamás Csesztregi and Adrienn Nyírády

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1625

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      Changes in the drug market, a decline in the availability of heroin, and the spread of new psychoactive substances, have affected patterns of injecting drug use in Hungary. Presented data show an increasing trend in the injection of cathinones and a parallel drop in heroin injection that have been taking place in Hungary since 2010.

  2. Reviews

    1. Dried blood spots: Concepts, present status, and future perspectives in bioanalysis

      Abhisheak Sharma, Swati Jaiswal, Mahendra Shukla and Jawahar Lal

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1646

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      Present review comprises a brief, nevertheless complete, compilation of information on DBS technology up to 2013. Methodology, applications, strengths, and constraints of DBS technique altogether with regulatory aspects are critically reviewed.

  3. Research articles

    1. SULT 1A3 single-nucleotide polymorphism and the single dose pharmacokinetics of inhaled salbutamol enantiomers: Are some athletes at risk of higher urine levels?

      Glenn A Jacobson, Kwang Choon Yee, Richard Wood-Baker and E. Haydn Walters

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1645

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      Common polymorphisms in the main metabolizing enzyme for salbutamol (SULTA1A3; 105A>G sSNP (rs1975350) do not put some athletes at risk of higher urine levels and adverse analytical findings.

    2. Targeting misuse of 2-amino-N-ethyl-1-phenylbutane in urine samples: in vitro–in vivo correlation of metabolic profiles and development of LC-TOF-MS method

      Masaki Kobayashi, Anna Pelander, Raimo A. Ketola, Antti Leinonen and Tiia Kuuranne

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1642

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      Routine mass spectrometric detection methods targeted to amphetamine derivatives can be easily extended to monitor a phenyethylamine derivative, 2-amino-N-ethyl-1-phenylbutane (2-AEPB), in doping control and drugs-of-abuse analysis of urine samples.

  4. Reviews

    1. From PCP to MXE: a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs

      Hamilton Morris and Jason Wallach

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1620

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      The non-medical use of over 30 dissociative drugs are reviewed spanning over 60 years. A complete portrait of this underground market is presented along with the relevant legal, technological and scientific developments which have driven its evolution.

  5. Research articles

    1. HILIC-UPLC-MS/MS combined with hierarchical clustering analysis to rapidly analyze and evaluate nucleobases and nucleosides in Ginkgo biloba leaves

      Xin Yao, Guisheng Zhou, Yuping Tang, Sheng Guo, Dawei Qian and Jin-ao Duan

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1634

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      A HILIC-UPLC-TQ-MS/MS has been successfully developed and employed to determine 11 nucleosides and nucleobases in G. biloba leaves. The established approach could be helpful for evaluation of the potential values as dietary supplements and the quality control of G. biloba leaves, which might also be utilized for the investigation of other medicinal herbs containing nucleobases and nucleosides.

    2. Production of human metabolites by gastrointestinal bacteria as a potential source of post-mortem alteration of antemortem drug/metabolite concentrations

      Stephanie M. Martindale, Robert H. Powers and Suzanne C. Bell

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1647

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      This research investigated the effects of Escherichia coli, Bacteroides fragilis, and Clostridium perfringens on drugs of abuse and compared bacterial biotransformation products to those of human metabolism. Diazepam samples inoculated with Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis demonstrated a decrease in concentration between pre- and post-incubation; however there was no corresponding increase in concentration for the monitored human metabolites. Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, and mixed culture resulted in nearly complete conversion of flunitrazepam to 7-aminoflunitrazepam.

  6. Short communications

    1. Detectability of new psychoactive substances, ‘legal highs’, in CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunochemical screening assays for drugs of abuse

      Olof Beck, Linnea Rausberg, Yasir Al-Saffar, Tomas Villen, Lennart Karlsson, Therese Hansson and Anders Helander

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1641

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      Cross-reactivity data for 45 new psychoactive substances was reported for three routine urine drug screening immunoassays. In spiked urine samples, several new substances showed significant cross-reactivity and may be detectable in the routine screening methods. In the samples from authentic cases, new substances displaying 100% detection rate in the CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy test were 2-fluoromethamphetamine (2-FMA), (3-diethylamino-2,2-dimethylpropyl)-4-aminobenzoate (dimethocaine), para-fluorophenylpiperazine (p-FPP), para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) and 3-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP).

  7. Correspondence case reports

    1. What's the deal? Trends in Irish street-level heroin and cocaine 2010-2012

      Michelle Boyle, Lynn Carroll, Karen Clarke, Paula Clarke, Hugh J. Coyle, Henry English, Miriam Goff, Eugene Kane, Sarah Killoran and Kristen O'Connor

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1639

  8. Research articles

    1. Validation of the only commercially available immunoassay for synthetic cathinones in urine: Randox Drugs of Abuse V Biochip Array Technology

      Kayla N. Ellefsen, Sébastien Anizan, Marisol S. Castaneto, Nathalie A. Desrosiers, Thomas M. Martin, Kevin L. Klette and Marilyn A. Huestis

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1633

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      The use of designer drugs has grown rapidly over the past several years, including abuse of synthetic cathinones designed to elicit effects similar to methamphetamine, cocaine and 3’,4’-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). High-throughput screening methods and sensitive and specific confirmation methods for synthetic cathinones are needed for workplace (including military) and criminal justice programs. The first commercially available immunoassay for synthetic cathinones in urine, the Randox Drugs of Abuse V, was fully validated and assay performance assessed with authentic human urine specimens.

