Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 51 Issue 3

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Impact Factor: 3.709

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 1/20 (Limnology); 3/81 (Water Resources); 25/216 (Environmental Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1944-7973

VIEW

  1. 1 - 63
  1. Research Articles

    1. Planform evolution of two anabranching structures in the Upper Peruvian Amazon River

      C. E. Frias, J. D. Abad, A. Mendoza, J. Paredes, C. Ortals and H. Montoro

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015836

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      Key Points:

      • Dynamics of anabranching structures
      • Anabranching structures along the Peruvian Amazon River
      • Planform migration rates
  2. Review Articles

    1. Morphodynamics: Rivers beyond steady state

      M. Church and R. I. Ferguson

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016862

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      Key Points:

      • River morphodynamics is the consequence of bed material supply and transport
      • Lateral instability is an inherent feature of river morphodynamics
      • Riparian vegetation is a significant mediator of morphodynamics
  3. Research Articles

    1. Evaluating snow models with varying process representations for hydrological applications

      Jan Magnusson, Nander Wever, Richard Essery, Nora Helbig, Adam Winstral and Tobias Jonas

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016498

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      Key Points:

      • Demonstration of informative method for evaluating snow models
      • All model types can provide runoff predictions with similar performance
      • Multimodel framework is a useful tool for selecting appropriate model structures
    2. Linking bed morphology changes of two sediment mixtures to sediment transport predictions in unsteady flows

      Kevin A. Waters and Joanna Crowe Curran

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016083

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      Key Points:

      • Bed morphology and sediment transport studied during unsteady flow sequences
      • Separate limb reference shear stresses improved sediment transport predictions
      • Reference shear stress effectively linked transport to changing bed morphology
    3. Transport of fluorobenzoate tracers in a vegetated hydrologic control volume: 1. Experimental results

      Pierre Queloz, Enrico Bertuzzo, Luca Carraro, Gianluca Botter, Franco Miglietta, P. S. C. Rao and Andrea Rinaldo

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016433

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      Key Points:

      • Experimental storage and sampling of water and solutes
      • Degradation and uptake of fluorobenzoate tracers in unsaturated conditions
      • Measures of solute uptake by vegetation are essential to flow kinematics
    4. Transport of fluorobenzoate tracers in a vegetated hydrologic control volume: 2. Theoretical inferences and modeling

      Pierre Queloz, Luca Carraro, Paolo Benettin, Gianluca Botter, Andrea Rinaldo and Enrico Bertuzzo

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016508

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      Key Points:

      • Travel time distributions are not stationary
      • Forward and backward travel time distributions are different
      • Nonstationary travel time distributions reproduce tracer data
    5. New ν-type relative permeability curves for two-phase flows through subsurface fractures

      Noriaki Watanabe, Keisuke Sakurai, Takuya Ishibashi, Yutaka Ohsaki, Tetsuya Tamagawa, Masahiko Yagi and Noriyoshi Tsuchiya

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016515

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      Key Points:

      • Appropriate two-phase relative permeability curves for fractures are unclear
      • Two-phase experiments and simulations have been conducted on real fractures
      • ν-type and X-type relative permeability curves are found to be appropriate
    6. How well do CMIP5 climate simulations replicate historical trends and patterns of meteorological droughts?

      Nasrin Nasrollahi, Amir AghaKouchak, Linyin Cheng, Lisa Damberg, Thomas J. Phillips, Chiyuan Miao, Kuolin Hsu and Soroosh Sorooshian

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016318

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      Key Points:

      • CMIP5 model simulations overestimate precipitation falling at lower rates
      • Most ensemble members overestimate the areas under extreme drought
      • Most CMIP5 models do not agree with observed regional drying and wetting trends
    7. Bayesian model averaging to explore the worth of data for soil-plant model selection and prediction

      Thomas Wöhling, Anneli Schöniger, Sebastian Gayler and Wolfgang Nowak

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016292

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      Key Points:

      • BMA provides a data worth analysis framework for model selection and calibration
      • BMA does not converge to the “true” model
      • Different data types support different models and none outperforms all others
    8. Calibrating remotely sensed river bathymetry in the absence of field measurements: Flow REsistance Equation-Based Imaging of River Depths (FREEBIRD)

      Carl J. Legleiter

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016624

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      Key Points:

      • New algorithms enable depth retrieval without field data for calibration
      • Image data linked to channel hydraulics through a flow resistance equation
      • Provides bathymetric accuracy comparable to direct, field-based calibration
    9. Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional bed form-induced hyporheic exchange

      Xiaobing Chen, M. Bayani Cardenas and Li Chen

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016848

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      Key Points:

      • Three-dimensional and 2-D hyporheic zones are compared
      • Three-dimensional dunes induce more hyporheic flux
      • Three-dimensional and 2-D hyporheic residence times are similar
    10. An active heat tracer experiment to determine groundwater velocities using fiber optic cables installed with direct push equipment

      Mark Bakker, Ruben Caljé, Frans Schaars, Kees-Jan van der Made and Sander de Haas

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016632

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      Key Points

      • Fiber optic cables are inserted into the ground with direct push equipment
      • Temperature is measured along vertical fiber optic cables with DTS unit
      • Active heat tracer experiment is carried out to estimate groundwater velocities
    11. Sediment transport and shear stress partitioning in a vegetated flow

      Caroline Le Bouteiller and J. G. Venditti

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015825

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      Key Points:

      • Skin friction and sediment transport are reduced in a vegetated flow
      • This reduction depends on the vegetation density
      • Several methods for shear stress partitioning are tested and evaluated
  4. Technical Reports: Methods

    1. Evaluation of measurement sensitivity and design improvement for time domain reflectometry penetrometers

      Tony Liang-tong Zhan, Qing-yi Mu, Yun-min Chen and Han Ke

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016341

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      Key Points:

      • Measurement sensitivity of TDR penetrometers
  5. Research Articles

    1. Two-phase flow properties of a sandstone rock for the CO2/water system: Core-flooding experiments, and focus on impacts of mineralogical changes

      J. C. Manceau, J. Ma, R. Li, P. Audigane, P. X. Jiang, R. N. Xu, J. Tremosa and C. Lerouge

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015725

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      Key Points:

      • Two-phase flow core flooding is performed on a Chaunoy sandstone sample
      • Absolute properties, relative permeability and capillary pressure are assessed
      • The impact of mineral dissolution on the measured flow properties is discussed
    2. What does it take to flood the Pampas?: Lessons from a decade of strong hydrological fluctuations

      S. Kuppel, J. Houspanossian, M. D. Nosetto and E. G. Jobbágy

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR016966

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      Key Points:

      • Floods in the subhumid Pampas are sporadic but can last several years
      • Connectivity between surface and belowground water shapes flood dynamics
      • Plant transpiration from nonflooded areas could significantly regulate floods
  6. Technical Reports: Methods

    1. A thermodynamic interpretation of Budyko and L'vovich formulations of annual water balance: Proportionality Hypothesis and maximum entropy production

      Dingbao Wang, Jianshi Zhao, Yin Tang and Murugesu Sivapalan

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016857

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      Key Points:

      • Thermodynamic interpretation of Budyko Curve and L'vovich formulation
      • Derive proportionality hypothesis from maximum entropy production
  7. Research Articles

    1. Metapopulation capacity of evolving fluvial landscapes

      Enrico Bertuzzo, Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe and Andrea Rinaldo

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR016946

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      Key Points:

      • We compute the metapopulation capacity of evolving channel networks
      • Species viability increase with optimal network selection
      • Landscape evolution improve ecological suitability
  8. Technical Reports: Methods

    1. Front spreading with nonlinear sorption for oscillating flow

      D. G. Cirkel, S. E. A. T. M. van der Zee and J. C. L. Meeussen

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015847

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      Key points:

      • Dispersive and chromatographic mixing at oscillating interfaces is simulated
      • Oscillations and nonlinear cation exchange give asymmetric fronts
      • Oscillating nonlinear mixing converges to zero-convection nonlinear diffusion
  9. Research Articles

    1. Toward hyper-resolution land-surface modeling: The effects of fine-scale topography and soil texture on CLM4.0 simulations over the Southwestern U.S.

