Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 10

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA and Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK

Impact Factor: 2.32

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 63/145 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

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  1. 1 - 65
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The effect of local land use and loss of forests on bats and nocturnal insects

      Julia T. Treitler, Olga Heim, Marco Tschapka and Kirsten Jung

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2160

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      We show that land-use intensification impacts bats and insects at different spatial scales, leading towards a local mismatch of prey availability and feeding activity. We demonstrate, that forest remnants in the landscape are a prerequisite for vital ecosystem function, but not sufficient to compensate negative effects of high land-use intensity.

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      Genetic differentiation of the pine processionary moth at the southern edge of its range: contrasting patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear markers

      M'hamed El Mokhefi, Carole Kerdelhué, Christian Burban, Andrea Battisti, Gahdab Chakali and Mauro Simonato

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2194

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      Algeria is the region where two major mitochondrial clades of the forest pest pine processionary moth get into contact. Here we further define the geographic distribution of the two clades, extending the analysis to all the host-plant range populations. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers show a different pattern of differentiation, likely because of the sex-biased dispersal of the insect and the recent invasion of newly afforested areas.

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      Scrophularia arguta, a widespread annual plant in the Canary Islands: a single recent colonization event or a more complex phylogeographic pattern?

      Francisco Javier Valtueña, Josefa López, Juan Álvarez, Tomás Rodríguez-Riaño and Ana Ortega-Olivencia

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2109

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      Our study is focused on the colonization of Canary Islands by the annual widespread species Scrophularia arguta, distributed from Arabian Peninsula and Horn of Africa to northwest Africa, southwest Europe, and Macaronesia. The analysis of two nuclear and two chloroplast DNA regions supports a rapid expansion and diversification of this species during the Pliocene and three colonization events to Canary Islands from mainland, two ancient and one recent. The ancient colonization events have originated two unique Canarian genetic lineages, and, in spite of the great genetic divergence among their populations, it has not implied any morphological variation.

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      The effect of diet and time after bacterial infection on fecundity, resistance, and tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

      Megan A. M. Kutzer and Sophie A. O. Armitage

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2185

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      The outcome of infection depends on two host immune strategies: resistance and tolerance. Here, we tested whether dietary yeast (protein) limitation affects tolerance, resistance, and fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster. Our four fecundity measures all showed a negative effect of a low yeast diet, but diet did not affect resistance to Escherichia coli or Lactococcus lactis. However, E. coli-infected flies on a low yeast diet were more tolerant to infection 24 h postinfection than flies on a high yeast diet and then became less tolerant 72 h postinfection.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mate choice for neutral and MHC genetic characteristics in Alpine marmots: different targets in different contexts?

      Mariona Ferrandiz-Rovira, Dominique Allainé, Marie-Pierre Callait-Cardinal and Aurélie Cohas

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2189

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      Mate choice could be based on genetic characteristics, but whether mate choice is based on neutral genetic characteristics or on particular functional loci (i.e. Major Histocompatibility Complex, MHC) remains an open question. Whereas female Alpine marmots' (Marmota marmota) social mate choice is based on MHC characteristics, extra-pair mate choice is based on both neutral and MHC characteristics. Thus, female Alpine marmots' mate choice seems to be context dependent.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Plant regeneration from seeds responds to phylogenetic relatedness and local adaptation in Mediterranean Romulea (Iridaceae) species

      Angelino Carta, Sarah Hanson and Jonas V. Müller

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2150

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      Although evidence has been provided that show how germination requirements are related to habitat and climate characteristics, seed germination of phylogenetically closely related species has not been sufficiently investigated. The results denote for the studied Romulea species a weak primary dormancy, a Mediterranean germination syndrome and species-specific germination requirements clustered in a way that follows phylogenetic relatedness among the species.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Harvested populations are more variable only in more variable environments

      Tom C. Cameron, Daniel O'Sullivan, Alan Reynolds, Joseph P. Hicks, Stuart B. Piertney and Tim G. Benton

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2164

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      A number of studies on both terrestrial and aquatic harvested species have suggested that harvesting could increase the temporal variability in population abundance. While this may appear intuitive recent analyses has suggested that environmental variation plays a key role in the responses to harvests and modeled populations show a variety of responses are possible and call for more empirical studies. Here, we show that harvesting of adults does lead to increased temporal population variability, but only in more variable environments.

