Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 8

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA and Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK

Impact Factor: 1.184

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 99/136 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

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  1. 1 - 40
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Premating isolation is determined by larval rearing substrates in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. X. Age-specific dynamics of adult epicuticular hydrocarbon expression in response to different host plants

      William J. Etges and Cassia C. de Oliveira

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1088

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      Mate choice in the wild: cuticular hydrocarbon shifts with age in adult Drosophila mojavensis are host plant and population specific. These compounds serve as contact pheromones that mediate sexual isolation between populations and sexual selection within populations, and play a large role in patterns of mate choice in natural populations. Photograph by Jackson Jennings.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Physiological and ecological effects of increasing temperature on fish production in lakes of Arctic Alaska

      Michael P. Carey and Christian E. Zimmerman

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1080

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      Climate warming is having profound effects on the physical characteristics of freshwater ecosystems in the Arctic; however, how aquatic species will respond is poorly understood. We model fish production under current conditions and then estimated production using projected temperature increases. Examining the effect of climate-induced changes on fish provides insights into how arctic food webs may respond to climate warming.

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      Relating annual increments of the endangered Blanding's turtle plastron growth to climate

      Monik G. Richard, Colin P. Laroque and Thomas B. Herman

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1065

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      This research shows that the plastron growth increments of the Blanding's turtle can be cross-dated. We used dendrochronology methods and software to show that plastron growth increments are significantly related to temperature but not to precipitation. This work may help understand ecological needs for species at northern range limits, where climate changes may show more impacts on fitness and adaptation.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Influence of whitebark pine decline on fall habitat use and movements of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

      Cecily M. Costello, Frank T. van Manen, Mark A. Haroldson, Michael R. Ebinger, Steven L. Cain, Kerry A. Gunther and Daniel D. Bjornlie

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1082

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      Seeds from whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) are an important food for grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, but a recent epidemic has caused considerable tree mortality. During 2000–2011, we found that grizzly bears reduced selection for WBP stands without increasing movement rates, suggesting they obtained alternative fall foods within their local surroundings. Outside of national parks, bears reduced selection for secure habitat when WBP production was good, indicating the decrease in mortality risk historically associated with use of WBP habitat may be diminishing for bears residing in multiple-use areas.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Comparison of the effects of symmetric and asymmetric temperature elevation and CO2 enrichment on yield and evapotranspiration of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

      Yunzhou Qiao, Huiling Liu, Seppo Kellomäki, Heli Peltola, Yueyan Liu, Baodi Dong, Changhai Shi, Huizhen Zhang, Chao Zhang, Jinnan Gong, Fuyan Si, Dongxiao Li, Xin Zheng and Mengyu Liu

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1081

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      Grain yield of winter wheat could be expected to decrease under warming climate and increase under the changing climate with concurrent elevation of CO2 and temperature as a result of increased WUE due to the elevated CO2. However, the gain would be lower under ETa than that estimated based on ETs due to higher evapotranspiration.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Bird and mammal species composition in distinct geographic regions and their relationships with environmental factors across multiple spatial scales

      Rafi Kent, Avi Bar-Massada and Yohay Carmel

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1072

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      We tested the effects of different environmental factors on the species composition of birds and mammals at multiple spatial scales, from local to continental, in two continents. We used a relatively novel approach for analyzing the relationship, breaking them down to components of ecological affinity and amount of variance. We found that climate has the strongest per unit effect on both birds and mammals at all scales, however, as variance in land use is high, LULC variables also have a string effect on species composition.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Microsatellite and Wolbachia analysis in Rhagoletis cerasi natural populations: population structuring and multiple infections

      Antonios A. Augustinos, Anastasia K. Asimakopoulou, Cleopatra A. Moraiti, Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou, Nikolaos T. Papadopoulos and Kostas Bourtzis

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.553

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      In this study, we present the first microsatellite analysis in Rhagoletis cerasi, based mainly on Greek populations. Rhagoletis cerasi is well established in Europe, while in the past decades there are other Rhagoletis species invading Europe as well. The observed high genetic distances and extended structuring revealed by the present microsatellite analysis, which is uncommon for the other well established Tephritidae in Europe (the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata and the olive fly Bactrocera oleae), lead us to analyze the Wolbachia infection status of selected individuals. This analysis revealed complicated patterns of multiple infections and the presence of still uncharacterized Wolbachia strains.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Needle morphological evidence of the homoploid hybrid origin of Pinus densata based on analysis of artificial hybrids and the putative parents, Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis

      Fangqian Xing, Jian-Feng Mao, Jingxiang Meng, Jianfeng Dai, Wei Zhao, Hao Liu, Zhen Xing, Hua Zhang, Xiao-Ru Wang and Yue Li

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1062

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      Comparative analysis of needle characteristics and phenotypic differences were conducted on artificial hybrid families, Pinus densata, and parental species (P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis) and the seedling grew in a high-altitude habitat in Linzhi, Tibet. Nineteen needle traits in artificial hybrid were similar to those in P. densata and between the two parent species in general, and the eight needle traits (NL, CSR2N, FSR2N, MSD, MA/VBA, MA/RCA, MA/(VBA + RCA), VBA/RCA), relative to physiological adaptability, were very similar and had the same varying tendency in artificial hybrid and P. densata. The similar needle features of artificial hybrid and P. densata were helpful to verify the homoploid hybrid origin of P. densata, with enriching the knowledge of the hybridization roles in adaptation and speciation in plants.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Geographic variation in seed traits within and among forty-two species of Rhododendron (Ericaceae) on the Tibetan plateau: relationships with altitude, habitat, plant height, and phylogeny

      Yongji Wang, Jianjian Wang, Liming Lai, Lianhe Jiang, Ping Zhuang, Lehua Zhang, Yuanrun Zheng, Jerry M. Baskin and Carol C. Baskin

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1067

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      Seed mass and morphology vary to adapt to the environment, but are constrained by phylogeny. In addition, we should consider the colinearity between seed traits and plant height when analyzing the correlation between seed traits and altitude.

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      The causal pie model: an epidemiological method applied to evolutionary biology and ecology

      Maarten Wensink, Rudi G. J. Westendorp and Annette Baudisch

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1074

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      The causal pie model, standard in epidemiology, captures the basic workings of cause and effect. We propose that application of the causal pie model in evolutionary biology and ecology can help to identify unifying principles. We demonstrate how a miscellany of results can be derived from this one model.

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      A hidden Markov model to identify and adjust for selection bias: an example involving mixed migration strategies

      John R. Fieberg and Paul B. Conn

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1066

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      An important assumption in observational studies is that sampled individuals are representative of some larger study population. Yet, this assumption is often unrealistic. We illustrate the problem and a solution when modeling mixed migration strategies of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northern latitudes.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Untangling the relationships among regional occupancy, species traits, and niche characteristics in stream invertebrates

      Jani Heino and Mira Grönroos

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1076

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      We studied the relationships between regional occupancy, local abundance and species traits in stream invertebrates. We found that niche position was strongly related to regional occupancy, but niche breadth and, in particular, biological traits were poor predictors of occupancy.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Fitness dynamics within a poplar hybrid zone: II. Impact of exotic sex on native poplars in an urban jungle

      Amanda D. Roe, Chris J.K. MacQuarrie, Marie-Claude Gros-Louis, J. Dale Simpson, Josyanne Lamarche, Tannis Beardmore, Stacey L. Thompson, Philippe Tanguay and Nathalie Isabel

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1028

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      Trees bearing novel genetic component are present on the landscape, particularly in urban environments and at the forest–urban interface. The fitness of exotic poplar hybrids was not significantly different from native hybrids, suggesting that exotic hybrids were not unfit and were capable of establishing and competing with native trees. Future research will seek to examine the impact of exotic gene regions on associated biotic communities to fully quantify the risk exotic poplars pose to native poplar forests.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A multiscale analysis of gene flow for the New England cottontail, an imperiled habitat specialist in a fragmented landscape

      Lindsey E. Fenderson, Adrienne I. Kovach, John A. Litvaitis, Kathleen M. O'Brien, Kelly M. Boland and Walter J. Jakubas

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1068

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      We evaluated local population structure, genetic diversity, and landscape features that influence dispersal of a geographically isolated population of New England cottontails in the northeastern United States. We found that cottontails were structured into four genetically distinct populations, with evidence of recent connectivity, but no current gene flow and low genetic diversity and critically low effective population sizes. Landscape resistance models found that major highways and a river limited cottontail dispersal, while the shrubby habitat along roadsides, railroads, and utility corridors facilitated dispersal.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spatial genetic structure in Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa reveals the effect of contrasting mating system, influence of marine currents, and footprints of postglacial recolonization routes

