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Cancer Medicine

All articles accepted from 14 August 2012 are published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.  All articles accepted before this date, were published under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License.

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 5

Edited By: Qingyi Wei, M.D., Ph.D.

Impact Factor: 2.5

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 121/211 (Oncology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7634

Author Guidelines

To avoid delays of the review process, please ensure your manuscript is formatted correctly and meets all the of submission requirements detailed below.

Cancer Medicine - steps to publication

1. Submit or confirm your submission at
2. We will send you an email confirmation of your submission details.
3. After review and acceptance, you will be prompted to sign the Open Access Agreement form. Payment of the article publication charge will be required. You can then track the progress of your article through Wiley Author Services.
4. You will receive notification that your proof is ready for review, and be able to make corrections to your article.
5. Your article will publish on Wiley Online Library. If you have previously signed up for alerts through Wiley’s Author Services, you will be sent an email when your article is published online.

Note: Please submit revised manuscripts through the ScholarOne Manuscript submission site. Revisions submitted through email will not be accepted. If you need help navigating ScholarOne or no longer have access to your account, please contact the editorial board at

Open Access Agreement

If your paper is accepted, the author whom you identify as being the corresponding author for the paper will be presented with the option to sign an open access agreement (on behalf of all co-authors) to make the case report available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license.

The open access agreement is administered electronically. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

Qingyi Wei, MD, PhD

Address correspondence to the Editorial Office:

The Journal requires that authors submit electronically via the online submission site at

• Original research articles (including well-designed quantitative studies and meta-analyses)
• Reviews
• Methods papers
• Editorials
• Commentaries

Manuscripts must be submitted in grammatically correct English. Manuscripts that do not meet this standard cannot be reviewed. Authors for whom English is a second language may wish to consult an English-speaking colleague or consider having their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication. A manuscript is considered for review and possible publication on the condition that it is submitted solely to Cancer Medicine, and that the manuscript or a substantial portion of it is not under consideration elsewhere.

Informed consent
Cancer Medicine requires that all appropriate steps be taken in obtaining informed consent of any and all human and/or experimental animal subjects participating in the research comprising the manuscript submitted for review and possible publication. A statement indicating that the protocol and procedures employed were reviewed and approved by the appropriate institutional review committee must be included in the Methods section of the manuscript. For research involving recombinant DNA, containment facilities and guidelines should conform to those of the National Institutes of Health or corresponding institutions. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Helsinki Declaration should be followed. A statement is required with any report of investigations involving human subjects confirming that informed consent was obtained from the subject(s) and/or guardian(s). It should be stated clearly in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained.

Photographs With Identifiable Patients
In photographs, sonograms, CT scans, etc., the physical identification of a patient should be masked whenever possible. If a patient is identifiable, written permission to use the photograph must be obtained from the patient or guardian and sent to the Cancer Medicine Editorial Office upon manuscript submission. Clearly state in the manuscript that informed consent has been obtained.

Cell Line Authentication
To ensure the highest standards of quality and accuracy, Cancer Medicine strongly encourages the authentication of cell lines used in the research submitted to the journal. Manuscripts based on research using cell lines must include a statement addressing the following points in the Methods section of the manuscript:
1. Where the cells were obtained from
2. Whether the cell lines have been tested and authenticated
3. The method by which the cells were tested
If cells were obtained directly from a cell bank that performs cell line characterizations and passaged in the user’s laboratory for fewer than 6 months after receipt or resuscitation, re-authorization is not required. In these cases, please include the method of characterization used by the cell bank. If the cell lines were obtained from an alternate source, authors must provide authentication of the origin and identity of the cells. This is best achieved by DNA (STR) profiling. The DNA profile should be cross-checked with the DNA profile of the donor tissue (in case of a new cell line) or with the DNA profile of other continuous cell lines.
Gene names and genetic profiling data: Please mark all gene names in italics. However, only the gene names should be written in italics, to distinguish them from gene products, gene segments, clusters, families, complexes, or groups. Authors should only use the official gene name as assigned by the respective gene nomenclature committee. Regarding comprehensive data sets of genetic profiling (microarray) studies, raw data must be in a publicly available database that requires MIAME format (for example, “GEO” or “Array Express”) upon submission of a paper. Nucleotide sequence data can be submitted in electronic form to any of the three major collaborative databases: DDBJ, EMBL or GenBank. It is only necessary to submit to one database as data are exchanged between DDBJ, EMBL and GenBank on a daily basis. The suggested wording for referring to accession-number information is: ‘These sequence data have been submitted to the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under accession number U12345.’

