Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 7

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA and Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK

Impact Factor: 1.184

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 99/136 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

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  1. 1 - 51
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spatial genetic structure in Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa reveals the effect of contrasting mating system, influence of marine currents, and footprints of postglacial recolonization routes

      Marie Leys, Eric J. Petit, Yasmina El-Bahloul, Camille Liso, Sylvain Fournet and Jean-François Arnaud

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1061

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      We examined the spatial patterns of genetic structure in two related plant species, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa. Our results support a stepwise recolonization of Europe from Atlantic-Mediterranean refugia after the last glacial period, with leading-edge expansions. Peculiar genetic structure of inland populations of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima may also indicate the admixture of distinct evolutionary lineages and recent expansions, possibly associated with anthropogenic disturbances in the Mediterranean areas.

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      Strong selection on mandible and nest features in a carpenter bee that nests in two sympatric host plants

      Luis Flores-Prado, Carlos F. Pinto, Alejandra Rojas and Francisco E. Fontúrbel

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.995

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      Host plants are used by herbivorous insects as feeding or nesting resources. We explored the shape and intensity of natural selection on phenotypic variation on Manuelia postica (Apidae) and its nest features, on two host plants. There were significant and positive linear selection gradients for mandible area and nest length, indicating that bees with brooders mandibles, building long nests have more offspring.

  2. Reviews

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      Hybridization in a warmer world

      Amanda J. Chunco

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1052

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      Climate change is dramatically altering the distribution and behavior of thousands of species. An increased opportunity for hybridization is one potential consequence of this reshuffling of biodiversity. This work reviews current examples of climate-mediated hybridization and provides suggestions for future areas of research.

  3. Original Research

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      Predicting future coexistence in a North American ant community

      Sharon Bewick, Katharine L. Stuble, Jean-Phillipe Lessard, Robert R. Dunn, Frederick R. Adler and Nathan J. Sanders

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1048

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      Using an ant community from Eastern USA, we show that community composition can respond to climate warming in nonintuitive ways – for example, in the context of a community, it is not necessarily the most heat-sensitive species that are most at risk. Our results demonstrate how models that account for niche partitioning and interspecific trade-offs among species can be used to predict the sometimes idiosyncratic responses of local communities to climate change.

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      Fin whale MDH-1 and MPI allozyme variation is not reflected in the corresponding DNA sequences

      Morten Tange Olsen, Christophe Pampoulie, Anna K. Daníelsdóttir, Emmelie Lidh, Martine Bérubé, Gísli A. Víkingsson and Per J. Palsbøll

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1046

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      Studies of North Atlantic fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) population structure have reported contrasting degrees of genetic differentiation in allozyme and nuclear markers. We sequenced the exons encoding for the two most divergent allozyme loci (MDH-1 and MPI) and failed to detect mutations that could account for the reported levels of genetic variation at these markers. Thus, the reported allozyme variation does not appear to be a result of genetic drift, migration, or selection on the MDH-1 and MPI exons themselves, stressing the importance of interpreting allozyme data with caution.

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      Intraspecific variation in vertical habitat use by tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in the western North Atlantic

      Jeremy J. Vaudo, Bradley M. Wetherbee, Guy Harvey, Richard S. Nemeth, Choy Aming, Neil Burnie, Lucy A. Howey-Jordan and Mahmood S. Shivji

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1053

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      We examined the vertical movements of tiger sharks in the northern Caribbean Sea and Bermuda. Although all individuals spent a considerable amount of time near the surface and making oscillatory dives in the upper 50 m, deep diving behaviors were common. In addition, a great deal of intraspecific variability in vertical habitat use was observed that does not appear to be related to tagging location, horizontal movements, sex, or size.

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      Egg load dynamics and the risk of egg and time limitation experienced by an aphid parasitoid in the field

      Christine Dieckhoff, Julian C. Theobald, Felix L. Wäckers and George E. Heimpel

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1023

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      We used a series of field and laboratory studies to investigate factors contributing to the risk for egg and time limitation in the field of this parasitoid species, a biological control agent of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Our results suggest that fecundity of B. communis benefits both from dynamic egg maturation strategies and from sugar-feeding.

