Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 6

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA and Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK

Impact Factor: 1.658

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 85/141 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

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  1. 1 - 36
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Seaweed fails to prevent ocean acidification impact on foraminifera along a shallow-water CO2 gradient

      Laura R. Pettit, Christopher W. Smart, Malcolm B. Hart, Marco Milazzo and Jason M. Hall-Spencer

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1475

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      There is a suggestion that photosynthetic organisms could mitigate ocean acidification on a local scale. Here, we used a natural gradient in calcium carbonate saturation to assess whether seaweed that is resistant to acidification (Padina pavonica) could prevent adverse effects of acidification on epiphytic foraminifera. We found that the assemblage shifted from one dominated by calcareous species at reference sites (pH ~8.19) to one dominated by agglutinated foraminifera at elevated levels of CO2 (pH ~7.71).

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Explaining forest productivity using tree functional traits and phylogenetic information: two sides of the same coin over evolutionary scale?

      Alain Paquette, Simon Joly and Christian Messier

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1456

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      The importance of biodiversity for ecosystem functioning and for the provisioning of services to humanity is well established. Yet we still are looking for methods to quantify this biodiversity that are both relevant and efficient. Here we show that phylogenetic information can help, especially when key functional traits are unavailable, and how it relates to functional traits of species.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of pine wilt disease invasion on soil properties and Masson pine forest communities in the Three Gorges reservoir region, China

      Ruihe Gao, Juan Shi, Ruifen Huang, Zhuang Wang and Youqing Luo

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1326

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      With the invasion of pine wilt disease,soil water-related physical properties varied greatly and their differences reached significant levels ,but the soil chemical properties are not significant among different stand types. Masson pine does not re-establish following PWD-induced mortality, but is replaced throughout its range by broad-leaved tree species.In addition, plant community composition and structure is strongly influenced by MPS and K+ in the infected plots.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of natural and artificial selection on survival of columnar cacti seedlings: the role of adaptation to xeric and mesic environments

      Susana Guillén, Teresa Terrazas and Alejandro Casas

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1478

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      Effect of incipient domestication on seedling survival of columnar cacti in wild and anthropogenic environments.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Temporal patterns in Saturnidae (silk moth) and Sphingidae (hawk moth) assemblages in protected forests of central Uganda

      Perpetra Akite, Richard J. Telford, Paul Waring, Anne M. Akol and Vigdis Vandvik

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1477

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      Re-sampling surveys for two moths families was carried out in three protected forests in central Uganda to evaluate temporal changes in patterns of richness and community structure. We formulated and tested hypotheses. Our results show some significant declines in moth richness and abundances with forest dependent species more impacted on over the years.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Exogenous selection rather than cytonuclear incompatibilities shapes asymmetrical fitness of reciprocal Arabidopsis hybrids

      Graham Muir, Paola Ruiz-Duarte, Nora Hohmann, Barbara K. Mable, Polina Novikova, Roswitha Schmickl, Alessia Guggisberg and Marcus A. Koch

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1474

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      Isolation asymmetry or Darwin's Corollary to Haldane's Rule, is a general feature of reproductive isolation in plants. We test in Arabidopsis inter-species crosses if exogenous selection rather than cyto-nuclear incompatibilities shapes the asymmetrical postmating isolation. Our experimental system is conceptually based on a large Arabidopsis suture and introgression zone with A. arenosa and A. lyrata in Austria.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Limited connectivity and a phylogeographic break characterize populations of the pink anemonefish, Amphiprion perideraion, in the Indo-Malay Archipelago: inferences from a mitochondrial and microsatellite loci

      Tina A. Dohna, Janne Timm, Lemia Hamid and Marc Kochzius

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1455

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      The population structure of Amphiprion perideraion in the Indo-Malay Archipelago was found to be strong and similar, but not identical, to other sessile fish studied in the area. These results are an important contribution to our understanding of connectivity in this biodiversity hotspot, particularly for site attached marine fish depending on larval disersal.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Polyandry in dragon lizards: inbred paternal genotypes sire fewer offspring

