Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 8

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA and Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK

Impact Factor: 2.32

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 63/145 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

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  1. 1 - 85
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Do relaxed selection and habitat temperature facilitate biased mitogenomic introgression in a narrowly endemic fish?

      Christopher Darrin Hulsey, Katherine L. Bell, Francisco J. García-de-León, Chris C. Nice and Axel Meyer

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2121

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      In this study, we used a combination of genetic and environmental data, to examine mitochondrial introgression in the narrowly endemic and trophically polymorphic cichlid, Herichthys minckleyi. Using extensive mitochondrial sequencing and 6220 nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms, we show that mitochondrial introgression into H. minckleyi is biased relative to nuclear introgression, that there is evidence for relaxed selection on the mitogenome in H. minckleyi, and that springs with colder temperatures also had greater amounts of introgression.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Protein changes in abalone foot muscle from three geographical populations of Haliotis diversicolor based on proteomic approach

      Guilan Di, Xiulian Miao, Caihuan Ke, Xianghui Kong, Hui Li and Weiwei You

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2128

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      Proteomic analysis of abalone different geographical population in muscle protein. TT and VV first were clustered together, and then clustered with JJ. Both “genotype” and “spots” were significant among three populations, we identified 46 expressed proteins using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Novel distribution pattern between coexisting sexual and obligate asexual variants of the true estuarine macroalga Ulva prolifera

      Masanori Hiraoka and Motoki Higa

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2149

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      We reveal novel sexual–asexual distribution pattern in the true estuarine algal species Ulva prolifera which is a major benthic component of estuarine ecosystems and sympatrically includes sexual and obligate asexual variants.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Temperature and population density: interactional effects of environmental factors on phenotypic plasticity, immune defenses, and disease resistance in an insect pest

      Farley W. S. Silva and Simon L. Elliot

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2158

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      Schematic framework describing the direct (solid arrows) and indirect (dashed arrows) effects of environmental factors (inside the ellipses) on the insect-pathogen system.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Adaptive genetic variation distinguishes Chilean blue mussels (Mytilus chilensis) from different marine environments

      Cristián Araneda, María Angélica Larraín, Benjamin Hecht and Shawn Narum

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2110

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      The current study aimed to evaluate the potential of SNP outlier loci to addresses the fine-scale population structure in Chilean mussel. The SNP marker panels developed here increased assignment of individual to their origin populations and they could be applied for traceability purposes in management and conservation programs.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evaluating vegetation effects on animal demographics: the role of plant phenology and sampling bias

      Daniel Gibson, Erik J. Blomberg and James S. Sedinger

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2148

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      The decision about when to measure vegetation relative to the timing of demographic events is important to avoid sampling covariance between the demographic rate of interest and vegetation covariates. Such covariance could bias estimated effect sizes or produce spurious results. Our simulations indicate that models of covariate effects based on improperly measured covariates will be favored as predictive based on established model selection procedures even in situations where no effect of the covariate exists in nature.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Extinct Beringian wolf morphotype found in the continental U.S. has implications for wolf migration and evolution

      Julie A. Meachen, Alexandria L. Brannick and Trent J. Fry

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2141

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      The wolves of Natural Trap Cave, WY have been a mystery for 30 years. In this study we show that these wolves show the same morphology as the Beringian wolves from Alaska, which has implications for wolf movement and speciation across North America during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evolutionary ecology of pipefish brooding structures: embryo survival and growth do not improve with a pouch

      Ines Braga Goncalves, Ingrid Ahnesjö and Charlotta Kvarnemo

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2139

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      Using four sympatric species of pipefishes, we tested whether the presence or absence of brood pouch, and egg size (small vs. large), relates to how male behaviour, embryo size, and survival are affected by hypoxia, with normoxia as control. Overall, we found no significant benefits of brood pouches in terms of embryo survival and size under hypoxia. Instead, our results suggest negative effects of large egg size, despite the protection of brood pouches.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Microhabitat selection in the common lizard: implications of biotic interactions, age, sex, local processes, and model transferability among populations

      Miguel Peñalver-Alcázar, Pedro Aragón, Merel C. Breedveld and Patrick S. Fitze

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2138

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      Here, we performed a precise capture–recapture study at microhabitat scale and measured abiotic and biotic parameters at the local scale in three different geographically separated populations. We analyze the importance of biotic parameters, biotic interactions, sex, and age, and determine the potential implications of local processes. We show that biotic factors and biological interactions are important predictors of species' spatial distribution at the local scale. Our findings indicate that the incorporation of age class, sex, biotic parameters, and biological interactions could substantially improve the results of habitat selection models.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Management adaptation of invertebrate fisheries to an extreme marine heat wave event at a global warming hot spot

      Nick Caputi, Mervi Kangas, Ainslie Denham, Ming Feng, Alan Pearce, Yasha Hetzel and Arani Chandrapavan

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2137

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      An extreme marine heat wave event in the midwest region of Western Australia occurred in the 2010/11 austral summer, with sea-surface temperature anomalies of 2–5°C above normal climatology. The heat wave occurred as a result of a strong Leeuwin Current (associated with an extreme La Niña event) in combination with an anomalously high heat flux from the atmosphere into the ocean, at a global warming hot spot in the Indian Ocean. This study examined the major impact the event had on invertebrate fisheries and the management adaption applied.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Comparative population structure of two dominant species, Shinkaia crosnieri (Munidopsidae: Shinkaia) and Bathymodiolus platifrons (Mytilidae: Bathymodiolus), inhabiting both deep-sea vent and cold seep inferred from mitochondrial multi-genes

      Yanjun Shen, Qi Kou, Weitao Chen, Shunping He, Mei Yang, Xinzheng Li and Xiaoni Gan

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2132

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      Intraspecific genetic exchanges have been found for Bathymodiolus mussels across thousands of kilometers between vent and seep sites, but not for Shinkaia crosnieri. Our results showed a pattern of population differentiation for Shinkaia crosnieri and a pattern of homogeneity for Bathymodiolus platifrons.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic structure of Micromeria (Lamiaceae) in Tenerife, the imprint of geological history and hybridization on within-island diversification

