Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 12

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA; Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK; Jennifer Firn, Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Impact Factor: 2.537

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 54/149 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

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  1. 1 - 68
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Variation of life-history traits of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis in relation to temperature and geographical latitude

      Liang Xiao, Hai-Min He, Li-Li Huang, Ting Geng, Shu Fu and Fang-Sen Xue

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2275

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      Our results reveal that the relationship between body size and rearing temperature in Ostrinia furnacalis did not follow the temperature–size rule; all populations exhibited the highest pupal and adult weights at high temperatures or intermediate temperatures. Contrary to Rensch's rule, the sexual size dimorphism tended to increase with rising temperature. Development time, growth rate, and body weight did not show a latitudinal gradient.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Characterizing the trophic niches of stocked and resident cyprinid fishes: consistency in partitioning over time, space and body sizes

      Tea Bašić and J. Robert Britton

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2272

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      As hatchery-reared fish are commonly stocked into freshwaters to enhance recreational angling, we tested the trophic interactions between stocked European barbel Barbus barbus with resident fishes. Across a range of temporal and spatial scales and body sizes, strong patterns of trophic niche partitioning were apparent. These results indicate that stocked B. barbus are unlikely to incur major ecological consequences in recipient freshwater ecosystems.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Precocious reproduction increases at the leading edge of a mangrove range expansion

      Emily M. Dangremond and Ilka C. Feller

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2270

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      Mangrove species are expanding their ranges poleward. The red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, has developed precocious reproduction in its northern populations. Plants in these populations are reproductive in the first few years of life, instead of the 5–10 years it takes to reach reproductive maturity in other parts of the species’ range.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Corolla chirality does not contribute to directed pollen movement in Hypericum perforatum (Hypericaceae): mirror image pinwheel flowers function as radially symmetric flowers in pollination

      Carolina Diller and Charles B. Fenster

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2268

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      We report the reproductive biology and pollination biology of right and left rotated flowers (corolla chirality) in Hypericum perforatum, with the specific goal to understand the role of corolla chirality in directing pollen and pollinator movement. Pollinators seemed indifferent to corolla chirality, and we found no difference in pollen deposition between right and left flowers. Our results indicated no role for corolla chirality on pollen movement. This study provides initial evidence suggesting that corolla chirality, unlike other analogous floral traits involving mirror or reciprocal symmetry, does not convey a reproductive advantage through disassortative mating.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Variation in complex mating signals in an “island” hybrid zone between Stenobothrus grasshopper species

      Jan Sradnick, Anja Klöpfel, Norbert Elsner and Varvara Vedenina

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2265

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      Two grasshopper species, Stenobothrus rubicundus and S. clavatus, were previously shown to meet in a narrow hybrid zone on Mount Tomaros in northern Greece. We analyzed variations in forewing morphology, antenna shape and courtship song across the hybrid zone using a geographic information system, and estimate selection against hybrids and strength of assortative mating by a comparison of cline width and position for three phenotypic traits across the hybrid zone.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Soil organic carbon stocks in estuarine and marine mangrove ecosystems are driven by nutrient colimitation of P and N

      Christian Weiss, Joanna Weiss, Jens Boy, Issi Iskandar, Robert Mikutta and Georg Guggenberger

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2258

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      In a comparative study of mangrove ecosystem across the Indonesian archipelago, we found SOC stocks in natural marine (271–572 Mg ha−1 m−1) mangroves much higher than under estuarine mangroves (100–315 Mg ha−1 m−1). Soils differed in C/N ratio (marine: 29–64; estuarine: 9–28), δ15N (marine: −0.6 to 0.7‰; estuarine: 2.5 to 7.2‰), and plant-available P (marine: 2.3–6.3 mg kg−1; estuarine: 0.16–1.8 mg kg−1). N and P supply of sea-oriented mangroves was primarily met by dominating symbiotic N2 fixation from air and P import from sea, while mangroves on the landward gradient increasingly covered their demand in N and P via SOM recycling. These processes explained the differences in SOC stocks along the land-to-sea gradient in each mangrove type as well as the SOC stock differences observed between estuarine and marine mangrove ecosystems.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Habitat-mediated timing of migration in polar bears: an individual perspective

      Seth G. Cherry, Andrew E. Derocher and Nicholas J. Lunn

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2233

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      The nature of the relationship between animal behavior and environmental cues varies depending on the scale these interactions are measured. We show how individual-based behavior models can determine local environmental factors associated with polar bear migration from marine to terrestrial habitat during annual sea ice melting events. The amount of ice bears encounter on a daily basis and the length of direct exposure to these conditions are shown to correlate with the decision to migrate.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Quantifying the spatiotemporal dynamics in a chorus frog (Pseudacris) hybrid zone over 30 years

      Kristin N. Engebretsen, Lisa N. Barrow, Eric N. Rittmeyer, Jeremy M. Brown and Emily Moriarty Lemmon