Clinical Trial Registry
Cancer Medicine requires that all prospective, randomized, controlled trials with patient enrollment starting on or after August 1, 2007, be registered in a public database that meets the requirements of the World Health Organization. Currently, such registries include the following:,,,, and For more information, please refer to the guidelines at Upon submission, please provide the registration identification number and the URL for the trial’s registry in your cover letter.

Randomized Controlled Trials
Reports of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) must state explicitly how the comparison groups were generated, so that readers will be able to assess the method of randomization. In the title, precis, and abstract, specify that the manuscript is a report of an RCT. Prior to submitting an RCT manuscript, authors should refer to the CONSORT checklist (Moher D, Schultz KF, Altman D, for the CONSORT Group. The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials. JAMA. 2001;285:1987–1991).

Reports of Diagnostic Tests
Authors of reports of diagnostic tests are encouraged to submit the STARD flow diagram and checklist (Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DF, et al. for the STARD Group. Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD initiative. Clin Chem. 2003;49:1-18).

Statistical Analysis
The following guidelines should be followed:
• Report the sample size n for each study and each analysis
• Describe the power analysis to justify the sample size if appropriate
• Identify all statistical methods and verify the assumptions for all statistical tests
• Provide alpha (the probability of a Type I error) for all statistical tests
• Specify whether tests are one- or two-sided
• Report the descriptive statistics (n, mean, median, and standard deviation) for all continuous variables
• Report n and the sample proportion for binary variables
• Adequately explain complex statistical procedures such a multivariate logistic regression and the Cox proportional hazards regression model and verify the assumptions of each such procedure
• Report the actual P-values and explain what is meant by statistical significance
• Discuss and describe adjustments for multiple testing

Classification and Staging
AJCC/UICC TNM Classification and Stage groupings are to be used. If another staging system is stated, the AJCC/UICC TNM equivalent must also be given. The stage grouping is a combination of the individual T, N, M classifications (eg, Breast Carcinoma Stage IIA is T2 N0 M0. Please note IIA is the stage. T2 N0M0 is a combination of T, N, M classifications that satisfy the criteria for Stage IIA). Reference to any T, N, M component is a classification and not a stage (eg, the T2 classification); it is not correct to state the classification as a stage (eg, the T2 stage). When a stage or classification is used in the manuscript, a reference citing the staging system must be provided. The first time a stage is used it must be accompanied by the T, N, M and the verbal translation of the numerical identifier (eg, Breast Carcinoma Stage IIA [T2 N0 M0]): tumor more than 2 cm but not more than 5 cm in greatest dimension [T2], no regional lymph node metastasis [N0], no distant metastasis [M0]).

Drugs and Devices
Use generic drug name (or generic name followed by trade name in parentheses). Include manufacturer and their location (city and country) for drugs and devices.

Disclosure statement
Cancer Medicine requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, that might be perceived as influencing an author's objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or directly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include, but are not limited to, patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker's fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal. If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and collectively to list on the cover letter to the Editor-in-Chief, in the manuscript (under the Acknowledgements section), and in the online submission system ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.

Information reproduced from another source must be properly cited. The corresponding author is responsible for obtaining written permission from the appropriate authors and/or copyright holders to use previously published or copyrighted material. Signed permission statements from the copyright holder for both print and online reproduction must be sent to the Cancer Medicine Editorial Office upon manuscript submission. Permission statements also must be obtained from at least one author when citing unpublished data, in press articles, and/or personal communications.

Authors' Professional and Ethical Responsibilities
Should possible scientific misconduct or dishonesty in research submitted for review be suspected or alleged, Cancer Medicine reserves the right to forward any submitted manuscript to the sponsoring or funding institution or to other appropriate authorities for investigation. The journal also screens manuscripts for incidents of plagiarism; please ensure that manuscripts present original data written in unique language.

We place very few restrictions on the way in which you prepare your article, and it is not necessary to try to replicate the layout of the journal in your submission. We ask only that you consider your reviewers by supplying your manuscript in a clear, generic and readable layout, and ensure that all relevant sections are included. Our production process will take care of all aspects of formatting and style. The list below can be used as a checklist to ensure that the manuscript has all the information necessary for successful publication.

Cancer Medicine employs a double-blind review process in which author and reviewer identities are confidential.
1. Please upload a title page for your manuscript that is separate from the rest of the main document.
• Title page, including title, authors’ names, authors’ affiliations, and contact details (especially e-mail address) for the person to whom the proof notification is to be sent
2. Please upload the main manuscript without identifying author information.
• Title page WITHOUT authors’ names or authors’ affiliations
• Abstract and 4–6 keywords
• Text (introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion)
• Literature cited (see below for tips on references)
• Tables (may be sent as a separate file if necessary)
• Figure legends
• Acknowledgements, including details of funding bodies with grant numbers

Note: Please provide at least three recommended reviewers for your paper. This will greatly help our editors locate and secure available peer-reviewers and will also accelerate the review of your paper.

As with the main body of text, the completeness and content of your reference list is more important than the format chosen. A clear and consistent, generic style will assist the accuracy of our production processes and produce the highest quality published work, but it is not necessary to try to replicate the journal’s own style, which is applied during the production process. If you use bibliographic software to generate your reference list, select a standard output style, and check that it produces full and comprehensive reference listings. A guide to the minimum elements required for successful reference linking appears below. The final journal output will use the ‘Vancouver’ style of reference citation. If your manuscript has already been prepared using the ‘Harvard’ system, we are quite happy to receive it in this form. We will perform the conversion from one system to the other during the production process.

Minimum reference information
Journal Article
Author(s) in full
Year of publication
Article title
Journal title (preferably not abbreviated)
Volume number
Issue number
Page range

Author(s) in full
Year of publication
Book title
Place of publication
No. Pages

Book Chapter
Author(s) in full
Year of publication
Chapter title
Book Author/Editor
Book title
Place of publication
Page range

Online resources
References to online research articles should always include a DOI, where available. When referring to other Web pages, it is useful to include a date on which the resource was accessed.

All tables must be cited in the text in the order that they should appear.

All figures must be cited in the text in the order that they should appear. Illustrations are an important medium through which to convey the meaning in your article, and there is no substitute for preparing these to the highest possible standard. Therefore, please create your illustrations carefully with reference to our graphics guidelines (see It is very difficult to improve an image that has been saved or created in an inappropriate format. We realize that not everyone has access to high-end graphics software, so the following information may help if you are having difficulty in deciding how to get the best out of the tools at your disposal.

Cover Images
Cancer Medicine encourages you to designate one of the figures in your paper to be considered for the online journal cover and for potential publication on the official Wiley Open Access blog.

1. Check your software options to see if you can ‘save as’ or ‘export’ using one of the robust, industry-standard formats. These are:
• Encapsulated PostScript (EPS)
• Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)
• Portable Network Graphics (PNG)
• Portable Document Format (PDF)

2. As a general rule of thumb, images that contain text and line art (graphs, charts, maps, etc.) will reproduce best if saved as EPS or PDF. If you choose this option, it is important to remember to embed fonts. This ensures that any text reproduces exactly as you intend.

3. Images that contain photographic information are best saved as TIFF or PNG, as this ensures that all data are included in the file. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) should be avoided if possible, as information is lost during compression; however, it is acceptable for purely photographic subjects if the image was generated as a JPEG from the outset (many digital cameras, for example, output only in JPEG format).

4. If you are not sure which format would be the best option, it is always best to default to EPS or PDF as these are more likely to preserve the high-quality characteristics of the original.

5. Microsoft Office. If you have generated your images in Microsoft Office software (Word, Excel, PowerPoint), or similar, it is often best simply to send us the files in their native file formats.

6. Please ensure all images are a minimum of 600 dpi.

Chemical Structures & Synthesis

Exact chemical structures of unpublished synthetic, low-molecular-weight chemical compounds used as part of the described research must be disclosed, including in clinical studies in humans. Chemical names alone are not enough.

New structures being reported for the first time must include experimental details of the synthetic methodology in the main body of the paper. References or cited patents that provide the synthesis of the compounds should identify exact molecules studied in the paper. General references to patents are not enough.

Metric system

The metric system should be used for all measurements, weights, etc. Temperatures should be expressed in degrees Celsius (centigrade).

Supporting Information

Supporting Information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supporting Information include additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. Supporting Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format.

For further information on recommended file types and requirements for submission, please visit:

Search Engine Optimization for Your Paper

Please consult our SEO Tips for Authors page in order to maximize online discoverability for your published research. Included are tips for making your title and abstract SEO-friendly, choosing appropriate keywords, and promoting your research through social media.

Editorial and Peer Review Process

Cancer Medicine pursues editorial approaches that may help us avoid bias. We do our utmost to judge research objectively on its own merits and to avoid favoring research, for example, from particular institutions, countries, or regions. Cancer Medicine employs a double-blind review process in which author identities and peer reviewer identities are kept confidential from one another. Most submissions transferred to Cancer Medicine from partnering journals will be assessed using the original peer-review reports from those journals; however, the Editor-in-Chief will critically review these peer-review reports and may choose to send manuscripts out for additional double-blind review. The existence of a manuscript under review is not revealed to anyone other than the peer reviewers and editorial staff. Peer reviewers are required to maintain confidentiality about the manuscripts they review and must not divulge any information about a specific manuscript or its content to any third party without prior permission from the journal editors. All authors will be sent notification of the receipt of manuscripts and editorial decisions by e-mail. During the review process, designated contact authors can also check the status of the submitted manuscript via ScholarOne Manuscripts at

CrossCheck is a multi-publisher initiative to screen published and submitted content for originality. To find out more about CrossCheck visit By submitting your manuscript to Cancer Medicine you accept that your manuscript may be screened, using the iThenticate tool, for textual similarity to other previously published works.

Soon after acceptance, you will receive an email containing your PDF proof. Once you have submitted your corrections, the production office will finalize the layout of your article for publication.

As this is an open access journal, you have free, unlimited access to your article online. However, if you wish to obtain printed reprints, these may be ordered online: (Email:

Production Questions
Please direct any questions regarding the production of your article to the Production Editor at

As per the guidelines issued by the World Association of Medical Editors (also for further information, refer to “Reviews will be expected to be professional, honest, courteous, prompt, and constructive. The desired major elements of a high-quality review should be as follows:
The reviewer should have identified and commented on major strengths and weaknesses of study design and methodology.
The reviewer should comment accurately and constructively upon the quality of the author's interpretation of the data, including acknowledgment of its limitations.
The reviewer should comment on major strengths and weaknesses of the manuscript as a written communication, independent of the design, methodology, results, and interpretation of the study.
The reviewer should comment on any ethical concerns raised by the study, or any possible evidence of low standards of scientific conduct.
The reviewer should provide the author with useful suggestions for improvement of the manuscript.
The reviewer's comments to the author should be constructive and professional.
The review should provide the editor the proper context and perspective to make a decision on acceptance (and/or revision) of the manuscript.”
Recommendations about publication are appreciated and are welcomed in the comments to the Editors. However, we kindly ask that reviewers not make such recommendations in their comments to the authors. Indeed, it is our policy to edit such comments out of any communications to authors.