Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 51 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Impact Factor: 3.709

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 1/20 (Limnology); 3/81 (Water Resources); 25/216 (Environmental Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1944-7973

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  1. 1 - 36
  1. Research Articles

    1. Estimation of the bed shear stress in vegetated and bare channels with smooth beds

      Judy Q. Yang, Francois Kerger and Heidi M. Nepf

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016042

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      Key Points:

      • A model to estimate bed shear stress in vegetated channels
      • Viscous stress is linear near the bed in bare and vegetated channels
      • Predicting velocity in the overlap region of the Law of the Wall
  2. Review Articles

    1. Groundwater in the Earth's critical zone: Relevance to large-scale patterns and processes

      Ying Fan

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017037

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      Key Points:

      • Groundwater is relevant to large-scale patterns of dynamics in land ecosystems
      • More observations and syntheses are needed to illuminate the opaque subsurface
      • Basic groundwater processes need to be represented in earth system models
  3. Research Articles

    1. Using the level set method to study the effects of heterogeneity and anisotropy on hyporheic exchange

      Cheng Chen and Lingzao Zeng

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016444

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      Key Points:

      • Application of the level set method in hyporheic exchange
      • Study of the effects of streambed heterogeneity and anisotropy
      • Significant hydrological and environmental implications
    2. Uncertainty in modeled and observed climate change impacts on American Midwest hydrology

      Jonathan M. Winter, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Xiaojing Fu and Elfatih A.B. Eltahir

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016056

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      Key Points:

      • Models show contradictory climate change impacts on the hydrologic cycle
      • No trends are found in hydrologic cycle or surface temperature observations
      • Climate change impacts on American Midwest soil moisture are uncertain
    3. Hyporheic zone hydrologic science: A historical account of its emergence and a prospectus

      M. Bayani Cardenas

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017028

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      Key Points:

      • Hyporheic zone science has emerged as a mature field
      • Hyporheic zone science continues to grow
      • There are many important open problems remaining
    4. Long-range seasonal streamflow forecasting over the Iberian Peninsula using large-scale atmospheric and oceanic information

      J. M. Hidalgo-Muñoz, S. R. Gámiz-Fortis, Y. Castro-Díez, D. Argüeso and M. J. Esteban-Parra

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016826

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      Key Points:

      • Evaluation of teleconnection indices as predictors of lagged seasonal streamflow
      • October snow advance index as main predictor of following winter streamflow
      • Skills in autumn and spring streamflow forecasting with two seasons in advance
  4. Commentary

    1. Diagnosis of insidious data disasters

      Jessica D. Lundquist, Nicholas E. Wayand, Adam Massmann, Martyn P. Clark, Fred Lott and Nicoleta C. Cristea

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016585

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      Key Points:

      • Field observations may contain errors undetectable by standard quality control
      • Iterative comparisons of models and observations are required to detect errors
      • Scientific discourse must be honest about the nonlinear road to success
  5. Research Articles

    1. Hydroeconomic optimization of integrated water management and transfers under stochastic surface water supply

      Tingju Zhu, Guilherme Fernandes Marques and Jay R. Lund

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016519

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      Key Points:

      • The model integrates water supply, use and management decisions time and sector-wise
      • Markets and conjunctive use equalize marginal values across users and in time
      • Integrated management improves system flexibility, reliability, and benefits
    2. On the probabilistic structure of water age

      Amilcare Porporato and Salvatore Calabrese

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017027

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      Key Points:

      • Draw attention to overlooked theory of age and von Foerster equation
      • First treatment of age distribution with random external forcing
      • General results for soil moisture and streamflow models
    3. Abiotic and biotic controls of soil moisture spatiotemporal variability and the occurrence of hysteresis

      Simone Fatichi, Gabriel G. Katul, Valeriy Y. Ivanov, Christoforos Pappas, Athanasios Paschalis, Ada Consolo, Jongho Kim and Paolo Burlando

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016102

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      Key Points:

      • Abiotic controls are larger than biotic and are dominant in wet climates
      • Hysteresis is stronger for Mediterranean than wet climates
      • Heterogeneity in soil properties weakens signatures of hysteresis
    4. On the effect of connectivity on solute transport in spatially heterogeneous combined unsaturated-saturated flow systems

      David Russo

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016434

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      Key Points:

      • Volume fraction of connected features decreases with decreasing saturation
      • Effect of connectivity on transport decreases with decreasing saturation
      • In realistic flows, effect of connectivity on transport is small
    5. Estimation of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system by using joint inversion of multicoil electromagnetic induction measurements

      Khan Zaib Jadoon, Davood Moghadas, Aurangzeb Jadoon, Thomas M. Missimer, Samir K. Al-Mashharawi and Matthew F. McCabe

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016245

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      Key Points:

      • Calibration of the measured EMI data using direct ground truth measurements
      • Inversion of multiconfiguration EMI data to infer distribution of soil salinity
      • In situ measurements confirm spatial distribution of soil salinity
    6. Rainfall hotspots over the southern tropical Andes: Spatial distribution, rainfall intensity, and relations with large-scale atmospheric circulation