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2232

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      We present a spatiotemporal genetic study of a hybrid zone between two chorus frog species using microsatellites from tissue samples collected over 30 years apart. Clinal analyses indicate that the cline has not shifted in roughly 30 years but has widened significantly. This study provides the first evidence of significant widening of a hybrid cline but stasis of its center, providing unique insight into dynamic hybrid zones.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Large expansion of oil industry in the Ecuadorian Amazon: biodiversity vulnerability and conservation alternatives

      Janeth Lessmann, Javier Fajardo, Jesús Muñoz and Elisa Bonaccorso

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2099

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      Importance of oil blocks for biodiversity conservation in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Invading a mutualistic network: to be or not to be similar

      Henintsoa Onivola Minoarivelo and Cang Hui

      Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2263

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      While a number of empirical studies have directly explored the role of invasion in mutualistic pollination networks, a theoretical model for comprehension is still lacking. Here, using an eco-evolutionary model of mutualistic networks, we explore invader trait, propagule pressure, and network features of recipient community that contribute to the success and impact of an invasion. Surprisingly, the most successful invader is not always the one having the biggest impact. The network structure of recipient community is not a primary indicator of its invasibility.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Assessing performance of single-sample molecular genetic methods to estimate effective population size: empirical evidence from the endangered Gochu Asturcelta pig breed

      Juan Menéndez, Isabel Álvarez, Iván Fernandez, Nuria A. Menéndez-Arias and Félix Goyache

      Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2240

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      The herdbook of the endangered Gochu Asturcelta pig breed includes individuals with pedigrees in which generations overlap and individuals classified into discrete filial generations. The study of this particular genetic scenario in a livestock population can shed light on the interpretation of molecular-based methods for estimating effective population size in iteroparous natural populations.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Integration and scaling of UV-B radiation effects on plants: from molecular interactions to whole plant responses

      Vasile Alexandru Suchar and Ronald Robberecht

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2064

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      We modeled the effects of UV-B radiation from molecular interactions to whole plant growth. Cost of secondary metabolites might not be significant. There were significant UV-B radiation – temperature interactions. Growth was delayed 2–5 days per growing season.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mismatch in microbial food webs: predators but not prey perform better in their local biotic and abiotic conditions

      Elodie C. Parain, Dominique Gravel, Rudolf P. Rohr, Louis-Félix Bersier and Sarah M. Gray

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2236

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      Does climate change affects differently the trophic levels of food webs? This key question was explored by a common garden experiment using bacteria (1st trophic level) and protozoans (2nd trophic level) living inside the leaves of the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. We found a mismatch between levels, in that bacteria globally performed better in higher temperatures, while protozoans were ecologically specialized to their abiotic and biotic environments.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Anthropogenic impacts on Costa Rican bat parasitism are sex specific

      Hannah K. Frank, Chase D. Mendenhall, Seth D. Judson, Gretchen C. Daily and Elizabeth A. Hadly

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2245

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      We examined parasitism of 1108 individual bats across an agricultural mosaic landscape in Costa Rica and found parasite assemblages tracked female host assemblages more closely than male host assemblages. Additionally, parasite abundance per host decreased for females with increasing bat species richness but increased for males. While human activity is known to alter parasitism in wildlife, we show that these impacts can be sex specific.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Multitrophic diversity effects of network degradation

      Elizabeth Nichols, Carlos A. Peres, Joseph E. Hawes and Shahid Naeem

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2253

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      Predicting the functional consequences of biodiversity loss in real communities remains a challenge. Growing evidence points to the importance of including information on multiple trophic levels, trait-ordered species decline, and network structure into diversity effect models, as well as the importance of incorporating realistic measures of ecological function, to to our knowledge no study to date has combined all four components simultaneously to explore the functional consequences of multi-trophic species loss. We contrasted the predicted functional consequences of species loss both within (mono-trophic) and across (bi-trophic) a foodweb of fecal detritus producer and consumers (tropical forest mammals and dung beetles) and found that while both mono and bi-trophic extinction scenarios demonstrated similar diversity effects, different ways of measuring function can dramatically influence results.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A revisited phylogeography of Nautilus pompilius

      Lauren E. Vandepas, Frederick D. Dooley, Gregory J. Barord, Billie J. Swalla and Peter D. Ward

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2248

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      Map of the Indo-Pacific showing sampling locations of Nautilus for this study and photographs of representative animals from each location. There appears to be interesting phenotypic plasticity displayed between different populations of Nautilus pompilius in traits such as size, shell coloration, and hood morphology. Our data suggest that Nautilus from Fiji, Australia, the Philippines, and American Samoa comprise one broadly distributed species.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Reproductive efficiency and shade avoidance plasticity under simulated competition

      Fatih Fazlioglu, Ali Al-Namazi and Stephen P. Bonser

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2254

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      We tested (1) how competition influences reproductive efficiency and competitive ability of different plant life histories and growth forms; (2) whether life history or growth form is associated with competitive ability; (3) whether shade avoidance plasticity is connected to competitive ability or reproductive efficiency under competition. We found that both annual and perennial plants invest more to reproduction under simulated competition in accordance with life-history theory predictions. Moreover, shade avoidance plasticity can increase reproductive efficiency by allowing quicker resource uptake and reproduction at earlier life stages.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Phylogenetic test of speciation by host shift in leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) feeding on maples (Acer)