      Marie Leys, Eric J. Petit, Yasmina El-Bahloul, Camille Liso, Sylvain Fournet and Jean-François Arnaud

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1061

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      We examined the spatial patterns of genetic structure in two related plant species, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa. Our results support a stepwise recolonization of Europe from Atlantic-Mediterranean refugia after the last glacial period, with leading-edge expansions. Peculiar genetic structure of inland populations of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima may also indicate the admixture of distinct evolutionary lineages and recent expansions, possibly associated with anthropogenic disturbances in the Mediterranean areas.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Strong selection on mandible and nest features in a carpenter bee that nests in two sympatric host plants

      Luis Flores-Prado, Carlos F. Pinto, Alejandra Rojas and Francisco E. Fontúrbel

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.995

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      Host plants are used by herbivorous insects as feeding or nesting resources. We explored the shape and intensity of natural selection on phenotypic variation on Manuelia postica (Apidae) and its nest features, on two host plants. There were significant and positive linear selection gradients for mandible area and nest length, indicating that bees with brooders mandibles, building long nests have more offspring.

  2. Reviews

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Hybridization in a warmer world

      Amanda J. Chunco

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1052

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      Climate change is dramatically altering the distribution and behavior of thousands of species. An increased opportunity for hybridization is one potential consequence of this reshuffling of biodiversity. This work reviews current examples of climate-mediated hybridization and provides suggestions for future areas of research.

  3. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Predicting future coexistence in a North American ant community

      Sharon Bewick, Katharine L. Stuble, Jean-Phillipe Lessard, Robert R. Dunn, Frederick R. Adler and Nathan J. Sanders

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1048

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      Using an ant community from Eastern USA, we show that community composition can respond to climate warming in nonintuitive ways – for example, in the context of a community, it is not necessarily the most heat-sensitive species that are most at risk. Our results demonstrate how models that account for niche partitioning and interspecific trade-offs among species can be used to predict the sometimes idiosyncratic responses of local communities to climate change.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Fin whale MDH-1 and MPI allozyme variation is not reflected in the corresponding DNA sequences

      Morten Tange Olsen, Christophe Pampoulie, Anna K. Daníelsdóttir, Emmelie Lidh, Martine Bérubé, Gísli A. Víkingsson and Per J. Palsbøll

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1046

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      Studies of North Atlantic fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) population structure have reported contrasting degrees of genetic differentiation in allozyme and nuclear markers. We sequenced the exons encoding for the two most divergent allozyme loci (MDH-1 and MPI) and failed to detect mutations that could account for the reported levels of genetic variation at these markers. Thus, the reported allozyme variation does not appear to be a result of genetic drift, migration, or selection on the MDH-1 and MPI exons themselves, stressing the importance of interpreting allozyme data with caution.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Intraspecific variation in vertical habitat use by tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in the western North Atlantic

      Jeremy J. Vaudo, Bradley M. Wetherbee, Guy Harvey, Richard S. Nemeth, Choy Aming, Neil Burnie, Lucy A. Howey-Jordan and Mahmood S. Shivji

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1053

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      We examined the vertical movements of tiger sharks in the northern Caribbean Sea and Bermuda. Although all individuals spent a considerable amount of time near the surface and making oscillatory dives in the upper 50 m, deep diving behaviors were common. In addition, a great deal of intraspecific variability in vertical habitat use was observed that does not appear to be related to tagging location, horizontal movements, sex, or size.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Egg load dynamics and the risk of egg and time limitation experienced by an aphid parasitoid in the field

      Christine Dieckhoff, Julian C. Theobald, Felix L. Wäckers and George E. Heimpel

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1023

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      We used a series of field and laboratory studies to investigate factors contributing to the risk for egg and time limitation in the field of this parasitoid species, a biological control agent of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Our results suggest that fecundity of B. communis benefits both from dynamic egg maturation strategies and from sugar-feeding.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Very low levels of direct additive genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in a red squirrel population

      S. Eryn McFarlane, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman, Murray M. Humphries, Stan Boutin and Andrew G. McAdam

