Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 22

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA; Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK; Jennifer Firn, Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Impact Factor: 2.537

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 54/150 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

VIEW

  1. 1 - 59
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Trade-off between early emergence and herbivore susceptibility mediates exotic success in an experimental California plant community

      Joseph Waterton and Elsa E. Cleland

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2610

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      In Mediterranean ecosystems, many exotic plant species benefit from seasonal priority effects by germinating earlier than native counterparts, but may also be more susceptible to early-season herbivory due to greater apparency. We monitored the germination and growth of 12 focal species (six each native and exotic) in monoculture and polyculture, while experimentally excluding generalist herbivores both early and later in the growing season. Early-season herbivory had the greatest impact on biomass in monoculture, with early-germinating species most negatively impacted, and led to a reduction in the competitive advantage of early-active exotic species when grown in polyculture.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Altered natal dispersal at the range periphery: The role of behavior, resources, and maternal condition

      Melissa J. Merrick and John L. Koprowski

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2612

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      Populations at the range periphery may exhibit altered population processes due to differences in density, spatially and temporally heterogeneous resources, and climatic extremes. In contrast to other North American red squirrel populations, natal dispersal in an endemic subspecies at the southern range periphery is sex-biased with dispersal distances up to nine times greater than observed at the range center. The probability of dispersal and dispersal distance was most influenced by the mass of a juvenile squirrel's mother in spring (a reflection of her intrinsic quality and territory quality) and individual behavioral tendencies for movement and exploration, but these variables influenced males and females differently suggesting a flexible dispersal strategy that may be adaptive in a highly variable environment.

  2. Reviews

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      Describing and understanding behavioral responses to multiple stressors and multiple stimuli

      Robin Hale, Jeremy J. Piggott and Stephen E. Swearer

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2609

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      How animals respond to multiple stressors is crucially important. Our study makes an important contribution in providing more nuanced methods for understanding and managing the potential interactive effects of multiple stressors on animal behaviour

  3. Original Research

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      Cunningham's skinks show low genetic connectivity and signatures of divergent selection across its distribution

      Benjamin Y. Ofori, Linda J. Beaumont and Adam J. Stow

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2627

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      We characterized the spatial genetic structure of Cunningham's skink across their range in southeastern Australia using over 4,000 SNPs. Our data showed contrasting patterns for putatively neutral and outlier SNPs. The degree of genetic structuring suggests that the population subdivisions of the species were isolated, even when habitats were continuous.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Size differences of Arctic marine protists between two climate periods—using the paleoecological record to assess the importance of within-species trait variation

      Erik A. Mousing, Sofia Ribeiro, Chelsea Chisholm, Antoon Kuijpers, Matthias Moros and Marianne Ellegaard

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2592

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      Changes in protist size and community mean size are related to temperature changes through time by measuring dinoflagellate cysts in two contrasting temperature periods in a sediment core collected in Disko Bay, Greenland. We show that protist were smaller at both intra- and interspecific scales in the warm period compared with the cold period and that intraspecific variation accounted for 70% of the change at the community level. We compare our results to size estimates in the literature and show that while interspecific-scale estimations can be used to investigate general patterns, for example, relative changes in size, intraspecific variation is necessary to accurately estimate the magnitude of change.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Impact of temperature shifts on the joint evolution of seed dormancy and size

      Yang Liu, Sébastien Barot, Yousry A. El-Kassaby and Nicolas Loeuille

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2611

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      Our results suggest that unlike random temperature variation between generations, temperature shifts with high magnitude can considerably alter population structures and accelerate life-history evolution. This study increases our understanding of plant evolution and persistence in the context of climate changes.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Heterogeneous microcommunities and ecosystem multifunctionality in seminatural grasslands under three management modes

      Jingpeng Li, Zhirong Zheng, Hongtao Xie, Nianxi Zhao and Yubao Gao

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2604

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      We found the microcommunity scale may be suitable to investigate the relationship between vegetation and multifunctionality in seminatural grassland ecosystems, and it is important to distinguish the role and rank of different species in the species richness–multifunctionality model.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Bridge under troubled water: Turbulence and niche partitioning in fish foraging