      Pamela Puppo, Manuel Curto and Harald Meimberg

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2094

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      We found that the species of Micromeria restricted to the older parts of Tenerife present lower levels of genetic diversity but highest levels of genetic differentiation suggesting that their ranges have contracted over time. The two most widespread species in the island present the highest genetic diversity levels and a genetic structure correlated with the geological composition of the island. Evidence of hybridization and intraspecific migration between species was found.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Directional genetic differentiation and relative migration

      Lisa Sundqvist, Kevin Keenan, Martin Zackrisson, Paulo Prodöhl and David Kleinhans

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2096

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      This new approach allows the estimation of directional components of genetic differentiation between pairs of populations at low computational effort, using any of the classical or modern measures of genetic differentiation. These directional measures of genetic differentiation can further be used to calculate directional relative migration and to detect asymmetries in gene flow patterns.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Quantifying the effects of drought on abrupt growth decreases of major tree species in Switzerland

      Marco Vanoni, Harald Bugmann, Magdalena Nötzli and Christof Bigler

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2146

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      In this study, a statistical framework was used to assess the short- and long-term growth response to drought of spruce, fir, beech, and oak on sites distributed across Switzerland. Distributed lag nonlinear models revealed species-specific growth responses to drought indicating a lagged effect for oak, but an immediate negative impact for the other three tree species.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Transcriptome response to temperature stress in the wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae)

      Rong Xiao, Liang Wang, Yingshuai Cao and Guren Zhang

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2142

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      The wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata is the dominant predator in paddy ecosystems and an important biological control agent of rice pests. We performed comparative transcriptome analyses of spider adults exposed to 10°C and 40°C for 12 h. Differential expression profiling demonstrated separate pathways and differentially expressed genes were contributed to temperature stress adaptation.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mangrove response to environmental change in Australia's Gulf of Carpentaria

      Emma Asbridge, Richard Lucas, Catherine Ticehurst and Peter Bunting

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2140

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      In the Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia, human disturbance is minimal. Hence, changes in mangroves along the coastline are assumed to be the result of natural drivers. By comparing classifications generated from time-series classification of Landsat sensor data for the period 1987–2014, mangroves were observed to have extended seawards and inland along many of the rivers and rivulets in the tidal reaches. The main periods of seaward extension were associated with peaks in river discharge. Landward expansion was attributed to the combined effects of sea level rise and prolonged inundation associated with freshwater runoff.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Intrasexual competition underlies sexual selection on male breeding coloration in the orangethroat darter, Etheostoma spectabile

      Muchu Zhou and Rebecca C. Fuller

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2136

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      We examined whether male breeding coloration in the orangethroat darter is under sexual selection by intrasexual competition, by allowing several males to vie for a single female. Multiple aspects of male coloration was correlated with male competitive ability and reproductive success.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The relative importance of reproduction and survival for the conservation of two dolphin populations

      Oliver Manlik, Jane A. McDonald, Janet Mann, Holly C. Raudino, Lars Bejder, Michael Krützen, Richard C. Connor, Michael R. Heithaus, Robert C. Lacy and William B. Sherwin

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2130

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      On the basis of conventional sensitivity analyses, it is often asserted that wildlife management of slow-growing animal populations should focus on (adult) survival. We present various lines of evidence that for the conservation of two dolphin populations and other slow-growing vertebrate populations, reproduction – not survival – is the key to success.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Is my study system good enough? A case study for identifying maternal effects

      Anna Marie Holand and Ingelin Steinsland

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2124

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      We show the importance of using simulation studies to explore identifiability of different additive genetic and environmental effects as well as the consequences of omitting an effect from the model when it is present. The methodology is presented through a wild house sparrow (Passer domesticus) study system. For the case study we explore if additive genetic (a) and additive genetic maternal (m) effects are indentifiable (A) and/or individual (environmental) (epsilon) and individual maternal (p) effects are identifiable (B) for our study system.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Seasonal phenotype-specific transcriptional reprogramming during metamorphosis in the European map butterfly Araschnia levana

      Andreas Vilcinskas and Heiko Vogel

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2120

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      The European map butterfly (Araschnia levana) is a classic example of seasonal polyphenism because the spring and summer imagoes display two distinct morphological phenotypes. We used suppression subtractive hybridization to experimentally screen for genes that are differentially expressed in prepupae committed either to accelerated metamorphosis and egg production or diapause and overwintering. We report for the first time candidate genes mediating regulation of polyphenism in Lepidoptera.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Winners and losers: tropical forest tree seedling survival across a West African forest–savanna transition

      Anabelle W. Cardoso, José A. Medina-Vega, Yadvinder Malhi, Stephen Adu-Bredu, George K.D. Ametsitsi, Gloria Djagbletey, Frank van Langevelde, Elmar Veenendaal and Immaculada Oliveras

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2133

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      Survival after fire of different forest tree seedling species was associated to trade-offs between growth and resource capture ability and ability to recover from fire. Therefore, other factors than fire confer different acclimation strategies that determine the survival of forest tree seedlings in each vegetation type.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Strong paleoclimatic legacies in current plant functional diversity patterns across Europe

      Alejandro Ordonez and Jens-Christian Svenning

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2131

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      Our results show that geographic patterns in current functional diversity across Europe exhibit prominent Quaternary glacial–interglacial climate change imprints, even though the end of the last glaciation occurred ~11,500 years ago.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Assessing the geographic scale of genetic population management with microsatellites and introns in the clam Ruditapes decussatus

      Alberto Arias-Pérez, David Cordero, Yaisel Borrell, Jose Antonio Sánchez, Gloria Blanco, Ruth Freire, Ana Insua and Carlos Saavedra

