Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 16

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA and Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK

Impact Factor: 2.32

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 63/144 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

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  1. 1 - 44
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Correlation between the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections during the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae leaf-mining moths

      Florence Gutzwiller, Franck Dedeine, Wilfried Kaiser, David Giron and Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1580

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      Using a combination of molecular phylogenies and ecological data we show that Wolbachia infections have been associated with the ability of insects to manipulate the physiology of their host plants in a way to best meet their metabolic needs and compensate for variation in food nutritional composition. It strongly supports the view that Wolbachia can be considered as a nutritional mutualist in Gracillariidae leaf-mining moths in general. This also strongly suggests that Wolbachia played a key role in the adaptation of leaf-miner insects to their host-plant and in the evolution of the plant-insect interactions.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

      Robert N. Rosenfield, William E. Stout, Matthew D. Giovanni, Noah H. Levine, Jenna A. Cava, Madeline G. Hardin and Taylor G. Haynes

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1674

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      We conducted a novel comparatie study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations in Wisconsin, 2001–2011. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species, first-time breeding one-year-old females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males. Whereas older females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ration near unity, and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to older females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mind the gap: treefalls as drivers of parental trade-offs

      Bibiana Rojas

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1648

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      Habitat disturbances may enable the exploitation of resources previously unavailable. Dyeing poison frogs invade fresh treefall gaps as soon as they form, presumably in part searching for tadpole rearing sites. This study shows how the benefits of a new resource available may trade-off with the costs of crowding and over-use.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Indices for assessing coral reef fish biodiversity: the need for a change in habits

      Nicolas Loiseau and Jean-Claude Gaertner

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1619

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      We present the a critical overview of the indices used in coral reef fish studies. On the basis of this critical overview, we have established guidelines for selecting the diversity metrics best suited, according to the context and available data, to monitoring the response of coral reef fish biodiversity to natural and anthropogenic forcings.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Nucleotide diversity patterns of three divergent soybean populations: evidences for population-dependent linkage disequilibrium and taxonomic status of Glycine gracilis

      Yunsheng Wang, Muhammad Qasim Shahid, Hongwen Huang and Ying Wang

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1550

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      In this study, we compared the nucleotide diversity patterns of three soybean populations: cultivated soybean (Glycine max), wild soybean (Glycine soja) and semi-wild soybean (Glycine gracilis), the major aim was to estimate the LD level of three close soybean populations with different genetic background, and to determine the taxonomic status of Glycine gracilis. Our results depicted that the LD level in soybean population depend on its genetic background such as the population history, the sample size etc. and the G. gracilis should regard as the variant of G. soja, not as an independent species.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Foods, macronutrients and fibre in the diet of blue sheep (Psuedois nayaur) in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal

      Achyut Aryal, Sean C. P. Coogan, Weihong Ji, Jessica M. Rothman and David Raubenheimer

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1661

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      We characterized the diet of an important herbivore species, Bharal or blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), in the remote Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal, including proximate analysis of nutrient content and geometric analysis of macronutrient balance of a limited number of foods. A total of 19 plant species/genera were identified in blue sheep scats, with the most frequently occurring (Kobressia sp.) being high in carbohydrate and hemicellulose, and low in protein, relative to other plants. Our results suggest that foraging by blue sheep may be a balance between consuming highly-digestible high-carbohydrate plants and those less-digestible but higher in protein and/or lipid.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of changing climate on aquatic habitat and connectivity for remnant populations of a wide-ranging frog species in an arid landscape

      David S. Pilliod, Robert S. Arkle, Jeanne M. Robertson, Melanie A. Murphy and W. Chris Funk

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1634

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      We evaluated the past (1900–1930), recent (1981–2010), and future (2071–2100) climate suitability of the arid Great Basin (USA) for the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) and assessed whether associated changes in surface water may affect connectivity for remaining populations. The area of the Great Basin with suitable climate conditions has declined over the last century and remaining populations are isolated. Seasonal shifts in temperature, precipitation and stream flow patterns could further reduce habitat suitability and connectivity for the Columbia spotted frog in the Great Basin.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Warming decreased and grazing increased plant uptake of amino acids in an alpine meadow