      Ryosuke Nakadai and Atsushi Kawakita

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2266

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      Our article describes a new method for assessing the importance of host shifts in herbivorous insect speciation. We applied this method to a group of closely related moths in the genus Caloptilia that feed on maples, finding that speciation assisted by host shift may be relatively minor in this group.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dead or gone? Bayesian inference on mortality for the dispersing sex

      Julia A. Barthold, Craig Packer, Andrew J. Loveridge, David W. Macdonald and Fernando Colchero

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2247

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      Estimating mortality of the dispersing sex, in species where one sex undergoes natal dispersal, is difficult. This is because it is often unclear if members of the dispersing sex that disappear from monitored areas have died or dispersed. Here we develop an extension of a multi-event model that can cope with this kind of missing age-at-death data and estimates age-specific mortality and dispersal parameters in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We conduct a simulation study and apply our model to estimate mortality of male and female African lions.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Can you hear me now? Range-testing a submerged passive acoustic receiver array in a Caribbean coral reef habitat

      Thomas H. Selby, Kristen M. Hart, Ikuko Fujisaki, Brian J. Smith, Clayton J. Pollock, Zandy Hillis-Starr, Ian Lundgren and Madan K. Oli

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2228

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      We present a method for range-testing relatively large submerged passive acoustic arrays to determine the effective coverage of receivers as well as possible environmental variables affecting their range. The results show significant differences in receiver effective detection range between different habitats and depth classes. The information provided from this method can help improve efficacy of an array design as well as allow for more accurate interpretation of detection data.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A comparison between data requirements and availability for calibrating predictive ecological models for lowland UK woodlands: learning new tricks from old trees

      Matthew R. Evans and Aristides Moustakas

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2217

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      Society needs ecologists to produce models that allow prediction about the future state of ecosystems. To do so, data are needed to parameterize such models. The data available from long-term datasets are inadequate for this purpose as the measurements taken have changed little in the last 400 years.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Estimating species – area relationships by modeling abundance and frequency subject to incomplete sampling

      Yuichi Yamaura, Edward F. Connor, J. Andrew Royle, Katsuo Itoh, Kiyoshi Sato, Hisatomo Taki and Yoshio Mishima

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2244

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      We have developed the statistical framework dealing with species–area relationships (SARs) from the incomplete sampling data, that is, subject to imperfect detection and incomplete spatial coverage. Using developed models, we can assess the role of covariates for SARs.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Shifts in leaf litter breakdown along a forest–pasture–urban gradient in Andean streams

      Carlos Iñiguez-Armijos, Sirkka Rausche, Augusta Cueva, Aminael Sánchez-Rodríguez, Carlos Espinosa and Lutz Breuer

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2257

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      We studied the influence of a land use gradient on stream variables, aquatic communities and leaf litter breakdown in Andean streams, and how variation in stream features relates to breakdown rates. Aquatic communities were strongly affected by conversion of land use. Leaf litter breakdown rates were largely determined by nutrient concentration, water temperature, pH, fungal biomass and single shredder invertebrates. Breakdown rates became slower as land use changed from natural to anthropogenically disturbed conditions.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Temporal variation in selection on male and female traits in wild tree crickets

      Kyla Ercit

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2105

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      Viability selection (via predation from a common wasp) was observed in a natural population of tree crickets over 4 years, and the strength and form of selection on traits was estimated among years and between the sexes. Selection varied significantly from year to year, and significant linear selection was detected more frequently among adult males, and nonlinear selection detected more frequently among females. Although viability selection via predation has the potential to drive phenotypic change and sexual dimorphism, temporal variation in selection may maintain stasis.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Relationship between maternal environment and DNA methylation patterns of estrogen receptor alpha in wild Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) nestlings: a pilot study

      Alexandra B. Bentz, Aubrey E. Sirman, Haruka Wada, Kristen J. Navara and Wendy R. Hood

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2162

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      Females across taxa breeding in competitive environments typically allocate more testosterone to their offspring prenatally and these offspring tend to have more aggressive, faster-growing phenotypes. To date, no study has determined the mechanisms mediating this maternal effect's influence on offspring phenotype. To address this, we examined natural variation in testosterone allocation to offspring through egg yolks in wild Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) in varying breeding densities and percent DNA methylation of CG dinucleotides in the ERα promoter in brain regions associated with growth and behaviors in offspring.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Landscape genetics of the nonnative red fox of California

      Benjamin N. Sacks, Jennifer L. Brazeal and Jeffrey C. Lewis

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2229

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      We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 13 microsatellites of 402 nonnative red foxes sampled throughout California to show that the metapopulation originated from multiple introductions. Gene flow was low among coastal sites surrounded by mountainous wildlands but somewhat higher through topographically flat, urban and agricultural landscapes. We found evidence of demographic resilience to predator removal programs and increased immigration where predator control was most intense.