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2052

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      The clam Ruditapes decussatus is a commercial species from the northwestern Atlantic and the Mediterranean that is facing population decline and hybridization with the introduced Manila clam. To help in genetic population management, we have conducted a population survey with microsatellites and intron RFLP markers. A regional pattern of population subdivision in the Atlantic has been found.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Nuclear introgression without mitochondrial introgression in two turtle species exhibiting sex-specific trophic differentiation

      Sarah M. Mitchell, Laura K. Muehlbauer and Steven Freedberg

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2087

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      Our study couples stable isotope analysis with genetic sequence data to examine sex-specific introgression and trophic differentiation in two hybridizing turtle species. We found that introgression occurs through males but is halted in females. Trophic differences in females may provide a mechanism that can contribute to reduced hybrid female fitness.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Divergence and isolation of cryptic sympatric taxa within the annual legume Amphicarpaea bracteata

      Rebecca Y. Kartzinel, Daniel Spalink, Donald M. Waller and Thomas J. Givnish

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2134

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      The highly selfing annual legume Amphicarpaea bracteata consists of three strongly divergent, extremely homozygous cryptic lineages. Genotyping-by-sequencing shows that these lineages maintain islands of genetic divergence that likely underlie hybrid incompatibility, restricting gene flow despite widespread sympatric distributions. Furthermore, although genetic diversity is very low, each lineages nevertheless displays substantial phenotypic variation, complicating identification in the field.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Prefire grazing by cattle increases postfire resistance to exotic annual grass (Bromus tectorum) invasion and dominance for decades

      Kirk W. Davies, Jon D. Bates, Chad S. Boyd and Tony J. Svejcar

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2127

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      We evaluated the influence of grazing of native plant community resilience to fire and resistance to exotic annual grass invasion for more than 20 years postfire. Grazing prefire compared to long-term grazing exclusion increased native plant community recovery and decreased exotic annual grass dominance postfire.

    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Long-term demographic decline and late glacial divergence in a Californian paleoendemic: Sequoiadendron giganteum (giant sequoia)

      Richard S. Dodd and Rainbow DeSilva

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2122

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      We used nuclear microsatellites to investigate the evolution of contemporary population genetic structure among groves of the Californian paleoendemic giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum). Populations north of the Kings Canyon watershed were found to be genetically divergent from the more continuous groves further south. Our data supported a demographic contraction just prior to the last glacial maximum as the most likely scenario for the current disjunct range of the species, superimposed upon a long term decline of giant sequoia over the last 2 million years, associated with increasing aridity due to the Mediterranean climate.

    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Photosynthesis, growth, and decay traits in Sphagnum – a multispecies comparison

      Fia Bengtsson, Gustaf Granath and Håkan Rydin

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2119

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      We investigated functional traits related to growth and decomposition (and hence decisive for carbon sequestration) in 15 globally important Sphagnum species representing a range of peatland habitats. By including a wide range of species and habitats, we found that the trade-off between measures of growth and decomposition was weaker than indicated by previous studies. We also show that the assumed strong link between phylogeny and trait is an oversimplification, and we discuss trait differences among species representing different habitats and phylogeny.

    29. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Contrasting genetic patterns between two coexisting Eleutherococcus species in northern China

      Sheng-Hong Wang, Lei Bao, Tian-Ming Wang, Hong-Fang Wang and Jian-Ping Ge

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2118

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      We evaluated whether two coexisting Eleutherococcus species had similar demographic history based on chloroplast fragment sequencing. Our study found extremely contrasting genetic patterns between the two coexisting close relatives, with E. sessiliflorus found only one haplotype, whereas E. senticosus found considerably high genetic variation in both North China and Northeast China (total 15 haplotypes). We speculated that a recent severe bottleneck might have resulted in the extremely low genetic diversity in E. sessiliflorus; for E. senticosus, we inferred that both North China and Northeast China could sustain populations during last glacial maximum, and lineage admixture between multiple glacial refugia might elevate the genetic diversity in Northeast China.

    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Geographic variation in advertisement calls of a Microhylid frog – testing the role of drift and ecology

      Ko-Huan Lee, Pei-Jen L. Shaner, Yen-Po Lin and Si-Min Lin

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2116

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      Call divergence, geographic distance and genetic distance between M. fissipes populations were positively correlated. These results, combined with the Pst − Fst test, suggested a role of drift. We concluded that genetic drift, rather than ecological processes, is the more likely driver for the geographic variation in the advertisement calls of M. fissipes.

    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A trait-based approach reveals the feeding selectivity of a small endangered Mediterranean fish

      Pablo Rodríguez-Lozano, Iraima Verkaik, Alberto Maceda-Veiga, Mario Monroy, Adolf de Sostoa, Maria Rieradevall and Narcís Prat

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2117

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      Although functional traits are growing in popularity in modern ecology, feeding studies remain firmly rooted in a taxonomic-based perspective. Our study shows that morphological and behavioral traits may explain prey vulnerability to predation and, consequently, suggests that the adoption of a trait-based perspective in feeding ecology studies can improve our mechanistic understanding of prey–consumer relationships.

    32. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Structural (UV) and carotenoid-based plumage coloration – signals for parental investment?

      Carsten Lucass, Arne Iserbyt, Marcel Eens and Wendt Müller

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2107

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      We investigated whether pre- and/or posthatching investment of blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) parents was related to ornamental plumage traits (UV crown coloration and carotenoid-based plumage coloration) expressed by either the individual itself or its partner. Most traits were not linked to plumage coloration, except for a consistent positive relationship between offspring begging intensity and maternal carotenoid-based plumage coloration. This is likely to represent a maternal effect mediated via maternally derived egg substances.

    33. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Shift in precipitation regime promotes interspecific hybridization of introduced Coffea species

      Céline Gomez, Marc Despinoy, Serge Hamon, Perla Hamon, Danyela Salmon, Doffou Sélastique Akaffou, Hyacinthe Legnate, Alexandre de Kochko, Morgan Mangeas and Valérie Poncet

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2055

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      Differentiation in flowering time and in native environmental conditions contributes to reproductive isolation between Coffea species. We investigated the impact of Coffea species introduction to New Caledonia in new environmental conditions on their flowering phenologies and on the hybridization potential in this secondary contact zone. Using a combination of population genetics and niche modeling, together with flowering and climate monitoring, we showed that the presence of a precipitation regime different from those in Africa generated partial flowering overlap between species and promoted hybridization and gene flow.