    2. Cannabinoid disposition in oral fluid after controlled cannabis smoking in frequent and occasional smokers

      Matthew N. Newmeyer, Nathalie A. Desrosiers, Dayong Lee, Damodara R. Mendu, Allan J. Barnes, David A. Gorelick and Marilyn A. Huestis

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1632

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      Quantification of multiple oral fluid (OF) cannabinoids improves test interpretation, but differences in OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics between frequent and occasional smokers are not fully characterized. Additionally, it is unclear if the new Oral-Eze® OF collection device will perform similarly to other commercially available devices. Our data illustrate the effectiveness of the Oral-Eze® device for OF collection, the impact of self-administered smoked cannabis history on OF cannabinoid results, and the ability to improve interpretation and tailor OF cannabinoid cut-offs to fulfill the detection window needs of different drug testing programs.

  9. Perspectives

    1. Workplace drug testing in Italy: Findings about second-stage testing

      Claudia Vignali, Cristiana Stramesi, Luca Morini, Paolo San Bartolomeo and Angelo Groppi

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1640

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      We analyzed urine and hair specimens from 120 workers undergoing second-level testing between 2009 and 2012. As regards urine samples, 71.2% of workers were always negative, 23.9% tested positive at least once for cannabinoids, and 2.5% for cocaine. Hair analyses produced surprising results: 61.9% of hair samples tested negative, only 6.2% tested positive for cannabinoids, whereas 28.8% tested positive for cocaine. These findings confirm that second-level surveillance of WDT, which includes hair analysis, is very effective because it highlightd drug intake – sometimes heavy – that cannot be revealed through a few urine analyses.

  10. Reviews

    1. Kitchen chemistry: A scoping review of the diversionary use of pharmaceuticals for non-medicinal use and home production of drug solutions

      Marie Claire Van Hout

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1622

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      The misuse of pharmaceuticals is of increasing drug policy and public health concern. A scoping review was conducted on the diversionary use of pharmaceuticals for non-medicinal use and home production of drug solutions. Adverse health and social consequences relate to the use of unknown and contaminated (end) substances, injecting practices, redosing, virus transmission, medical complications (poly neuropathy, phlegmon, gangrene, necrosis of the jaw) and death. Proactive drug monitoring, and coordinated harm reduction, medical and social care interventions are warranted.

  11. Research articles

    1. Metabolic pathways of anthelmintic drug monepantel in sheep and in its parasite (Haemonchus contortus)

      Lucie Stuchlíková, Robert Jirásko, Ivan Vokřál, Martin Valát, Jiří Lamka, Barbora Szotáková, Michal Holčapek and Lenka Skálová

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1630

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      Biotransformation of monepantel (MOP) was studied in sheep in vivo and in its parasite Haemonchus contortus ex vivo. UHPLC-MS/MS analysis led to the identification of 13 MOP metabolites in ovine urine, faeces and 4 MOP metabolites in nematodes. Based on obtained results, schemes of metabolic pathways of MOP in sheep and nematodes were proposed.

    2. Characterization of the designer benzodiazepine diclazepam and preliminary data on its metabolism and pharmacokinetics

      Bjoern Moosmann, Philippe Bisel and Volker Auwärter

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1628

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      Based on a self-experiment, preliminary data on the metabolism, pharmacokinetics and detectability of the new designer benzodiazepine diclazepam in biological fluids are presented. It could be shown that this new drug has an approximate elimination half-life of 42 h and is metabolized into the pharmacologically active benzodiazepines delorazepam, lorazepam and lormetazepam. Furthermore, applying the presented LC-MS/MS method, consumption of one tablet diclazepam could be detected for 10 days in serum and 11 days in urine when targeting the metabolites.

  12. Short communications

    1. The rise of new psychoactive substance use in Australia

      Lucy Burns, Amanda Roxburgh, Allison Matthews, Raimondo Bruno, Simon Lenton and Joe Van Buskirk

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1626

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      New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) are now a feature of Australia's recreational drug market with almost half of those who use ecstasy on a regular basis also reporting use of at least one NPS. The popularity of particular NPS rapidly changes and those with hallucinogenic effects are now most commonly reported. Monitoring systems need to become more ‘real time’ to monitor this highly dynamic market.

  13. Research articles

    1. Lefetamine-derived designer drugs N-ethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NEDPA) and N-iso-propyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NPDPA): Metabolism and detectability in rat urine using GC-MS, LC-MSn and LC-HR-MS/MS

      Carina S. D. Wink, Golo M. J. Meyer, Dirk K. Wissenbach, Andrea Jacobsen-Bauer, Markus R. Meyer and Hans H. Maurer

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1621

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      N-Ethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NEDPA) and N-iso-propyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NPDPA) are two new designer drugs, derived from the scheduled drug lefetamine. The present work describes phase I and phase II metabolism of these drugs in rat urine studied using GC-MS and LC-HR-MS/MS and the detectability of an intake in urine using the authors’ GC-MS and LC-MSn standard urine.