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      Very low levels of direct additive genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in a red squirrel population

      S. Eryn McFarlane, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman, Murray M. Humphries, Stan Boutin and Andrew G. McAdam

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.982

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      Additive genetic variance in fitness is needed for microevolution. Here, we tested whether sexual antagonism or temporal fluctuations in selection could be maintaining additive genetic variance in fitness in a wild red squirrel population. We found no evidence for either of these mechanisms or for direct genetic variance in fitness.

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      Immune priming and pathogen resistance in ant queens

      Dumas Gálvez and Michel Chapuisat

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1070

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      We performed the first test of immune priming in ant queens, which have extraordinarily long life span and high fertility. We show that immune priming occurs in naturally mated Lasius niger queens exposed twice to a fungal pathogen. Moreover, the pathogen resistance of ant queens increases after mating. Overall, ant queens are able to invest heavily in both reproduction and maintenance.

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      Optimal surveillance strategy for invasive species management when surveys stop after detection

      Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Cindy E. Hauser and Michael A. McCarthy

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1056

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      We provide tools for establishing the optimal level of surveillance when managing invasive species. Developed within a decision-theoretic spatially explicit framework, our method takes into account species prevalence, detectability, and the costs of monitoring and early/delayed management. Previous work had addressed this optimal resource allocation problem assuming that surveys continue despite detection, until the initially planned survey effort is consumed. Here, we consider an often more realistic scenario where surveys at a site cease once the species is detected and then management begins.

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      Testing for shared biogeographic history in the lower Central American freshwater fish assemblage using comparative phylogeography: concerted, independent, or multiple evolutionary responses?

      Justin C. Bagley and Jerald B. Johnson

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1058

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      A central goal of comparative phylogeography is determining whether codistributed species experienced concerted, independent, or multiple evolutionary responses to past geological and climatic events, as indicated by tests for spatial and temporal congruence. We tested these competing hypotheses using DNA sequence data from three livebearing fish species codistributed in the Nicaraguan depression of Central America (Alfaro cultratus, Poecilia gillii, and Xenophallus umbratilis) that we predicted might display congruent responses due to co-occurrence in identical freshwater drainages. Overall, we found evidence for incongruent spatial-genetic structuring and temporal population divergences in these fishes. Our results suggest that multiple evolutionary responses to historical events have shaped the population structuring of freshwater species codistributed within the complex landscapes in/around the Nicaraguan depression.

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      Spatial genetic features of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) in the Gulf of Mexico: northward movement of a secondary contact zone

      Joel D. Anderson, William J. Karel, Christopher E. Mace, Brian L. Bartram and Matthew P. Hare

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1064

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      Eastern oysters from samples taken in the western Gulf of Mexico were examined using microsatellite markers. Two populations were observed, which overlap in Aransas Bay, TX, with hybrid formation occurring rarely in the contact zone. We present evidence suggesting that Aransas Bay is a zone of recent secondary contact between northern and southern oyster populations.

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      Estimating migratory connectivity of birds when re-encounter probabilities are heterogeneous

      Emily B. Cohen, Jeffrey A. Hostetler, J. Andrew Royle and Peter P. Marra

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1059

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      Understanding the biology and conducting effective conservation of migratory species requires knowledge of migratory connectivity, the geographic linkages of populations between stages of the annual cycle. Unfortunately, we are lacking this information for most migratory species. We demonstrate the use of available large-scale banding and re-encounter data to estimate migratory connectivity for North American breeding birds in a multistate recapture and recovery model that accounts for re-encounter probabilities.

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      Using soil seed banks to assess temporal patterns of genetic variation in invasive plant populations

      Mark Fennell, Tommy Gallagher, Luis Leon Vintro and Bruce Osborne

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1043

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      The paper describes a new methodology for analyzing temporal variations in population genetic structure using seeds derived from soil cores. While there are difficulties in interpreting such data, including accounting for the effects of selection, seed loss, and seed migration, a clear pattern of increasing total allele counts, percentage polymorphic loci, and genetic diversity was observed with decreases in soil depth.