      Jhan Carlo Espinoza, Steven Chavez, Josyane Ronchail, Clémentine Junquas, Ken Takahashi and Waldo Lavado

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016273

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      Key Points:

      • TRMM-PR and 95 stations describe rainfall contrasts in Amazon-Andes transition
      • Rainfall hotspots extreme events are related to synoptic atmospheric circulation
      • Rainfall day-to-day variability is associated with cross-equatorial winds
    7. Canopy influence on snow depth distribution in a pine stand determined from terrestrial laser data

      J. Revuelto, J. I. López-Moreno, C. Azorin-Molina and S. M. Vicente-Serrano

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016496

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      Key Points:

      • Canopy presence has a major effect on snow distribution (average reduction 49%)
      • With thicker snowpack, smaller snow differences between open and canopy areas
      • Snow difference (open-canopy) is increased with time during the snow season
    8. Assessment of reservoir system variable forecasts

      Martin Kistenmacher and Aris P. Georgakakos

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016564

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      Key Points:

      • A methodology to assess the quality of reservoir system forecasts is developed
      • Factors affecting forecast quality are identified through a case study
      • Methods to ensure consistent reservoir system variable forecasts are developed
    9. Controls on the diurnal streamflow cycles in two subbasins of an alpine headwater catchment

      Raphael Mutzner, Steven V. Weijs, Paolo Tarolli, Marc Calaf, Holly J. Oldroyd and Marc B. Parlange

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016581

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      Key Points:

      • Different diurnal streamflow cycles observed simultaneously in two subbasins
      • Ice melt and evapotranspiration cycles have different characteristics
      • Ice melt diurnal cycle is damped by evapotranspiration diurnal cycle
    10. Potential accumulation of contaminated sediments in a reservoir of a high-Andean watershed: Morphodynamic connections with geochemical processes

      María Teresa Contreras, Daniel Müllendorff, Pablo Pastén, Gonzalo E. Pizarro, Chris Paola and Cristián Escauriaza

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016130

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      Key Points:

      • Fate of contaminant-rich sediments is connected to morphodynamics in a reservoir
      • Oxygen concentration in the bottomset is linked to arsenic desorption
      • Coupled morphodynamic and oxygen uptake models can be used for risk analysis
    11. Assessment of flow regime alterations over a spectrum of temporal scales using wavelet-based approaches

      Fu-Chun Wu, Ching-Fu Chang and Jenq-Tzong Shiau

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016595

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      Key Points:

      • A new DWPS approach based on deviations between wavelet power spectra
      • Unraveling novel features of flow regime alterations at intermediate time scales
      • Segregating effects on overall flow regime alterations using subflow GDWPS
    12. Chute cutoff as a morphological response to stream reconstruction: The possible role of backwater

      J. P. C. Eekhout and A. J. F. Hoitink

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016539

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      Key Points:

      • Detailed process analysis of a chute cutoff event in a reconstructed stream
      • Chute cutoff explained from a backwater effect that forms a plug bar
      • Despite the artificial setting there are similarities with natural rivers
    13. Coupled and uncoupled hydrogeophysical inversions using ensemble Kalman filter assimilation of ERT-monitored tracer test data

      Matteo Camporese, Giorgio Cassiani, Rita Deiana, Paolo Salandin and Andrew Binley

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016017

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      Key Points:

      • We compare coupled and uncoupled hydrogeophysical inversions based on EnKF
      • The coupled approach outperforms the uncoupled if prior statistics are correct
      • The uncoupled approach is less affected by filter inbreeding than the coupled
    14. Drag force parameters of rigid and flexible vegetal elements

      John A. Chapman, Bruce N. Wilson and John S. Gulliver

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015436

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      Key Points:

      • Flexible object drag is related to the object deflection
      • Drag is related to Cauchy Number
    15. Modeling the release of E. coli D21g with transients in water content

      Scott A. Bradford, Yusong Wang, Saeed Torkzaban and Jiri Šimůnek

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016566

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      Key Points:

      • A model of colloid release with transients in water saturation
      • The model provided a good description of published data
      • Numerical experiments were performed to understand factors controlling release
    16. Does improved SSTA prediction ensure better seasonal rainfall forecasts?

      Mohammad Zaved Kaiser Khan, Ashish Sharma, Rajeshwar Mehrotra, Andrew Schepen and Q. J. Wang

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015997

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      Key Points

      • SSTA forecast improvement by multimodel combination approach
      • Establish BJP between forecasted SSTA indices and seasonal rainfall
      • BMA to improve seasonal rainfall forecast over Australia
    17. Multimodel framework for characterization of transport in porous media

      Valentina Ciriello, Yaniv Edery, Alberto Guadagnini and Brian Berkowitz

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017047

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      Key Points:

      • Multimodel interpretation of reactive chemical transport in porous media
      • Quantification of parameter uncertainty in reactive transport settings
      • Sensitivity-based calibration strategy relying on model proxies via gPC
    18. A multiobjective short-term optimal operation model for a cascade system of reservoirs considering the impact on long-term energy production

      Bin Xu, Ping-An Zhong, Zachary Stanko, Yunfa Zhao and William W.-G. Yeh

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015964

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      Key Points:

      • Developed a multiobjective daily operation model for a system of reservoirs
      • Analyzed the impact of short-term strategy on long-term energy production
      • Analyzed the parameters that influence the best short-term strategy
    19. Balancing water scarcity and quality for sustainable irrigated agriculture

      Shmuel Assouline, David Russo, Avner Silber and Dani Or

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017071

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      Key Points:

      • Irrigation with treated effluent has adverse impacts on soil properties
      • Irrigation with desalinated water improves yields and save water
      • Quantitative models are used to delineate trends
    20. Should hydraulic tomography data be interpreted using geostatistical inverse modeling? A laboratory sandbox investigation

      Walter A. Illman, Steven J. Berg and Zhanfeng Zhao

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016552

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      Key Points:

      • Hydraulic tomography based on geostatistics provides best K estimates
      • Simultaneous calibration with multiple head data leads to more robust models
      • Accurate mapping of stratigraphy can lead to improved results
    21. Biodegradation of subsurface oil in a tidally influenced sand beach: Impact of hydraulics and interaction with pore water chemistry

      Xiaolong Geng, Michel C. Boufadel, Kenneth Lee, Stewart Abrams and Makram Suidan

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016870

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      Key Points:

      • In the upper intertidal zone, oil biodegradation occurred deeper in the beach
      • In the midintertidal zone, oil biodegradation was fast at shallow locations
      • An optimal capillary fringe existed for maximum oil biodegradation in the beach
    22. Assimilation of stream discharge for flood forecasting: Updating a semidistributed model with an integrated data assimilation scheme

      Yuan Li, Dongryeol Ryu, Andrew W. Western and Q. J. Wang

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016667

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      Key Points:

      • A semidistributed model leads to better forecasts than a lumped model
      • The superiority of the semidistributed model becomes less significant after DA
      • Assimilating discharge at the catchment outlet gauge showed a limited or no skill to improve streamflow forecasts at ‘ungauged’ internal locations.
    23. Modeling chloride transport using travel time distributions at Plynlimon, Wales

      Paolo Benettin, James W. Kirchner, Andrea Rinaldo and Gianluca Botter

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016600

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      Key Points:

      • Accuracy in reproducing the hydrochemical response of the catchment
      • Soil and ground water interplay drives water quality dynamics
      • Erratic mean travel times are related to changing catchment features
    24. Comparison of three dual-source remote sensing evapotranspiration models during the MUSOEXE-12 campaign: Revisit of model physics

      Yuting Yang, Di Long, Huade Guan, Wei Liang, Craig Simmons and Okke Batelaan

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015619

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      Key Points

      • Three dual-source remote sensing ET models are compared during MUSOEXE-12
      • HTEM performs generally better than TSEB and the MOD16 ET algorithm
      • Limitations associated with model physics are analyzed
  6. Introduction to a Special Section

    1. Global change and the groundwater management challenge

      Steven M. Gorelick and Chunmiao Zheng

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016825

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      Key Points:

      • Six categories of groundwater vulnerability are central to future aquifer management
      • Highly complex hydrologic-human interactions will require multiagent system models
      • Aquifer management models have increasingly employed gradient-free optimization methods
  7. Research Articles

    1. Mathematical equivalence between time-dependent single-rate and multirate mass transfer models

      D. Fernàndez-Garcia and X. Sanchez-Vila

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016348

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      Key Points

      • Multirate mass transfer reduces to an effective time-dependent single-rate model
      • The effective mass transfer coefficient directly relates to the memory function
      • Results explain the scale-dependence of mass transfer rates
    2. Validation of finite water-content vadose zone dynamics method using column experiments with a moving water table and applied surface flux

      Fred L. Ogden, Wencong Lai, Robert C. Steinke and Jianting Zhu

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016454

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      Key Points:

      • A new finite water-content vadose zone solver was validated using column data
      • The new method is efficient, robust, and guaranteed to conserve mass
      • The new method is as accurate as the numerical solution of the Richards equation
    3. An exact analytical solution for steady seepage from a perched Aquifer to a low-permeable sublayer: Kirkham-Brock's legacy revisited

      A. R. Kacimov and Yu. V. Obnosov

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016304

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      Key Points:

      • Steady seepage from channel in aquifer with low-permeable substratum is studied
      • Seepage losses, phreatic surface and saturated area are computed
      • Arbitrary sublayer conductivity and depth, channel width are considered
    4. Water-quality trading: Can we get the prices of pollution right?

      Yoshifumi Konishi, Jay S. Coggins and Bin Wang

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015560

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      Key Points:

      • Water-quality trading is a useful policy approach to protecting water quality
      • Trading is hard, especially for branching rivers in which damages are nonlinear
      • Simulations show nonlinearity is the lesser problem, emissions limits critical

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