      Zeynep Pekcan-Hekim, Noora Hellén, Laura Härkönen, Per Anders Nilsson, Leena Nurminen and Jukka Horppila

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2593

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      We experimentally approach the partitioning effects of environmental conditions by evaluating the influence of water turbulence on foraging-niche responses in two competing fish species, Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and roach Rutilus rutilus, selecting from planktonic and benthic prey. We show that moderate physical disturbance of environments, such as turbulence, can enhance niche partitioning and thereby coexistence of competing foragers. Turbulence affected prey but not fish swimming capacities, with consequences for prey-specific distributions and encounter rates with fish of different foraging strategies (pause-travel P. fluviatilis and cruise R. rutilus).

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Good-bye to tropical alpine plant giants under warmer climates? Loss of range and genetic diversity in Lobelia rhynchopetalum

      Desalegn Chala, Christian Brochmann, Achilleas Psomas, Dorothee Ehrich, Abel Gizaw, Catherine A. Masao, Vegar Bakkestuen and Niklaus E. Zimmermann

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2603

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      Lobelia rhynchopetalum, the only alpine giant rosette plant endemic to Ethiopia, faces massif range reduction and genetic diversity loss following climate warming. Despite their diverse phylogenetic origins, giant rosette plants occupy the upper most alpine habitat and developed similar intricate morphological and physiological traits through convergent evolution. We conclude that specialized high-alpine giant rosette plants respond to the change in climate in a similar way and thus are likely to face very high risk of extinction under future warmer climate.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Co-occurrence patterns in a diverse arboreal ant community are explained more by competition than habitat requirements

      Flávio Camarota, Scott Powell, Adriano S. Melo, Galen Priest, Robert J. Marquis and Heraldo L. Vasconcelos

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2606

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      Co-occurrence patterns of arboreal ants are defined more by competitive interactions than habitat selection. Moreover, it was shown that coexisting species typically have less key ecological characteristics in common.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mating and longevity in ant males

      Sina Metzler, Jürgen Heinze and Alexandra Schrempf

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2474

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      Cardiocondyla obscurior ant males that were allowed to mate with large number of female sexuals had a shortened life span compared to males that mated at a low frequency or virgin males. Although frequent mating negatively affects longevity, males clearly benefit from a “live fast, die young strategy” by inseminating as many female sexuals as possible at a cost to their own survival.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A model of the extent and distribution of woody linear features in rural Great Britain

      Paul Scholefield, Dan Morton, Clare Rowland, Peter Henrys, David Howard and Lisa Norton

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2607

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      Woody linear feature density for GB estimated by the linear network model has been developed. The model provides a similar framework to the land cover map for the development of landscape models of land use and linear features, suitable for the modelling of ecological processes in a landscape context.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Nitrogen:phosphorous supply ratio and allometry in five alpine plant species

      Xi Luo, Susan J. Mazer, Hui Guo, Nan Zhang, Jacob Weiner and Shuijin Hu

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2587

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      Alterations in the availability of N relative to P can affect plant growth rate and functional traits, as well as resource allocation to above- versus belowground biomass. We found plant biomass allocation is highly plastic in response to variation in the N:P supply ratio. Studies of resource allocation of individual plants should focus on the effects of nutrient ratios as well as the availability of individual elements.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Population demographic history of a temperate shrub, Rhododendron weyrichii (Ericaceae), on continental islands of Japan and South Korea

      Watanabe Yoichi, Ichiro Tamaki, Shota Sakaguchi, Jong-Suk Song, Shin-ichi Yamamoto and Nobuhiro Tomaru

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2576

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      This study attempted to address effects of land bridges across continental islands that have exposed during glacial periods. This study reported population isolation (vicariance) among continental islands has considerable influence to genetic variation such as effective population size and genetic divergence based on demographic analyses.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mobility of moose—comparing the effects of wolf predation risk, reproductive status, and seasonality

      Camilla Wikenros, Gyöngyvér Balogh, Håkan Sand, Kerry L. Nicholson and Johan Månsson

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2598

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      Travel speed and direction of movement of female moose was mainly affected by reproductive status and time of year. Spatiotemporal differences in wolf predation risk did not affect moose mobility. Likely causal factors on the weak effect of wolf presence include high moose-to-wolf ratio and intensive hunting harvest of the moose population during the past century.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The strength of the association between heterozygosity and probability of interannual local recruitment increases with environmental harshness in blue tits

      Esperanza S. Ferrer, Vicente García-Navas, Juan José Sanz and Joaquín Ortego

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2591

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      We combine extensive molecular and capture–mark–recapture data from a blue tit population and found that the strength of selection for heterozygosity differed among years and was positively associated with annual accumulated precipitation. Our results show that HFC can be context-dependent.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Does cooperation mean kinship between spatially discrete ant nests?