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      Fitness dynamics within a poplar hybrid zone: I. Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers impacting a native poplar hybrid stand

      Amanda D. Roe, Chris J. K. MacQuarrie, Marie-Claude Gros-Louis, J. Dale Simpson, Josyanne Lamarche, Tannis Beardmore, Stacey L. Thompson, Philippe Tanguay and Nathalie Isabel

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1029

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      Native hybrids between Populus deltoides and P. balsamifera expressed fitness traits intermediate to their parental species and were not universally unfit. That said, native hybrid seedlings were absent from the seedling population, which may indicate additional selective pressures controlling their recruitment. Understanding the process of hybridization and subsequent introgression provides insight into the processes shaping the evolutionary trajectory of plant populations.

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      Dynamics of sex ratio and female unmatedness under haplodiploidy

      Andy Gardner

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1045

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      Stable oscillation of the sex ratio in haplodiploid populations has been predicted by classic models, and it remains a puzzle as to why this is not observed in natural populations. I investigate the dynamics of sex allocation over ecological and evolutionary timescales to assess the potential for such sustained oscillation. My model, taken together with empirical estimates of female unmatedness in haplodiploid taxa, suggests that sustained oscillation of the sex ratio is implausible in natural populations, explaining why it is not widely observed.

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      Probabilistic maturation reaction norms assessed from mark–recaptures of wild fish in their natural habitat

      Esben M. Olsen, Dimitar Serbezov and Leif A. Vøllestad

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1044

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      Probabilistic maturation reaction norms, describing probabilities of maturing at combinations of age and body size, have been much applied for separating phenotypic plasticity from evolutionary changes in maturation. However, due to typical field data limitations, this method still needs to be assessed. Using 13 years of direct mark–recapture observations on individual growth and maturation in a population of brown trout (Salmo trutta), we show that the probabilistic maturation reaction norm approach may perform well even if a key assumption of equal survival of juvenile and maturing fish may not hold.

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      Effect of age-based and environment-based cues on reproductive investment in Gambusia affinis

      Eric J. Billman and Mark C. Belk

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1055

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      We examined the multivariate life-history trajectories of age 0 and age 1 female Gambusia affinis to determine relative effects of age-based and environment-based cues on reproductive investment. The reproductive restraint and terminal investment patterns exhibited by age 0 and age 1 females, respectively, were consistent with the predictions from the cost of reproduction hypothesis. Individuals use multiple cues to determine the level of reproductive investment, and the response to each cue is dependent on the age of an individual.

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      Selection and demographic history shape the molecular evolution of the gamete compatibility protein bindin in Pisaster sea stars

      Iva Popovic, Peter B. Marko, John P. Wares and Michael W. Hart

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1042

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      This study investigates the interacting roles of molecular, selective, and demographic processes in promoting patterns of spatial variation and divergence in the gamete compatibility locus, bindin, for species of the sea star genus Pisaster. We discover that positive selection acts on bindin allelic variation in the widespread keystone predator P. ochraceus but not in P. brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus and the predicted effects of selection driven by sexual conflict over fertilization rate. Importantly, we show that the spatial patterns of bindin differentiation and positive selection in P. ochraceus can be explained in a demographic context of low gene flow and relatively recent range expansions along the northeastern Pacific coast, coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution within species.

  4. Reviews

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      Benthic N2 fixation in coral reefs and the potential effects of human-induced environmental change

      Ulisse Cardini, Vanessa N. Bednarz, Rachel A. Foster and Christian Wild

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1050

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      Here, we review the current state of knowledge on benthic dinitrogen (N2) fixation in coral reefs, providing an overview of the symbioses between benthic reef organisms and N2-fixing bacteria. Additionally, we focus on the effects of global anthropogenic stressors on N2 fixation in reef ecosystems. As N2 fixation is fundamental in sustaining the high productivity of coral reefs, environmentally induced changes in the input of fixed nitrogen may alter the functioning of the entire ecosystem.

  5. Original Research

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      Power lines, roads, and avian nest survival: effects on predator identity and predation intensity

      Brett A. DeGregorio, Patrick J. Weatherhead and Jinelle H. Sperry

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1049

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      Nest predators are a driving force shaping avian nesting ecology. Often, nest predators use landscape features, such as roads or power lines, that can influence the frequency of their interactions with nesting birds. Using radiotelemetry and surveys of nest predators, coupled with video monitoring of nests, we documented several strong relationships between the use of landscape features by predators and subsequent effects on avian nesting success.