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      Genetic differentiation in red-bellied piranha populations (Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner, 1858) from the Solimões-Amazonas River

      Carlos Henrique dos A. dos Santos, Carolina S. de Sá Leitão, Maria de N. Paula-Silva and Vera Maria F. Almeida-Val

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2195

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      This study determined the levels of genetic diversity and structure in red-bellied piranha populations and identified the existence of two biological populations in Solimões-Amazonas River region. We checked the need for management fisheries to protect the red-bellied piranha populations against predatory and sport fishing.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dynamic egg color mimicry

      Daniel Hanley, Michal Šulc, Patricia L. R. Brennan, Mark E. Hauber, Tomáš Grim and Marcel Honza

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2187

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      We show that the color of great reed warbler and common cuckoo eggs change rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the incubation period. Therefore, a host's ability to discriminate a parasitic egg may be aided by these temporal color changes.

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      Plants adapted to warmer climate do not outperform regional plants during a natural heat wave

      Anna Bucharova, Walter Durka, Julia-Maria Hermann, Norbert Hölzel, Stefan Michalski, Johannes Kollmann and Oliver Bossdorf

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2183

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      An underlying assumption of assisted migration of foundation species is that when climate changes, local ecotypes will be maladapted to the novel environment and foreign plants from warmer climate will perform better in the given locality. Our common garden experiment did not confirm this assumption. Instead, we found evidence for persisting local adaptation despite elevated temperatures, suggesting that the assumption of assisted migration might not be valid.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Trait adaptation promotes species coexistence in diverse predator and prey communities

      Toni Klauschies, David A. Vasseur and Ursula Gaedke

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2172

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      As species are able to adjust their traits in response to selection, we examined the combined effects of the range and the speed of trait adaptation on species coexistence using an innovative multispecies predator–prey model. We show that sufficiently large and fast trait adaptation jointly promoted stable or neutrally stable species coexistence for a broad range of environmental conditions when the absence of such adaptive trait changes would preclude it. We further show that coadaptation enabled a temporally variable convergence and divergence of species traits in which species became temporally more similar or dissimilar resulting over time in a balance between niche differences stabilizing coexistence and fitness differences promoting competitive exclusion.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Using simulations to evaluate Mantel-based methods for assessing landscape resistance to gene flow

      Katherine A. Zeller, Tyler G. Creech, Katie L. Millette, Rachel S. Crowhurst, Robert A. Long, Helene H. Wagner, Niko Balkenhol and Erin L. Landguth

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2154

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      Despite their intensive use in landsape genetics, Mantel-based approaches remain a subject of much debate. Here, we provide some clarity in this debate by performing an intensive simulation study to assess the utility of Mantel statistics under many different study conditions. Based on our results, we suggest that Mantel tests are only appropriate for discriminating among resistance surfaces that have different underlying environmental variables.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The Urban Heat Island and its spatial scale dependent impact on survival and development in butterflies of different thermal sensitivity

      Aurélien Kaiser, Thomas Merckx and Hans Van Dyck

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2166

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      This study aims at unraveling the magnitude of local versus landscape-scale climatic effects of urbanization on the biological fitness of ectothermic organisms. We demonstrate local-scale impacts of urbanization on larval survival and adult body mass for the most thermophilous of two butterfly study species and we highlight the importance of considering fine-grained spatial scales in urban ecology.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Measuring size and composition of species pools: a comparison of dark diversity estimates

      Francesco de Bello, Pavel Fibich, David Zelený, Martin Kopecký, Ondřej Mudrák, Milan Chytrý, Petr Pyšek, Jan Wild, Dana Michalcová, Jiří Sádlo, Petr Šmilauer, Jan Lepš and Meelis Pärtel

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2169

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      Knowledge about the species pools of a site can allow meaningful biodiversity comparisons and insight on biodiversity formation. Empirical studies using species pools have been however limited due to conceptual and methodological difficulties in determining both their size and composition. We assessed available methods across different vegetation types showing the potential of each of them to give reliable estimations.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Are sympatrically speciating Midas cichlid fish special? Patterns of morphological and genetic variation in the closely related species Archocentrus centrarchus

      Carmelo Fruciano, Paolo Franchini, Francesca Raffini, Shaohua Fan and Axel Meyer

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2184

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      We study the intraspecific morphological and genetic variation in Archocentrus centrarchus, a cichlid fish that inhabits the same lakes of sympatrically speciating Midas cichlid fish. We fail to find any signs of diversification in this fish. Our results suggest that this species is the ideal candidate to investigate which factors favor sympatric speciation in certain lineages.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Marine ecosystem connectivity mediated by migrant–resident interactions and the concomitant cross-system flux of lipids

      Mikael van Deurs, Anders Persson, Martin Lindegren, Charlotte Jacobsen, Stefan Neuenfeldt, Christian Jørgensen and P. Anders Nilsson

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2167

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      Accumulating research argues that migrants influence the functioning and productivity of local habitats and ecosystems along migration routes and potentially drive cross-system energy fluxes of considerable magnitude, yet empirical documentation of local ecological effects and descriptions of the underlying mechanisms are surprisingly rare. In this study, we discovered size-dependent migrant–resident interactions and cross-system lipid transportation in the transition zone between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea where a resident cod population (predators) was found to interact with a herring population (prey) on a seasonal basis.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Drivers of aboveground wood production in a lowland tropical forest of West Africa: teasing apart the roles of tree density, tree diversity, soil phosphorus, and historical logging

      Tommaso Jucker, Aida Cuni Sanchez, Jeremy A. Lindsell, Harriet D. Allen, Gabriel S. Amable and David A. Coomes

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2175

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      What determines productivity in tropical forests remains unclear. Using repeat census data from the West African tropics, we show that variation in productivity across the landscape cannot be explained by one factor alone, but instead depends on the interacting effects of stand structure, species diversity, soil nutrients, and historical logging.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Nonhost diversity and density reduce the strength of parasitoid–host interactions

      Rachel Kehoe, Enric Frago, Catherin Barten, Flurin Jecker, Frank van Veen and Dirk Sanders

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2191

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      We demonstrate experimentally how increased density and diversity of nonhost species reduce the interaction strength between parasitoids and their hosts. Two parasitoid species responded in different ways to the presence on nonhosts, with A. megourae displaying a giving-up strategy under high nonhost diversity conditions. These results underline the importance of nonhosts for community dynamics and stability.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Light matters: testing the “Light Environment Hypothesis” under intra- and interspecific contexts

      Angélica Hernández-Palma

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2188

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      The “Light Environment Hypothesis” (LEH) proposes that evolution of interspecific variation in plumage color is driven by variation in light environments across habitats; therefore, similar trends should be expected for intraspecific variation. I tested the LEH in Amazonian Furnariides and found that ambient light plays a major role in the evolution of color signals in this group of birds. Furthermore, birds from habitats with high levels of ambient light had higher dichromatism levels, as well as brighter, more saturated, and more diverse plumages, suggesting that visual communication is less constrained in these habitats.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Cytological study on Sertoli cells and their interactions with germ cells during annual reproductive cycle in turtle

      Nisar Ahmed, Huang Yufei, Ping Yang, Waqas Muhammad Yasir, Qian Zhang, Tengfei Liu, Chen Hong, Hu Lisi, Chu Xiaoya and Qiusheng Chen

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2193

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      This is the first data provide clear cytological evidence about the seasonal changes in SCs, corresponding with their different roles in germ cells within the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Predicting the distributions of predator (snow leopard) and prey (blue sheep) under climate change in the Himalaya

      Achyut Aryal, Uttam Babu Shrestha, Weihong Ji, Som B. Ale, Sujata Shrestha, Tenzing Ingty, Tek Maraseni, Geoff Cockfield and David Raubenheimer

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2196

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      Future climate change is likely to affect distributions of species, disrupt biotic interactions, and cause spatial incongruity of predator–prey habitats. Understanding the impacts of future climate change on species distribution will help in the formulation of conservation policies to reduce the risks of future biodiversity losses. Using a species distribution modeling approach, we modeled current and future distributions of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and its common prey, blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), and observed the changes in niche overlap in the Nepal Himalaya.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Downscaling patterns of complementarity to a finer resolution and its implications for conservation prioritization

      Fábio Suzart de Albuquerque and Paul Beier

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2190

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      The manuscript reports on methods to estimate complementarity based on range maps for use in conservation prioritization. Our analyses suggest that downscaled complementarity might be an effective tool to prioritize sites for species representation in areas lacking high-resolution biological data.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mycorrhizas influence functional traits of two tallgrass prairie species

      Joanna Weremijewicz and Kotaro Seto

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2129

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      We propose that plant dependence on and responsiveness to mycorrhizas be considered plant functional traits because of their influence on plant performance and thus, population, community, and ecosystems biology. Using a warm-season, C4 grass, Andropogon gerardii Vitman, and the contrasting, cool-season, C3 grass, Elymus canadensis L, we demonstrate mycorrhizas affect other plant functional traits differently, depending on plant dependence and responsiveness.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex variation in an endangered rattlesnake, the Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus)

      Collin P. Jaeger, Melvin R. Duvall, Bradley J. Swanson, Christopher A. Phillips, Michael J. Dreslik, Sarah J. Baker and Richard B. King

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2159

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      Genetic variation within populations is shaped by a combination of selective and neutral evolutionary mechanisms. To understand how these mechanisms have influenced genetic variation an endangered rattlesnake, the Eastern Massasauga, we examined microsatellite diversity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity in three populations with differing demographic histories. Our results suggest that both natural selection and random genetic drift have shaped genetic variation in these populations on historical and contemporary timescales. These findings have important implications for ongoing conservation efforts targeting Eastern Massasauga populations in the wild and in captivity.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Density-dependent diel activity in stream-dwelling Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus

      Amy Fingerle, Nicolas Larranaga and Stefán Óli Steingrímsson

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2177

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      In a field experiment, the authors demonstrate that at higher population density juvenile stream-dwelling Arctic charr increase their diel activity, especially at crepuscular times, and grow as fast as fish at lower density where competition is presumably lower. Water temperature, light intensity, water level and Julian date also affected activity.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evolutionary potential in the Alpine: trait heritabilities and performance variation of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea from different elevations and microhabitats

      Janosch Sedlacek, Andrés J. Cortés, Julia Wheeler, Oliver Bossdorf, Guenter Hoch, Jaroslav Klápště, Christian Lexer, Christian Rixen, Sonja Wipf, Sophie Karrenberg and Mark van Kleunen

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2171

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      We investigated heritabilities of phenological traits, leaf size, and performance traits in natural populations of the long-lived alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea using relatedness estimates inferred from SSR markers. Our results suggest that the presence of significant heritable variation in morphology and phenology might help S. herbacea to adapt to changing environmental conditions.

    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A review of extensive variation in the design of pitfall traps and a proposal for a standard pitfall trap design for monitoring ground-active arthropod biodiversity

      Grant R. Brown and Iain M. Matthews

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2176

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      The use of pitfall trapping for monitoring ground-active arthropods is a common technique in ecological research, but suffers from extensive variation between researchers and reporting of the methodology is often incomplete. This review highlights this variation in both trap design and reporting completeness and proposes a standardized pitfall trap design. It is hoped that uptake of this design would facilitate future comparison between studies and allow investigation of biodiversity at larger spatial and temporal scales than would be easily achievable from individual researchers.

    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Environmental context and magnitude of disturbance influence trait-mediated community responses to wastewater in streams

      Francis J. Burdon, Marta Reyes, Alfredo C. Alder, Adriano Joss, Christoph Ort, Katja Räsänen, Jukka Jokela, Rik I.L. Eggen and Christian Stamm

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2165

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      Our study involved a replicated ‘real-world experiment’ using point-source inputs of treated wastewater in 12 Swiss streams across a land-use gradient. We found that stream invertebrate communities in catchments with intensive agricultural land uses were generally more resistant to wastewater pollution, reflecting differences in organic enrichment upstream. Thus, the same anthropogenic pressure may induce different ecological responses depending on the environmental context.

    29. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Experimental evolution of the grain of metabolic specialization in yeast

      Pedram Samani and Graham Bell

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2151

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      This work provides insight into the process of metabolic specialization in experimental populations of wild yeast. We selected yeast populations in 12 single-substrate selection regimes. We evaluated the direct and indirect response to selection and concluded that the grain of specialization in this case (our experiment) is the metabolic pathway rather than individual substrates and that specialization appears to evolve through mutational degradation.

    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A phenological shift in the time of recruitment of the shipworm, Teredo navalis L., mirrors marine climate change

      Christin Appelqvist and Jonathan N Havenhand

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2126

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      We compared the recruitment period of T. navalis along the Swedish west coast during 2004–2006 with similar data from 1971 to 1973. There was no significant shift in the time of onset of recruitment over this ~30-year time-span, but the end of recruitment was ~26 days later in recent years, leading to significantly longer recruitment periods. Our findings are broadly comparable with other reports of phenological shifts in marine species, and suggest that warmer sea surface temperatures are increasing the likelihood of successful sub-annual reproduction and intensifying recruitment of T. navalis in this region.

    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Demographic consequences of greater clonal than sexual reproduction in Dicentra canadensis

      Chia-Hua Lin, Maria N. Miriti and Karen Goodell

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2163

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      We used field experiments and population models to demonstrate short-term benefits of clonal reproduction for population growth. Energy costs associated with flowering limited individual growth and could reduce the population growth. Contrasting influences of clonal and sexual reproduction on population growth may limit recovery of genetic diversity for this self-incompatible species.

    32. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A phylogenetic analysis of macroevolutionary patterns in fermentative yeasts

      Rocío Paleo-López, Julian F. Quintero-Galvis, Jaiber J. Solano-Iguaran, Angela M. Sanchez-Salazar, Juan D. Gaitan-Espitia and Roberto F. Nespolo

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2097

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      In this study we provide a number of phylogenetic comparative analyses in yeast's evolution, to show several macroevolutionary patterns in trait-species evolution.

    33. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic structure and diversity of natural and domesticated populations of Citrus medica L. in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India

      Atiqur R. Barbhuiya, Mohammed L. Khan and Selvadurai Dayanandan

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2174

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      Citron is a medicinally important species of Citrus native to India and commonly found natural forests and home gardens in the foothills of the Eastern Himalayan region of NE India. The wild populations of citron in the region have undergone rapid decline due to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The genetic structure and diversity of citron populations were studied using microsatellite markers and found to be genetically diverse at the molecular level.

    34. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Do the antipredator strategies of shared prey mediate intraguild predation and mesopredator suppression?

      John D. J. Clare, Daniel W. Linden, Eric M. Anderson and David M. MacFarland

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2170

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      Mesopredator suppression has been widely demonstrated, but the strength of suppression has empirically varied. We propose that this relates to the behavior of prey shared between a top predator and mesopredator, such that increased prey fearfulness or avoidance of a top predator reduces the strength of mesopredator suppression. Results generally align with expectations, but other abiotic factors may play a role in mesopredator suppression.

    35. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic and epigenetic divergence between disturbed and undisturbed subpopulations of a Mediterranean shrub: a 20-year field experiment

      Carlos M. Herrera and Pilar Bazaga

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2161

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      The potential of ecological disturbance to cause genetic change in populations remains little explored, and virtually nothing is known on the possible epigenetic effects of perturbations. This long-term study of a long-lived plant population provides the first evidence to date suggesting that even relatively mild disturbances can leave genetic and epigenetic signatures on the next adult generation.

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      Leaf lifespan is positively correlated with periods of leaf production and reproduction in 49 herb and shrub species

      Fang Lan Li, Xin Liu and Wei kai Bao

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2147

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      Interspecific relationships of leaf life span with leaf dynamics and reproduction period were determined with 49 plant species in a common garden setting. Leaf production period was far longer than leaf death period and largely reflected the interspecific variation of leaf life span. Moreover, leaf life span was positively correlated with the length of reproduction (i.e., flowering and fruiting) period.

    37. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An improved neutral landscape model for recreating real landscapes and generating landscape series for spatial ecological simulations

      Maarten J. van Strien, Cornelis T. J. Slager, Bauke de Vries and Adrienne Grêt-Regamey

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2145

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      Landscape Generator (LG) is a software that uses optimization algorithms to generate landscapes that match user-defined target values. With LG, we successfully recreate landscape patterns that approximate those of real landscapes and we generated landscape series that would not have been possible with traditional neutral landscape models. LG is a promising novel approach for generating neutral landscapes and enables testing of new hypotheses regarding the influence of landscape patterns on ecological processes.

    38. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Plant density can increase invertebrate postdispersal seed predation in an experimental grassland community

      Jan-Hendrik Dudenhöffer, Gesine Pufal, Christiane Roscher and Alexandra-Maria Klein

      Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2039

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      We show that species-specific seed predation by invertebrates increases with increasing abundance of conspecific adult plants in grassland communities. Our results provide evidence for Janzen–Connell effects in this system and suggest that plant community characteristics and consumer identity impact the reproductive success of one plant species relative to other species in a community. Overall, this highlights the importance of invertebrate seed predators to structure grasslands via plant-density dependent effects.

    39. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Cryptic diversity in Black rats Rattus rattus of the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador

      Sandi Willows-Munro, Robert C. Dowler, Michael R. Jarcho, Reese B. Phillips, Howard L. Snell, Tammy R. Wilbert and Cody W. Edwards

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2033

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      Few if any of the world's ecosystems are free from invasion and the unique habitats of islands are particularly at risk. Understanding the phylogeographic history and population genetics of invasive rodents on the Galápagos Archipelago is an important step in predicting future spread and designing effective management strategies. In this study the invasion pathways of the invasive rodent Rattus Rattus across the Galápagos Archipelago is clarified using microsatellite data, coupled with historical knowledge. We demonstrate that patterns of historical human colonization have shaped the introduction and spread of invasive rodents to these islands.

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      Genetic population structure and relatedness in the narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata), a social Malagasy carnivore with sexual segregation

      Tilman C. Schneider, Peter M. Kappeler and Luca Pozzi

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2123

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      In the Malagasy narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata), a small endemic carnivore with sexual segregation in sociality, female social units were based on matrilines and displayed high relatedness among individuals. In males, haplotype diversity was higher than in females, indicating male-biased dispersal. Male unit members were not closely related, not proving any kin-directed benefits of male sociality. Reproductive patterns of individuals indicated male roaming and a promiscuous mating system with a potential role of mate choice.

    41. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Adaptional evolution of trichome in Caragana korshinskii to natural drought stress on the Loess Plateau, China

      Pengbo Ning, Junhui Wang, Yulu Zhou, Lifang Gao, Jun Wang and Chunmei Gong

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2157

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      Caragana korshinskii has been regarded as a natural model tree species to implore how to adapt to drought stress environments because it distributed widely in the arid and semi-arid regions of China. Few studies have concerned the mechanism of molecular regulation of trichome in response to drought. We found that trichomes play a critical role in enhancing drought resistant capacity of C. korshinskii and captured the changes in related gene expression levels, and also indicated genes interactions such as downstream genes of gibberellin and cytokinin signalling pathways alongside with several cytoskeleton-related genes that contribute to modulating trichome development to enhance transpiration resistance ability and increase the resistance to drought stress in C. korshinskii.

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      Effects of a protection gradient on carnivore density and survival: an example with leopards in the Luangwa valley, Zambia

      Elias Rosenblatt, Scott Creel, Matthew S. Becker, Johnathan Merkle, Henry Mwape, Paul Schuette and Twakundine Simpamba

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2155

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      Human activities on the periphery of protected areas can limit carnivore populations, but quantifying the strength of these effects is difficult. We estimate densities and survival rates for leopards (Panthera pardus) within Zambia's South Luangwa National Park and in an adjacent human-occupied area using systematic camera-trap grids and robust design mark–recapture methods. We detected no difference in annual survival rates, yet found leopard density within the national park to be 67% greater than in the human-occupied adjacent area, suggesting that leopards adjacent to the national park are limited by prey depletion, rather than by direct anthropogenic mortality.

    43. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Aging alters interspecific competition between two sympatric insect–parasitic nematode species

      Farrah Bashey, Tara Sarin and Curtis M. Lively

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2125

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      In this study, we examine species differences in aging in a dormant juvenile stage and the subsequent effects on interspecific competition in two insect parasitic nematode species. We find that age differentially affects infection dynamics, resulting in a shift in competitive dominance. This work supports the theoretical prediction that state-dependent effects can facilitate species coexistence.

    44. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The population genomic basis of geographic differentiation in North American common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.)

      Michael D. Martin, Morten Tange Olsen, Jose A. Samaniego, Elizabeth A. Zimmer and M. Thomas P. Gilbert

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2143

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      In the first application of genomic sequencing technologies to this important plant, we characterized populations across a large portion of ragweed's native range and used it to detail geographic trends in a high-resolution portrait of population genetic structure. We follow this with functional analysis of outlier loci that enables us to synthesize the population genetic data into ecological hypotheses related to the species' success in the native range and as an invasive.

    45. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Nonrandom filtering effect on birds: species and guilds response to urbanization

      Carmen Paz Silva, Roger D. Sepúlveda and Olga Barbosa

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2144

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      We evaluated the hypothesis that changes in community composition from periurban to urban areas are not a random process, and we also assessed whether there are consistent patterns of loss species and guilds across cities.

    46. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Maternal effects as drivers of sibling competition in a parent–offspring conflict context? An experimental test

      Thomas Merkling, Charlotte Perrot, Fabrice Helfenstein, Jean-Baptiste Ferdy, Laurent Gaillard, Emilie Lefol, Emmanuelle Voisin, Scott A. Hatch, Etienne Danchin and Pierrick Blanchard

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1777

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      Egg yolk components can enable avian mothers to compensate for their younger chick competitive disadvantage, and we predict that this compensation should be higher when environmental conditions are intermediate. We experimentally manipulated prelaying food availability and hatching order and showed that aggressiveness was higher in younger chicks born in intermediate as compared to good conditions. However, this was true only when they were put in a senior position, which can be explained by hatching asynchrony being too large for maternal compensation to be efficient.

    47. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Do relaxed selection and habitat temperature facilitate biased mitogenomic introgression in a narrowly endemic fish?

      Christopher Darrin Hulsey, Katherine L. Bell, Francisco J. García-de-León, Chris C. Nice and Axel Meyer

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2121

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      In this study, we used a combination of genetic and environmental data, to examine mitochondrial introgression in the narrowly endemic and trophically polymorphic cichlid, Herichthys minckleyi. Using extensive mitochondrial sequencing and 6220 nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms, we show that mitochondrial introgression into H. minckleyi is biased relative to nuclear introgression, that there is evidence for relaxed selection on the mitogenome in H. minckleyi, and that springs with colder temperatures also had greater amounts of introgression.

    48. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Protein changes in abalone foot muscle from three geographical populations of Haliotis diversicolor based on proteomic approach

      Guilan Di, Xiulian Miao, Caihuan Ke, Xianghui Kong, Hui Li and Weiwei You

      Version of Record online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2128

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      Proteomic analysis of abalone different geographical population in muscle protein. TT and VV first were clustered together, and then clustered with JJ. Both “genotype” and “spots” were significant among three populations, we identified 46 expressed proteins using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight.

    49. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Novel distribution pattern between coexisting sexual and obligate asexual variants of the true estuarine macroalga Ulva prolifera

      Masanori Hiraoka and Motoki Higa

      Version of Record online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2149

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      We reveal novel sexual–asexual distribution pattern in the true estuarine algal species Ulva prolifera which is a major benthic component of estuarine ecosystems and sympatrically includes sexual and obligate asexual variants.

    50. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Temperature and population density: interactional effects of environmental factors on phenotypic plasticity, immune defenses, and disease resistance in an insect pest

      Farley W. S. Silva and Simon L. Elliot

      Version of Record online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2158

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      Schematic framework describing the direct (solid arrows) and indirect (dashed arrows) effects of environmental factors (inside the ellipses) on the insect-pathogen system.

    51. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Adaptive genetic variation distinguishes Chilean blue mussels (Mytilus chilensis) from different marine environments

      Cristián Araneda, María Angélica Larraín, Benjamin Hecht and Shawn Narum

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2110

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      The current study aimed to evaluate the potential of SNP outlier loci to addresses the fine-scale population structure in Chilean mussel. The SNP marker panels developed here increased assignment of individual to their origin populations and they could be applied for traceability purposes in management and conservation programs.

    52. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evaluating vegetation effects on animal demographics: the role of plant phenology and sampling bias

      Daniel Gibson, Erik J. Blomberg and James S. Sedinger

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2148

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      The decision about when to measure vegetation relative to the timing of demographic events is important to avoid sampling covariance between the demographic rate of interest and vegetation covariates. Such covariance could bias estimated effect sizes or produce spurious results. Our simulations indicate that models of covariate effects based on improperly measured covariates will be favored as predictive based on established model selection procedures even in situations where no effect of the covariate exists in nature.

    53. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evolutionary ecology of pipefish brooding structures: embryo survival and growth do not improve with a pouch

      Ines Braga Goncalves, Ingrid Ahnesjö and Charlotta Kvarnemo

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2139

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      Using four sympatric species of pipefishes, we tested whether the presence or absence of brood pouch, and egg size (small vs. large), relates to how male behaviour, embryo size, and survival are affected by hypoxia, with normoxia as control. Overall, we found no significant benefits of brood pouches in terms of embryo survival and size under hypoxia. Instead, our results suggest negative effects of large egg size, despite the protection of brood pouches.

    54. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Microhabitat selection in the common lizard: implications of biotic interactions, age, sex, local processes, and model transferability among populations

      Miguel Peñalver-Alcázar, Pedro Aragón, Merel C. Breedveld and Patrick S. Fitze

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2138

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      Here, we performed a precise capture–recapture study at microhabitat scale and measured abiotic and biotic parameters at the local scale in three different geographically separated populations. We analyze the importance of biotic parameters, biotic interactions, sex, and age, and determine the potential implications of local processes. We show that biotic factors and biological interactions are important predictors of species' spatial distribution at the local scale. Our findings indicate that the incorporation of age class, sex, biotic parameters, and biological interactions could substantially improve the results of habitat selection models.

    55. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Management adaptation of invertebrate fisheries to an extreme marine heat wave event at a global warming hot spot

      Nick Caputi, Mervi Kangas, Ainslie Denham, Ming Feng, Alan Pearce, Yasha Hetzel and Arani Chandrapavan

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2137

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      An extreme marine heat wave event in the midwest region of Western Australia occurred in the 2010/11 austral summer, with sea-surface temperature anomalies of 2–5°C above normal climatology. The heat wave occurred as a result of a strong Leeuwin Current (associated with an extreme La Niña event) in combination with an anomalously high heat flux from the atmosphere into the ocean, at a global warming hot spot in the Indian Ocean. This study examined the major impact the event had on invertebrate fisheries and the management adaption applied.

    56. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Comparative population structure of two dominant species, Shinkaia crosnieri (Munidopsidae: Shinkaia) and Bathymodiolus platifrons (Mytilidae: Bathymodiolus), inhabiting both deep-sea vent and cold seep inferred from mitochondrial multi-genes

      Yanjun Shen, Qi Kou, Weitao Chen, Shunping He, Mei Yang, Xinzheng Li and Xiaoni Gan

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2132

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      Intraspecific genetic exchanges have been found for Bathymodiolus mussels across thousands of kilometers between vent and seep sites, but not for Shinkaia crosnieri. Our results showed a pattern of population differentiation for Shinkaia crosnieri and a pattern of homogeneity for Bathymodiolus platifrons.

    57. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic structure of Micromeria (Lamiaceae) in Tenerife, the imprint of geological history and hybridization on within-island diversification

      Pamela Puppo, Manuel Curto and Harald Meimberg

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2094

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      We found that the species of Micromeria restricted to the older parts of Tenerife present lower levels of genetic diversity but highest levels of genetic differentiation suggesting that their ranges have contracted over time. The two most widespread species in the island present the highest genetic diversity levels and a genetic structure correlated with the geological composition of the island. Evidence of hybridization and intraspecific migration between species was found.

    58. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Directional genetic differentiation and relative migration

      Lisa Sundqvist, Kevin Keenan, Martin Zackrisson, Paulo Prodöhl and David Kleinhans

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2096

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      This new approach allows the estimation of directional components of genetic differentiation between pairs of populations at low computational effort, using any of the classical or modern measures of genetic differentiation. These directional measures of genetic differentiation can further be used to calculate directional relative migration and to detect asymmetries in gene flow patterns.

    59. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Quantifying the effects of drought on abrupt growth decreases of major tree species in Switzerland

      Marco Vanoni, Harald Bugmann, Magdalena Nötzli and Christof Bigler

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2146

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      In this study, a statistical framework was used to assess the short- and long-term growth response to drought of spruce, fir, beech, and oak on sites distributed across Switzerland. Distributed lag nonlinear models revealed species-specific growth responses to drought indicating a lagged effect for oak, but an immediate negative impact for the other three tree species.

    60. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Transcriptome response to temperature stress in the wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae)

      Rong Xiao, Liang Wang, Yingshuai Cao and Guren Zhang

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2142

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      The wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata is the dominant predator in paddy ecosystems and an important biological control agent of rice pests. We performed comparative transcriptome analyses of spider adults exposed to 10°C and 40°C for 12 h. Differential expression profiling demonstrated separate pathways and differentially expressed genes were contributed to temperature stress adaptation.

    61. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mangrove response to environmental change in Australia's Gulf of Carpentaria

      Emma Asbridge, Richard Lucas, Catherine Ticehurst and Peter Bunting

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2140

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      In the Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia, human disturbance is minimal. Hence, changes in mangroves along the coastline are assumed to be the result of natural drivers. By comparing classifications generated from time-series classification of Landsat sensor data for the period 1987–2014, mangroves were observed to have extended seawards and inland along many of the rivers and rivulets in the tidal reaches. The main periods of seaward extension were associated with peaks in river discharge. Landward expansion was attributed to the combined effects of sea level rise and prolonged inundation associated with freshwater runoff.

    62. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Intrasexual competition underlies sexual selection on male breeding coloration in the orangethroat darter, Etheostoma spectabile

      Muchu Zhou and Rebecca C. Fuller

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2136

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      We examined whether male breeding coloration in the orangethroat darter is under sexual selection by intrasexual competition, by allowing several males to vie for a single female. Multiple aspects of male coloration was correlated with male competitive ability and reproductive success.

    63. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The relative importance of reproduction and survival for the conservation of two dolphin populations

      Oliver Manlik, Jane A. McDonald, Janet Mann, Holly C. Raudino, Lars Bejder, Michael Krützen, Richard C. Connor, Michael R. Heithaus, Robert C. Lacy and William B. Sherwin

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2130

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      On the basis of conventional sensitivity analyses, it is often asserted that wildlife management of slow-growing animal populations should focus on (adult) survival. We present various lines of evidence that for the conservation of two dolphin populations and other slow-growing vertebrate populations, reproduction – not survival – is the key to success.

    64. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Is my study system good enough? A case study for identifying maternal effects

      Anna Marie Holand and Ingelin Steinsland

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2124

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      We show the importance of using simulation studies to explore identifiability of different additive genetic and environmental effects as well as the consequences of omitting an effect from the model when it is present. The methodology is presented through a wild house sparrow (Passer domesticus) study system. For the case study we explore if additive genetic (a) and additive genetic maternal (m) effects are indentifiable (A) and/or individual (environmental) (epsilon) and individual maternal (p) effects are identifiable (B) for our study system.

    65. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Seasonal phenotype-specific transcriptional reprogramming during metamorphosis in the European map butterfly Araschnia levana

      Andreas Vilcinskas and Heiko Vogel

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2120

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      The European map butterfly (Araschnia levana) is a classic example of seasonal polyphenism because the spring and summer imagoes display two distinct morphological phenotypes. We used suppression subtractive hybridization to experimentally screen for genes that are differentially expressed in prepupae committed either to accelerated metamorphosis and egg production or diapause and overwintering. We report for the first time candidate genes mediating regulation of polyphenism in Lepidoptera.

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