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.982

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      Additive genetic variance in fitness is needed for microevolution. Here, we tested whether sexual antagonism or temporal fluctuations in selection could be maintaining additive genetic variance in fitness in a wild red squirrel population. We found no evidence for either of these mechanisms or for direct genetic variance in fitness.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Immune priming and pathogen resistance in ant queens

      Dumas Gálvez and Michel Chapuisat

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1070

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      We performed the first test of immune priming in ant queens, which have extraordinarily long life span and high fertility. We show that immune priming occurs in naturally mated Lasius niger queens exposed twice to a fungal pathogen. Moreover, the pathogen resistance of ant queens increases after mating. Overall, ant queens are able to invest heavily in both reproduction and maintenance.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Optimal surveillance strategy for invasive species management when surveys stop after detection

      Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Cindy E. Hauser and Michael A. McCarthy

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1056

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      We provide tools for establishing the optimal level of surveillance when managing invasive species. Developed within a decision-theoretic spatially explicit framework, our method takes into account species prevalence, detectability, and the costs of monitoring and early/delayed management. Previous work had addressed this optimal resource allocation problem assuming that surveys continue despite detection, until the initially planned survey effort is consumed. Here, we consider an often more realistic scenario where surveys at a site cease once the species is detected and then management begins.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Testing for shared biogeographic history in the lower Central American freshwater fish assemblage using comparative phylogeography: concerted, independent, or multiple evolutionary responses?

      Justin C. Bagley and Jerald B. Johnson

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1058

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      A central goal of comparative phylogeography is determining whether codistributed species experienced concerted, independent, or multiple evolutionary responses to past geological and climatic events, as indicated by tests for spatial and temporal congruence. We tested these competing hypotheses using DNA sequence data from three livebearing fish species codistributed in the Nicaraguan depression of Central America (Alfaro cultratus, Poecilia gillii, and Xenophallus umbratilis) that we predicted might display congruent responses due to co-occurrence in identical freshwater drainages. Overall, we found evidence for incongruent spatial-genetic structuring and temporal population divergences in these fishes. Our results suggest that multiple evolutionary responses to historical events have shaped the population structuring of freshwater species codistributed within the complex landscapes in/around the Nicaraguan depression.

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      Spatial genetic features of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) in the Gulf of Mexico: northward movement of a secondary contact zone

      Joel D. Anderson, William J. Karel, Christopher E. Mace, Brian L. Bartram and Matthew P. Hare

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1064

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      Eastern oysters from samples taken in the western Gulf of Mexico were examined using microsatellite markers. Two populations were observed, which overlap in Aransas Bay, TX, with hybrid formation occurring rarely in the contact zone. We present evidence suggesting that Aransas Bay is a zone of recent secondary contact between northern and southern oyster populations.

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      Estimating migratory connectivity of birds when re-encounter probabilities are heterogeneous

      Emily B. Cohen, Jeffrey A. Hostetler, J. Andrew Royle and Peter P. Marra

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1059

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      Understanding the biology and conducting effective conservation of migratory species requires knowledge of migratory connectivity, the geographic linkages of populations between stages of the annual cycle. Unfortunately, we are lacking this information for most migratory species. We demonstrate the use of available large-scale banding and re-encounter data to estimate migratory connectivity for North American breeding birds in a multistate recapture and recovery model that accounts for re-encounter probabilities.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Using soil seed banks to assess temporal patterns of genetic variation in invasive plant populations

      Mark Fennell, Tommy Gallagher, Luis Leon Vintro and Bruce Osborne

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1043

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      The paper describes a new methodology for analyzing temporal variations in population genetic structure using seeds derived from soil cores. While there are difficulties in interpreting such data, including accounting for the effects of selection, seed loss, and seed migration, a clear pattern of increasing total allele counts, percentage polymorphic loci, and genetic diversity was observed with decreases in soil depth.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Fitness dynamics within a poplar hybrid zone: I. Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers impacting a native poplar hybrid stand

      Amanda D. Roe, Chris J. K. MacQuarrie, Marie-Claude Gros-Louis, J. Dale Simpson, Josyanne Lamarche, Tannis Beardmore, Stacey L. Thompson, Philippe Tanguay and Nathalie Isabel