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      On estimation and identifiability issues of sex-linked inheritance with a case study of pigmentation in Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba)

      Camilla T. Larsen, Anna M. Holand, Henrik Jensen, Ingelin Steinsland and Alexandre Roulin

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1032

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      A nestling Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba) displaying many large black spots. Photo Alexandre Roulin.

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      BIOFRAG – a new database for analyzing BIOdiversity responses to forest FRAGmentation

      Marion Pfeifer, Veronique Lefebvre, Toby A. Gardner, Victor Arroyo-Rodriguez, Lander Baeten, Cristina Banks-Leite, Jos Barlow, Matthew G. Betts, Joerg Brunet, Alexis Cerezo, Laura M. Cisneros, Stuart Collard, Neil D'Cruze, Catarina da Silva Motta, Stephanie Duguay, Hilde Eggermont, Felix Eigenbrod, Adam S. Hadley, Thor R. Hanson, Joseph E. Hawes, Tamara Heartsill Scalley, Brian T. Klingbeil, Annette Kolb, Urs Kormann, Sunil Kumar, Thibault Lachat, Poppy Lakeman Fraser, Victoria Lantschner, William F. Laurance, Inara R. Leal, Luc Lens, Charles J. Marsh, Guido F. Medina-Rangel, Stephanie Melles, Dirk Mezger, Johan A. Oldekop, William L. Overal, Charlotte Owen, Carlos A. Peres, Ben Phalan, Anna M. Pidgeon, Oriana Pilia, Hugh P. Possingham, Max L. Possingham, Dinarzarde C. Raheem, Danilo B. Ribeiro, Jose D. Ribeiro Neto, W Douglas Robinson, Richard Robinson, Trina Rytwinski, Christoph Scherber, Eleanor M. Slade, Eduardo Somarriba, Philip C. Stouffer, Matthew J. Struebig, Jason M. Tylianakis, Teja Tscharntke, Andrew J. Tyre, Jose N. Urbina Cardona, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, Oliver Wearn, Konstans Wells, Michael R. Willig, Eric Wood, Richard P. Young, Andrew V. Bradley and Robert M. Ewers

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1036

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      Taita Thrush - a critically endangered, forest-dependent bird that is endemic to the Taita Hills, Kenya. We have compiled primary datasets on biodiversity responses to forest fragmentation from fragmented landscapes around the world. We describe the organization of data for our new relational BIOFRAG database, its structure, and current status, and how the datasets may be used to analyze habitat fragmentation impacts consistently across landscapes and taxa. The database is dynamic and inclusive, and we detail minimum data requirements and processing steps required to add further inventories to the database, which are warmly invited.

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      Spatial and temporal genetic structure of a river-resident Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after millennia of isolation

      Odd Terje Sandlund, Sten Karlsson, Eva B. Thorstad, Ole Kristian Berg, Matthew P. Kent, Ine C. J. Norum and Kjetil Hindar

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1040

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      The river-resident “småblank” is a unique endemic island population of Atlantic salmon with a special niche and a unique genetic constitution. Living in a restricted area, it is still diversified into subpopulations, and it experiences downstream asymmetric gene flow between subpopulations. The population is in a precarious situation, as the habitat is subject to a variety of anthropogenic impacts. It is important to maintain population size and avoid further habitat fragmentation.

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      Intraspecific variability modulates interspecific variability in animal organismal stoichiometry

      Rana W. El-Sabaawi, Joseph Travis, Eugenia Zandonà, Peter B. McIntyre, David N. Reznick and Alexander Flecker

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.981

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      The figure described interspecific and intraspecific variability in two co-existing stream fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Rivulus hartii). The fish are sampled from two types of communities: with predators (High Predation) and without predators (Low Predation). The figure show that interspecific differences in organismal stoichiometry vary significantly between streams, and are therefore sensitive to background environmental conditions. Differences between the predation communities are subtle, but interspecific differences in OS are slightly noisier in high predation compared to low predation communities.