      R. S. Singh, J. T. Reager, N. L. Miller and J. S. Famiglietti

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015686

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      Key Points:

      • CLM4.0 simulations are compared across multiple grid resolutions
      • Changing grid resolution significantly affects the terrestrial water balance
      • Outputs compared to observations show improvement with resolution
    2. Impact of viscous fingering and permeability heterogeneity on fluid mixing in porous media

      Christos Nicolaides, Birendra Jha, Luis Cueto-Felgueroso and Ruben Juanes

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015811

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      Key Points:

      • Heterogeneity and viscous fingering both impact fluid mixing in porous media
      • We identify the physical mechanisms that control breakthrough and removal times
      • We elucidate the structural and hydrodynamic contributions to rate of mixing
    3. A unified approach for process-based hydrologic modeling: 2. Model implementation and case studies

      Martyn P. Clark, Bart Nijssen, Jessica D. Lundquist, Dmitri Kavetski, David E. Rupp, Ross A. Woods, Jim E. Freer, Ethan D. Gutmann, Andrew W. Wood, David J. Gochis, Roy M. Rasmussen, David G. Tarboton, Vinod Mahat, Gerald N. Flerchinger and Danny G. Marks

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017200

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      Key Points:

      • Flexible model implementation enables evaluation of key modeling decisions
      • Case studies illustrate capabilities to identify preferable modeling approaches
      • Accelerates improvements in model fidelity & uncertainty characterization
    4. Soil hydrology: Recent methodological advances, challenges, and perspectives

      H. Vereecken, J. A. Huisman, H. J. Hendricks Franssen, N. Brüggemann, H. R. Bogena, S. Kollet, M. Javaux, J. van der Kruk and J. Vanderborght

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016852

      Key Points:

      • Improved description of small-scale processes is a key to reduce uncertainty
      • Improve our understanding of hydrology through a network of observatories
      • Data assimilation provides a viable approach to integrate data and models
    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall in Africa: Summary statistics for temporal downscaling

      Armel T. Kaptué, Niall P. Hanan, Lara Prihodko and Jorge A. Ramirez

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015918

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      Key Points:

      • Statistics for downscaling monthly precipitation over Africa
      • Spatiotemporal variability of rainfall (amount, frequency, duration, rate)
      • Statistics for the assessment of rainfall from climate models
    6. Effects of lateral nitrate flux and instream processes on dissolved inorganic nitrogen export in a forested catchment: A model sensitivity analysis

      Laurence Lin, Jackson R. Webster, Taehee Hwang and Lawrence E. Band

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015962

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      Key Points:

      • Instream processes control the intra-annual pattern of N export
      • The net effect of instream processes on annual N export may not be irrelevant
      • High N load accelerates instream N cycling, leading to constant N pattern
    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

      Matthew T. Reagan, George J. Moridis, Noel D. Keen and Jeffrey N. Johnson

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016086

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      Key Points:

      • Short-term leakage fractured reservoirs requires high-permeability pathways
      • Production strategy affects the likelihood and magnitude of gas release
      • Gas release is likely short-term, without additional driving forces
    8. Global analysis of approaches for deriving total water storage changes from GRACE satellites

      Di Long, Laurent Longuevergne and Bridget R. Scanlon

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016853

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      Key Points:

      • Model dependence of scaling factors was examined using six land surface models
      • Temporal variability of scaling factors was examined using GLDAS-1 Noah
      • Total water storage changes from three approaches were compared with WGHM output
    9. The use of discharge perturbations to understand in situ vegetation resistance in wetlands

      A. M. Wasantha Lal, M. Zaki Moustafa and Walter M. Wilcox

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015472

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      Key Points:

      • Manning's equation is not accurate in wetlands
      • The equation should relate to discharge, wave speed, and wave attenuation
      • Flow through emergent vegetation is closer to porous media flow
    10. A unified approach for process-based hydrologic modeling: 1. Modeling concept

      Martyn P. Clark, Bart Nijssen, Jessica D. Lundquist, Dmitri Kavetski, David E. Rupp, Ross A. Woods, Jim E. Freer, Ethan D. Gutmann, Andrew W. Wood, Levi D. Brekke, Jeffrey R. Arnold, David J. Gochis and Roy M. Rasmussen

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017198

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      Key Points:

      • Modeling template formulated using a general set of conservation equations
      • Evaluation focuses on flux parameterizations and spatial variability/connectivity
      • Systematic approach helps improve model fidelity and uncertainty characterization
    11. CO2 dissolution in the presence of background flow of deep saline aquifers

      Hamid Emami-Meybodi, Hassan Hassanzadeh and Jonathan Ennis-King

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016659

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      Key Points:

      • We investigate effects of aquifer background flow on CO2 dissolution in brine
      • We report scaling relations that characterize forced and free convection
      • Background flow may greatly affect the evolution of free convection
    12. Prediction in ungauged estuaries: An integrated theory

      Hubert H. G. Savenije

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR016936

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      Key Points:

      • Method to predict hydraulic behavior in estuaries
      • Method to predict salt intrusion in estuaries
    13. The influence of multiyear drought on the annual rainfall-runoff relationship: An Australian perspective

      Margarita Saft, Andrew W. Western, Lu Zhang, Murray C. Peel and Nick J. Potter

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015348

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      Key Points:

      • Multiyear droughts can change catchment hydrological behavior
      • Long dry periods can result in higher runoff reductions than single year droughts
      • Drier, flatter, and less forested catchments are more susceptible to change
    14. Global sensitivity analysis of the radiative transfer model

      Maheshwari Neelam and Binayak P. Mohanty

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016534

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      Key Points:

      • Energy rich environments are more prone to parameter interactions
      • Fixed look-up table for parameters will undermine the soil moisture accuracy
      • Brightness temperature is more sensitivity to roughness parameters in wet soils
    15. Hydraulic controls of in-stream gravel bar hyporheic exchange and reactions

      Nico Trauth, Christian Schmidt, Michael Vieweg, Sascha E. Oswald and Jan H. Fleckenstein

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015857

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      Key Points:

      • CFD model of in-stream gravel bar coupled to reactive transport model
      • Losing and gaining conditions reduce aerobic respiration and denitrification
      • Submergence controls skewness of residence time distribution and reactions
    16. High-resolution experiments on chemical oxidation of DNAPL in variable-aperture fractures

      Masoud Arshadi, Harihar Rajaram, Russell L. Detwiler and Trevor Jones

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016159

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      Key Points:

      • Gradual breakup of large blobs was observed during our oxidation experiments
      • The total mass transfer rate from TCE blobs exhibited three distinct time regimes
    17. Hydrological connectivity in river deltas: The first-order importance of channel-island exchange

      Matthew Hiatt and Paola Passalacqua

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016149

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      Key Points:

      • Significant discharge from primary channels is allocated to islands
      • Travel times within islands are significantly longer than in the channels
      • A hydrological connectivity framework is useful for understanding delta systems
    18. Estimating bankfull discharge and depth in ungauged estuaries

      Jacqueline Isabella Anak Gisen and Hubert H.G. Savenije

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016227

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      Key Points:

      • Establish a method to estimate the estuarine number (Canter-Cremers)
      • Find the applicability of regime theory in tidally influenced estuaries
      • Find a method to estimate bankfull discharge and depth in estuaries
    19. Resolution analysis of tomographic slug test head data: Two-dimensional radial case

      Daniel Paradis, Erwan Gloaguen, René Lefebvre and Bernard Giroux

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014785

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      Key Points:

      • Resolution analysis was applied to tomographic slug tests head data
      • Tomographic slug tests provide independent estimates of Kh, Kv/Kh, and Ss
      • Head data can resolve coarse heterogeneities in hydraulic properties
    20. A hydrometeorological approach for probabilistic simulation of monthly soil moisture under bare and crop land conditions

      Sarit Kumar Das and Rajib Maity

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016043

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      Key Points:

      • Hydrometeorological approach is developed to model the soil moisture variation
      • Developed approach is spatially transferable and temporally consistent
      • Statistical range of uncertainty, associated with estimates, is available
    21. The influence of water table depth and the free atmospheric state on convective rainfall predisposition

      Sara Bonetti, Gabriele Manoli, Jean-Christophe Domec, Mario Putti, Marco Marani and Gabriel G. Katul

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016431

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      Key Points:

      • Water Table affects Convective Rainfall (CR) via the plant-atmosphere continuum
      • Feedbacks from the Free Atmosphere (FA) can dominate CR for wet FA states
      • Vegetation can control CR for relatively dry FA states
    22. Spatiotemporal decomposition of solute dispersion in watersheds

      Joakim Riml and Anders Wörman

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016385

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      Key Points:

      • Analytical response functions can be evaluated using observed time series
      • The spectral decomposition attributes the response to dispersion processes
      • Frequency-dependent parameters open for probing of dominate environments
    23. Natural gas price uncertainty and the cost-effectiveness of hedging against low hydropower revenues caused by drought

      Jordan D. Kern, Gregory W. Characklis and Benjamin T. Foster

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016533

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      Key Points:

      • Index insurance can mitigate financial risk posed by drought
      • Value of hydropower fluctuates with the price of natural gas
      • Composite index of streamflows and gas prices is most cost effective
    24. A new frequency domain analytical solution of a cascade of diffusive channels for flood routing

      Luigi Cimorelli, Luca Cozzolino, Renata Della Morte, Domenico Pianese and Vijay P. Singh

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016192

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      Key Points:

      • Frequency domain analytical solution
      • Nonuniform channel geometry and downstream boundary condition are accounted
      • Fast computation due to model unconditional stability
    25. Lowland fluvial phosphorus altered by dams

      Jianjun Zhou, Man Zhang, Binliang Lin and Pingyu Lu

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016155

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      Key points:

      • PDSS can be determined using the total sediment surface area concentration
      • Regulation aggregates P to floods with extreme low availability in dry season
      • Dams irreversibly eliminate the P-replenishing mechanism of sediment pools
    26. Inverse sequential simulation: A new approach for the characterization of hydraulic conductivities demonstrated on a non-Gaussian field

      Teng Xu and J. Jaime Gómez-Hernández

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016320

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      Key Points:

      • A new algorithm is developed for inverse stochastic conditional simulation
      • The algorithm is applied for the generation of non-Gaussian parameter fields
      • The algorithm compares very well against its benchmark, the normal-score EnKF
    27. Spin-up behavior and effects of initial conditions for an integrated hydrologic model

      Alimatou Seck, Claire Welty and Reed M. Maxwell

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016371

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      Key Points:

      • Initial conditions have significant, season-dependent effects on model outputs
      • Dry initial conditions are more persistent than wet initial conditions
      • Spin-up times vary by model components and are smaller for land-surface states
    28. Developing effective messages about potable recycled water: The importance of message structure and content

      J. Price, K. S. Fielding, J. Gardner, Z. Leviston and M. Green

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016514

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      Key Points:

      • Attributes of potable recycled water message structure and content are tested
      • Complex messages and those that communicate about risk are most effective
      • Initial attitudes influence responses to recycled water messages
    29. Optimizing water resources management in large river basins with integrated surface water-groundwater modeling: A surrogate-based approach

      Bin Wu, Yi Zheng, Xin Wu, Yong Tian, Feng Han, Jie Liu and Chunmiao Zheng

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016653

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      Key Points:

      • An innovative surrogate modeling approach to water management optimization
      • Physically based hydrological modeling and optimization benefit each other
      • A solution to the gap between complex modeling and real-world decision making
    30. On the formation of multiple local peaks in breakthrough curves

      Erica R. Siirila-Woodburn, Xavier Sanchez-Vila and Daniel Fernàndez-Garcia

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015840

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      Key Points:

      • Local peaks are quantified and related to Fickian regime proximity
      • Local peak frequency is shown to be a function of hydrogeologic parameters
      • Average BTC and local slopes differ, sometimes by several orders of magnitude
    31. A direct simulation demonstrating the role of spacial heterogeneity in determining anomalous diffusive transport

      Vaughan R. Voller

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016082

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      Key Points:

      • A power law distribution of heterogeneities can invoke anomalous diffusion
      • For anomalous diffusion, the largest heterogeneity must approach the domain size
      • The anomalous diffusion exponent can be estimated from the fractal dimension
    32. Estimating hydraulic conductivity of fractured rocks from high-pressure packer tests with an Izbash's law-based empirical model

      Yi-Feng Chen, Shao-Hua Hu, Ran Hu and Chuang-Bing Zhou

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016458

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      Key Points:

      • The Q-P curves by HPPTs were divided into Darcy, non-Darcy, and fracking phases
      • The characteristics of Q-P curves were correlated with the intactness of rocks
      • The permeability in different phases was evaluated with an analytical model
    33. Canopy edge flow: A momentum balance analysis

      Sharon Moltchanov, Yardena Bohbot-Raviv, Tomer Duman and Uri Shavit

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015397

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      Key Points:

      • Modeling flow in the entry region of a canopy patch is a challenge
      • A momentum balance reveals that the contribution of dispersive stresses is large
      • Dispersive stresses switch from being a momentum sink to a source
    34. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Blended near-optimal alternative generation, visualization, and interaction for water resources decision making

      David E. Rosenberg

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014667

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      Key Points:

      • New generation and visualization tools show the full near-optimal region
      • Interactive exploration can elicit unmodeled issues
      • The tools identify flexible management to maintain near-optimal performance
    35. Modification of the Local Cubic Law of fracture flow for weak inertia, tortuosity, and roughness

      Lichun Wang, M. Bayani Cardenas, Donald T. Slottke, Richard A. Ketcham and John M. Sharp Jr.

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015815

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      Key Points:

      • We present a modified Local Cubic Law for hydraulic properties of fractures
      • The MLCL takes into account tortuosity, roughness, and weak inertial effects
      • The MLCL improves estimating effective and local volumetric flow rate
    36. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An empirical vegetation correction for soil water content quantification using cosmic ray probes

      R. Baatz, H. R. Bogena, H.-J. Hendricks Franssen, J. A. Huisman, C. Montzka and H. Vereecken

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016443

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      Key Points:

      • Soil water content was determined accurately with cosmic ray probes
      • An empirical linear correction for variable aboveground biomass was developed
      • The COSMIC operator, N0 and the hmf method were used for evaluation
    37. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The impact of reservoir conditions on the residual trapping of carbon dioxide in Berea sandstone

      Ben Niu, Ali Al-Menhali and Samuel C. Krevor

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016441

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      Key Points:

      • Residual trapping of CO2 is insensitive to reservoir conditions
      • A new method is presented to rapidly characterize the IR curve and hysteresis
      • The system is strongly water wet and can be characterized by analogue fluids
    38. Contextual and sociopsychological factors in predicting habitual cleaning of water storage containers in rural Benin

      Andrea Stocker and Hans-Joachim Mosler

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016005

      Key Points:

      • Contextual and psychological predictors of habitual cleaning are identified
      • Evidence-based behavior change interventions are derived
    39. Occurrence of seawater intrusion overshoot

      Leanne K. Morgan, Mark Bakker and Adrian D. Werner

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016329

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      Key Points:

      • Overshoot can occur in field-scale aquifers under gradual sea level rise
      • Aquifer conditions associated with large overshoot are identified
      • Larger flow field disequilibrium causes more extensive overshoot
    40. Influence of surfactants on unsaturated water flow and solute transport

      Ahmet Karagunduz, Michael H. Young and Kurt D. Pennell

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015845

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      Key Points:

      • Surfactant alter soil water retention due to interfacial adsorption
      • Water content reductions accelerated solute transport
      • Coupled surfactant transport and water flow were simulated
    41. The value of multiple data set calibration versus model complexity for improving the performance of hydrological models in mountain catchments

      David Finger, Marc Vis, Matthias Huss and Jan Seibert

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015712

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      Key Points:

      • Calibration with multiple data sets increases overall performance
      • Snow cover information should be used for calibration
      • Model complexity alone does not enhance model accuracy
    42. Seasonal hydrologic responses to climate change in the Pacific Northwest

      Julie A. Vano, Bart Nijssen and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015909

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      Key Points:

      • Hydrologic sensitivities characterize seasons/locations susceptible to future change
      • Transitional watersheds experience greatest seasonal shifts in runoff
      • Seasonal streamflow estimation works well when linearity and superposition apply
    43. Variational Lagrangian data assimilation in open channel networks

      Qingfang Wu, Andrew Tinka, Kevin Weekly, Jonathan Beard and Alexandre M. Bayen

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015270

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      Key Points:

      • Estimation of flow condition using Lagrangian measurement data
      • The data assimilation method applicable to complex hydraulic networks
      • The method has been validated with a large-scale field experiment
    44. Prolonged river water pollution due to variable-density flow and solute transport in the riverbed

      Guangqiu Jin, Hongwu Tang, Ling Li and D. A. Barry

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016369

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      Key Points:

      • Density effect constrains solute release from riverbed
      • Density effect and solute tranport lead to a long tail in river water
      • High solute concentration contrasts lead to unstable flow in riverbed

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