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1029

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      Native hybrids between Populus deltoides and P. balsamifera expressed fitness traits intermediate to their parental species and were not universally unfit. That said, native hybrid seedlings were absent from the seedling population, which may indicate additional selective pressures controlling their recruitment. Understanding the process of hybridization and subsequent introgression provides insight into the processes shaping the evolutionary trajectory of plant populations.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dynamics of sex ratio and female unmatedness under haplodiploidy

      Andy Gardner

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1045

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      Stable oscillation of the sex ratio in haplodiploid populations has been predicted by classic models, and it remains a puzzle as to why this is not observed in natural populations. I investigate the dynamics of sex allocation over ecological and evolutionary timescales to assess the potential for such sustained oscillation. My model, taken together with empirical estimates of female unmatedness in haplodiploid taxa, suggests that sustained oscillation of the sex ratio is implausible in natural populations, explaining why it is not widely observed.

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      Probabilistic maturation reaction norms assessed from mark–recaptures of wild fish in their natural habitat

      Esben M. Olsen, Dimitar Serbezov and Leif A. Vøllestad

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1044

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      Probabilistic maturation reaction norms, describing probabilities of maturing at combinations of age and body size, have been much applied for separating phenotypic plasticity from evolutionary changes in maturation. However, due to typical field data limitations, this method still needs to be assessed. Using 13 years of direct mark–recapture observations on individual growth and maturation in a population of brown trout (Salmo trutta), we show that the probabilistic maturation reaction norm approach may perform well even if a key assumption of equal survival of juvenile and maturing fish may not hold.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effect of age-based and environment-based cues on reproductive investment in Gambusia affinis

      Eric J. Billman and Mark C. Belk

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1055

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      We examined the multivariate life-history trajectories of age 0 and age 1 female Gambusia affinis to determine relative effects of age-based and environment-based cues on reproductive investment. The reproductive restraint and terminal investment patterns exhibited by age 0 and age 1 females, respectively, were consistent with the predictions from the cost of reproduction hypothesis. Individuals use multiple cues to determine the level of reproductive investment, and the response to each cue is dependent on the age of an individual.

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      Selection and demographic history shape the molecular evolution of the gamete compatibility protein bindin in Pisaster sea stars

      Iva Popovic, Peter B. Marko, John P. Wares and Michael W. Hart

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1042

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      This study investigates the interacting roles of molecular, selective, and demographic processes in promoting patterns of spatial variation and divergence in the gamete compatibility locus, bindin, for species of the sea star genus Pisaster. We discover that positive selection acts on bindin allelic variation in the widespread keystone predator P. ochraceus but not in P. brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus and the predicted effects of selection driven by sexual conflict over fertilization rate. Importantly, we show that the spatial patterns of bindin differentiation and positive selection in P. ochraceus can be explained in a demographic context of low gene flow and relatively recent range expansions along the northeastern Pacific coast, coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution within species.

  4. Reviews

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Benthic N2 fixation in coral reefs and the potential effects of human-induced environmental change

      Ulisse Cardini, Vanessa N. Bednarz, Rachel A. Foster and Christian Wild

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1050

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      Here, we review the current state of knowledge on benthic dinitrogen (N2) fixation in coral reefs, providing an overview of the symbioses between benthic reef organisms and N2-fixing bacteria. Additionally, we focus on the effects of global anthropogenic stressors on N2 fixation in reef ecosystems. As N2 fixation is fundamental in sustaining the high productivity of coral reefs, environmentally induced changes in the input of fixed nitrogen may alter the functioning of the entire ecosystem.

  5. Original Research

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      Power lines, roads, and avian nest survival: effects on predator identity and predation intensity

      Brett A. DeGregorio, Patrick J. Weatherhead and Jinelle H. Sperry

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1049

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      Nest predators are a driving force shaping avian nesting ecology. Often, nest predators use landscape features, such as roads or power lines, that can influence the frequency of their interactions with nesting birds. Using radiotelemetry and surveys of nest predators, coupled with video monitoring of nests, we documented several strong relationships between the use of landscape features by predators and subsequent effects on avian nesting success.

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      On estimation and identifiability issues of sex-linked inheritance with a case study of pigmentation in Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba)

      Camilla T. Larsen, Anna M. Holand, Henrik Jensen, Ingelin Steinsland and Alexandre Roulin

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1032

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      A nestling Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba) displaying many large black spots. Photo Alexandre Roulin.

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      BIOFRAG – a new database for analyzing BIOdiversity responses to forest FRAGmentation

      Marion Pfeifer, Veronique Lefebvre, Toby A. Gardner, Victor Arroyo-Rodriguez, Lander Baeten, Cristina Banks-Leite, Jos Barlow, Matthew G. Betts, Joerg Brunet, Alexis Cerezo, Laura M. Cisneros, Stuart Collard, Neil D'Cruze, Catarina da Silva Motta, Stephanie Duguay, Hilde Eggermont, Felix Eigenbrod, Adam S. Hadley, Thor R. Hanson, Joseph E. Hawes, Tamara Heartsill Scalley, Brian T. Klingbeil, Annette Kolb, Urs Kormann, Sunil Kumar, Thibault Lachat, Poppy Lakeman Fraser, Victoria Lantschner, William F. Laurance, Inara R. Leal, Luc Lens, Charles J. Marsh, Guido F. Medina-Rangel, Stephanie Melles, Dirk Mezger, Johan A. Oldekop, William L. Overal, Charlotte Owen, Carlos A. Peres, Ben Phalan, Anna M. Pidgeon, Oriana Pilia, Hugh P. Possingham, Max L. Possingham, Dinarzarde C. Raheem, Danilo B. Ribeiro, Jose D. Ribeiro Neto, W Douglas Robinson, Richard Robinson, Trina Rytwinski, Christoph Scherber, Eleanor M. Slade, Eduardo Somarriba, Philip C. Stouffer, Matthew J. Struebig, Jason M. Tylianakis, Teja Tscharntke, Andrew J. Tyre, Jose N. Urbina Cardona, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, Oliver Wearn, Konstans Wells, Michael R. Willig, Eric Wood, Richard P. Young, Andrew V. Bradley and Robert M. Ewers

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1036

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      Taita Thrush - a critically endangered, forest-dependent bird that is endemic to the Taita Hills, Kenya. We have compiled primary datasets on biodiversity responses to forest fragmentation from fragmented landscapes around the world. We describe the organization of data for our new relational BIOFRAG database, its structure, and current status, and how the datasets may be used to analyze habitat fragmentation impacts consistently across landscapes and taxa. The database is dynamic and inclusive, and we detail minimum data requirements and processing steps required to add further inventories to the database, which are warmly invited.

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      Spatial and temporal genetic structure of a river-resident Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after millennia of isolation

      Odd Terje Sandlund, Sten Karlsson, Eva B. Thorstad, Ole Kristian Berg, Matthew P. Kent, Ine C. J. Norum and Kjetil Hindar

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1040

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      The river-resident “småblank” is a unique endemic island population of Atlantic salmon with a special niche and a unique genetic constitution. Living in a restricted area, it is still diversified into subpopulations, and it experiences downstream asymmetric gene flow between subpopulations. The population is in a precarious situation, as the habitat is subject to a variety of anthropogenic impacts. It is important to maintain population size and avoid further habitat fragmentation.

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      Intraspecific variability modulates interspecific variability in animal organismal stoichiometry

      Rana W. El-Sabaawi, Joseph Travis, Eugenia Zandonà, Peter B. McIntyre, David N. Reznick and Alexander Flecker

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.981

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      The figure described interspecific and intraspecific variability in two co-existing stream fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Rivulus hartii). The fish are sampled from two types of communities: with predators (High Predation) and without predators (Low Predation). The figure show that interspecific differences in organismal stoichiometry vary significantly between streams, and are therefore sensitive to background environmental conditions. Differences between the predation communities are subtle, but interspecific differences in OS are slightly noisier in high predation compared to low predation communities.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Functional traits composition predict macrophytes community productivity along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake

      Hui Fu, Jiayou Zhong, Guixiang Yuan, Leyi Ni, Ping Xie and Te Cao

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1022

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this study, we applied a step-wise modeling procedure to test the relative effects of taxonomic diversity, functional identity, and functional diversity on macrophytes community productivity along water depth gradient. Macrophyte community productivity was strongly determined by functional trait composition within community, but not significantly affected by taxonomic diversity. Our results suggested both mechanisms of mass ratio and niche complementarity can operate simultaneously on variations in community productivity, and considering both CWM and FD would lead to a more profound understanding of traits–productivity relationships.

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