    34. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Aversion and attraction to harmful plant secondary compounds jointly shape the foraging ecology of a specialist herbivore

      Parris T. Humphrey, Andrew D. Gloss, Nicolas M. Alexandre, Martha M. Villalobos, Marcella R. Fremgen, Simon C. Groen, Lisa N. Meihls, Georg Jander and Noah K. Whiteman

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2082

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      Many specialists herbivores can subvert host plant defensive chemistry, allowing them to “feed with impunity” on plant tissues. But despite being a specialist herbivore, Scaptomyza nigrita lacks a specialized means of overcoming the toxic mustard oils of its Brassicacea host. Here, we show that this herbivore exhibits a behavioral strategy for mitigating host plant toxicity by avoiding high concentrations of mustard oil precursors where possible, even though these compounds themselves may be important for initiating host feeding.

    35. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Adcyap1 polymorphism covaries with breeding latitude in a Nearctic migratory songbird, the Wilson's warbler (Cardellina pusilla)

      Gaia Bazzi, Andrea Galimberti, Quentin R. Hays, Ilaria Bruni, Jacopo G. Cecere, Luca Gianfranceschi, Keith A. Hobson, Yolanda E. Morbey, Nicola Saino, Christopher G. Guglielmo and Diego Rubolini

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2053

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      We investigated whether genetic polymorphism at two migration-linked candidate genes, Clock and Adcyap1, predicted phenotypic variation in timing of spring migration and breeding latitude in western populations of a Nearctic migratory songbird, the Wilson's warbler (Cardellina pusilla). While Clock was monomorphic, Adcyap1 allele size strongly (r = 0.69) predicted latitude of the breeding destination, inferred from stable isotope ratios of feathers, of long-distance, northern breeding populations (western Canada), while this was not the case (r = 0.12) among southern breeding birds (coastal California). We also found that Adcyap1 significantly covaried with inferred breeding latitude of males but not of females. No association was found between Adcyap1 allele size and spring migration timing. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that Adcyap1 is involved in the regulation of migratory behavior.

    36. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Lateral plate number in low-plated threespine stickleback: a study of plasticity and heritability

      Truls H. Hansson, Barbara Fischer, Anna B. Mazzarella, Kjetil L. Voje and Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2020

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      In this study, we estimate heritability of and plasticity in lateral plate number of the threespine stickleback, a model species in evolutionary biology. Our results indicate that plate number is highly heritable and that there is an additional small plastic component in response to salinity.

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      Genomic signatures of the plateless phenotype in the threespine stickleback

      Anna B. Mazzarella, Sanne Boessenkool, Kjartan Østbye, Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad and Emiliano Trucchi

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2072

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      Here we investigate the far extreme of the plate number continuum, the plateless stickleback, an understudied phenotype that has been found in only a few lakes and streams across the world. We use a dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dataset to analyze samples from three freshwater populations containing plateless individuals. Using a variety of analyses we searched for genomic differences between the low plated and plateless phenotypes both within and among the three lakes finding least 18 genomic regions that may contribute to within-morph plate number in the low plated stickleback populations.

    38. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Estimating population size using single-nucleotide polymorphism-based pedigree data

      Robert Spitzer, Anita J. Norman, Michael Schneider and Göran Spong

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2076

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      Here, we present empirical analysis of a recently published pedigree-based census method. From two fractions of the Swedish brown bear population, we derived estimates that fall within the 95% CI of the official population estimates. This method, in combination with noninvasive genetic sampling, expands the toolbox of population census methods, particularly for rare and elusive species.

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      Are we getting the full picture? Animal responses to camera traps and implications for predator studies

      Paul Meek, Guy Ballard, Peter Fleming and Greg Falzon

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2111

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      Camera traps are heralded as nonintrusive survey tools. We evaluated animal responses to infrared camera traps proving that behavioral responses may effect detection. Therefore introducing an as yet unmeasured bias in abundance surveys.

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      Validation of back-calculated body lengths and timing of growth mark deposition in Hawaiian green sea turtles

      Lisa R. Goshe, Melissa L. Snover, Aleta A. Hohn and George H. Balazs

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2108

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      Carapace lengths of wild, mark-recaptured green sea turtles in Hawaii, USA were compared with carapace lengths estimated from growth mark diameters retained in their humerus bones. We found no significant difference, which supports using skeletochronology to convert successive growth mark diameters to prior carapace lengths and rapidly access a record of prior growth rates for this species.

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      Peripheral genetic structure of Helicoverpa zea indicates asymmetrical panmixia

      Mathew Seymour, Omaththage P. Perera, Howard W. Fescemyer, Ryan E. Jackson, Shelby J. Fleischer and Craig A. Abel

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2106

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      Adult Helicoverpa zea moths captured in pheromone traps in two locations in Pennsylvania were genotyped for microsatellite loci. Statistical genetic analysis of microsatellite data indicated that high genetic diversity within migrant populations and low genetic differentiation among migrant populations of H. zea are the result of asymmetrical immigration due to the high dispersal and reproductive behavior of H. zea.

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      Consequences of mating with siblings and nonsiblings on the reproductive success in a leaf beetle

      Thorben Müller and Caroline Müller

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2103

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      We aimed to investigate the mating behavior and consequences of mating with siblings versus nonsiblings on lifetime reproduction, using five families of a chrysomelid beetle. Additionally, we analyzed the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, which could serve as potential cues for mate recognition. Although cuticular hydrocarbon profiles differed between families, we could not find a precopulatory inbreeding avoidance behavior, but clear indications for inbreeding depression.

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      Population dynamics of a natural red deer population over 200 years detected via substantial changes of genetic variation

      Gunther Sebastian Hoffmann, Jes Johannesen and Eva Maria Griebeler

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2063

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      We investigate for the first time the change in the genetic constitution of a natural red deer population over two centuries, using up to 200-year-old antlers (30 generations) stored in trophy collections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the oldest DNA source ever used for microsatellite population genetic analyses. We demonstrate that the political situation and hunting laws may have strong impacts on populations that can lead to unexpectedly rapid changes in the genetic constitution of a large mammal population.

    44. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Carbon storage in China's forest ecosystems: estimation by different integrative methods

      Shunlei Peng, Ding Wen, Nianpeng He, Guirui Yu, Anna Ma and Qiufeng Wang

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2114

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Different integrative methods appear to impact C storage estimates at large scale. C storage in China's forest ecosystems was 30.99–34.96 Pg C by the six integrative methods. Soil C density and storage in the 0–100 cm soil layer were estimated to be 136.07–153.17 Mg C·ha−1 and 20.62–23.21 Pg C, 0.68–0.82. The dead biomass C density and storage were estimated to 3.66–5.41 Mg C·ha−1 and 0.68–0.82 Pg C, respectively. This first evaluation demonstrates the importance of multimethodological approaches to accurately estimate C storage in the large-scale forest ecosystems.

    45. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      No effect of blood sampling or phytohaemagglutinin injection on postfledging survival in a wild songbird

      Emerson Keith Bowers, Scott K. Sakaluk and Charles F. Thompson

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2112

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We test whether sampling blood or inducing an immune response affects the survival of study subjects. Analysis of over 20,000 birds reveals no effect of bleeding or immunostimulation on survival.

    46. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Population-specific effects of developmental temperature on body condition and jumping performance of a widespread European frog

      Sanja Drakulić, Heike Feldhaar, Duje Lisičić, Mia Mioč, Ivan Cizelj, Michael Seiler, Theresa Spatz and Mark-Oliver Rödel

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2113

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our results show the intraspecific differences in morphometric traits, physiology, and performance between populations of widespread European frog, inhabiting environments differing in thermal conditions. The differences in traits persistent in the common environments indicate the genetic background as a source of variation. This provides a valuable contribution to the understanding of differences in mechanisms of local thermal adaptations.

    47. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Phylogenetic assemblage structure of North American trees is more strongly shaped by glacial–interglacial climate variability in gymnosperms than in angiosperms

      Ziyu Ma, Brody Sandel and Jens-Christian Svenning

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2100

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      To assess the influence of Quaternary climate change on cross-continental variation in phylogenetic structure, we modeled phylogenetic structures of North American trees in 50-km grid cells as a function of current climate, paleoclimate and topography, comparing angiosperms and gymnosperms. We found current climate had the most influence on the overall patterns, but glacial-interglacial climate change variability determined phylogenetic clustering and endemism, with a greater effect on gymnosperms than angiosperms.

    48. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Pedigree analysis for the genetic management of group-living species

      Belén Jiménez-Mena, Kristine Schad, Nick Hanna and Robert C. Lacy

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1831

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We developed tools and methodologies for pedigree analysis to better manage group-living species and populations that are usually kept in groups. Such analyses of the pedigree of groups can improve the management of group-living species in ex situ breeding programs.

    49. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Leaf economics spectrum–productivity relationships in intensively grazed pastures depend on dominant species identity

      Norman W.H. Mason, Kate Orwin, Suzanne Lambie, Sharon L. Woodward, Tiffany McCready and Paul Mudge

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1964

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Inclusion of forbs (Plantago lanceolata and Chicorium intybus) in ryegrass-based mixtures increased productivity while their inclusion in tall fescue-based mixtures decreased productivity. This is most likely due to a lack of seasonal complementarity between the forbs and tall fescue.

    50. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A simple method to predict body temperature of small reptiles from environmental temperature

      Mathew Vickers and Lin Schwarzkopf

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1961

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      We present a very cheap method for estimating body temperature of small terrestrial vertebrate ectotherms and demonstrate a nifty method for calibration.

    51. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Downscaling land-use data to provide global 30″ estimates of five land-use classes

      Andrew J. Hoskins, Alex Bush, James Gilmore, Tom Harwood, Lawrence N. Hudson, Chris Ware, Kristen J. Williams and Simon Ferrier

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2104

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Current global land-use data are at a coarse spatial grain which does not match the local ecological processes that they disrupt. Here, we present a new statistical downscaling method and apply this method to a global 0.5 degree land-use dataset. Using our method, we produce a global fine-grained land-use dataset at a spatial resolution more relevant to the local ecological processes that land-use practices disrupt.

    52. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Populations of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) with different evolutionary histories differ in their climate occupancy

      Burke T. Greer, Christopher Still, Glenn T. Howe, Christina Tague and Dar A. Roberts

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2102

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      Aspen are found across a wide variety of habitats across North America. We examined the climate occupancy of two macroscale populations of aspen, and found that aspen with different evolutionary histories occupy different climates.

    53. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      TiLIA: a software package for image analysis of firefly flash patterns

      Junsuke Konno, Yoko Hatta-Ohashi, Ryutaro Akiyoshi, Anchana Thancharoen, Somyot Silalom, Watana Sakchoowong, Vor Yiu, Nobuyoshi Ohba and Hirobumi Suzuki

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2078

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      We present a software package for image analysis of firefly flash pattern using video-recorded data.

    54. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Using historical woodland creation to construct a long-term, large-scale natural experiment: the WrEN project

      Kevin Watts, Elisa Fuentes-Montemayor, Nicholas A. Macgregor, Victor Peredo-Alvarez, Mark Ferryman, Chloe Bellamy, Nigel Brown and Kirsty J. Park

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2066

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      Here we outline the development of a long-term, large-scale natural experiment focussing on the historical creation of woodland within the UK. Results from this project will help develop recommendations to guide landscape-scale conservation. It also illustrates the utility and value of natural experiments to complement manipulative experiments and improve our ecological understanding and guide management.

  2. Editorial

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ecology and Evolution in an Open World (or: why supplementary data are evil)

      Allen J. Moore and Andrew Beckerman

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2101

  3. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Molecular identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southeastern Australia

      Jana Batovska, Mark J. Blacket, Karen Brown and Stacey E. Lynch

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2095

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      This study establishes a DNA barcode database for mosquitoes found in southeastern Australia, with a total of 113 COI sequences representing 29 mosquito species. The biosecurity application of DNA barcoding is also evaluated using a mosquito egg that was intercepted at an international airport.

  4. Hypotheses

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evolutionary ecology of aging: time to reconcile field and laboratory research

      Martin Reichard

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2093

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      This opinion article argues that it is needed to reconcile laboratory and field-based approaches to better understand how demographic and functional aging vary across populations within a species, how genetic and environmental variation interact to modulate individual expression of aging rates, and to examine how much intraspecific variation in lifespan is attributable to an intrinsic (i.e., nonenvironmental) component.

  5. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A Bayesian approach for temporally scaling climate for modeling ecological systems

      Max Post van der Burg, Michael J. Anteau, Lisa A. McCauley and Mark T. Wiltermuth

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2092

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      With recent climate change becoming more of concern, many ecologists are including climate variables in their system and statistical models. Using a case study, we demonstrate how a recently developed drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, can be temporally scaled to match an ecological response using Bayesian techniques.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mowing strategies for controlling Cirsium arvense in a permanent pasture in New Zealand compared using a matrix model

      Graeme W. Bourdôt, Britta Basse and Michael G. Cripps

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2090

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A matrix model for the population dynamics of the agricultural weed C. arvense (Californian thistle) in sheep-grazed pasture in New Zealand was used to compare seasonal mowing regimes. Our results indicate that mowing can be effective in reducing populations of C. arvense in pasture in the long term if conducted twice each year in late spring and/or summer, a period in the year when the aerial shoots are flowering and new root mass is being formed. By contrast, mowing early in the spring when the aerial shoots have not yet begun to flower and the new roots that will overwinter the population are not yet forming, or in the autumn when the aerial shoots are senescing prior to the winter and the overwintering root mass has already been created, is not effective in causing population decline.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Intensity of space use reveals conditional sex-specific effects of prey and conspecific density on home range size

      Malin Aronsson, Matthew Low, José V. López-Bao, Jens Persson, John Odden, John D. C. Linnell and Henrik Andrén

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2032

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      Since food and conspecific density are often strongly correlated in natural systems few studies have been able to simultaneously assess the effect of these two factors on individual spacing behavior. Using a long term and large scale location dataset from Eurasian lynx we show that sex-specific needs influenced the importance of prey and conspecific density as home range (HR) size determinants. Furthermore, unless different spatiotemporal scales are examined, factors not related to total HR size might be disregarded as determinants of animal spatial ecology despite their importance for the size of key regions within the animal's HR.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Optimal hurricane overwash thickness for maximizing marsh resilience to sea level rise

      David C. Walters and Matthew L. Kirwan

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2024

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      We designed an array of mesocosms varying the depth of burial on marsh vegetation that shows that shallow burial (5–10 cm) stimulates marsh productivity through the development of new roots from buried plant stems. However, deep burial (>15 cm) leads to reduced plant growth and mortality. An optimum burial thickness implies that small magnitude overwash events enhance salt marsh resilience to storms, but that large events associated with large storms and/or anthropogenic modifications will lead to less resilient salt marshes.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Data gaps in anthropogenically driven local-scale species richness change studies across the Earth's terrestrial biomes

      Grace E. P. Murphy and Tamara N. Romanuk

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2004

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      Geographic data gaps have hindered ecologist's ability to make strong conclusions about how local-scale species richness is changing around the globe. Using a dataset of 638 anthropogenically driven, species richness change studies we identify where data gaps exist across the Earth's terrestrial biomes and make recommendations for where future studies should focus their efforts. The biome–driver combinations we have identified as most critical in terms of where biodiversity change studies are lacking include: habitat conversion studies in coniferous forests, species invasion and nutrient addition studies in the boreal forest, and warming studies in the tropics.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Phylogenies and traits provide distinct insights about the historical and contemporary assembly of aquatic insect communities

      Victor S. Saito, Marcus Vinicius Cianciaruso, Tadeu Siqueira, Alaide A. Fonseca-Gessner and Sandrine Pavoine

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2081

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      Recently, the assumption that traits and phylogenies can be used as proxies of niche similarities among species faced criticisms because phylogenic relatedness rarely proved to be a good proxy of trait similarity and different traits could be driven by different processes. To encompass these criticisms, we separated traits of stream insects based on the concept of α and β niche and found that β niche traits revealed environmental filtering, but α niche traits did not evidence strong competition and all traits together provided only random patterns. The phylogenetic structure was consistently overdispersed, not due to phylogenetic limiting similarity, but likely reflecting the common co-occurrence of ancient clades in habitats with long-term stability along evolutionary time.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Demographic and traditional knowledge perspectives on the current status of Canadian polar bear subpopulations

      Jordan York, Martha Dowsley, Adam Cornwell, Miroslaw Kuc and Mitchell Taylor

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2030

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      Status for 13 Canadian subpopulations of polar bears is examined through aboriginal traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and population viability analysis (PVA) based on the most recent demographic and harvest statistics. A comparison of PVA simulation results and TEK perspectives on subpopulation status suggests TEK disagreement is nonrandom with respect to mark–recapture (M-R) sampling protocols. We suggest that the lack of correspondence between PVA simulations results based on M-R studies, TEK, and recent aerial survey results causes trend estimates for subpopulations that were partially M-R sampled to be unreliable and negatively biased.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Morphological and niche divergence of pinyon pines

      Alejandra Ortiz-Medrano, Daniel Patrick Scantlebury, Alejandra Vázquez-Lobo, Alicia Mastretta-Yanes and Daniel Piñero

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1994

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      Phenotypes might mirror patterns of niche evolution if these phenotypes reflect adaptations. We show that the pinyon pines have divergent niche patterns correlated with morphological adaptations.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evolutionary patterns of volatile terpene emissions across 202 tropical tree species

      Elodie A. Courtois, Kyle G. Dexter, Charles Eliot Timothy Paine, Didier Stien, Julien Engel, Christopher Baraloto and Jérôme Chave

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1810

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We explored evolutionary patterns of volatile terpene emission, using volatile terpenes composition for 202 Amazonian tree species. Three lineages (Magnoliales, Laurales, Sapindales) showed higher rates of compound origin.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Selection of food patches by sympatric herbivores in response to concealment and distance from a refuge

      Miranda M. Crowell, Lisa A. Shipley, Meghan J. Camp, Janet L. Rachlow, Jennifer S. Forbey and Timothy R. Johnson

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1940

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      We compared the responses of two sympatric herbivores that are taxonomically similar, but functionally different, to three different types of security cover, including preference for the same levels of concealment cover arranged terrestrially, aerially, and randomly. We found that the two species preferred the same total amount of concealment cover, but preferred different arrangements of concealment cover, and only pygmy rabbits preferred to forage near burrow refuges. Our findings provide insight into how species that occur sympatrically may experience a functionally different “fearscape”.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

      Boris Baer, Jason Collins, Kristiina Maalaps and Susanne P. A. den Boer

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2075

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      Because honeybees only mate during a brief episode early in their life, they have to store a lifetime supply of sperm and use that economically to delay sperm depletion. We developed a method to count the number of sperm on freshly laid eggs and empirically confirm that honeybee queens use a median of 2 sperm per egg fertilization. The main predictor for honeybee sperm use is the number of sperm present in the spermatheca, indicating that queens cannot manipulate the number of sperm used per fertilization.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic evidence for prevalence of alloparental care in a socially monogamous biparental cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis, from Lake Tanganyika supports the “selfish shepherd effect” hypothesis

      Hyuk Je Lee, Valentin Heim and Axel Meyer

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2089

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      We investigate alloparental care in the socially monogamous cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis from Lake Tanganyika that exhibits biparental care. In a genetic parentage analysis, we discovered a surprisingly high percentage of alloparental care represented by brood mixing, extra-pair paternity and extra-pair maternity in all broods that we investigated. The prevalence of genetically mixed broods can be best explained by two, not mutually exclusive hypotheses on farming-out and fostering behaviours. We also find evidence supporting the ‘selfish shepherd effect’ hypothesis that foster parents preferentially accept unrelated “smaller or not larger” young since this would tend to lower the predation risks for their own larger offspring.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of algal food quality on sexual reproduction of Daphnia magna

      Jong-Yun Choi, Seong-Ki Kim, Geung-Hwan La, Kwang-Hyeon Chang, Dong-Kyun Kim, Keon-Young Jeong, Min S. Park, Gea-Jae Joo, Hyun-Woo Kim and Kwang-Seuk Jeong

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2058

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      Algal food quality is important for daphniids’ sexual reproduction, and the grazers’ sexual reproduction activity are strongly enhanced when a diatom was consumed than a green alga.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The phylogeography of Fagus hayatae (Fagaceae): genetic isolation among populations

      Ling-Xiao Ying, Ting-Ting Zhang, Ching-An Chiu, Tze-Ying Chen, Shu-Jin Luo, Xiao-Yong Chen and Ze-Hao Shen

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2042

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      Long-time genetic isolation among populations of Fagus hayatae was detected, based on analysis of both SSR loci of nuclear DNA and chloroplast DNA sequence fragments.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Meta-analysis indicates that oxidative stress is both a constraint on and a cost of growth

      Shona M. Smith, Ruedi G. Nager and David Costantini

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2080

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      In this study, we use meta-analysis to demonstrate that oxidative stress (OS; raised oxidative damage and/or reduced antioxidant levels) can act as both a constraint on (as experimentally increased OS was associated with reduced growth) and a cost of (as experimentally enhanced growth rates were associated with increased oxidative damage) growth. These findings that OS can act as a constraint on growth support theoretical links between OS and animal life histories and provide evidence for a growth–self-maintenance trade-off. Furthermore, the apparent oxidative costs of growth imply individuals cannot alter this trade-off when faced with enhanced growth. We offer a starting platform for future research and recommend the use of oxidative damage biomarkers in nonlethal tissue to investigate the growth–OS relationship further.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Molecular markers for tracking the origin and worldwide distribution of invasive strains of Puccinia striiformis

      Stephanie Walter, Sajid Ali, Eric Kemen, Kumarse Nazari, Bochra A. Bahri, Jérôme Enjalbert, Jens G. Hansen, James K.M. Brown, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Jonathan Jones, Claude de Vallavieille-Pope, Mogens S. Hovmøller and Annemarie F. Justesen

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2069

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      The study reports on the development and application of two strain-specific SCAR markers for tracking the distribution of invasive and high temperature adapted strains of the wheat yellow rust fungus, P. striiformis. We were also able to identify East Africa as the most likely origin of the aggressive strains. The worldwide spread and establishment of the two invasive strains is addressed in the context of epidemic outbreaks of yellow rust disease and deployment of host resistance.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Butterfly oviposition preference is not related to larval performance on a polyploid herb

      Malin A. E. König, Christer Wiklund and Johan Ehrlén

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2067

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      The preference–performance hypothesis predicts that female insects maximize their fitness by utilizing host plants which maximize larval performance. Still, an increasing number of studies have failed to find a positive correlation between oviposition preference and larval performance. We show that there is no correlation between larval performances of Anthocharis cardamines and oviposition preferences on the host plant Cardamine pratensis, using larvae descending from 419 oviposition events by 21 females and plants from 51 populations, which indicates that female oviposition behavior and host choice is being selected to maximize the total fitness of the females rather than that of their individual offspring in contradiction with the preference–performance hypothesis.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      phylosignal: an R package to measure, test, and explore the phylogenetic signal

      François Keck, Frédéric Rimet, Agnès Bouchez and Alain Franc

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2051

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      We present a new R package to measure, test, and explore the phylogenetic signal in biological traits. The package implements functions to plot data, indices to measure the signal, and original methods imported from spatial statistics.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Drought responses of three closely related Caragana species: implication for their vicarious distribution

      Fei Ma, Xiaofan Na and Tingting Xu

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2044

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      Increasing drought stress had a significant effect on many aspects of seedling performance in all species, but the physiology and growth varied with species in response to drought. Caragana korshinskii exhibited lower sensitivity of photosynthetic rate and growth, lower specific leaf area, higher biomass allocation to roots, higher levels of water use efficiency to drought compared with the other two species.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      DNA barcoding and evaluation of genetic diversity in Cyprinidae fish in the midstream of the Yangtze River

      Yanjun Shen, Lihong Guan, Dengqiang Wang and Xiaoni Gan

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2060

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      Our analyses indicated that DNA barcoding is an effective tool for the identification of cyprinidae fish in the midstream of the Yangtze River. It is vital that some protective measures be taken immediately because of the low COI barcode diversity.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic correlations and little genetic variance for reaction norms may limit potential for adaptation to pollution by ionic and nanoparticulate silver in a whitefish (Salmonidae)

      Emily S. Clark, Manuel Pompini, Anshu Uppal and Claus Wedekind

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2088

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      Engineered nanoparticles, especially silver nanoparticles, are among the newest and fastest-rising pollutants of freshwater environments. We tested their toxic effects on whitefish embryos and found silver to induce precocious hatching. We also found additive genetic variation for hatching time, but not for hatching in response to the pollutant, suggesting that whitefish have a low potential to quickly adapt to this new type of pollution.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evaluating the effects of laboratory protocols on eDNA detection probability for an endangered freshwater fish

      Maxine P. Piggott

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2083

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      The paper demonstrates the effect of different sampling and laboratory protocols on detection probability in environmental DNA studies. I analysed the effect of three different sampling and extraction methods on eDNA yield, detection probability and PCR replication for detecting the endangered freshwater fish Macquaria australasica from water samples. The effect of amplicon size and marker region (nuclear vs. mtDNA) was also assessed.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Testing parasite ‘intimacy’: the whipworm Trichuris muris in the European house mouse hybrid zone

        Wasimuddin, Josef Bryja, Alexis Ribas, Stuart J. E. Baird, Jaroslav Piálek and Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2022

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      Intimacy of Trichuris muris with its house mouse host was tested in European house mouse hybrid zone. Analyzed mt-COX1, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA and 10 microsatellites of T. muris suggested, it should not be regarded as an ‘intimate’ parasite of the house mouse.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Toxicity and population structure of the Rough-Skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa) outside the range of an arms race with resistant predators

      Michael T.J. Hague, Leleña A. Avila, Charles T. Hanifin, W. Andrew Snedden, Amber N. Stokes, Edmund D. Brodie Jr. and Edmund D. Brodie III

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2068

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      We examined phenotypic variation in tetrodotoxin (TTX) toxicity of the Rough-Skinned Newt in regions of allopatry with its TTX-resistant predator, the Common Garter Snake. As predicted, overall levels of newt toxicity were low; however, we also detected unexpected among- and within-population variation in toxicity. These results suggest that forces other than reciprocal selection with resistant predators contribute to geographic patterns of variation in newt toxicity.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Photosynthesis and growth reduction with warming are driven by nonstomatal limitations in a Mediterranean semi-arid shrub

      Lupe León-Sánchez, Emilio Nicolás, Pedro A. Nortes, Fernando T. Maestre and José I. Querejeta

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2074

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      We conducted a 4-year experiment in a semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystem to evaluate the impacts of a 2°C warming on the performance of the native shrub Helianthemum squamatum. Warming reduced net photosynthetic rates by 36% and shoot dry mass production by 31% across the study period, but did not affect stomatal conductance and transpiration. Our findings highlight the key role of non-stomatal factors (biochemical and/or nutritional) in reducing net carbon assimilation rates and biomass growth under warming, which has important implications for projections of plant carbon balance under the warmer climatic scenario predicted for drylands worldwide.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Independent origins of resistance or susceptibility of parasitic wasps to a defensive symbiont

      Mariana Mateos, Lauryn Winter, Caitlyn Winter, Victor M. Higareda-Alvear, Esperanza Martinez-Romero and Jialei Xie

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2085

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      Several strains of Spiroplasma, a heritable bacterium of Drosophila, were known to prevent development of three parasitoid wasps of Drosophila. Herein, we discover parasitoid wasps of Drosophila that are resistant to Spiroplasma, as well as additional wasps that are susceptible to Spiroplasma. The phylogenetic patterns of the wasps indicate multiple origins of resistance (or susceptibility) to Spiroplasma.

    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Temporal trends in genetic data and effective population size support efficacy of management practices in critically endangered dusky gopher frogs (Lithobates sevosus)

      Kristin M. Hinkson and Stephen C. Richter

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2084

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Individuals from a population of critically endangered dusky gopher frogs (Lithobates sevosus) were collected and genotyped from 1997 to 2014. Temporal trends in genetic data indicate the efficacy of management practices at maintaining genetic diversity and increasing effective size.

    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Paternal heat exposure causes DNA methylation and gene expression changes of Stat3 in Wild guinea pig sons

      Alexandra Weyrich, Stephanie Benz, Stephan Karl, Marie Jeschek, Katarina Jewgenow and Joerns Fickel

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1993

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      As temperature is a major environmental selection factor, we investigated whether genetically heterogeneous Wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea) males adapt epigenetically to an increase in temperature, whether that response will be transmitted to the next generation(s), and whether it regulates mRNA expression. We detected heritable adaptation, and differential DNA methylation patterns accompanied with gene expression changes of the thermoregulation gene Stat3. Our findings indicate that this epigenetic response has on the one side ecological relevance and on the other an impact on evolutionary processes.

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