    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

      Paul N. Joseph, Daniel A. Sasson, Pablo E. Allen, Ummat Somjee and Christine W. Miller

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2246

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      Lessening the quality of adult male leaf-footed cactus bugs’ natural diet resulted in decreased testes mass without significantly affecting sperm concentration or sperm viability. Low inbreeding did not affect the quantity or quality of primary sexual traits.

    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Urban bat communities are affected by wetland size, quality, and pollution levels

      Tanja Maria Straka, Pia Eloise Lentini, Linda Faye Lumsden, Brendan Anthony Wintle and Rodney van der Ree

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2224

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      In a novel paired landscape approach we investigated the role of wetlands in urban bat conservation, and examined local and landscape factors driving bat species richness and activity.Our findings indicate that wetlands form critical habitats for insectivorous bats in urban environments. Large, unlit, and unpolluted wetlands flanked by high tree cover in close proximity to bushland contribute most to the richness of the bat community.

    29. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Investigating past range dynamics for a weed of cultivation, Silene vulgaris

      Megan E. Sebasky, Stephen R. Keller and Douglas R. Taylor

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2250

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      This work involved the investigation of whether the range expansion of the weed Silene vulgaris across Europe fit the classical model of postglacial expansion from southern refugia or followed known routes of the expansion of human agricultural practices. Population genetics and species distribution modeling were used to assess possible scenarios.

    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A test for within-lake niche differentiation in the nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius)

      Federico C. F. Calboli, Pär Byström and Juha Merilä

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2182

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      Ecologically specialized sympatric forms of fish are relatively common in postglacial lakes, but few genetic tests have been conducted to detect such habitat-associated differentiation. The first test for habitat-associated genetic differentiation in nine-spined sticklebacks uncovers no evidence for within-lake population substructuring.

    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Species delimitation of Chinese hop-hornbeams based on molecular and morphological evidence

      Zhiqiang Lu, Dan Zhang, Siyu Liu, Xiaoyue Yang, Xue Liu and Jianquan Liu

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2251

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      Both molecular and morphological evidence discerned four Ostrya species in China. cpDNA fragments identified three groups that showed no correspondence to any morphological delimitation because of the incomplete lineage sorting and/or possible interspecific introgression in the history. Phylogenetic analyses-based ITS sequence variations suggested that O. trichocarpa comprised an isolated lineage different from the other Eurasian ones.

    32. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Molecular tracking of individual host use in the Shiny Cowbird – a generalist brood parasite

      Ma Alicia de la Colina, Mark E. Hauber, Bill M. Strausberger, Juan Carlos Reboreda and Bettina Mahler

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2234

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      Generalist parasites exploit multiple host species at the population level, but the individual parasites strategy it is difficult to know. We study the individual host use by molecular tracking of shiny cowbirds females, and we found both detectable levels of multiple parasitism (from same and different females) and generalism at the level of individual parasites.

    33. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ungulate browsers promote herbaceous layer diversity in logged temperate forests

      Edward K. Faison, Stephen DeStefano, David R. Foster, Glenn Motzkin and Joshua M. Rapp

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2223

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      Ungulates are leading drivers of plant communities worldwide, with impacts linked to animal density, disturbance and vegetation structure, and site productivity. We examined the effects of (1) white-tailed deer and (2) moose + white-tailed deer on the herbaceous layers of regenerating temperate forests 5–6 years after canopy removal by logging. Increased numbers of browser species (and browsing intensity) resulted in greater richness of herbs and shrubs and a greater abundance of plant species associated with open and disturbed habitats.

    34. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Thermal reaction norms can surmount evolutionary constraints: comparative evidence across leaf beetle species

      Dmitry Kutcherov

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2231

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      Interspecific variation of thermal reaction norms for development is analyzed across nearly hundred leaf beetle species by traditional and phylogenetically informed methods. The comparative analysis shows that a number of proposed constraints on the temperature-dependent biological rates can actually be overcome by evolutionary processes.

    35. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Filling in the GAPS: evaluating completeness and coverage of open-access biodiversity databases in the United States

      Matthew J. Troia and Ryan A. McManamay

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2225

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      Open-access databases provide unprecedented access to primary biodiversity data, but their usefulness in characterizing species distributions and patterns in biodiversity depend on how complete species inventories are at a given survey location and how uniformly distributed survey locations are along dimensions of time, space, and environment. Our aim was to compare completeness and coverage among three open-access databases representing ten taxonomic groups in the contiguous United States. This comprehensive assessment of biodiversity data across the contiguous United States provides a prioritization scheme to fill in the gaps by contributing existing occurrence records to the public domain and planning future surveys.

    36. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Behavioral buffering of global warming in a cold-adapted lizard

      Zaida Ortega, Abraham Mencía and Valentín Pérez-Mellado

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2216

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      The increase of environmental temperatures in approximately 25 years of climate change has been buffered regarding body temperatures in the mountain lizard Iberolacerta cyreni, by means of thermoregulator behaviour. However, the increase of body temperatures of I. cyreni highlights the vulnerability of these lizards to further warming, vulnerability that is potenciated because I. cyreni are cold-adapted and live in mountains.