      Duncan S. Procter, Joan E. Cottrell, Kevin Watts, Stuart W. A'Hara, Michael Hofreiter and Elva J. H. Robinson

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2590

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      In eusocial species, the colony is a fundamental unit of social organization. In many ant species, colonies can contain multiple socially connected but spatially separate nests. We show that socially connected nests are functionally but not genetically distinct from neighboring nests that they are not connected to.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Using multiple traits to assess the potential of introduced and native vines to proliferate in a tropical region

      Diana L. Delgado, Josimar Figueroa and Carla Restrepo

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2588

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      Current approaches to assess the invasive potential of plants are limited by their bias against species with undesirable traits and the exclusion of native species as potential proliferating species. In this study, we developed an approach that overcomes these limitations and used it to predict the proliferation status of vine species from multiple traits.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Sensitivity analysis of Repast computational ecology models with R/Repast

      Antonio Prestes García and Alfonso Rodríguez-Patón

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2580

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      The article introduces the RRepast R package showing some basic examples of how to run and analyze ecological models. Most of ecological models developed using the individual-based paradigms are not thoroughly analyzed due to the lack of general tools like RRepast. Perhaps one of the most interesting aspects is making easier for modelers to apply complex methods such as global sensitivity analysis and parameter calibration to their models without much effort.

  4. Reviews

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      Current and future ozone risks to global terrestrial biodiversity and ecosystem processes

      Jürg Fuhrer, Maria Val Martin, Gina Mills, Colette L. Heald, Harry Harmens, Felicity Hayes, Katrina Sharps, Jürgen Bender and Mike R. Ashmore

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2568

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      Current (2000) and future (2050) risks associated with exposure of terrestrial G200 ecoregions to ozone are assessed on the basis of global simulations and a literature review of observational and experimental evidence of effects on species diversity and ecosystem processes. The analysis suggests that in many ecoregions, O3 risks will persist for biodiversity at different trophic levels, and for a range of ecosystem processes and feedbacks, which deserves more attention when assessing ecological implications of future atmospheric pollution and climate change.

  5. Original Research

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      Evaluating within-population variability in behavior and demography for the adaptive potential of a dispersal-limited species to climate change

      David J. Muñoz, Kyle Miller Hesed, Evan H. Campbell Grant and David A. W. Miller

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2573

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      We investigate how environmental conditions influence the behavior and fitness for an amphibian species, the red-backed salamander. Our results show that under drier and warmer conditions, the species will likely have restricted access to resources and will likely exhibit slower growth. This suggests that changes in activity patterns, shifts in life history, or physiological adaptation may need to occur to ensure population persistence.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Patterns of population structure at microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers in the franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei)

      María Constanza Gariboldi, Juan Ignacio Túnez, Mauricio Failla, Marta Hevia, María Victoria Panebianco, María Natalia Paso Viola, Alfredo Daniel Vitullo and Humberto Luis Cappozzo

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2596

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      The franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, is the most threatened small cetacean in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. We used mitochondrial DNA, 10 microsatellites, and sex data to investigate the population structure of the franciscana dolphin from the southern edge of its geographic range. We found three genetically distinct populations: NC/CL, MH, and RN.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Simple and noninvasive method for assessment of digestive efficiency: Validation of fecal steatocrit in greenfinch coccidiosis model

      Richard Meitern, Mari-Ann Lind, Ulvi Karu and Peeter Hõrak

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2575

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      We test the suitability of a simple, cheap, and non-invasive procedure, an acid steatocrit, for assessment of fat content in faeces. We show in greenfinch coccidiosis model that steatocrit appeared more sensitive to experimental manipulation of infection than plasma triglyceride levels, body mass, and in some occasions, infection intensity. Findings of our study suggest that steatocrit has a wide application potential as a marker of intestinal health in ecophysiological research.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Warming mediates the relationship between plant nutritional properties and herbivore functional responses