      Shuang Ma, Xiaoxue Zhu, Jing Zhang, Lirong Zhang, Rongxiao Che, Fang Wang, Hanke Liu, Haishan Niu, Shiping Wang and Xiaoyong Cui

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1646

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      We demonstrated that warming decreased plant organic N uptake by 37% as compared to control treatment. Under the condition of grazing, warming reduced plant organic N uptake by 44%. Grazing alone significantly increased organic N absorption by 15%.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Macroecology of North American suckers (Catostomidae): tests of Bergmann's and Rapoport's rules

      Stephen J. Jacquemin and Jason C. Doll

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1637

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      Discerning spatial macroecological patterns in freshwater fishes has broad implications for community assembly, ecosystem dynamics, management, and conservation. This study explores the potential interspecific covariation of geographic range (Rapoport's rule) and body size (Bergmann's rule) with latitude in North American sucker fishes (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae). This study found that Rapoport's rule was supported across family, subfamily, and tribe level groupings, while Bergmann's rule was not supported in Catostomidae.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Cuticular waxes in alpine meadow plants: climate effect inferred from latitude gradient in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

      Yanjun Guo, Na Guo, Yuji He and Jianhua Gao

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1677

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      Global change will not necessarily lead to a shift of wax deposition on alpine plant leaves based on plant species level. The alpine meadow plants as a whole respond to climate change, benefiting their adaptabilities. The variations of plant leaf cuticular wax may be related to the variation of plant diversity.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of landscape matrix on population connectivity of an arboreal mammal, Petaurus breviceps

      Mansoureh Malekian, Steven J. B. Cooper, Kathleen M. Saint, Melanie L. Lancaster, Andrea C. Taylor and Susan M. Carthew

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1675

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      We examine the effects of landscape matrix on population structure of the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in a fragmented landscape in south-eastern South Australia. The permeability of a cleared agricultural matrix to dispersing gliders was significantly higher than that of a pine matrix.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Interspecific variation in the phenology of advertisement calling in a temperate Australian frog community

      Geoffrey W. Heard, Stefano Canessa and Kirsten M. Parris

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1666

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      The phenology of advertisement calling provides insights into the temporal patterns of reproductive effort in anuran communities. Here, we report limited overlap in the predicted seasonal peaks of calling among frogs from Melbourne, in southern Australia, as well as considerable interspecific variation in the meteorological correlates of calling. Our results may be indicative of temporal partitioning of reproductive effort to facilitate coexistence, as has been reported for tropical and temperate anuran communities in other parts of the globe.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Lack of evolution in a leaf beetle that lives on two contrasting host plants

      Katherine Gould and Paul Wilson

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1658

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      Leaf beetles that appear to be the same species use two radically different host plants. We looked for differentiation and for coordinated adaptation and found neither, invoking an interpretation of stasis. Differentiation is evident at higher phylogenetic levels. Illustration by Cindy Hitchcock.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Trade-offs in the evolution of bumblebee colony and body size: a comparative analysis

      Raúl Cueva del Castillo, Salomón Sanabria-Urbán and Martín Alejandro Serrano-Meneses

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1659

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      We evaluated the effect of temperature and precipitation on the colony and body sizes of twenty-one bumblebee taxa using phylogenetic comparative methods. We found that both temperature and precipitation affects colony and body size. In addition a negative relationship between colony and body size was found, which suggests a potential trade-off in the evolution of bumblebee colony and body size.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Exposing the structure of an Arctic food web

      Helena K. Wirta, Eero J. Vesterinen, Peter A. Hambäck, Elisabeth Weingartner, Claus Rasmussen, Jeroen Reneerkens, Niels M. Schmidt, Olivier Gilg and Tomas Roslin

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1647

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      Arctic food webs have been considered simple in structure, with few links per species. Revealing the trophic interactions of three predator guilds and their dominant prey, we show the species in this community to be affected by a multitude of both direct and indirect interactions. To understand the community-level changes to come in the arctic, we need to consider all the interacting species.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evaluating distributional shifts in home range estimates