    2. A high-throughput LC-MS/MS screen for GHRP in equine and human urine, featuring peptide derivatization for improved chromatography

      Mark Timms, Nikki Hall, Vita Levina, John Vine and Rohan Steel

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1624

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      A method for extracting, derivatising and detecting GHRP in equine and human urine by LC/MS/MS. Derivatisation is used to neutralise basic amino acid residues, improving reversed phase chromatography in difficult matrices.

    3. Factors influencing total carbon dioxide concentrations in plasma of thoroughbred and standardbred racehorses

      Gordon J. Sutton, Adam Cawley, Cary Murphy, Marcus L. Lau and D. Brynn Hibbert

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1600

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      The similarities and differences between the distributions of ‘total carbon dioxide’ concentrations in plasma of thoroughbred (flat racing, gallops) and standardbred (harness racing, trotters) racehorses are explored. Seasonal variations in the distribution means were identified and found similar for the two populations, with the effects peaking in winter. Evidence of a small standardbred subpopulation with a raised mean was found, suggesting some degree of alkalinising salts were being administered.

    4. Determination of levamisole, aminorex, and pemoline in plasma by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and application to a pharmacokinetic study of levamisole

      Cornelius Hess, Natalie Ritke, Konrad Sydow, Lena-Maria Mehling, Hauke Ruehs, Burkhard Madea and Frank Musshoff

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1619

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Aminorex was found to be a metabolite of levamisole. It could be determined in plasma and urine samples after administration of levamisole or after misuse of cocaine, however, in very low concentrations. Pemoline, an oxidation product of aminorex found in equine urine, could not be detected in human material.

  14. Correspondence case reports

  15. Research articles

    1. Drug-drug interaction and doping, part 2: An in vitro study on the effect of non-prohibited drugs on the phase I metabolic profile of stanozolol

      Monica Mazzarino, Xavier de la Torre, Ilaria Fiacco and Francesco Botrè

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1608

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      This study was designed to provide information on the effects that drug-drug interaction might have on the effectiveness of the strategies currently followed by anti-doping laboratories to detect the intake of banned agents. In vitro assays were applied to characterize the metabolic profile of the synthetic anabolic androgenic steroid stanozolol in the absence and in the presence of medicaments commonly administered to athletes. The results show that antifungals and antidepressants caused significant alteration of the stanozolol metabolic profile.

    2. Direct analysis of traditional Chinese medicines using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS)

      Jing Zhao, Yang Liu, Andrew M. Fales, Janna Register, Hsiangkuo Yuan and Tuan Vo-Dinh

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1612

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      The potential of SERS was demonstrated as a sensitive, rapid, and non-destructive method to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the active constituents in raw TCM products. Two important TCMs, namely Coptis chinensis and Phellodendron amurense, and their main active constituent, berberine were analyzed. The results were consistent with the results of DFT calculations and LCMS analyses.

    3. Prospective evaluation of potential toxicity of repeated doses of Thymus vulgaris L. extracts in rats by means of clinical chemistry, histopathology and NMR-based metabonomic approach

      Fouzia Benourad, Zehra Kahvecioglu, Mokhtar Youcef-Benkada and Jean-Marie Colet

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1606

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      Compared with the negative results of the histopathology examinations of the liver and kidney tissues, the metabonomics study did highlight some slight variations in the urine excretion of some metabolites.

  16. Perspectives

    1. Monitoring drug markets in the Internet age and the evolution of drug monitoring systems in Australia

      Lucy Burns, Amanda Roxburgh, Raimondo Bruno and Joe Van Buskirk

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1613

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      In Australia drug monitoring systems have been in place for more than a decade, allowing for the measurement of ongoing trends in drug use and the detection of new drugs. The Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) measures the price, purity, and availability of drugs that are primarily injected. The Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) monitors psychostimulants that are used recreationally. The National Illicit Drugs Indicator Project (NIDIP) analyzes indicator data including drug related hospitalizations and deaths. Finally, the Drugs and Emerging Technologies Project (DNeT) analyzes the role of the Internet in the procurement and use of novel psychoactive substances. This paper provides an overview of each component of the system, demonstrating how the system has evolved over time.

  17. Research articles

    1. Studies on the minor metabolite 6a-hydroxy-androstenedione for doping control purposes and its contribution to the steroid profile

      Michael Polet, Pieter Van Renterghem, Wim Van Gansbeke and Peter Van Eenoo

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1618

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      This study encompasses 6aOH-ADION reference population data (n = 2128) measured with GCMS/MS. A urinary concentration threshold of 5 ng/mL was set. Concentrations above this threshold are considered as suspicious and are forwarded to IRMS for confirmation in routine practice.

    2. Docetaxel epimerization in silicone films: a case of drug excipient incompatibility

      Shaikh Mohsin, Ian Harvey Arellano, Namita Roy Choudhury and Sanjay Garg

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1617

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      An atypical case of Docetaxel (DTX) epimerization within the drug-eluting silicone films is facilitated mainly by the tin catalyst, a usual component of room temperature curing silicone products, and partly by the release media.