      Meng Xu, Jaimie T. A. Dick, Anthony Ricciardi, Miao Fang, Canyu Zhang, Dangen Gu, Xidong Mu, Du Luo, Hui Wei and Yinchang Hu

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2602

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      By using a novel functional response method, we tested the relationships between per capita effects of alien herbivore and plant nutritional and physical properties, and how increasing temperature can alter them. We found that stronger per capita effects are associated with higher nutritional content. However, warming eroded this relationship by decreasing handling time and increasing maximum feeding rate for plants of low nutrition.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Environmental (in)dependence of a hybrid zone: Insights from molecular markers and ecological niche modeling in a hybrid zone of Origanum (Lamiaceae) on the island of Crete

      Michael Bariotakis, Konstantina Koutroumpa, Regina Karousou and Stergios A. Pirintsos

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2560

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      Our results suggest that if a minimum required niche differentiation between genotypic classes is not achieved, environmental dependence might not have a prominent role in the outcome of the hybridization.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Soil phosphorus heterogeneity promotes tree species diversity and phylogenetic clustering in a tropical seasonal rainforest

      Wumei Xu, Xiuqin Ci, Caiyun Song, Tianhua He, Wenfu Zhang, Qiaoming Li and Jie Li

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2529

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      We identified a significant positive correlation between soil phosphorus heterogeneity and tree species diversity in the Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rainforest which provided strong support for the predominance of deterministic processes in tropical forest assembly. Furthermore, based on community phylogenetic analysis, we revealed that increasing soil phosphorus heterogeneity likely allowed more closely related tree species to coexist in the community.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Wind estimation based on thermal soaring of birds

      Rolf Weinzierl, Gil Bohrer, Bart Kranstauber, Wolfgang Fiedler, Martin Wikelski and Andrea Flack

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2585

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      We introduce a systematic approach to evaluate wind speed from the high-frequency GPS recordings of birds during thermalling flight. To evaluate the accuracy of our approach, we use a large dataset of GPS-tagged migrating storks. We validate our results by comparing its wind estimates with the mid-resolution weather reanalysis data from ECMWF, and by examining independent wind estimates from pairs of birds that are flying in close proximity. Our approach provides accurate and unbiased observations of wind speed and additionally detailed information on vertical winds and uplift structure.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Cellular and humoral immunity in a wild mammal: Variation with age & sex and association with overwinter survival

      Rebecca L. Watson, Tom N. McNeilly, Kathryn A. Watt, Josephine M. Pemberton, Jill G. Pilkington, Martin Waterfall, Phoebe R.T. Hopper, Daniel Cooney, Rose Zamoyska and Daniel H. Nussey

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2584

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      Immune defenses are expected to be crucial for survival; however, our understanding of the association between immunity and fitness in nature remains limited. We use blood samples, collected from a wild Soay sheep population, to evaluate an unusually broad panel of immune parameters, including innate and acquired immune cell types as well as nematode parasite-specific antibodies. We test how these markers correlate with one another, how they vary with age group and sex, and, crucially, whether they predict overwinter survival.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effect of initial soil properties on six-year growth of 15 tree species in tropical restoration plantings

      Cristina Martínez-Garza, Julio Campo, Martin Ricker and Wolke Tobón

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2508

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      After six-year of growth, life history category (pioneer and non-pioneer tree species) and capacity to fix N2 of the 15 tree species established in restoration plantings was useful to predict their growth rates and response to initial soil properties; also, seed mass was useful to predict growth rates. Tree species benefited from higher pH levels and organic matter.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Host-plant associated genetic divergence of two Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) stemborers on novel crop plants

      Andrea L. Joyce, Miguel Sermeno Chicas, Leopoldo Serrano Cervantes, Miguel Paniagua, Sonja J. Scheffer and M. Alma Solis

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2541

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      Diatraea lineolata and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are moths with stemboring larvae that feed and develop on economically important grasses. This study investigated whether these moths have diverged from a native host plant, corn, onto introduced crop plants including sorghum, sugarcane, and rice. The presence of two genotypes of both Diatraea spp. on sorghum suggests that host-associated differentiation is occurring on this novel introduced crop plant.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Balancing competition for resources with multiple pest regulation in diversified agroecosystems: a process-based approach to reconcile diversification and productivity

      Charlotte Poeydebat, Dominique Carval, Luc de Lapeyre de Bellaire and Philippe Tixier

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2453

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      The costs of competition for resources between plants may exceed the benefits gained by pest regulation in diversified agroecosystems. Findings from theoretical modeling suggest that productivity of diversified agroecosystems relative to monoculture should be optimized by assembling plants whose characteristics balance crops’ resource acquisition. By its generic and adaptable structure, the theoretical approach developed should be useful for studying the effects of diversification in many agroecosystems.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dominance in a ground-dwelling ant community of banana agroecosystem

      Dominique Carval, Violaine Cotté, Rémi Resmond, Benjamin Perrin and Philippe Tixier

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2570

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      We performed a pattern analysis at a fine spatial scale of an ant community in a very simplified and homogeneous agroecosystem. We found that the community structure was driven by three dominant species and two subdominant species. Our results suggest that interference competition prevails in this ground-dwelling ant community, but that variations in the diurnal and nocturnal foraging activity probably mitigate the effect of interference competition through the induction of a spatial and temporal niche partitioning.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Repeatability of individual migration routes, wintering sites, and timing in a long-distance migrant bird

      Rien E. van Wijk, Silke Bauer and Michael Schaub

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2578

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      Contrasting to research to date, Hoopoes (Upupa epops) have evolved a remarkably flexible migratory behaviour when it comes to postbreeding migration routes, nonbreeding sites, and timing. We argue that these adaptations are fitting with the diverse habitats and varying environmental conditions these birds have to cope with and that such a more flexible strategy allows to optimize resource use in time and space, thereby optimizing their migratory behavior in general.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Interpopulation resource partitioning of Lesser Frigatebirds and the influence of environmental context

      Rowan Mott, Ashley Herrod and Rohan H. Clarke

      Version of Record online: 10 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2565

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      Intra-specific competition can result in resource partitioning that minimises resource overlap. This study identified spatial and dietary partitioning in the foraging ecology of Lesser Frigatebirds (Fregata ariel) from two nearby colonies. Environmental context, in particular the availability of a preferred prey-type, likely influences spatial and dietary aspects of foraging ecology and could contribute to colony-specific differences in reproductive output.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Endophyte species influence the biomass production of the native grass Achnatherum sibiricum (L.) Keng under high nitrogen availability

      Xia Li, Yong Zhou, Wade Mace, Junhua Qin, Hui Liu, Wei Chen, Anzhi Ren and Yubao Gao

      Version of Record online: 10 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2566

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      Our results demonstrate that endophyte species influenced shoot biomass of Achnatherum sibiricum, and this effect was independent of nitrogen supply. In addition, the stroma-bearing endophyte (Epichloë gansuensis) provides positive effects (e.g., higher biomass production) to A. sibiricum plants during vegetative growth stage.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spatial patterns of an endemic Mediterranean palm recolonizing old fields

      Miguel E. Jácome-Flores, Miguel Delibes, Thorsten Wiegand and José M. Fedriani

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2504

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      Plants clustering patterns have an effect over its colonization capacity, which is strongly reliant on seed dispersers and environment stressful conditions. Dwarf palm spatial patterns and dispersal strategies make this plant a successful plant for the colonization of new habitats. These data are important to know the colonization ability of this plant and, if necessary, the management strategies to recover plant populations.

  6. Reviews

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      Can plant–natural enemy communication withstand disruption by biotic and abiotic factors?

      Andrea Clavijo McCormick

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2567

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      This review explores the literature on natural enemy attraction to herbivore-induced volatiles when plants are challenged by multiple biotic and abiotic factors. The aims of the review were (i) to establish the impact of different factor combinations on plant–natural enemy communication, (ii) identifying common patterns that may enable us to make predictions, and (iii) pointing out gaps in the knowledge to guide future research efforts.

  7. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      In the absence of a “landscape of fear”: How lions, hyenas, and cheetahs coexist

      Alexandra Swanson, Todd Arnold, Margaret Kosmala, James Forester and Craig Packer

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2569

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      We evaluated fine-scale spatial and temporal avoidance as a mechanism for coexistence among African lions, spotted hyenas, and cheetahs. Using a novel large-scale camera-trap survey, we found that lions did not displace subordinate predators from preferred habitats, and cheetahs maintained access to preferred habitats by avoiding lions on a moment-to-moment basis. This fine-scale reactive avoidance may explain why, contrary to long-standing perception, cheetahs are able to coexist with lions in reserves across Africa.

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      Intensified plant N and C pool with more available nitrogen under experimental warming in an alpine meadow ecosystem

      Fei Peng, Xian Xue, Quangang You, Manhou Xu, Xiang Chen, Jian Guo and Tao Wang

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2583

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      Warming-induced increase in biomass is one the main N sink and will continue to stimulate plant growth until plant N saturation, which could sustain the positive warming effect on ecosystem productivity.

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      Does selective logging stress tropical forest invertebrates? Using fat stores to examine sublethal responses in dung beetles

      Filipe França, Jos Barlow, Bárbara Araújo and Julio Louzada

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2488

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      Understanding how environmental degradation affects the wildlife has never been more pressing. By examining the sublethal impacts of selective logging on the body fat content from Amazonian dung beetles, our study shows, for the first time, that human-driven forest degradation brings about stress-induced physiological effects on tropical invertebrates.

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      Identifying multispecies synchrony in response to environmental covariates

      Ben Swallow, Ruth King, Stephen T. Buckland and Mike P. Toms

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2518

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      We propose the further development of a method for analysing multi-species data. The method is applied to a dataset on numbers of birds visiting garden feeding stations in the UK.

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      Integrating data-deficient species in analyses of evolutionary history loss

      Simon Veron, Caterina Penone, Philippe Clergeau, Gabriel C. Costa, Brunno F. Oliveira, Vinícius A. São-Pedro and Sandrine Pavoine

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2390

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      We tested how correctly indices of evolutionary history losses were calculated when data-deficeint species were included thanks to 4 different methods. Including data-deficient species by estimating their threat status thanks to trait proximity, especially in range size, enables to refine assessments of evolutuionary history loss. Likely probability of extinctions of DD species would cause the loss of large amounts of evolutionary history and those species may capture highly threatened evolutionary distinctiveness.

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      Sexual size dimorphism in musteloids: An anomalous allometric pattern is explained by feeding ecology

      Michael J. Noonan, Paul J. Johnson, Andrew C. Kitchener, Lauren A. Harrington, Chris Newman and David W. Macdonald

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2480

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      We examine the allometry of SSD within the Musteloidea and demonstrate a trend contrary to Rensch's rule, with lower SSD associated with larger body size. We provide evidence that feeding ecology is involved. Where diet promotes group-living, the optimal strategy for the males of larger species is often not to attempt to defend access to multiple females, obviating an advantage of relatively greater size.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Functional traits determine heterospecific use of risk-related social information in forest birds of tropical South-East Asia

      Fangyuan Hua, Ding Li Yong, Muhammad Nazri Janra, Liza M. Fitri, Dewi Prawiradilaga and Kathryn E. Sieving

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2545

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      In the lowland rainforest of Sumatra, Indonesia, we combined community surveys with behavioral studies of a diverse bird community to test whether body mass and foraging height, two arguably most important functional traits that influence prey vulnerability to predation risk, can predict species’ attraction to heterospecific mobbing calls. Our findings from the relatively lesser known tropical Asia add to the growing evidence for the ubiquity of heterospecific information networks in animal communities, and provide empirical evidence for the long-standing hypothesis that predation risk reduction is likely a major benefit of mobbing information networks.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Contrasted levels of genetic diversity in a benthic Mediterranean octocoral: Consequences of different demographic histories?

      Moutassem Billah Masmoudi, Lamya Chaoui, Nur Eda Topçu, Pachka Hammami, Mohamed Hichem Kara and Didier Aurelle

      Version of Record online: 28 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2490

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      The aim of this article is to study the genetic structure, the genetic diversity and the demographic fluctuations of an octocoral, the yellow gorgonian Eunicella cavolini, in the Mediterranean Sea.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of larval crowding on quantitative variation for development time and viability in Drosophila melanogaster

      Barbara Horváth and Alex T. Kalinka

      Version of Record online: 28 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2552

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      Using a panel of inbred Drosophila melanogaster strains, we estimated genetic and phenotypic variance components for two fitness-related traits, development time (DT) and egg-to-adult viability (EAV), in three different environments. We have shown that both DT and EAV exhibit substantial genetic variation as well as genotype × environment interactions. We found that adaptive genetic variance for DT can be uncovered by crowded larval conditions and that this variance underpins fitness differences during intraspecies competition.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Assessing polar bear (Ursus maritimus) population structure in the Hudson Bay region using SNPs

      Michelle Viengkone, Andrew Edward Derocher, Evan Shaun Richardson, René Michael Malenfant, Joshua Moses Miller, Martyn E. Obbard, Markus G. Dyck, Nick J. Lunn, Vicki Sahanatien and Corey S. Davis

      Version of Record online: 28 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2563

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      Using SNPs, we investigate fine-scale population structure in polar bears of the Hudson Bay region of Canada and compare these findings to subpopulation designations. Based on 414 samples and 2,603 SNPs, we conclude there are four genetic clusters that differ from current management.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The challenge of separating signatures of local adaptation from those of isolation by distance and colonization history: The case of two white pines

      Simon Nadeau, Patrick G. Meirmans, Sally N. Aitken, Kermit Ritland and Nathalie Isabel

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2550

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      Signatures of local adaptation were detected in range-wide samples of Pinus strobus, but such signatures were weaker in Pinus monticola. In both species, the vast majority of the variation was confounded between the effects of isolation by environment, isolation by distance, and postglacial colonization history. Such confounding of patterns of local adaptation with neutral population structure is expected to be common in nature and complicates the detection of signatures of local adaptation.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Transcriptomic comparison of invasive bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and their hybrids

      Jun Wang, James T. Lamer, Sarah Gaughan, Michael Wachholtz, Chenghui Wang and Guoqing Lu

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2574

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      We conducted de novo transcriptome assembly of pure and hybrid specimens of bigheaded carps collected from the Mississippi River Basin. We found 40,759–51,706 transcripts for pure, F1 hybrid, and backcross bigheaded carps. Transcriptomic variation was detected between F1 hybrids, indicating certain F1 hybrids may experience low fitness. The phylogenetic tree constructed using over 2,500 one-to-one orthologous sequences demonstrated the robustness of transcriptomes as a powerful tool to describe introgression and hybridization.

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      The effects of demographic stochasticity and parameter uncertainty on predicting the establishment of introduced species

      Gian Marco Palamara, Francesco Carrara, Matthew J. Smith and Owen L. Petchey

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2495

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      We develop a new method to investigate the interplay between demographic stochasticity and parameters uncertainty on our ability to accurately predict the establishment of introduced species. We find that in the presence of competition with residents, demographic stochasticity may bias the predictive ability of establishment if not properly taken into consideration. Our novel methodological framework is an important step toward a rigorous quantification of the predictive ability of the invasion risk that can be used in realistic invasion scenarios.

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      Phylogenetic congruence between subtropical trees and their associated fungi

      Xubing Liu, Minxia Liang, Rampal S. Etienne, Gregory S. Gilbert and Shixiao Yu

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2503

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      We identified fungal taxa associated with diseased leaves and seedlings of subtropical trees, to analyze the structure and specificity of the interaction network of plant–pathogen associations in natural communities.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Negative effects of density on space use of small mammals differ with the phase of the masting-induced population cycle

      Michał Bogdziewicz, Rafał Zwolak, Lauren Redosh, Leszek Rychlik and Elizabeth E. Crone

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2513

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      We used spatially explicit capture–recapture models and found that density-mediated effects alone are not sufficient to explain changes in mouse spatial behavior evoked by mast seeding. Home range size decreased with population density. However, after controlling for density, mice home ranges were larger in postmast years, indicating increased overlap among individuals. Detailed studies of this phenomenon might shed a new light on the causes of postmast crashes in rodent numbers.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spatial subsidies in spider diets vary with shoreline structure: Complementary evidence from molecular diet analysis and stable isotopes

      Peter A. Hambäck, Elisabeth Weingartner, Love Dalén, Helena Wirta and Tomas Roslin

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2536

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      Molecular gut content analysis and stable isotopes provided complementary information on spider diets. Spiders consume a broad diversity of dipterans and lepidopterans.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Trapped in the web of water: Groundwater-fed springs are island-like ecosystems for the meiofauna

      Simone Fattorini, Paulo A. V. Borges, Barbara Fiasca and Diana M. P. Galassi

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2535

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      We investigated whether the equilibrium theory of island biogeography (ETIB) can be applied to the meiofauna (copepod crustaceans) of groundwater-fed springs using data from 30 sampling sites in central Apennines (Italy). We found support for ETIB predictions about variation in species richness and beta-diversity patterns for various ecological categories of copepods, except for stygobites. Stygobites, which have a low capability to disperse through the aquifers, do not follow ETIB predictions, but tend to form relict populations confined to the springs where they drifted out and were trapped by springbed sediments.

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      Migratory herds of wildebeests and zebras indirectly affect calf survival of giraffes

      Derek E. Lee, Bernard M. Kissui, Yustina A. Kiwango and Monica L. Bond

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2561

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      In long-distance migratory systems, local fluctuations in the predator–prey ratio can exhibit extreme variability within a single year depending upon the seasonal location of migratory species. We utilized a large-mammal predator–prey food web of African lions (Panthera leo), migratory wildebeests (Connochaetes taurinus), zebras (Equus quagga), and resident giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) to investigate cyclic population density effects on short-term food web interactions by documenting giraffe calf survival variation in the presence/absence of migratory herds. We found that local lion predation pressure (lion density divided by primary prey density) was significantly negatively correlated with giraffe neonatal and calf survival probabilities, supporting the apparent mutualism hypothesis that the presence of migratory ungulates reduces lion predation on giraffe calves.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mass, phylogeny, and temperature are sufficient to explain differences in metabolic scaling across mammalian orders?

      Eva Maria Griebeler and Jan Werner

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2555

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      We conduct linear and quadratic phylogenetic and temperature informed regression analysis in order to identify the “best” metabolic scaling model for mammals, marsupials, eutherians, and 17 orders. These indicate no single scaling exponent across taxa. As in taxa studied, body mass, body temperature and basal metabolic rate show a diverse pairwise correlation structure, a biological interpretation of exponents, normalization constants, and temperature coefficients of scaling models is problematic.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A genetically distinct hybrid zone occurs for two globally invasive mosquito fish species with striking phenotypic resemblance

      Rebecca J. Wilk and Lisa Horth

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2562

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      Genetic and phenotypic data demonstrate eastern mosquito fish persist in a hybrid zone, meaning there are three genetic clusters of mosquitofish in the southeastern United States (eastern, hybrid, western). Phenotypic data make them virtually indistinguishable when they have hybrid genotypes.

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      The effect of induced mutations on quantitative traits in Arabidopsis thaliana: Natural versus artificial conditions

      Frank W. Stearns and Charles B. Fenster

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2558

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      We evaluated the effects of chemically induced mutations on fitness under field and growth room conditions and on quantitative traits under growth room conditions in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that mutations had a greater effect on fitness under more stressful field conditions and that mutations effected quantitative traits in a more bimodal fashion if they were not as closely related to fitness components (survival and reproduction).

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      lac-1 and lag-1 with ras-1 affect aging and the biological clock in Neurospora crassa

      John K. Brunson, James Griffith, Daneisha Bowles, Mary E. Case and Jonathan Arnold

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2554

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      In this paper and the current submission, we provide evidence that ceramide synthesis in lipid metabolism is tied to aging and biological clock function. We provide evidence here as well that the quantitative trait of phytoceramide level appears to be under balancing selection and hence how natural selection can explain the biochemical basis of longevity phenotypes associated with ceramide synthesis reported last year (Case et al., Ecology and Evolution 2014; 4: 3494).

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