      Celine H. Frère, Dani Chandrasoma and Martin J. Whiting

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1447

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      Multiple mating in female animals is something of a paradox because it can either be risky or provide substantial fitness benefits. Here, we show that female polyandry in the eastern water dragon (Intellagama lesueurii) was the norm but found no evidence that females were favouring less related males or that less related males had higher fitness. We, however, are the first study to show that males with greater heterozygosity (less inbred) sired more offspring.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Relationships between climate and growth of Gymnocypris selincuoensis in the Tibetan Plateau

      Juan Tao, Yifeng Chen, Dekui He and Chengzhi Ding

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1463

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      It is a fantastic photo of the otolith section of the studied species.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Pathogenic bacteria and timing of laying

      Anders Pape Møller, Juan J. Soler, Jan Tøttrup Nielsen and Ismael Galván

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1473

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      Because bacteria are more abundant at high temperatures and humidity, animals that reproduce early enjoy reduced abundance of bacteria. Adult goshawks with many Staphylococcus were easier to capture, their laying date was delayed, and they had offspring with more bacteria, and fewer recruits.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Lake size and fish diversity determine resource use and trophic position of a top predator in high-latitude lakes

      Antti P. Eloranta, Kimmo K. Kahilainen, Per-Arne Amundsen, Rune Knudsen, Chris Harrod and Roger I. Jones

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1464

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      We explored food-web structure and the resource use by a generalist top predator, the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.), in 17 subarctic lakes. Using stable isotope and stomach content analyses, we found that lake size and fish species richness are particularly important factors determining the main energy pathway (littoral vs. pelagic) and food-chain length in oligotrophic high-latitude lakes.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Association with pathogenic bacteria affects life-history traits and population growth in Caenorhabditis elegans

      S. Anaid Diaz, Eric Q. Mooring, Elisabeth G. Rens and Olivier Restif

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1461

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      We studied the life history of C. elegans in response to pathogenic bacteria using laboratory experiments and mathematical models. Our main novel finding is that, even though worms fed on S. enterica die earlier than those fed on E. coli (as previously reported), they reproduce earlier and produce more offspring, which generates much faster population growth. This study paves the way for more detailed and quantitative experimental investigation of the ecology and evolution free-living nematodes in association with pathogenic bacteria.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic structure in insular and mainland populations of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and their hemosporidian parasites

      Coraline Bichet, Yoshan Moodley, Dustin J. Penn, Gabriele Sorci and Stéphane Garnier

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1452

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      Here, we examined diversity and differentiation of neutral microsatellite loci and functional MHC class I genes in house sparrows (Passer domesticus), living in six insular and six mainland populations, and we aimed to determine whether their diversity or differentiation correlate with the diversity and the prevalence of infection of haemospridian parasites. We found that island bird populations tended to have lower neutral genetic variability, whereas MHC variability gene was similar between island and mainland populations. Similarly, island populations tended to show greater genetic differentiation than mainland populations, especially at microsatellite markers. The maintenance of MHC genetic diversity and its less marked structure in the island populations could be attributed to balancing-selection. The greater MHC differentiation among populations was negatively correlated with similarity in blood parasites (prevalence and diversity of parasite strains) between populations.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Prolonged experimental drought reduces plant hydraulic conductance and transpiration and increases mortality in a piñon–juniper woodland

      Robert E. Pangle, Jean-Marc Limousin, Jennifer A. Plaut, Enrico A. Yepez, Patrick J. Hudson, Amanda L. Boutz, Nathan Gehres, William T. Pockman and Nate G. McDowell

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1422

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      We examined the relationship between plant hydraulic conductance (ks) and subsequent tree mortality using more than 5 years of physiological observations in a piñon pine and juniper woodland subjected to varying degrees of experimental water manipulation. For both species, we observed significant reductions in transpiration, hydraulic conductance, and net photosynthetic carbon fixation under experimentally imposed drought, and we observed that chronically low whole plant ks was associated with greater canopy dieback and mortality for both piñon and juniper. Thus, our data indicate that significant reductions in whole plant ks precede drought related tree mortality events in piñon-juniper woodland ecosystems subjected to prolonged periods of chronic water stress.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evolution of mating behavior between two populations adapting to common environmental conditions

      Margarida Bárbaro, Mário S. Mira, Inês Fragata, Pedro Simões, Margarida Lima, Miguel Lopes-Cunha, Bárbara Kellen, Josiane Santos, Susana A. M. Varela, Margarida Matos and Sara Magalhães

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1454

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      In this study, we describe how the mating traits of two differentiated Drosophila subobscura populations evolve during adaptation to a common abiotic environment. We find that, counter-intuitively, reproductive barriers increase between populations.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The effect of biogeographic and phylogeographic barriers on gene flow in the brown smoothhound shark, Mustelus henlei, in the northeastern Pacific

      Chris L. Chabot, Mario Espinoza, Ismael Mascareñas-Osorio and Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1458

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      We assessed the effects of the prominent biogeographic (Point Conception and the Peninsula of Baja California) and phylogeographic barriers (Los Angeles Region) of the northeastern Pacific on the population connectivity of the brown smoothhound shark, Mustelus henlei (Triakidae). Data from the mitochondrial control region and six nuclear microsatellite loci revealed significant population structure among three populations: northern (San Francisco), central (Santa Barbara, Santa Catalina, Punta Lobos, and San Felipe), and southern (Costa Rica). Our findings indicate that Point Conception may be restricting gene flow between the northern and central populations whereas barriers to gene flow within the central population would seem to be ineffective.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Studying the movement behavior of benthic macroinvertebrates with automated video tracking

      Jacqueline Augusiak and Paul J. Van den Brink

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1425

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      We developed a versatile and easy-to-adapt video tracking method for two different species of benthic macroinvertebrates by combining different light sources and marking materials. We found that our method allows studying species with different modes of dispersal and under different environmental conditions. Data obtained with this approach can support a better understanding of dispersal influencing factors.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Investment in sensory structures, testis size, and wing coloration in males of a diurnal moth species: trade-offs or correlated growth?

      Brett P. Shiel, Craig D. H. Sherman, Mark A. Elgar, Tamara L. Johnson and Matthew R. E. Symonds

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1459

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      Animals may trade-off investment in costly morphological structures to maximise mating success and survival. We explore trade-offs in investment in sensory structures, testes and wing colouration in the monandrous diurnal painted apple moth Teia anartoides. We find no trade-offs but do uncover correlated investment in sensory structures, and between testes size and wing colouration.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An optimal proportion of mixing broad-leaved forest for enhancing the effective productivity of moso bamboo

      Xiao-Fei Cheng, Pei-Jian Shi, Cang Hui, Fu-Sheng Wang, Guo-Hua Liu and Bai-Lian Li

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1446

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      (1) Hardwoods can significantly affect the productivity of moso bamboo. (2) Other environmental factors can also influence the average biomass of moso bamboo.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Asymmetric dominance and asymmetric mate choice oppose premating isolation after allopatric divergence

      Kristina M. Sefc, Caroline M. Hermann, Bernd Steinwender, Hanna Brindl, Holger Zimmermann, Karin Mattersdorfer, Lisbeth Postl, Lawrence Makasa, Christian Sturmbauer and Stephan Koblmüller

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1372

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      Empirical work on the evolution of premating isolation has focused on mating preferences, and few studies address the role of male-male competition. We tested agonistic interactions and reproductive isolation between allopatric color morphs of a cichlid fish. Our results demonstrate (1) that color morph-dependent asymmetric dominance will oppose positive assortative preferences of allopatric taxa in secondary contact and hence interfere with speciation, and (2) that asymmetric reproductive isolation can also occur due to a lack of positive assortative female preferences when there is no dominance of one color morph over the other.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Reconceptualizing synergism and antagonism among multiple stressors