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      Functional traits composition predict macrophytes community productivity along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake

      Hui Fu, Jiayou Zhong, Guixiang Yuan, Leyi Ni, Ping Xie and Te Cao

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1022

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      In this study, we applied a step-wise modeling procedure to test the relative effects of taxonomic diversity, functional identity, and functional diversity on macrophytes community productivity along water depth gradient. Macrophyte community productivity was strongly determined by functional trait composition within community, but not significantly affected by taxonomic diversity. Our results suggested both mechanisms of mass ratio and niche complementarity can operate simultaneously on variations in community productivity, and considering both CWM and FD would lead to a more profound understanding of traits–productivity relationships.

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      Morphological and life-history responses of anurans to predation by an invasive crayfish: an integrative approach

      Ana L. Nunes, Germán Orizaola, Anssi Laurila and Rui Rebelo

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.979

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      This study focuses on predator-induced plasticity in morphology and life-history traits of an anuran community invaded by an exotic crayfish predator around 25 years ago. We found among-species variation in the ability to respond to novel predators, and our results show that some of the prey species within the invaded community do show adaptive defenses against a recently established predator.

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      One step forward: contrasting the effects of Toe clipping and PIT tagging on frog survival and recapture probability

      Murilo Guimarães, Décio T. Corrêa, Sérgio S. Filho, Thiago A. L. Oliveira, Paul F. Doherty Jr and Ricardo J. Sawaya

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1047

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      We tested the effects of two marking techniques on anurans to estimate survival probabilites. Survival slightly differed between toe pad-clipped and PIT-tagged frogs but did not vary between sexes. Recapture probability was also variable. We discuss potential effects of each technique on studies of frogs and its implications for individual survival.

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      Genomic replacement of native Cobitis lutheri with introduced C. tetralineata through a hybrid swarm following the artificial connection of river systems

      Ye-Seul Kwan, Myeong-Hun Ko and Yong-Jin Won

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1027

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      The construction of water canals about 80 years ago has unidirectionally introduced C. tetralineata into the native habitat of C. lutheri, and then these species have hybridized in the main stream section of the Dongjin River. All the results suggest that the constant introductions of C. tetralineata from the Seomjin River through canals appear to have resulted in the rapid genetic erosion of the native C. lutheri through a creation of hybrid swarm in the Dongjin River.

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      The relationship between DRD4 polymorphisms and phenotypic correlations of behaviors in the collared flycatcher

      László Z. Garamszegi, Jakob C. Mueller, Gábor Markó, Eszter Szász, Sándor Zsebők, Gábor Herczeg, Marcel Eens and János Török

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1041

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      Understanding the genetic architecture of behaviors is crucial for making evolutionary implications especially in wild animals. Here, in a Hungarian population of the collared flycatcher, we investigate how males with distinct DRD4 genotypes differ in the consistent elements of their courtship behavior. We found that “AC” heterozygote individuals at the SNP764 take lower risk than the most common “AA” homozygotes (the “CC” homozygotes were not represented in this subsample of males).

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      Accounting for tagging-to-harvest mortality in a Brownie tag-recovery model by incorporating radio-telemetry data

      Frances E. Buderman, Duane R. Diefenbach, Mary Jo Casalena, Christopher S. Rosenberry and Bret D. Wallingford

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1025

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      The Brownie tag-recovery model is useful for estimating harvest rates but assumes all tagged individuals survive to the first hunting season; otherwise, mortality between time of tagging and the hunting season will cause the Brownie estimator to be negatively biased. We developed a joint model to estimate harvest and annual survival rates that combines known-fate data from animals fitted with transmitters to estimate the probability of surviving the period from capture to the first hunting season, and data from reward-tagged animals in a Brownie tag-recovery model. The joint known-fate tag-recovery model eliminates the requirement to capture and mark animals immediately prior to the hunting season to obtain accurate and precise estimates of harvest rate.

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      Woody encroachment reduces nutrient limitation and promotes soil carbon sequestration

      Wilma J. Blaser, Griffin K. Shanungu, Peter J. Edwards and Harry Olde Venterink

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1024

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      We studied the effects of woody encroachment on soil N, P, and C pools, and availabilities of N and P to Dichrostachys cinerea shrubs and to the understory vegetation. