Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 16

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA; Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK; Jennifer Firn, Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Impact Factor: 2.537

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 54/149 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

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  1. 1 - 45
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Landscape-scale deforestation decreases gene flow distance of a keystone tropical palm, Euterpe edulis Mart (Arecaceae)

      Alesandro S. Santos, Eliana Cazetta, Pavel Dodonov, Deborah Faria and Fernanda A. Gaiotto

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2341

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      We analyzed the effects of human impacts on gene flow and the relatedness (Spatial Genetic Structure) of populations of Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae) in areas with varying amounts of forest cover after extensive human habitat modification and harvest of this species as a food source. Our results revealed that forest loss decreased the gene flow distance, negatively impacting the genetic diversity of the future generations as it increases the risk of local extinction. Our findings contribute to the understanding of functional connectivity between landscapes in tropical forests with different percentages of remaining forest.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Metabolic adaptations in a range-expanding arthropod

      Katrien H. P. Van Petegem, David Renault, Robby Stoks and Dries Bonte

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2350

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      In this explorative study, we used a metabolomics approach to study physiological changes associated with the recent range expansion of a model arthropod. We found gradual metabolic differentiation along the latitudinal gradient from range core to edge, indicating (epi)genetic changes in the metabolome in association with range expansion. These changes seemed not related with shifts in the mites’ energetic metabolism, but rather with differential use of amino acids.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Plasticity of fertilization rates under varying temperature in the broadcast spawning mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis

      Angela R. Eads, Jonathan P. Evans and Winn Jason Kennington

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2375

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      We performed a series of factorial mating crosses to partition the variance in fertilization rates between male and females, under both ambient and elevated temperatures, in the cosmopolitan and commercially important mussel M. galloprovincialis. We found substantial plasticity in responses, with particular mussels having increased fertilization rates under elevated temperatures although the majority showed decreased fertilization. Our article provides significant insights into how predicted changes in ocean conditions may potentially impact on reproductive fitness and highlights the importance of considering plasticity in responses across individuals.

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      Evidence for ecological speciation via a host shift in the holly leaf miner, Phytomyza glabricola (Diptera: Agromyzidae)

      Julie B. Hébert, Sonja J. Scheffer and David J. Hawthorne

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2358

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      We investigated whether the processes of ecological speciation may be driving divergence in host-associated populations of the leaf miner Phytomyza glabricola feeding on sympatric host plants. Using AFLPs and nuclear sequence data, we found substantial genetic divergence between host-associated populations throughout their geographic range; genome scans identified several loci apparently associated with divergent selection in these populations. Our data are consistent with expectations of host-associated genetic divergence arising from processes of ecological speciation.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effect of acute stressor on reproductive behavior differs between urban and rural birds

      Mikus Abolins-Abols, Sydney F. Hope and Ellen D. Ketterson

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2347

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      We investigated whether acute stressor alters territorial behavior in wild dark-eyed juncos and whether rural and urban birds, which are known to differ in the magnitude of the stress response, also differ in the degree to which stress reduces territorial behavior. The rural population had a higher physiological and behavioral stress response than the urban population, and acute capture stress had a lasting negative effect on territorial behavior, but only in the rural habitat. Our findings show that stressors can have a negative effect on territorial behavior, but that this effect may differ between populations that vary in their stress ecology.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Demographic differences in diet breadth of Canada lynx during a fluctuation in prey availability

      Christa M. Burstahler, James D. Roth, Robert J. Gau and Dennis L. Murray

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2115

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      Food limitation is a critical environmental factor shaping the dynamics of consumers, and organisms may expand their dietary breadth to contend with limited food availability. Stable isotope ratios of Canada lynx demonstrate cohort-specific niche expansion when snowshoe hare abundance declines. Our results imply that select cohorts of specialist carnivores can exhibit high dietary plasticity in response to changes in primary prey abundance, and thus intrapopulation variation could strongly affect the dynamics of organisms exhibiting population cycles.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evaluating the influence of life-history characteristics on genetic structure: a comparison of small mammals inhabiting complex agricultural landscapes

      Elizabeth M. Kierepka, Sara J. Anderson, Robert K. Swihart and Olin E. Rhodes Jr

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2269

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      Despite the breadth of knowledge about how fragmentation impacts sensitive species, species-specific factors make predicting responses difficult. We compared genetic connectivity in two forest-associated rodents in the highly fragmented Upper Wabash Valley (UWB), Indiana, USA, and found that gene flow in the more specialized species was correlated with multiple measures of forest habitat. Surprisingly, landscape factors that predicted occupancy and abundance within the UWB largely did not predict gene flow in either species, which underscores the importance of scale in understanding species-specific responses to fragmentation.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Species traits and environmental characteristics together regulate ant-associated biodiversity

      Kaitlin U. Campbell and Thomas O. Crist

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2276

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      Many host-associated organisms rely on their hosts for only a portion of their lifecycle, and their biodiversity may also be structured by the environmental context of the interaction. We tested the relative roles of host traits and environment on ant-associated phoretic mite communities in constructed grasslands. Our results demonstrate that large-bodied, locally abundant, and cosmopolitan ant species are especially important regulators of phoretic mite diversity and that their role as hosts is also dependent on the context of the interaction, especially soil resources, texture, site age, and area.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Correlated evolution between targets of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection across squamate reptiles

      Ariel F. Kahrl, Christian L. Cox and Robert M. Cox

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2344

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      Using both conventional and phylogenetic comparative methods we found a significant negative correlation between targets for pre- and postcopulatory selection in squamate reptiles. This evolutionary pattern suggests that strong precopulatory selection may often constrain the opportunity for postcopulatory selection, and that the relative importance of each selective episode may determine the optimal resolution of energy allocation tradeoffs between traits subject to each form of sexual selection.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      After the games are over: life-history trade-offs drive dispersal attenuation following range expansion

      T. Alex Perkins, Carl Boettiger and Benjamin L. Phillips

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2314

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      Cane toad (Rhinella marina) with a tracking device on its waist sitting on a road in northern Australia. Cane toads are an example of a species that has evolved increased dispersal propensity over the course of their range expansion but then later evolved lower dispersal propensity after range expansion concluded. This study performed theoretical analyses that shed light on why dispersal attenuates in cane toads and other species following range expansion.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Attack of the clones: reproductive interference between sexuals and asexuals in the Crepis agamic complex

      Evan Hersh, Jaime Grimm and Jeannette Whitton

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2353

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      This paper outlines the results of a crossing experiment between co-occurring sexual and apomictic (asexual) members of the Crepis polyploid complex in the Asteraceae. Diploid-sexual ovules were fertilized with pollen from polyploid-apomict individuals, and the majority of the resulting hybrid offspring were found to be of intermediate ploidy. These results indicate a potential roll for reproductive interactions in limiting the co-occurrence of close relatives.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ecological niche modeling for conservation planning of an endemic snail in the verge of becoming a pest in cardamom plantations in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot

      Sandeep Sen, Kadukothanahally Nagaraju Shivaprakash, Neelavara A. Aravind, Gudasalamani Ravikanth and Selvadurai Dayanandan

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2368

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      Formulating effective strategies to resolve conflicts between conservation of endemic species that become crop pests and sustain agricultural productivity remains as one of the greatest challenges to policy makers, land managers, and biodiversity conservation professionals. Here, we present the results of ecological niche modeling-based distribution patterns of land areas suitable for cardamom cultivation and Indrella ampula, an endemic land snail in its early stage of becoming a pest in cardamom plantations in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in India. We provide distribution maps under the present and future (2020–2080) climatic scenarios that could be used to devise land management policies, promoting biodiversity conservation and sustaining agricultural productivity with minimal conflicts.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Heading for the hills? Evaluating spatial distribution of woodland caribou in response to a growing anthropogenic disturbance footprint

      Doug MacNearney, Karine Pigeon, Gordon Stenhouse, Wiebe Nijland, Nicholas C. Coops and Laura Finnegan

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2362

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      Anthropogenic landscape change is recognized as an important factor in the decline and extirpation of wildlife populations. This research employs utilization distributions of caribou to quantify the relationship between caribou distribution and anthropogenic disturbance over time and in relation to climate and baseline caribou range. This study provides evidence that the distribution of caribou shifts to reduce overlap with anthropogenic disturbance, and the method used can potentially be used to assess wildlife response to anthropogenic disturbance in other conservation settings.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A simple framework for a complex problem? Predicting wildlife–vehicle collisions

      Casey Visintin, Rodney van der Ree and Michael A. McCarthy

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2306

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      We aimed to improve the accessibility of collision analysis and predictions by relating risk to two components, exposure and hazard. Our model framework is conceptually simple, flexible, and adaptable. We test the framework using vehicle collisions with Eastern Grey kangaroos in Australia.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Nuclear–mitochondrial epistasis: a gene's eye view of genomic conflict

      Michael J. Wade and Devin M. Drown

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2345

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      We use population genetic models of nuclear and organelle genomes to investigate both sexual and genomic conflicts. We find that the nuclear genetic architecture (autosomal, X-linked or Z-linked) and the mating system change the size of the fitness domains that characterize sexual conflict and genomic conflict. Moreover, we find that the process of gene frequency change with positive, synergistic fitnesses is self-accelerating, as the success of an allele in one genome or in one sex increases the frequency of the interacting allele in the other upon which its success depends.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Seed set variation in wild Clarkia populations: teasing apart the effects of seasonal resource depletion, pollen quality, and pollen quantity

      Alisa A. Hove, Susan J. Mazer and Christopher T. Ivey

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2372

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      This study evaluated the contributions of pollen limitation (PL), seasonal resource declines, and pollen quality (as estimated by the proportion of selfed offspring produced or self-pollen received) to seed set in two late-flowering annual wildflower species in the genus Clarkia. In both taxa and over three years, seed set declined as the season progressed. However, pollen quality remained consistent and PL was weak to absent. These findings suggest that seasonal declines in resources required for seed set may favor the evolution of traits associated with stress avoidance, such as early reproduction, in both taxa.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Climate change is the primary driver of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) range expansion at the northern extent of its range; land use is secondary

      Kimberly L. Dawe and Stan Boutin

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2316

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      Quantifying the relative influence of multiple mechanisms driving recent range expansion of non-native species is essential for predicting future changes and for informing adaptation and management plans to protect native species. Our objective was to quantify the relative importance of land use and climate change as drivers of white-tailed deer range expansion and to predict decadal changes in northern white-tailed deer distribution for the first half of the 21st century. Climate changes led to more than 88%, by area, of the increases in probability of white-tailed deer presence across all decades. The distribution is predicted to extend 100 km further north across the northeastern Alberta boreal forest as climate continues to change over the first half of the 21st century.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Stress-induced peak (but not resting) metabolism correlates with mating display intensity in male guppies

      Peter A. Biro, Kerry V. Fanson and Francesca Santostefano

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2373

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      Energetics may represent a proximate constraint on behavior. We tested the prediction that individuals with consistently high levels of behavioral activity should also have high resting metabolic rate (RMR) as it can reflect capacity to process food and generate energy. Initial peak metabolism was negatively correlated with courtship display intensity, and voracity was positively correlated with activity. However, RMR was not related to either courtship intensity or activity because it was not repeatable. We speculate that stress effects (evidenced by habituation responses in RMR) may have interfered with our ability to measure their true resting MR. Initial peak MR however, appeared to be indicative of stress responsiveness and could be useful in future studies as a measure of stress.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Resource partitioning between ungulate populations in arid environments

      Robert S. C. Cooke, Tim Woodfine, Marie Petretto and Thomas H. G. Ezard

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2218

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      We highlight the need for adequate plant species richness for future ungulate reintroductions in arid environments. We show this by implementing an integrated likelihood approach which relates scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) and dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas) density, via dung distance sampling, to environmental correlates in Tunisia. We also establish that these two threatened ungulates partition resources on the habitat axis, and exhibit nonuniform responses to the same vegetation gradient.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Local adaptation to temperature in populations and clonal lineages of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans

      Nicolas Mariette, Annabelle Androdias, Romain Mabon, Roselyne Corbière, Bruno Marquer, Josselin Montarry and Didier Andrivon

      Version of Record online: 14 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2282

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      We used a common-garden experiment to analyse the thermal responses of three life-history traits (latent period, lesion growth, and spore number) in isolates of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans from different climatic zones. The experiments revealed patterns of local adaptation to temperature, both between populations and within clonal lineages. We also showed differential thermal response curves for two clonal lineages sympatric in western Europe, 6_A1 and 13_A2. The consequences for invasive potential and pathogen distribution in a context of changing temperatures are discussed.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Environmental versus geographical effects on genomic variation in wild soybean (Glycine soja) across its native range in northeast Asia

      Larry J. Leamy, Cheng-Ruei Lee, Qijian Song, Ibro Mujacic, Yan Luo, Charles Y. Chen, Changbao Li, Susanne Kjemtrup and Bao-Hua Song

      Version of Record online: 14 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2351

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      We utilize genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data in 99 ecotypes of Glycine soja, sampled across their native geographic range in northeast Asia, to understand population structure and the relative contribution of environment versus geography to population differentiation in this species. We further identified the environmental factors that have shaped genetic variation using canonical correlation and redundancy analyses in this ecologically and economically important species.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The influence of variability in species trait data on community-level ecological prediction and inference

      Karen M. Alofs

      Version of Record online: 14 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2385

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      Using species-level trait data in community ecology assumes intraspecific variation is small in comparison with interspecific variation. I investigated how variation species body size measures can affect our ability to predict the impacts of environmental changes and detect phylogenetic signal in fishes. I found body size to be a reliable predictor of community-level relationships.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Tree seedling richness, but not neighborhood composition, influences insect herbivory in a temperate deciduous forest community

      Stephen J. Murphy, Kaiyang Xu and Liza S. Comita

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2336

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      Plant neighborhood composition can have important effects on demography and diversity maintenance, in part from its influence on natural enemy attack. In a temperate forest, we find some evidence for an effect of neighborhood richness on insect attack, but little influence from other neighborhood metrics. Insect herbivory, therefore, may have a relatively weak effect on plant dynamics in temperate forests.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      State dependence, personality, and plants: light-foraging decisions in Mimosa pudica (L.)

      Franz W. Simon, Christina N. Hodson and Bernard D. Roitberg

      Version of Record online: 10 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2340

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      We demonstrate experimentally that Mimosa pudica will take greater risks after being deprived of light. This is the first study to demonstrate that plants undergo state dependent light foraging.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Desiccation resistance in tropical insects: causes and mechanisms underlying variability in a Panama ant community

      Jelena Bujan, Stephen P. Yanoviak and Michael Kaspari

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2355

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      This is the first community level test of desiccation resistance for tropical ants from microhabitats that varied in potential desiccation stress. Desiccation resistance did not scale as predicted with body size. Canopy ants have higher desiccation resistance than understory ants, but experience a tradeoff between desiccation resistance and CTmax.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Adaptive and neutral markers both show continent-wide population structure of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae)

      Philip D. Batista, Jasmine K. Janes, Celia K. Boone, Brent W. Murray and Felix A. H. Sperling

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2367

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      This study compared the population assignment of D. ponderosae based on putatively adaptive and neutral single nucleotide polymorphisms. Normally outlier SNPs would be filtered out and removed from analysis but analyis showed that the it could be used to characterize the range-wide structure and delimited a population that has recently undergone range expansion across northern British Columbia and Alberta.

    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Both morph- and species-dependent asymmetries affect reproductive barriers between heterostylous species

      Barbara Keller, Jurriaan M. de Vos, Alexander N. Schmidt-Lebuhn, James D. Thomson and Elena Conti

      Version of Record online: 4 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2293

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      By studying the interaction between heterostyly and reproductive isolation, our study provides novel insights into evolutionary mechanisms. Specifically, we demonstrate that heterostyly generates previously undescribed asymmetries (i.e., morph-dependent asymmetries) that shape reproductive barriers in unique ways.

    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Factors influencing IUCN threat levels to orchids across Europe on the basis of national red lists

      Tiiu Kull, Ulvi Selgis, Miguel Villoslada Peciña, Mirjam Metsare, Aigi Ilves, Kadri Tali, Kalev Sepp, Kalevi Kull and Richard P. Shefferson

      Version of Record online: 4 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2363

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      Species in central Europe are more threatened than those in the northern, southern or Atlantic parts of Europe, while species were least threatened in southern Europe. Land cover (ratios of artificial land cover, area of pastures and grasslands, and inland wetlands) was also shown to have a significant impact on the threat level. A bigger share of artificial land cover increases threat, and a bigger share of pastures and grasslands lowers it.

    29. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Large-scale dark diversity estimates: new perspectives with combined methods

      Argo Ronk, Francesco de Bello, Pavel Fibich and Meelis Pärtel

      Version of Record online: 4 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2371

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      Large-scale biodiversity studies can be more informative if observed diversity in a study site is accompanied by dark diversity, the set of absent although ecologically suitable species. Dark diversity revealed new biodiversity patterns which were not evident when only observed diversity was examined. A new perspective in dark diversity studies can incorporate a combination of methods.

    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Breeding phenology in Rana temporaria. Local variation is due to pond temperature and population size

      Jon Loman

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2356

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      Common frogs Rana temporaria breed early in warm ponds and at sites with many breeding frogs. This results in a consistent variation among local ponds in breeding phenology, a factor that should be considered in phenology studies.

    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Improving the accuracy of estimates of animal path and travel distance using GPS drift-corrected dead reckoning

      Oliver P. Dewhirst, Hannah K. Evans, Kyle Roskilly, Richard J. Harvey, Tatjana Y. Hubel and Alan M. Wilson

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2359

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      Route taken and distance traveled are important measures for studies of animal locomotion that are often measured using a wildlife tracking collar equipped with GPS. Collar weight restrictions limit battery size, which leads to a compromise between collar operating life and GPS fix rate. In studies that rely on linear interpolation between intermittent GPS fixes, path tortuosity will often lead to inaccurate path and distance traveled estimates. Here, we show that GPS-corrected dead reckoning can improve the accuracy of localization, and hence, distance traveled estimates while maximizing collar operating life.

    32. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic connectivity across marginal habitats: the elephants of the Namib Desert

      Yasuko Ishida, Peter J. Van Coeverden de Groot, Keith E. A. Leggett, Andrea S. Putnam, Virginia E. Fox, Jesse Lai, Peter T. Boag, Nicholas J. Georgiadis and Alfred L. Roca

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2352

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      Elephants inhabiting the Namib Desert are said to display behavioral and phenotypic adaptations to the severely arid environment, but their genetic distinctiveness has not been established. We genotyped African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) across Namibia, finding that desert-dwelling elephants are genetically similar to elephants at Etosha and other nearby localities, and finding that no signal of isolation by distance was present across Etosha. A high learning capacity and long-distance migrations have allowed Namibian elephants to survive in the face of considerable variability in local climate and in hunting pressure. Picture courtesy of V. E. Fox.

    33. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Top-down network analysis characterizes hidden termite–termite interactions

      Colin Campbell, Laura Russo, Alessandra Marins, Og DeSouza, Karsten Schönrogge, David Mortensen, John Tooker, Réka Albert and Katriona Shea

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2313

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      Many species–species interactions are difficult to observe directly. Here we propose that comparing the network topology of these obfuscated communities to the network topology of well-studied, detail-rich communities will provide insight into the structure of the obfuscated communities. We examine termite mound cohabitation as a case study; the analysis raises the hypothesis that the interactions contained therein may be overall mutualistic.

    34. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The converse to Bergmann's rule in bumblebees, a phylogenetic approach

      Víctor Hugo Ramírez-Delgado, Salomón Sanabria-Urbán, Martin A. Serrano-Meneses and Raúl Cueva del Castillo

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2321

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      Bumblebee taxa are distributed worldwide. Using comparative analysis in order to control for phylogenetic effects, we show that bumblebees exhibit the converse to Bergmann's rule. The largest species are found in places with high water availability during the driest time of the year. In addition, we found that the body size of eusocial and cuckoo species responded in the same way to the environment, suggesting that they have not diverged due to different selective pressures.

    35. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Population attenuation in zooplankton communities during transoceanic transfer in ballast water

      Sara Ghabooli, Aibin Zhan, Esteban Paolucci, Marco R. Hernandez, Elizabeta Briski, Melania E. Cristescu and Hugh J. MacIsaac

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2349

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      We investigated how zooplankton communities resident in ballast water change during transoceanic voyages. Using next-generation sequencing, our results show that population bottlenecks may be common prior to introduction of nonindigenous species to new ecosystems.

    36. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Airport noise predicts song timing of European birds

      Davide M. Dominoni, Stefan Greif, Erwin Nemeth and Henrik Brumm

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2357

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      Daytime airport noise was found to affect the onset of dawn song in 10 different songbird species. Furthermore, male chaffinches avoid singing when aircraft noise exceeded a certain threshold, highlighting the potential impact of airports on vocal communication of birds.

    37. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Cyto-nuclear discordance suggests complex evolutionary history in the cave-dwelling salamander, Eurycea lucifuga

      Hilary A. Edgington, Colleen M. Ingram and Douglas R. Taylor

      Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2212

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      We studied the phylogeographic history of the cave-dwelling salamander, Eurycea lucifuga, using phylogenetic and population genetic methods. Discordant genetic patterns suggest that following divergence due to geographic events of the Pleistocene secondary contact may have occurred between lineages in this species.

    38. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Two in one: cryptic species discovered in biological control agent populations using molecular data and crossbreeding experiments

      Iain D. Paterson, Rosie Mangan, Douglas A. Downie, Julie A. Coetzee, Martin P. Hill, Ashley M. Burke, Paul O. Downey, Thomas J. Henry and Stephe G. Compton

      Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2297

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      A cryptic species of mirid bug was discovered using DNA-Barding and confirmed as being reproductively isolated though interbreeding experiments. This is one of the first cryptic species to be confirmed as being reproductively isolated and therefore a true species according to the biological species concept. The cryptic species is of special interest because it is a biological control agent that is used for the control of an environmental weed.

    39. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      High herbivore pressure favors constitutive over induced defense

      Ryan J. Bixenmann, Phyllis D. Coley, Alexander Weinhold and Thomas A. Kursar

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2208

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      In habitats with high herbivore pressure, such as tropical rainforests, leaves invest in constitutive rather than induced defenses, supporting a little tested aspect of the theory of induction. Constitutive defenses can comprise up to 25% D.W. of the young leaves.

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      Early warning signals detect critical impacts of experimental warming

      Lauren Jarvis, Kevin McCann, Tyler Tunney, Gabriel Gellner and John M. Fryxell

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2339

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      Here, we integrate trait performance theory with that of critical tipping points to test whether early warning signals can be reliably used to anticipate thermally induced extinction events. We find that a model parameterized by experimental growth rates exhibits critical slowing down in the vicinity of an experimentally tested critical threshold, suggesting that dynamical early warning signals may be useful in detecting the potentially precipitous onset of population collapse due to global climate change.

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      Differentiation in putative male sex pheromone components across and within populations of the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana as a potential driver of reproductive isolation

      Paul M. B. Bacquet, Maaike A. de Jong, Oskar Brattström, Hong-Lei Wang, Freerk Molleman, Stéphanie Heuskin, George Lognay, Christer Löfstedt, Paul M. Brakefield, Alain Vanderpoorten and Caroline M. Nieberding

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2298

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      Strong divergence of sexual traits between species is often seen as a cue that they trigger reproductive isolation and speciation. As trait divergence can alternatively be a consequence of speciation, it is important to compare genetic and phenotypic divergence to know which arose first. We observed that the putative male sex pheromone in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana diverged among and within wild-caught African populations despite no or low genetic differentiation. Sex pheromone composition may therefore act as a precursor of reproductive isolation and speciation in this butterfly group.

    42. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Human-modified habitats change patterns of population genetic structure and group relatedness in Peter's tent-roosting bats

      Maria Sagot, Caleb D. Phillips, Robert J. Baker and Richard D. Stevens

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2255

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      In this article, we combine information on roosting associations with genetic structure of Peter's tent-roosting bats, Uroderma bilobatum to address how different kinds of environmental characteristics at different scales may be affecting stability of social groups.

    43. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Linking leaf veins to growth and mortality rates: an example from a subtropical tree community

      Yoshiko Iida, I-Fang Sun, Charles A. Price, Chien-Teh Chen, Zueng-Sang Chen, Jyh-Min Chiang, Chun-Lin Huang and Nathan G. Swenson

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2311

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      We investigated whether leaf venation traits are important predictors of tree demographic rates using a large tree demography dataset from a subtropical forest and compared these results with those of other commonly measured species traits. Our results showed that leaf vein traits are significantly related to tree demographic performance together with other traits.

  2. Reviews

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Strategies for determining kinship in wild populations using genetic data

      Veronika Städele and Linda Vigilant

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2346

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      The assessment of kinship among members of wild animal populations is difficult in the absence of detailed multigenerational pedigrees. We suggest possible approaches and discuss how recent advances in single-nucleotide polymorphism-typing technology and whole-genome sequencing from noninvasive samples might eventually lead to highly reliable classifications of even distant kinds of relatives in wild populations.

  3. Original Research

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      Genetic diversity and evolutionary history of the Schizothorax species complex in the Lancang River (upper Mekong)

      Weitao Chen, Yanjun Shen, Xiaoni Gan, Xuzhen Wang and Shunping He

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2319

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      In the current study, multiple sequences from the mitochondrial control region, the cytochrome b gene, and two nuclear genes were used to re-examine genetic diversity and investigate the evolutionary history of the closely related Schizothorax species complex inhabiting the Lancang River.

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