      Jeremy J. Piggott, Colin R. Townsend and Christoph D. Matthaei

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1465

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      The potential for complex synergistic or antagonistic interactions among multiple stressors presents one of the largest uncertainties when predicting ecological change but, despite common use of the terms in the scientific literature, a consensus on their operational definition is still lacking. We propose a new systematic classification and emphasize the need for reconsideration by the ecological community of the interpretation of synergism and antagonism in situations where individual stressor effects oppose each other or where cumulative effects are reversed and enhanced.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A comparative analysis of metacommunity types in the freshwater realm

      Jani Heino, Janne Soininen, Janne Alahuhta, Jyrki Lappalainen and Risto Virtanen

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1460

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      Metacommunity types vary widely in freshwater systems. We found that the most common types were Clementsian, quasi-Nested and Random. Metacommunity types were best discriminated by their ecological characteristics and beta diversity.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Contrasting responses to Pleistocene climate changes: a case study of two sister species Allium cyathophorum and A. spicata (Amaryllidaceae) distributed in the eastern and western Qinghai–Tibet Plateau

      Xinyu Wang, Yuanshuo Li, Qianlong Liang, Lei Zhang, Qian Wang, Huan Hu and Yongshuai Sun

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1449

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      We investigated the genetic diversity and demographic histories of a pair of sister species, A. spicata and A. cyathophorum, which diverged from each other 779–714 Ka and are distributed in the western and eastern QTP, respectively. These two species experienced the same Pleistocene glaciations, but showed contrasting responses to these climate changes. Thus, our study has highlighted the fact that the differences in geographic topography between the western and eastern QTP played a major role in determining the contrast between the ways in which the two species responded.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Seed weight and germination behavior of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China

      Zhongqiang Li, Wei Lu, Lei Yang, Xianghong Kong and Xuwei Deng

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1451

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      (1) Seed weight variation in P. pectinatus primarily is the result of temperature variation during fruit development; (2) relatively poor germination fraction suggests that seed are relatively unimportant in the short-term survival of populations, and that it may be another adaptive trait allowing plants to take place in the right place and at the right time, especially in harsh environment; and (3) variation in seed germination traits should be determined by local environmental and intrinsic factors that interact in a complex fashion.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Nutrient levels within leaves, stems, and roots of the xeric species Reaumuria soongorica in relation to geographical, climatic, and soil conditions

      Mingzhu He, Ke Zhang, Huijuan Tan, Rui Hu, Jieqiong Su, Jin Wang, Lei Huang, Yafeng Zhang and Xinrong Li

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1441

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      Nutrient concentrations and stoichiometric traits among Reaumuria soongorica organs had different responses to latitude.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Altered dynamics of broad-leaved tree species in a Chinese subtropical montane mixed forest: the role of an anomalous extreme 2008 ice storm episode

      Jielin Ge, Gaoming Xiong, Zhixian Wang, Mi Zhang, Changming Zhao, Guozhen Shen, Wenting Xu and Zongqiang Xie

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1433

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      Extreme climatic events can trigger gradual or abrupt shifts in forest ecosystems. Here we quantified dynamics for both evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved species groups in a subtropical montane mixed forest in China from 2001 to 2010 with particular relevance to the anomalous 2008 ice storm. We found that despite the ice storm both species groups persisted with limited alterations in floristic composition in the short-term. The evergreen was more vulnerable to ice storms than the deciduous and thus ice storms might potentially threaten the perpetuity of evergreen-dominated broad-leaved forests in this subtropical region with increasing frequency of ice storms in the future.

    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spatially variable habitat quality contributes to within-population variation in reproductive success

      Blaine D. Griffen and Alexandra P. Norelli

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1427

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      We demonstrate that spatial variation in habitat quality within oyster reefs is an important contributor to individual variation in reproductive success for mud crabs that inhabit those reefs. Increasing reproductive variance with the mean of reproduction suggests that commonly-used methods for modeling variation in fecundity in stochastic models may be misleading.

    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Does natural selection explain the fine scale genetic structure at the nuclear exon Glu-5′ in blue mussels from Kerguelen?

      Karin Gérard, Charlotte Roby, Nicolas Bierne, Philippe Borsa, Jean-Pierre Féral and Anne Chenuil

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1421

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      The Kerguelen blue mussels are endemic to the Southern Ocean and show significant genetic structure associated to both geography and environment at exon Glu-5′. The exon Glu-5′, which is a diagnostic marker in the Northern Hemisphere, here appears particularly polymorphic and under selection.

    29. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Host species composition influences infection severity among amphibians in the absence of spillover transmission

      Barbara A. Han, Jacob L. Kerby, Catherine L. Searle, Andrew Storfer and Andrew R. Blaustein

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1385

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      There are many ways in which infection can be influenced by species diversity. Here we show experimentally that the interactions between species in a multi-host amphibian community drive the severity of infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus. We find no evidence that infection is transmitted between two host species in our study, suggesting that spillover infection is not a cause of dilution effects in this system.

    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Isolation over 35 years in a heated biotest basin causes selection on MHC class IIß genes in the European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.)

      Mats Björklund, Teija Aho and Jasminca Behrmann-Godel

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1426

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      An isolated population of perch subjected to an artificial increase of water temperature show signs of selection on MHC. In particular, allelic richess was reduced and alleles started to fluctuate in a Red Queen manner.

    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dispersive Raman spectroscopy allows the identification and quantification of melanin types

      Ismael Galván and Alberto Jorge

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1453

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      The identification and quantification of melanins, the most extended biological pigments, is essential to understand the function and evolution of melanin-based signals and can be achieved by the use of Raman spectroscopy. Some authors, however, have stated that melanins are characterized by a lack of defined Raman signal. Here we confirm the existence of distinct Raman signal from the two main chemical forms of melanin, and show that only 780-nm excitation lasers are useful for the analysis of fragile biological tissues such as feathers.

    32. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals

      William. D. Bowen, Cornelia E. den Heyer, Jim I. McMillan and Sara J. Iverson

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1450

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      This study examines the influence of female offspring size on the survival to recruitment and subsequent reproductive performance in grey seals. Larger and heavier offspring survived significantly better smaller and lighter females. However, a female's offspring traits had fewer and smaller effects on her first-born.

    33. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An inducible offense: carnivore morph tadpoles induced by tadpole carnivory

      Nicholas A. Levis, Sofia de la Serna Buzón and David W. Pfennig

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1448

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      We tested the prediction that organisms should evolve mechanisms to detect and respond to cues that predict future conditions using tadpoles of the spadefoot toad, Spea multiplicata. We explored the proximate cues that induce carnivore morph production by rearing tadpoles on different diets, and found that diets containing tadpoles from the genus Scaphiopus produced more carnivores than diets without Scaphiopus tadpoles. These results suggest that production of the carnivore morph is an inducible offense that allows for greater acquisition of a valuable resource.

    34. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evidence for inbreeding depression in a species with limited opportunity for maternal effects

      Regina Vega-Trejo, Megan L. Head and Michael D. Jennions

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1445

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      Limited potential for maternal effects to influence any reduction in offspring fitness, or lack thereof, can be explained by inbreeding depression rather than by maternal effects.(© Photograph by Damien Esquerré).

    35. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Historical abiotic events or human-aided dispersal: inferring the evolutionary history of a newly discovered galaxiid fish

      Gamuchirai Chakona, Ernst R. Swartz and Albert Chakona

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1409

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      The study assessed the relative roles of river capture events, low sea-levels, intermittent freshwater connections and human mediated translocation in shaping the phylogeographical patterns of a newly identified galaxiid that occurs across two currently isolated river systems at the southern tip of Africa.

  2. Reviews

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Life history and biology of Fascioloides magna (Trematoda) and its native and exotic hosts

      Miriama Malcicka

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1414

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      Host-parasite interactions are model systems in a wide range of ecological and evolutionary fields and for testing numerous theories and hypotheses both in terms of both applied and fundamental research. For instance, they are important in terms of studying coevolutionary arms races, species invasions, and in economic terms the health of livestock and humans.

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