Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 42 Issue 7

Impact Factor: 4.456

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 9/174 (Geosciences Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1944-8007

Frontier Articles

Beyond deadlock
(20 November 2013)
Today's atmospheric global circulation models can represent the effects of clouds through “conventional” parameterizations on coarse grids, through the use of global high-resolution grids, or through the use of embedded cloud-resolving models as superparameterizations in a lower resolution global model. ...[more]

Saturn's magnetospheric dynamics
(30 October 2013)
The dynamics of Saturn's magnetosphere are driven by two major features of the system: First, the dominant source of magnetospheric plasma is the icy moon Enceladus, located deep within the magnetosphere...[more]

Properties of the thundercloud discharges responsible for terrestrial gamma-ray flashes
(8 August 2013)
The source of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) has been an active area of research since their discovery by Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory/Burst and Transient Source Experiment in 1994. These intense bursts of gamma rays originate within thunderclouds via the rapid production of relativistic runaway electrons...[more]

Time-variable gravity observations of ice sheet mass balance: Precision and limitations of the GRACE satellite data
(27 June 2013)
Time-variable gravity data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission have been available since 2002 to estimate the mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. We analyze current progress and uncertainties in GRACE estimates of ice sheet mass balance...[more]

The semidiurnal tide in the middle atmosphere of Mars
(31 May 2013)
Atmospheric thermal tides are global oscillations in atmospheric fields that are subharmonics of a solar day. While atmospheric tides on Earth are mainly relevant in the upper atmosphere, on Mars, they dominate temperature variations and winds throughout the atmosphere...[more]

Cracking the MJO nut
(26 March 2013)
The Madden-Julian oscillation poses great challenges to our understanding and prediction of tropical convection and the large-scale circulation. Several internationally coordinated activities were recently formed to meet the challenges from the perspectives of numerical simulations....[more]

Bunched black (and grouped grey) swans: Dissipative and non-dissipative models of correlated extreme fluctuations in complex geosystems
(31 January 2013)
I review the hierarchy of approaches to complex systems, focusing particularly on stochastic equations. I discuss how the main models advocated by the late Benoit Mandelbrot fit into this classification, and how they continue to contribute to cross-disciplinary approaches....[more]

A global perspective on Langmuir turbulence in the ocean surface boundary layer
(21 September 2012)
The turbulent mixing in thin ocean surface boundary layers (OSBL), which occupy the upper 100 m or so of the ocean, control the exchange of heat and trace gases between the atmosphere and ocean. Here we show that current parameterizations of this turbulent mixing lead....[more]

Recent advances in understanding substorm dynamics
(01 September 2012)
Magnetospheric substorms are elemental processes of solar wind energy storage and explosive release in Earth's magnetosphere. They encompass fundamental plasma physics questions...[more]

Low-energy ions: A previously hidden solar system particle population
(21 September 2012)
Ions with energies less than tens of eV originate from the Terrestrial ionosphere and from several planets and moons in the solar system. The low energy indicates the origin of....[more]

Sources and dynamics of turbulence in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere: A review
(23 June 2012)
Turbulence is a well-known hazard to aviation that is responsible for numerous injuries each year, with occasional fatalities, and is the underlying cause of many people's fear of air travel. Not only are turbulence encounters a safety issue, they also result ... [more]

Cross-scale coupling in the auroral acceleration region
(18 October 2011)
High resolution imaging within regions of auroral luminosity reveal complex, highly structured dynamic and often vortical forms which evolve on time scales of the order of several seconds and less. These features are inherently multi-scale in nature with different sizes moving and evolving at different rates....[more]

IBEX observations of heliospheric energetic neutral atoms: Current understanding and future directions
(16 September 2011)
The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has provided the first energy-resolved all-sky maps of energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissions from the heliosphere's boundary with the local interstellar medium (LISM). The IBEX maps reveal, superposed on a global ENA background...[more]

Revisiting the Earth's sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008
(16 September 2011)
We review the sea-level and energy budgets together from 1961, using recent and updated estimates of all terms. From 1972 to 2008, the observed sea-level rise (1.8 ± 0.2 mm yr−1 from tide gauges alone and 2.1 ± 0.2 mm yr−1 from a combination of tide gauges and altimeter observations) agrees well with the sum of contributions...[more]

A new, lower value of total solar irradiance: Evidence and climate significance
(14 January 2011)
The most accurate value of total solar irradiance during the 2008 solar minimum period is 1360.8 ± 0.5 W m −2 according to measurements from the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) on NASA's Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) and a series of new radiometric laboratory tests. This value is significantly lower than the canonical value of 1365.4 ± 1.3 W m −2 established in the 1990s which energy balance calculations and climate models currently use... [more]

Satellite observations cap the atmospheric organic aerosol budget
(24 December 2010)
Limited understanding of the production and loss of organic aerosol (OA) to the atmosphere has resulted in poorly constrained source estimates ranging from 140 to 910 TgCyr−1 [Goldstein and Galbally, 2007]. We use satellite observations to quantitatively estimate the atmospheric burden of organic aerosol and the associated production... [more]

A New Interpretation of Total Column BrO during Arctic Spring
(3 November 2010)
Emission of bromine from sea-salt aerosol, frost flowers, ice leads, and snow results in the nearly complete removal of surface ozone during Arctic spring. Regions of enhanced total column BrO observed by satellites have traditionally been associated with these emissions. However, airborne measurements of BrO and O3 within the convective boundary layer (CBL) during the ARCTAS and ARCPAC field campaigns at times bear little relation to enhanced column BrO.... [more]

Space-borne radar interferometry techniques for the generation of deformation time series: An advanced tool for Earth's surface displacement analysis
(30 October 2010)
This work is focused on advanced differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) techniques for the generation of deformation time series from sequences of SAR images. We first present the basic rationale of these techniques providing some details of the most well known algorithms... [more]

Radiation belt dynamics: The importance of wave-particle interactions
(24 November 2010)
The flux of energetic electrons in the Earth's outer radiation belt can vary by several orders of magnitude over time scales less than a day, in response to changes in properties of the solar wind instigated by solar activity. Variability in the radiation belt... [more]