    37. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dietary choice for a balanced nutrient intake increases the mean and reduces the variance in the reproductive performance of male and female cockroaches

      Harriet Bunning, Lee Bassett, Christina Clowser, James Rapkin, Kim Jensen, Clarissa M. House, Catharine R. Archer and John Hunt

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2243

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      We show that male and female cockroaches have similar nutritional requirements to optimize reproductive performance. Moreover, when given dietary choice the mean reproductive performance increases and the variance in these traits decreases.

    38. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Using bioacoustics to examine shifts in songbird phenology

      Rachel T. Buxton, Emma Brown, Lewis Sharman, Christine M. Gabriele and Megan F. McKenna

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2242

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      Audio recordings and metrics of bioacoustic activity could provide an effective method for monitoring changes in songbird phenology due to climate change. We used 3 years of spring and fall recordings at six sites in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, an area experiencing rapid warming and glacial retreat. Bioacoustic index values from recordings corresponded to the arrival of migrants in the spring and call counts of three songbird species, including a known indicator of forest ecosystem health.

    39. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Bud phenology and growth are subject to divergent selection across a latitudinal gradient in Populus angustifolia and impact adaptation across the distributional range and associated arthropods

      Luke M. Evans, Sobadini Kaluthota, David W. Pearce, Gerard J. Allan, Kevin Floate, Stewart B. Rood and Thomas G. Whitham

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2222

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      Using replicated common garden experiments, we found evidence of divergent selection and local adaptation driven by climate in a foundation forest tree species. Genetic differentiation among populations in response to altered climate has significant impacts on tree growth and performance. In turn, these differences impact dependent arthropod species.

    40. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Application of Concanavalin A during immune responsiveness skin-swelling tests facilitates measurement interpretation in mammalian ecology

      Barbora Bílková, Tomáš Albrecht, Milada Chudíčková, Vladimír Holáň, Jaroslav Piálek and Michal Vinkler

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2211

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      The phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling test is a simple and widespread method used in field ecological research to estimate cellular immune responsiveness in animals, despite its application is problematic and data interpretation ambiguous in mammals. Here, we present an alternative protocol using Concanavalin A (ConA) as a stimulant and based on detailed response dynamics description show that ConA is a more suitable stimulant for skin-swelling tests in mammals than PHA. We propose that ConA be used in all future ecological testing in mammals as it exhibits better performance and its application facilitates immunological interpretation of skin-swelling test results.

    41. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genomic heterogeneity of historical gene flow between two species of newts inferred from transcriptome data

      Michał T. Stuglik and Wiesław Babik

      Version of Record online: 9 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2152

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      In this study, we used thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms derived from transcriptome resequencing to reconstruct patterns of historical gene flow between two Lissotriton newts. We found that species split from their common ancestor ca. 5.5 million years (MY) ago, evolved in isolation for ca. 2 MY, have been exchanging genes for the last 3.5 MY and the postdivergence gene flow has been heterogeneous across the genome. This study demonstrates the complexity of long-term gene flow between distinct but incompletely reproductively isolated taxa which divergence was initiated millions of years ago.

    42. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mating system, population growth, and management scenario for Kalanchoe pinnata in an invaded seasonally dry tropical forest

      Salvador González de León, Ileana Herrera and Roger Guevara

      Version of Record online: 9 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2219

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      Invasive population of the Crassulaceae Kalanchoe pinnata was studied in a particular Mexican tropical forest. We focused on key reproduction life traits to assess feasible management strategies.

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      Distribution and diversity of diatom assemblages in surficial sediments of shallow lakes in Wapusk National Park (Manitoba, Canada) region of the Hudson Bay Lowlands

      Olivier Jacques, Frédéric Bouchard, Lauren A. MacDonald, Roland I. Hall, Brent B. Wolfe and Reinhard Pienitz

      Version of Record online: 9 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2179

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      The biological characteristics of shallow lakes (and ponds) from Wapusk National Park are poorly known, which hampers effective aquatic ecosystem monitoring. We analyzed the distribution and diversity of diatom assemblages in surficial sediments of 33 lakes located in three different ecozones (Coastal Fen, Interior Peat Plateau, Boreal Spruce Forest) and found significant differences in community composition consistent with the prevailing limnological conditions among them. This exploratory survey provides a first detailed inventory of the diatom assemblages in the WNP region needed for monitoring programs to detect changes in shallow lake ecosystems and ecozonal shifts in response to climate variations.

    44. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Is individual consistency in body mass and reproductive decisions linked to individual specialization in foraging behavior in a long-lived seabird?

      Nina Dehnhard, Marcel Eens, Nicolas Sturaro, Gilles Lepoint, Laurent Demongin, Petra Quillfeldt and Maud Poisbleau

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2213

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      Southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) show individual specialization in their foraging behavior only during certain parts of their annual life cycle. Individual specialization occurs during the prebreeding period, but is independent of body mass, timing of or investment into egg laying. During premolt, southern rockhopper penguins are typical food generalists.

    45. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A recipe for postfledging survival in great tits Parus major: be large and be early (but not too much)

      Samuel Rodríguez, Arie J. van Noordwijk, Elena Álvarez and Emilio Barba

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2192

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      We used mark–recapture models to obtain a robust set of predictors of postfledging local survival using great tit as model species. First-year postfledging survival probability was lower for smaller individuals, as well as those born in either very early or late broods. These results stress the importance of optimizing the hatching period and raising large chicks to increase first-year local survival probability.

    46. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Do differences in life-history traits and the timing of peak mating activity between host-associated populations of Chilo suppressalis have a genetic basis?

      Wei-Li Quan, Wen Liu, Rui-Qi Zhou, Sundas Rana Qureshi, Nan Ding, Wei-Hua Ma, Chao-Liang Lei and Xiao-Ping Wang

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2227

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      We compared the life-history traits and mating behaviour of host-associated populations of Chilo suppressalis originating from water-oat fields and rice fields by rearing on alternative host plant for three consecutive generations. The results showed that performance of the striped stem borer was significantly different between two population but was affected by host plant, whereas difference in mating rhythm was not affected by the host plant. Our study supports a genetic basis for differences in life-history traits and mating rhythm between host-associated populations in C. suppressalis.

    47. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Digital fragment analysis of short tandem repeats by high-throughput amplicon sequencing

      Brian J. Darby, Shay F. Erickson, Samuel D. Hervey and Susan N. Ellis-Felege

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2221

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      The primary advantages of fragment analysis by sequencing are the ability to precisely size fragments, resolve length homoplasy, multiplex many individuals and many loci into a single high-throughput run, and compare data across projects and across labs (present and future) with minimal technical calibration. A significant disadvantage of fragment analysis by sequencing is that the method is only practical and cost-effective when performed on batches of several hundred samples with multiple loci or in collaboration with multiple species or projects.

    48. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Weighing the relative potential impacts of climate change and land-use change on an endangered bird

      Betsy A. Bancroft, Joshua J. Lawler and Nathan H. Schumaker

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2204

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      Of the global threats to biological diversity, climate change and land-use change are expected to have the largest negative effects on the majority of species. Our study suggests that climate change (as modeled here) is not likely to have a large impact on an endangered bird species, whereas land-use change may have a relatively large negative effect. Understanding the relative influences of different stressors is critical for management and conservation of all species.

    49. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dentine oxygen isotopes (δ18O) as a proxy for odontocete distributions and movements

      Cory J. D. Matthews, Fred J. Longstaffe and Steven H. Ferguson

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2238

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      Spatial variation in marine oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) is potentially useful for characterizing marine mammal distributions and tracking movements across δ18O gradients. We measured δ18O values of dentine structural carbonate (δ18OSC) and phosphate (δ18OP) of odontocetes from regional marine water bodies spanning a range of surface water δ18O values and found strong correlations between dentine and marine surface water δ18O values. Results indicate sequential δ18O measurements along dentine, which grows incrementally and archives intra- and interannual isotopic composition over the lifetime of the animal, would be useful for characterizing residency within and movements among water bodies with strong δ18O gradients, particularly between polar and lower latitudes, or between oceans and marginal basins.

  2. Reviews

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A conceptual review of mate choice: stochastic demography, within-sex phenotypic plasticity, and individual flexibility

      Malin Ah-King and Patricia Adair Gowaty

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2197

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      Chooser's traits and their social and ecological situations often are better predictors of chooser behavior than traits in the chosen. We argue that the first principle, fundamental demographic parameters of the switch point theorem, which predicts individual flexibility in mate choice, is theory that simplifies and unifies the dozens of variables correlated to phenotypic plasticity in the behavior of choosers. To make progress, we need studies (1) of simultaneous and symmetric attention to individuals of both sexes; (2) controlled for within-individual – not just between-individual – variation in choice behavior as demography changes; and (3) of the effects on relative reproductive success from switches between choosy and indiscriminate behavior.

  3. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Major histocompatibility complex class II DAB alleles associated with intestinal parasite load in the vulnerable Chinese egret (Egretta eulophotes)

      Wei Lei, Xiaoping Zhou, Wenzhen Fang, Qingxian Lin and Xiaolin Chen

      Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2226

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      Our results indicate that the diversity in MHC Egeu-DAB gene is associated with the intestinal parasite load and maintained by pathogen-driven selection that operates through both the rare-allele advantage and the allele counting strategy, findings suggesting that Egeu-DAB2*05 is a valuable indicator of better resistance to helminth diseases in the vulnerable Chinese egret.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Frogs in the spotlight: a 16-year survey of native frogs and invasive toads on a floodplain in tropical Australia

      Gregory P. Brown and Richard Shine

      Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2237

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      We collected long-term survey data on a community of tropical frogs in northern Australia. Midway through the study invasive cane toads arrived at our study site. We assessed temporal fluctuations in encounter rates with frogs as a function of climate and cane toad impact.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Late Pleistocene climate change promoted divergence between Picea asperata and P. crassifolia on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau through recent bottlenecks

      Hao Bi, Wei Yue, Xi Wang, Jiabin Zou, Lili Li, Jianquan Liu and Yongshuai Sun

      Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2230

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      We examined whether bottlenecks promoted divergence between Picea asperata and P. crassifolia. The concordance between the divergence time and the bottleneck time suggested that the late Pleistocene climate change might promote the divergence between P. asperata and P. crassifolia through population bottlenecks.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The oceanic concordance of phylogeography and biogeography: a case study in Notochthamalus

      Christine Ewers-Saucedo, James M. Pringle, Hector H. Sepúlveda, James E. Byers, Sergio A. Navarrete and John P. Wares

      Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2205

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      Two divergent lineages of the barnacle Notochthamalus scabrosus are found along the coast of Chile; the overlapping distribution of these lineages closely mirrors the broader biogeographic patterns of the intertidal fauna. Using mitochondrial sequence and nuclear SNP data comprising 131 loci, we fully characterize this distribution along the entire coast of Chile and use an ocean connectivity model to explore likely environmental transitions that maintain these distributions.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The effect of terrain and female density on survival of neonatal white-tailed deer and mule deer fawns

      Maegwin Bonar, Micheline Manseau, Justin Geisheimer, Travis Bannatyne and Susan Lingle

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2178

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      We examined the effect of terrain and female density on survival of seven cohorts of neonatal mule deer and white-tailed deer fawns at a grassland study site in Alberta, Canada, where fawns are exposed to high levels of coyote predation. Fawns of both species had improved survival in steeper terrain. This result highlights the need to consider topographical variation as a critical resource for neonates of many ungulate species, even for species like white-tailed deer that may not use rugged terrain when older.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant–folivore coevolutionary processes?

      Albert Rivas-Ubach, José A. Hódar, Jordi Sardans, Jennifer E. Kyle, Young-Mo Kim, Michal Oravec, Otmar Urban, Alex Guenther and Josep Peñuelas

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2206

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      The response of metabolomes to the attack of folivores could be influenced by macroevolutionary processes and/or by the plant–folivore co-evolution. We used metabolomics to determine how the metabolomic responses of three closely related pine species cope with the attach of the processionary moth. We found that both metabolomes of pines and metabolic responses to the attack of folivores are directly constrained by the phylogenetic relationship among the pines.

  4. Reviews

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Scaling up functional traits for ecosystem services with remote sensing: concepts and methods

      Oscar J. Abelleira Martínez, Alexander K. Fremier, Sven Günter, Zayra Ramos Bendaña, Lee Vierling, Sara M. Galbraith, Nilsa A. Bosque-Pérez and Jenny C. Ordoñez

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2201

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      The use of functional traits to inform ecosystem service management requires the scaling-up of trait variation from local to regional scales. In this study, we review (1) the current conceptual understanding of trait-based approaches for sampling trait variation across spatial scales, and (2) available remote sensing methods that facilitate the scaling-up of trait variation from local to regional scales. Our review highlights research needs to improve the utility of remote sensing methods for capturing the modification of functional trait variation due to anthropogenic land cover and climate change.

  5. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Merging and comparing three mitochondrial markers for phylogenetic studies of Eurasian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

      Kjersti S. Kvie, Jan Heggenes and Knut H. Røed

      Version of Record online: 1 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2199

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      Phylogenetic structure is inferred from comparative analysis of three widely used mitochondrial markers, using Eurasian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) as a model. By merging the three markers, high resolution is obtained and several distinct maternal haplotype clusters are identified.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Plant–fungus competition for nitrogen erases mycorrhizal growth benefits of Andropogon gerardii under limited nitrogen supply

      David Püschel, Martina Janoušková, Martina Hujslová, Renata Slavíková, Hana Gryndlerová and Jan Jansa

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2207

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      Although the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi promoted both P and N uptake by plants and dramatically increased plant growth, this happened only if sufficient N was present in the substrate. We provide a direct evidence for the competition between the plants and the fungi for N when its supply was low. Under low-N conditions, the mycorrhizal symbiosis effectively decreased plant N uptake and there were no or negative plant growth responses to the mycorrhizal symbiosis establishment.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dispersal by rodent caching increases seed survival in multiple ways in canopy-fire ecosystems

      N. B. Peterson and V. T. Parker

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2156

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      Seed-caching rodents plays important dispersal roles for many plant species. However, these relationships in disturbance-driven systems are not well understood. Here we investigate how scatter-hoarding rodent behavior improves Arcostaphylos visida seed survival during a fire event.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Consequences of elevated temperature and pCO2 on insect folivory at the ecosystem level: perspectives from the fossil record

      Ellen D. Currano, Rachel Laker, Andrew G. Flynn, Kari K. Fogt, Hillary Stradtman and Scott L. Wing