      Justin G. Clapp and Jeffrey L. Beck

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1655

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      The wide range of variability evident within utilization distributions constructed with modern home range estimators is often overlooked or ignored during home range comparisons. We describe an approach to gain additional insight to home range alterations by comparing UDs across the full spectrum of distributions and summarizing comparisons into meaningful results.Our results highlight the benefit of conducting multi-scale assessments when comparing distributions, and we encourage researchers to expand comparative home range analyses to gain a more comprehensive evaluation of distributional changes, and to evaluate comparisons across a spectrum of home range levels.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Comparison of soil microbial communities inhabiting vineyards and native sclerophyllous forests in central Chile

      Luis E. Castañeda, Karina Godoy, Marlene Manzano, Pablo A. Marquet and Olga Barbosa

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1652

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      Native habitats provide multiple ecosystem services to the agriculture, and conservation strategies can enhance the provision of these services. Land-use change can modify the diversity of soil microorganisms and then to alter the soil-related services. Here, we explored soil microbial communities present in native forests and adjacent vineyards in three different growing areas in Chile. We found that the soil bacterial community changed between the sampled growing areas; whilst soil fungal communities differed between forests and vineyard habitats. These findings can help to ecologists and grapegrowers to identify effects of land-use change on provision of ecosystem services by native forests.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The impact of invasive cane toads on native wildlife in southern Australia

      Christopher J. Jolly, Richard Shine and Matthew J. Greenlees

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1657

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      Our manuscript provides the first robust information about the impact of invasive cane toads on the fauna of temperate-zone Australia. We show dramatic impacts of the invasive toad on a broad suite of native species and demonstrate that toad invasion disrupts ecological functioning by eliminating the primary scavengers in this system (lace monitors, Varanus varius). Our results highlight how a single invasive species can inflict diverse impacts (including, on a critical function such as carrion removal), and also, show how easily major impacts of an invader can remain undetected even in densely populated areas.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Fuel moisture content enhances nonadditive effects of plant mixtures on flammability and fire behavior

      Luke G. Blauw, Niki Wensink, Lisette Bakker, Richard S. P. van Logtestijn, Rien Aerts, Nadejda A. Soudzilovskaia and J. Hans C. Cornelissen

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1628

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      In general the moist species mixtures caused negative non-additive effects, but due to the larger variability these mixtures occasionally caused large positive non-additive effects, while this did not occur in dry mixtures. Thus, at moister conditions mixtures occasionally pass the moisture threshold for ignition and fire spread, which the monospecific fuel beds are unable to pass.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Role of phenotypic plasticity and population differentiation in adaptation to novel environmental conditions

      Sergei Volis, Danara Ormanbekova and Kanat Yermekbayev

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1607

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      Our results suggest that (1) two means of successful adaptation to new environmental conditions, phenotypic plasticity and adaptive genetic differentiation, are not mutually exclusive ways of achieving high adaptive ability; and (2) colonists from some core populations can be more successful in establishing beyond the current species range than colonists from the range extreme periphery with conditions seemingly closest to those in the new environment.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Large-scale spatial variation in feather corticosterone in invasive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Mexico is related to climate

      Gillian D. Treen, Keith A. Hobson, Tracy A. Marchant and Gary R. Bortolotti

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1638

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      We assessed variation in the hormone corticosterone (CORT) in feathers of invasive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) across their range in Mexico. Feather CORT levels were highest in north-central Mexico and the Baja peninsula, areas with low levels of precipitation and more variable temperatures; feather CORT was also negatively associated with temperature and precipitation. Our results show that feather CORT can be a powerful tool for understanding how physiology limits species distributions; furthermore linking feather CORT to climate may allow us to predict how species will respond to future climate change.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Maintenance of brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: linking seasonal food resources, host–pathogen interaction, and life-history trade-offs

      John J. Treanor, Chris Geremia, Michael A. Ballou, Duane H. Keisler, Patrick J. White, John J. Cox and Philip H. Crowley

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1633

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      Susceptibility to infectious disease may be influenced by the seasonal availability of food resources. In Yellowstone bison, active brucellosis infection was negatively associated with bison age and nutritional condition, with infection intensities most pronounced in young animals. Our results illustrate how seasonal food restriction might drive physiological trade-offs, which suppress immune function and create infection and transmission opportunities for pathogens.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mining from transcriptomes: 315 single-copy orthologous genes concatenated for the phylogenetic analyses of Orchidaceae

      Hua Deng, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Min Lin, Yan Wang and Zhong-Jian Liu

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1642

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      We offered an efficient and reliable method for orchid phylogenic analyses, especially for the holomycotrophic species or those whose DNA sequences have been difficult to amplify. Meanwhile, a total of 315 single-copy orthologous genes of orchids are offered for orchid phylogenetic studies.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of spatial scale of sampling on food web structure

      Spencer A. Wood, Roly Russell, Dieta Hanson, Richard J. Williams and Jennifer A. Dunne

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1640

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      This study investigates whether commonly studied properties of network structure vary with spatial scale, using highly resolved empirical food webs for the marine intertidal of the Sanak Archipelago in the Eastern Aleutian Islands. We find through analyses using niche and power-law scaling models that although raw structural properties of networks vary systematically with sampling extent, across six orders of magnitude, many of these apparent sensitivities are attributable to the increasing richness and decreasing connectance of larger-scale food webs.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Interrelated effects of mycorrhiza and free-living nitrogen fixers cascade up to aboveground herbivores

      Botir Khaitov, José David Patiño-Ruiz, Tatiana Pina and Peter Schausberger

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1654

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      Our study provides a key example of the interrelated effects of two primarily plant-mutualistic microorganisms, mycorrhizal fungi and free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria, on herbivorous spider mites feeding on aboveground plant parts. It breaks new ground in multi-trophic below-aboveground research by providing first insights into the implications of plant-mediated belowground fungi-bacteria interactions on fitness of aboveground herbivores.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Potential merger of ancient lineages in a passerine bird discovered based on evidence from host-specific ectoparasites

      Nicholas L. Block, Steven M. Goodman, Shannon J. Hackett, John M. Bates and Marie J. Raherilalao

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1639

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      Xanthomixis zosterops comprises four deeply divergent, broadly sympatric, cryptic mtDNA clades that likely began diverging approximately 3.6 million years ago. Despite this level of divergence, microsatellite data indicate that the X. zosterops mtDNA clades are virtually panmictic. The presence of three distinct phylogroups of host-specific Myrsidea lice on X. zosterops support previous allopatry and potential lineage merger of the X. zosterops clades.

    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Context matters: sexual signaling loss in digital organisms

      Emily G. Weigel, Nicholas D. Testa, Alex Peer and Sara C. Garnett

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1631

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      Sexual signals are important in attracting and choosing mates; however, these signals and their associated preferences are often costly and frequently lost. Here we used the Avida digital life platform to explore the conditions (population size, genetic linkage, strength of preference, and requirement of signal to initial mating) under which signal loss occurs. Our findings suggest that (1) signaling loss is often dependent on not just preference for signals, population size, and genetic linkage, but also whether signals are required to initiate mating, and (2) complete signal loss may be harder to obtain that previously thought.

    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Baiting improves CPUE in nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) minnow trap fishery

      Juha Merilä

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1635

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      Whether or not baiting influences catch per unit effort (CPUE) in stickleback fisheries remains a matter of debate among researchers in lack of quantitative data. A field experiment conducted with nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) shows that bating improves CPUE. CPUE is also influenced by trap type, and CPUE of different size and age classes of fish differ depending on the trap type.

    29. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Persistence at distributional edges: Columbia spotted frog habitat in the arid Great Basin, USA

      Robert S. Arkle and David S. Pilliod

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1627

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      A common challenge in the conservation of broadly distributed or imperiled species is understanding which factors facilitate persistence at distributional edges, locations where populations are often vulnerable to extirpation due to changes in climate, land use, or distributions of other species. For Columbia spotted frogs in the Great Basin, a genetically distinct population segment of conservation concern, we found that persistence has been largely facilitated by habitat stability from permanent hydroperiods, aquatic connectivity, predator-free refugia, and a commensalistic interaction with an ecosystem engineer, the American beaver.

    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Host range and community structure of avian nest parasites in the genus Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the island of Trinidad

      Mariana Bulgarella and George E. Heimpel

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1621

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      Host range, parasite species load, and community similarity are important descriptors of host-parasite interactions. We used a phylogenetic approach to explore host-associations between birds and their Philornis parasites on the island of Trinidad.

    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An example of phenotypic adherence to the island rule? – Anticosti gray jays are heavier but not structurally larger than mainland conspecifics

      Dan Strickland and D. Ryan Norris

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1557

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      The island-rule proposes that small animals become larger when isolated on islands whereas large animals tend towards dwarfism. We found that gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis) on Anticosti Island, Québec were ca 10% heavier but not structurally larger, than three mainland populations, suggesting suggests that Anticosti jays are not necessarily genetically distinct from mainland gray jays and that they may achieve their greater body masses solely through packing more mass onto mainland-sized body frames. This is the first known example of a proposed, purely phenotypic initial step in the adherence to the island-rule by an insular population.

    32. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Induced responses to grazing by an insect herbivore (Acentria ephemerella) in an immature macrophyte (Myriophyllum spicatum): an isotopic study

      Karl-Otto Rothhaupt, Felix Fornoff and Elizabeth Yohannes

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1624

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      The means by which young aquatic plants defend themselves from herbivory are little studied. This study addresses this gap in knowledge. Nitrogen tracers were used in two mesocosm experiments investigating the response of young Myriophyllum spicatum plants to grazing by the generalist insect herbivore Acentria ephemerella. Results indicate (1) exposure to an insect herbivore induces a rapid (within 48 h) reduction in the nutritional value of vulnerable tissues, (2) high level grazing intensity did not limit the ability of young plants to induce resistance; (3) young plants exposed to herbivory exhibit differential patterns of nutrient allocation in vulnerable and secure tissues.

    33. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Tracking changes in life-history traits related to unnecessary virulence in a plant-parasitic nematode

      Philippe Castagnone-Sereno, Karine Mulet and Cathy Iachia

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1643

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      Evaluating trade-offs in life-history traits of plant pathogens is essential to understand the evolution and epidemiology of diseases. Here, we designed experiments to investigate whether traits directly linked to the establishment of host–parasite interactions, that is, ability to locate and move toward the roots of the host plant, and to invade roots and develop into mature females, are affected in an asexual nematode adapted to plant resistance.

    34. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      American pika in a low-elevation lava landscape: expanding the known distribution of a temperature-sensitive species

      Matt Shinderman

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1626

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      This study documents persistence of a newly discovered population of American pika at elevations below those predicted as optimal for the species. Like other lava environments where pika have been recently documented, lava flows at NNVM appear to be serving as thermal refugia for pika, despite summer temperatures which regularly exceed thermal maxima for the species. It is likely that pika inhabit other low-elevation lava flows in areas that have never been surveyed.

    35. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Insect responses to host plant provision beyond natural boundaries: latitudinal and altitudinal variation in a Chinese fig wasp community

      Rong Wang, Stephen G. Compton, Rupert J. Quinnell, Yan-Qiong Peng, Louise Barwell and Yan Chen

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1622

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      The fig wasps associated with a single plant resource (ovules of Ficus microcarpa) along a 1200 km transect in SW China that extended for 1000 km beyond the tree's natural northern range margin were recorded. The proportion of figs utilized by any fig wasps declined with increasing latitude, as did the proportion of ovules that were occupied and the species richness, diversity and abundance of fig wasps. Parasitoids declined more steeply with latitude than phytophages.

    36. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Candidate gene–environment interactions and their relationships with timing of breeding in a wild bird population

      Audrey Bourret and Dany Garant

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1630

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      Monitoring and predicting evolutionary changes underlying current environmental modifications are complex challenges and these objectives can be achieved by assessing the genetic variation and effects of candidate genes on traits indicating adaptive potential. Here, we studied a population of Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) to assess the relationships between four candidate genes (CLOCK, NPAS2, ADCYAP1, CREB1) and two phenological traits related to reproduction (laying date and incubation duration), and also determine the importance of GxE in this system. Our results suggest that all four candidate genes potentially affect timing of breeding in birds and that gene-environment interactions (GxE) are more prevalent and important than previously reported in this context.