    3. Variability of blood alcohol content (BAC) determinations: The role of measurement uncertainty, significant figures, and decision rules for compliance assessment in the frame of a multiple BAC threshold law

      Luca Zamengo, Giampietro Frison, Gianpaola Tedeschi, Samuela Frasson, Flavio Zancanaro and Rocco Sciarrone

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1614

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      The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate major sources of variability for BAC determinations; (2) to estimate measurement uncertainty for routine BAC determinations; (3) to discuss the role of measurement uncertainty in compliance assessment; (4) to set decision rules for a multi-level BAC threshold law, as provided in the Italian road traffic legislation; (5) to address the topic of the zero-alcohol limit from the forensic toxicology point of view; and (6) to discuss the role of significant figures and rounding errors on measurement accuracy and compliance assessment.

  18. Short communications

    1. The syntheses, characterization and in vitro metabolism of nitracaine, methoxypiperamide and mephtetramine

      John D. Power, Kenneth R. Scott, Elizabeth A. Gardner, Bronagh M. Curran McAteer, John E. O'Brien, Margaret Brehon, Brian Talbot and Pierce V. Kavanagh

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1616

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      Three compounds, nitracaine, methoxypiperamide (MEOP) and mephtetramine (MTTA), appeared in 2013 as new ‘psychoactive’ substances (NPS) on Internet websites selling ‘research chemicals’. These compounds were synthesized and characterized. Their in vitro metabolic profiles were also investigated.

  19. Perspectives

    1. New psychoactive substances legislation in Ireland – Perspectives from academia

      Pierce V. Kavanagh and John D. Power

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1598

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      The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the Irish market is reflective of their appearance in many countries with some notable exceptions. The official response to the situation in Ireland is examined here by looking at recent developments in controlled drugs legislation and, specifically, their effects on academic research.

  20. Research articles

    1. Development and comparison of two competitive ELISAs for estimation of cotinine in human exposed to environmental tobacco smoke

      Yajing Lei, Qian Zhang, Lizheng Fang, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Kanwal Rehman, Zhiming Liu, Weixing Shi and Shuqing Chen

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1609

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      Cotinine is a biomarker for the estimation of ETS in population but its detection is rather difficult and complicated. We developed a direct competitive ELISA for the estimation of COT from urine samples and compared it with indirect competitive ELISA. The comparative results of the two competitive ELISAs (direct vs. indirect) indicate that our developed method is simple, precise, and can be applied for the routine analysis and high throughput determination of COT in urine.

  21. Perspectives

    1. New psychoactive substances as adulterants of controlled drugs. A worrying phenomenon?

      Claudio Vidal Giné, Iván Fornís Espinosa and Mireia Ventura Vilamala

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1610

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      The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) as adulterants of illegal drugs has not been documented in scientific literature. In this paper, data from a Spanish Drug Checking Service are presented. NPS (phenethylamines, amphetamines, substituted cathinones, tryptamines, and arylcyclohexylamines) were detected as substitutes for or mixed with illegal drugs. More research is needed in order to determine the risks of these combinations. Drug Checking Services can play an important role in reducing the harms associated with this phenomenon.

  22. Research articles

    1. Assessment of different mouthwashes on cannabis oral fluid concentrations

      Ana de Castro, Elena Lendoiro, Hadriana Fernández-Vega, Manuel López-Rivadulla, Stefan Steinmeyer and Angelines Cruz

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1605

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      We evaluate the effect of different mouthwashes on tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) oral fluid concentrations, and those observed in passive smokers subjected to extreme contamination conditions. THC concentrations at t= 0.25h were >3-fold higher than the cut-off employed by the Spanish police (25 ng/mL) regardless of the use of any mouthwash. THC was found in passive smokers' oral fluid, although at concentrations <25 ng/mL.

    2. Fatty acid ethyl esters in hair: correlation with self-reported ethanol intake in 160 subjects and influence of estroprogestin therapy

      Elisabetta Bertol, Ester Del Bravo, Fabio Vaiano, Francesco Mari and Donata Favretto

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1595

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      Fatty acid ethyl esters are minor ethanol metabolites that can accumulate in hair. To verify their performance as a biomarker discriminating null or moderate drinking from risky drinking, the relationship between selfreported daily alcohol intake and fatty acid ethyl esters in hair was studied in 160 healthy volunteers including teetotalers, moderate and social drinkers (< 60 g of ethanol per day) and heavy drinkers (≥ 60 g/day).

    3. Drug-drug interaction and doping, part 1: An in vitro study on the effect of non-prohibited drugs on the phase I metabolic profile of toremifene

      Monica Mazzarino, Xavier de la Torre, Ilaria Fiacco, Amelia Palermo and Francesco Botrè

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1592

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      In vitro assays were developed and applied to characterize the phase I metabolic profile of the selective oestrogen receptor modulator toremifene, banned in sport, also in the presence of non banned compounds commonly administered to athletes.

      The results demonstrated that the antifungals and the antidepressants considered in this study cause an alteration of the metabolic profile of toremifene, involving also the metabolites selected by the antidoping laboratories as target analytes to detect toremifene intake.

  23. Perspectives

    1. Current challenges and problems in the field of new psychoactive substances in Germany from a law enforcement perspective

      Anna Duffert

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1604

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      The following picture shows the so-called “legal high” product “mojo” which is sold as 'ath salt” in the German recreational drug scene. According to the package instructions the so-called “legal high” product is not for human consumption and contains non-hazardous ingredients like caffeine, herbal blends, vitamin C etc. But in numerous instances in the past different NPS were identified within this product such as 3,4-methylendioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), butylone or 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC). As a consequence of this, consumers cannot assume that they will experience the same effects when consuming the same product repeatedly. Therefore also a number of fatal intoxications have also become known.

    2. Changes in the prevalence of new psychoactive substances before and after the introduction of the generic scheduling of synthetic cannabinoids in Japan

      Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri, Nahoko Uchiyama, Maiko Kawamura and Yukihiro Goda

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1584

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      To counter the spread of the many analogues of psychoactive substances, the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan was amended in 2006 to establish a new category: Designated Substances. Additionally, a comprehensive system (generic scheduling) for designating naphthoylindole-type synthetic cannabinoids was introduced into this category in 2013. In this report, we describe the changes in the prevalence of new psychoactive substances and their legal status on the basis of our survey, especially the changes before and after the introduction of the 2013 generic scheduling of synthetic cannabinoids in Japan.

    3. Predicting the activity and toxicity of new psychoactive substances: a pharmaceutical industry perspective

      Andrew G. Leach

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1593

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      Understanding the effect that compounds might have on a population of humans that take them is of interest to those in the pharmaceutical industry as well as those concerned with psychoactives. As synthetic derivatives take psychoactive compounds into a property space that is more dangerous and more like those of pharmaceuticals, lessons from that sphere are worth considering.

  24. Research articles

    1. Interpretation of hair findings in children: about a case involving carbamazepine

      Pascal Kintz

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1596

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      This office has been recently involved in a case dealing with child custody, based on carbamazepine identification in hair. In this case, it was impossible to conclude that the child was deliberately administered carbamazepine. The results of the analysis of hair could indicate that she was in an environment where carbamazepine was being used and where the drug was not being handled and stored with appropriate care.

    2. Metabolism of aildenafil in vivo in rats and in vitro in mouse, rat, dog, and human liver microsomes

      Yan Li, Linan Wu, Yuan Gu, Duanyun Si and Changxiao Liu

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1564

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      Aildenafil, a PDE5 inhibitor, is under development for treatment of erectile dysfunction. While it was being evaluated in phase III clinical trial, little is known about its metabolic fate. This study describes the metabolism of aildenafil in vivo in rats and in vitro in mouse, rat, dog and human liver microsomes, with an aim to elucidate the metabolic pathways and identify the metabolites structures of aildenafil.

    3. PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone does not enhance performance in mice

      Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Helios Pareja-Galeano and Vladimir E. Martinez-Bello

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1587

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      To date, experimental evidence revealed that PPARgamma agonist could induce the same biological effects in glucose metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, skeletal muscle fiber type, and physical performance as the prohibited drug GW1516 and AICAR, modulators of PPARdelta and AMPK respectively. However, as we describe in the present article, treatment with PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone does not regulate the glucose profile nor mitochondrial biogenesis machinery in soleus and gastrocnemius. In addition, pioglitazone does not improve physical performance measured by maximal aerobic velocity, endurance capacity and grip strength in mice.

    4. A high throughput screen for 17 Dermorphin peptides in equine and human urine and equine plasma

      Rohan Steel, Mark Timms, Vita Levina and John Vine

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1585

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      A high throughput LC-MS/MS screen using a novel mixed-mode SPE method to detect 17 Dermorphin peptides in equine urine and plasma with limits of detection down to 5 pg/mL.

    5. Evaluation of peripheral blood microsampling techniques in combination with liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the determination of drug pharmacokinetics in clinical studies

      Juan P. Rincón and Roland J. W. Meesters

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1582

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      Bioanalytical assays using different microsampling techniques were validated and evaluated for the determination of pharmacokinetics of the model drug acetaminophen applying liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for quantification of acetaminophen in blood and plasma

    6. Study of collision-induced dissociation of electrospray-generated protonated cathinones

      Emilia Fornal

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1573

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      LC-Q-TOF spectra of substituted cathinones were acquired and analyzed to examine fragmentation pathways of protonated cathinones. Substituted cathinones were classified into nine classes based on structural criteria; main LC-Q-TOF product ions for each class were identified.

    7. Experimental design for the optimization and robustness testing of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the trace analysis of the potentially genotoxic 1,3-diisopropylurea

      György Székely, Bruno Henriques, Marco Gil and Carlos Alvarez

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1583

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      It is demonstrated that the DoE approach exploring both LC and MS parameters together – rather than in the conventional consecutive manner – reveals unpredictable method development obstacles at an early stage, and thus rapidly leads to more accurate methods. The novel LC-MS/MS method meets criteria such as ease of use, low cost per analysis, ultra-low LOQ, high sample throughput, and robustness.

  25. Reviews

    1. New phenethylamines in Europe

      L. A. King

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1570

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      In the past 20 years, around 100 illicit phenethylamines have been reported in Europe. Most are ring-substituted, but few are listed in the UN 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. 2C-B was the most commonly found of the newer phenethylamines, but other 2C compounds were widespread.

  26. Research articles

    1. Characterizing metabolites and potential metabolic pathways for the novel psychoactive substance methoxetamine

      E. L. Menzies, S. C. Hudson, P. I. Dargan, M. C. Parkin, D. M. Wood and A. T. Kicman

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1541

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      High resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used to characterize metabolites of methoxetamine. In vitro data obtained from microsomal incubates was compared to in vivo data from urine collected from patients presenting with acute methoxetamine toxicity. Along with normethoxetamine a range of phase I and II metabolites including O-desmethyl, dehydro, dihydro and hydroxy methoxetamine were identified both in in vitro and in vivo, with accurate tandem mass data confirming metabolite structures. This study demonstrated a viable method for identifying metabolites of a designer drug as exemplified with methoxetamine.

    2. An investigation of the stability of emerging new psychoactive substances

      Yan Ni Annie Soh and Simon Elliott

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1576

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      This paper describes an investigation into the stability of new psychoactive substances in biological fluid supported by analytical evidence from toxicological casework.

    3. Enantioselective disposition of (R/S)-albuterol in skeletal and cardiac muscle

      Glenn A. Jacobson, Kwang Choon Yee, Dino Premilovac and Stephen Rattigan

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1575

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      There is greater partitioning (Km) of active (R)-albuterol than inactive (S)-albuterol into both skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue compared to plasma. These findings have relevance for albuterol sports doping, cardiac effects and therapeutic use in muscle-wasting diseases. Furthermore, the greater muscle partitioning of active R-albuterol, and the availability of pure R-albuterol formulations further exacerbate shortcomings in doping control measures using non-enantioselective assays.

    4. Workplace drug testing and alcohol policy in Italy; there is still a long way to go

      Gian Luca Rosso, Massimo Perotto, Mauro Feola and Michele Caramella

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1569

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      Workplace drug testing (WDT) effectiveness and alcoholic beverage consumption among Italian professional drivers (PDs) have been investigated. In our sample, only 30% of Italian PDs were correctly subjected to WDT with a real surprise effect. We describe the main factors associated with alcohol consumption during working hours. Fifteen percent of PDs seem to be hazardous drinkers.

    5. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes

      Morten Hostrup, Anders Kalsen, Michael Auchenberg, Sebastian Rzeppa, Peter Hemmersbach, Jens Bangsbo and Vibeke Backer

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1568

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      Pharmacokinetic studies of inhaled and oral salbutamol have been conducted to support a urinary threshold on the World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited substances. Most of these studies, however, have investigated urine concentrations of salbutamol in resting conditions in non-athletic subjects, and not after exercise in athletes. In the present study, we investigated urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in urine samples collected after intense exercise in athletes.

    6. An automated sample preparation for detection of 72 doping-related substances

      Darío Cuervo, Pablo Díaz-Rodríguez and Jesús Muñoz-Guerra

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1538

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      An automated sample preparation procedure for the determination of doping-related substances by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS analysis has been developed. The protocol includes enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and derivatization. A description of the equipment, together with the optimization studies and validation data for 72 compounds including extraction efficiency, evaluation of carry-over, interferences, and robustness are presented.

  27. Short communications

    1. Characterization of the pyrolysis products of methiopropamine

      Emily D. Bouso, Elizabeth A. Gardner, John E. O'Brien, Brian Talbot and Pierce V. Kavanagh

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1571

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      From the pyrolysis of methiopropamine, an analogue of methamphetamine, thirteen products were identified and ten were confirmed by comparison to synthesized standards. The products are formed through N-dealkylation, N-alkylation, N-formylation, β-carbon oxidation, β-carbon oxidation/N-alkylation, amine elimination, and carbon-carbon bond cleavage. Two pyrazine isomers also formed.

  28. Research articles

    1. DART-MS for rapid, preliminary screening of urine for DMAA

      Ashton D. Lesiak, Kendra J. Adams, Marek A. Domin, Colin Henck and Jason R. E. Shepard

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1540

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      DMAA is found in workout supplements and is a banned stimulant implicated with adverse health effects and fatalities. DART-MS is an ambient ionization method employed to rapidly identify the presence of DMAA without any extraction or preparations whatsoever. DMAA was identified in supplements in their solid forms and in urine as a means to indicate recent ingestion. DART-MS is instantaneous, and the high mass accuracy time-of-flight mass analyzer provides unequivocal identification, demonstrating DART-MS as an attractive alternative screening method.

  29. Short communication

    1. You have free access to this content
      A methamphetamine analog (N,α-diethyl-phenylethylamine) identified in a mainstream dietary supplement

      Pieter A. Cohen, John C. Travis and Bastiaan J. Venhuis

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1578

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      Hundreds of purportedly natural supplements have been found to contain pharmaceutical and banned substances. We confirm the presence of an uncommon methamphetamine analog, N,α-diethyl-phenylethylamine (N,α-DEPEA), in a mainstream workout supplement labelled as containing dendrobium extract. N,α-DEPEA has never been studied in humans, and its adverse effects are entirely unknown.

  30. Research articles

    1. The in vivo and in vitro metabolism and the detectability in urine of 3’,4’-methylenedioxy-alpha-pyrrolidinobutyrophenone (MDPBP), a new pyrrolidinophenone-type designer drug, studied by GC-MS and LC-MSn

      Markus R. Meyer, Sandra Mauer, Golo M. J. Meyer, Julia Dinger, Birgit Klein, Folker Westphal and Hans H. Maurer

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1559

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      Elucidation of MDPBP's in vivo and in vitro metabolism based on GC-MS and LC-MSn and its toxicological detection in human urine samples.

    2. Systematic investigation of the incorporation mechanisms of zolpidem in fingernails

      Milena M. Madry, Andrea E. Steuer, Tina M. Binz, Markus R. Baumgartner and Thomas Kraemer

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1558

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      This study provides a deeper insight into the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem in fingernails. It shows that nail analysis may be performed as an alternative and complement to hair analysis, for example in cases of DFSA or the monitoring of constant consumption behavior.

    3. Development and validation of a fast and simple multi-analyte procedure for quantification of 40 drugs relevant to emergency toxicology using GC-MS and one-point calibration

      Golo M. J. Meyer, Armin A. Weber and Hans H. Maurer

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1555

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      In emergency toxicology, GC-MS quantification using full-scan acquisition is preferable because this would allow screening and quantification of expected and unexpected drugs in one run. Therefore, a multi-analyte full-scan GC-MS approach was developed and validated with liquid-liquid extraction and one-point calibration for quantification of 40 drugs relevant to emergency toxicology. Validation showed that 36 drugs could be determined fast, accurately, and reliably in the range of upper therapeutic to toxic concentrations.

    4. Enantiomeric separations of illicit drugs and controlled substances using cyclofructan-based (LARIHC) and cyclobond I 2000 RSP HPLC chiral stationary phases

      Nilusha L.T. Padivitage, Edra Dodbiba, Zachary S. Breitbach and Daniel W. Armstrong

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1534

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      An evaluation of newly developed cyclofructan based (LARIHC) chiral stationary phases revealed their ability to separate enantiomers of illicit drugs and controlled substances using HPLC. A typical enantiomeric separation obtained on the LARIHC CF6-P column in shown here.

  31. Short communications

    1. 5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole (5-IT): a psychoactive substance used for recreational purposes is an inhibitor of human monoamine oxidase (MAO)

      Tomás Herraiz and Simon D. Brandt

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1530

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      The present study shows that 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-IT) is a relatively potent, selective, competitive and reversible inhibitor of human MAO-A. Results also indicate that 5-IT is less potent than clorgyline and harmaline but more potent than toloxatone and moclobemide under the in vitro conditions studied. The results suggests that 5-IT by itself or in combination with other substances may be able to potentiate serotonergic/monoaminergic effects and further studies are needed to clarify its relevance to the adverse effects reported for 5-IT.

  32. Research articles

    1. Comparison of drug concentrations between whole blood and oral fluid

      Kaarina Langel, Hallvard Gjerde, Donata Favretto, Pirjo Lillsunde, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Santo Davide Ferrara and Alain G. Verstraete

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1532

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      The suitability of oral fluid for drug testing purposes of people suspected of driving under the influence of drugs is evaluated. The relationship of drug concentrations between oral fluid and whole blood was studied by analyzing over 4000 paired samples of oral fluid and blood collected from volunteers and suspected drug users in Belgium, Finland, Italy, and Norway. Oral fluid samples were collected with the Saliva∙Sampler™ device.

    2. Prevalence of use of performance enhancing drugs by fitness centre members

      Janine H. Stubbe, Astrid M. J. Chorus, Laurence E. Frank, Olivier de Hon and Peter G. M. van der Heijden

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1525

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      The aim of the present study was to contrast direct questioning of different types of performance enhancing drug use by Dutch fitness centre members with results obtained with the Randomized Response Technique (RRT).

    3. Simultaneous quantification of acetaminophen and structurally related compounds in human serum and plasma

      Caroline Bylda, Roland Thiele, Uwe Kobold and Dietrich A. Volmer

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1527

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      The study describes an LC-MS/MS assay able to simultaneously analyze acetaminophen and nine related compounds in human plasma and serum. The method was successfully validated and exhibited excellent figures of merit and good correlation to results from a round robin trial based on immunoassay data. The method is useful tool to help diagnose and confirm APAP overdoses.

    4. Determination of 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (25B-NBOMe) in serum and urine by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in a case of severe intoxication

      Justin L. Poklis, Carol R. Nanco, Michelle M. Troendle, Carl E. Wolf and Alphonse Poklis

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1522

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We present a case of 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (25B-NBOMe), an N-benzyl phenethylamines derivative, intoxication and a high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for detection and quantification of 25B-NBOMe. The serum and urine specimens were determined to contain 180 pg/mL and 1900 pg/mL of 25B-NBOMe, respectively.

  33. Perspectives

    1. Drug laws and the 'derivative' problem

      Leslie A. King, István Ujváry and Simon D. Brandt

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1523

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      Numerous examples of ‘derivative’ occur in drugs legislation. Since the term derivative is rarely defined, a situation is created where the legal status of some substances is uncertain. Unless qualified, it is proposed that the term should be avoided in any future legislation.

  34. Research articles

    1. Simultaneous ESI-APCI(+) ionization and fragmentation pathways for nine benzodiazepines and zolpidem using single quadrupole LC-MS

      Toma Galaon, Catalina Vacaresteanu, Dan-Florin Anghel and Victor David

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1526

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      A sensitive, selective, high-throughput LC/ESI-APCI(+)-MS method was developed to separate and quantitate nine significant 1,4-benzodiazepines and zolpidem using a multimode ionization source able to generate ions using both ESI and APCI and a single quadrupole mass analyzer. Comparison between differences in method sensitivity when using ESI-only, APCI-only and simultaneous ESI-APCI ionization with such a multimode source was made. Characterization of the nine benzodiazepines and zolpidem concerning their MS fragmentation pathway following ‘in-source’ collision-induced dissociation is discussed in detail and some general trends regarding these fragmentations are set.

    2. Simultaneous determination of pharmaceutical components in dietary supplements for weight loss by capillary electrophoresis tandem mass spectrometry

      Shigeki Akamatsu and Takao Mitsuhashi

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1524

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      A CE/MS method was suitable as the screening and can be an alternative to the GC and LC method.

    3. Development and optimization of on-line 2-dimensional chromatographic approaches for eliminating matrix effects and improving bioanalysis of peptides in human plasma using UHPLC-MS/MS

      Omnia A. Ismaiel and Rand G. Jenkins

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1521

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      Peptides, as therapeutics, biomarkers, and digested proteins, are of growing importance in the pharmaceutical industry. Bioanalysis of peptides, often at trace concentrations, is complicated by the presence of similar peptides and abundant matrix-related components that can significantly impact assay performance, particularly with small particle UHPLC columns. On-line 2D UHPLC-MS/MS approaches were found to be highly effective in eliminating matrix effects and enhancing peptide assay performance.

    4. Discrimination of cathinone regioisomers, sold as ‘legal highs’, by Raman spectroscopy

      R. Christie, E. Horan, J. Fox, C. O'Donnell, H. J. Byrne, S. McDermott, J. Power and P. Kavanagh

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1518

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Discrimination of a cross section of cathinone regioisomers, sold as ‘legal highs’, using Raman spectroscopy, is reported here. Isomers of substituted cathinones mephedrone and flephedrone, methylone, butylone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone and naphyrone were synthesized as reference standards. Raman spectra of the isomers were obtained using far-red excitation (785 nm), and it was found possible to discriminate all of the isomers. Correct isomer assignment was also achieved in head shop products, providing a non-destructive and rapid technique for the discrimination of such isomers.

    5. Identification of (2-aminopropyl)indole positional isomers in forensic samples

      Kenneth R. Scott, John D. Power, Seán D. McDermott, John E. O'Brien, Brian N. Talbot, Michael G. Barry and Pierce V. Kavanagh

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1508

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The analyses of three forensic drug samples tentatively revealed the presence of an (2-aminopropyl)indole (API) isomer. The six positional isomers (2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-(2-aminopropyl)indoles) were synthesized and analyses by a combination of GC-MS and LC-MS showed that these could be readily discriminated thus confirming the presence of 3- and 5- APIs in the forensic samples.

    6. Characterization of synthetic routes to ‘Bromo-DragonFLY’ and benzodifuranyl isopropylamine homologues utilizing ketone intermediates. Part 1: Synthesis of ketone precursors

      Richard E. O'Connor and John J. Keating

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1504

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      The multifaceted synthesis of four novel precursor ketones structurally related to Bromo-DragonFLY and their characterization by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HPLC, GC and mass spectrometry.

    7. Analysis of 1,3 dimethylamylamine concentrations in Geraniaceae, geranium oil and dietary supplements

      Krista G. Austin, John Travis, Gerry Pace and Harris R. Lieberman

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1491

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      1,3 dimethylamylamine (DMAA) concentrations were determined in Geraniaceae, geranium oil and dietary supplements in order to establish whether DMAA contained in DS is of a synthetic origin. Findings show DMAA is not present in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium; thus the ‘natural’ origin and use of DMAA as an ingredient in DS was not substantiated.

    8. Cross-reactivity of designer drugs, including cathinone derivatives, in commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays

      Madeleine J. Swortwood, W. Lee Hearn and Anthony P. DeCaprio

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1489

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      In this experiment, 16 different ELISA reagents from four commercial suppliers were evaluated to determine the cross-reactivity of 30 designer drugs, including cathinones, tryptamines, and piperizines. Cross-reactivity towards most drugs by these assays was minimal, with the exception of one supplier's mephedrone/methcathinone kit, where cathinone derivatives demonstrated cross-reactivity at concentrations as low as 150 ng/ml. Given these results, a need clearly exists for broader-range screening techniques to be applied when analyzing specimens for the majority of newer designer drugs.

    9. Preparation and analytical characterization of 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine (PCP) and 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)pyrrolidine (PCPy) analogues

      Jason Wallach, Giorgia De Paoli, Adeboye Adejare and Simon D. Brandt

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1468

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      A total number of six PCP and PCPy analogues have been synthesized and analytically characterized. Some of these substances have recently been observed within the recreational context and this study aimed to provide the corresponding data to facilitate their identification which included analogues that have not yet been reported.

    10. Optimization, validation, and the application of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of new drugs of abuse in wastewater

      Alexander L. N. van Nuijs, Adriana Gheorghe, Philippe G. Jorens, Kristof Maudens, Hugo Neels and Adrian Covaci

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1460

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      The development, validation and application of a method based on SPE and LC-MS/MS is presented to measure concentrations of new psychoactive substances in influent wastewater in the low ng/l range.

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