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2203

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      The highly resolved fossil record of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, records a dramatic increase in leaf area damaged by insect herbivores during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 million years ago), an abrupt global warming event caused by massive release of carbon into the atmosphere and ocean. We attribute the elevated PETM herbivory to the prevalence of legumes, whose symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria would have buffered generalist herbivores against decreases in leaf nutritional quality that commonly occur at high Pco2.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Nuclear locus divergence at the early stages of speciation in the Orchard Oriole complex

      Rachel J. Sturge, M. Nandadevi Cortés-Rodríguez, Octavio R. Rojas-Soto and Kevin E. Omland

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2168

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      The goal of this study was to examine mitochondrial paraphyly within the Orchard Oriole complex, which is composed of Icterus spurius (Orchard Oriole) and I. fuertesi (Fuertes' Oriole). We increased the geographic sampling, added four nuclear loci, and used a range of population genetic and coalescent methods to examine the divergence between the taxa. Our results demonstrate that these two taxa are in the earliest stages of speciation, at a point when they have fixed differences in plumage color that are not reflected in monophyly of the mitochondrial or nuclear DNA markers in this study.

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      Dmrt1 polymorphism covaries with sex-determination patterns in Rana temporaria

      Wen-Juan Ma, Nicolas Rodrigues, Roberto Sermier, Alan Brelsford and Nicolas Perrin

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2209

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      Dmrt1, a gene that plays a key role in sex determination and sexual development across all metazoans, displays significant sex differentiation in the common frog, Rana temporaria, in the North Sweden in Tvedöra with a Y-specific haplotype distinct from Ammarnäs. It is less differentiated and associates with both delayed gonadal differentiation and imperfect match between phenotypic and genotypic sex. Our findings suggest that the variance in patterns of sex determination documented in common frogs might result from a genetic polymorphism within a small genomic region that contains Dmrt1.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The effect of local land use and loss of forests on bats and nocturnal insects

      Julia T. Treitler, Olga Heim, Marco Tschapka and Kirsten Jung

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2160

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      We show that land-use intensification impacts bats and insects at different spatial scales, leading towards a local mismatch of prey availability and feeding activity. We demonstrate, that forest remnants in the landscape are a prerequisite for vital ecosystem function, but not sufficient to compensate negative effects of high land-use intensity.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic differentiation of the pine processionary moth at the southern edge of its range: contrasting patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear markers

      M'hamed El Mokhefi, Carole Kerdelhué, Christian Burban, Andrea Battisti, Gahdab Chakali and Mauro Simonato

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2194

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      Algeria is the region where two major mitochondrial clades of the forest pest pine processionary moth get into contact. Here we further define the geographic distribution of the two clades, extending the analysis to all the host-plant range populations. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers show a different pattern of differentiation, likely because of the sex-biased dispersal of the insect and the recent invasion of newly afforested areas.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Scrophularia arguta, a widespread annual plant in the Canary Islands: a single recent colonization event or a more complex phylogeographic pattern?

      Francisco Javier Valtueña, Josefa López, Juan Álvarez, Tomás Rodríguez-Riaño and Ana Ortega-Olivencia

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2109

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      Our study is focused on the colonization of Canary Islands by the annual widespread species Scrophularia arguta, distributed from Arabian Peninsula and Horn of Africa to northwest Africa, southwest Europe, and Macaronesia. The analysis of two nuclear and two chloroplast DNA regions supports a rapid expansion and diversification of this species during the Pliocene and three colonization events to Canary Islands from mainland, two ancient and one recent. The ancient colonization events have originated two unique Canarian genetic lineages, and, in spite of the great genetic divergence among their populations, it has not implied any morphological variation.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The effect of diet and time after bacterial infection on fecundity, resistance, and tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

      Megan A. M. Kutzer and Sophie A. O. Armitage

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2185

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      The outcome of infection depends on two host immune strategies: resistance and tolerance. Here, we tested whether dietary yeast (protein) limitation affects tolerance, resistance, and fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster. Our four fecundity measures all showed a negative effect of a low yeast diet, but diet did not affect resistance to Escherichia coli or Lactococcus lactis. However, E. coli-infected flies on a low yeast diet were more tolerant to infection 24 h postinfection than flies on a high yeast diet and then became less tolerant 72 h postinfection.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mate choice for neutral and MHC genetic characteristics in Alpine marmots: different targets in different contexts?

      Mariona Ferrandiz-Rovira, Dominique Allainé, Marie-Pierre Callait-Cardinal and Aurélie Cohas

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2189

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      Mate choice could be based on genetic characteristics, but whether mate choice is based on neutral genetic characteristics or on particular functional loci (i.e. Major Histocompatibility Complex, MHC) remains an open question. Whereas female Alpine marmots' (Marmota marmota) social mate choice is based on MHC characteristics, extra-pair mate choice is based on both neutral and MHC characteristics. Thus, female Alpine marmots' mate choice seems to be context dependent.

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