    37. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An experimental test on time constraint and sexual conflict over parental care

      Matteo Griggio

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1620

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      If the main advantage of brood desertion is remating, then this will be a time constraint, because the deserting individual will require a certain minimum period of time to breed again in the same breeding season. I experimentally created two groups of pairs: the control pairs that started to breed as soon as they were ready and the experimental pairs that were forced to postpone their breeding phase because the breeding sites were available later. As predicted, I found that in the experimental pairs the percentage of deserting individuals was significantly higher than in the control groups. To my knowledge, this is the first experimental study that demonstrates a direct link between time constraint and brood desertion.

    38. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Quantification of correlational selection on thermal physiology, thermoregulatory behavior, and energy metabolism in lizards

      Paulina Artacho, Julia Saravia, Beatriz Decencière Ferrandière, Samuel Perret and Jean-François Le Galliard

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1548

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      The annual survival and total fecundity of common lizards were significantly influenced by correlational selection acting on body mass and resting metabolic rate, but with opposite directions for the two life history traits.

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      Living in isolation – population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Cheddar pink)

      Christina M. Putz, Christoph Schmid and Christoph Reisch

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1611

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      We analysed the population structure, reproduction and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus from two geographic regions with a different magnitude of isolation. We observed differences in population structure but similar reproduction and genetic variation. We concluded that the isolation of populations of naturally rare species must not necessarily result in the loss of fitness and genetic variation.

    40. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Phylogenetic and ecological patterns in nighttime transpiration among five members of the genus Rubus co-occurring in western Oregon

      Brandon McNellis and Ava R. Howard

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1608

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      Nighttime transpiration was measured in a greenhouse common garden in five species of Rubus. A phylogenetic signal was detected in the data, while nighttime and daytime transpiration were not correlated across the genus. This suggests that interspecific differences may contribute to differences in nighttime water use.

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      Early subtropical forest growth is driven by community mean trait values and functional diversity rather than the abiotic environment

      Wenzel Kröber, Ying Li, Werner Härdtle, Keping Ma, Bernhard Schmid, Karsten Schmidt, Thomas Scholten, Gunnar Seidler, Goddert von Oheimb, Erik Welk, Christian Wirth and Helge Bruelheide

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1604

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      The manuscript addresses an approach to the framework suggested by Díaz et al. (2007, PNAS) to disentangle the effect of environment, species identity and functional diversity in tree communities. We present a dataset with 231 plots varying in ecological characteristics, species and functional diversity. We used a set of 41 plant functional traits for 23 tree species. Our most striking result is that the ecological environment only explained 4% of plot mean values in crown increment, whereas community weighted mean values and functional diversities of trait combinations explained 42 and 31%, respectively, adding up to 51% explained variation in combination. We can conclude that functional diversity even 3 years after planting has a significant impact on productivity.

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      Population structure of the Indonesian giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon: a window into evolutionary similarities between paralogous mitochondrial DNA sequences and their genomes

      Muslihudeen A. Abdul-Aziz, Gerhard Schöfl, Grit Mrotzek, Haryanti Haryanti, Ketut Sugama and Hans Peter Saluz

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1616

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      While examining genetic diversity and population structure of Penaeus monodon shrimp in Indonesian waters. Similarities between mtCR sequences and microsatellite data for one mtCR clade are discovered. Evidence points towards nuclear DNA as source of this mtCR clade.

    43. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Individual variation in parental workload and breeding productivity in female European starlings: is the effort worth it?

      Melinda A. Fowler and Tony D. Williams

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1625

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      Traditional metrics of parental workload vary considerably and we elucidate an uncoupling of female provisioning effort and fitness benefits. We suggest females are making predictable decisions about their workload during provisioning that maximizes their overall fitness based on an integration of information on their current environment.

    44. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agroecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards

      Laura Russo, Mia Park, Jason Gibbs and Bryan Danforth

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1582

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      Extensive sampling in New York apple orchards demonstrates that the bee fauna of this crop is incredibly diverse, but also very difficult to fully characterize. We recommend multi-year sampling in order to fully describe the bee fauna of agricultural crops.

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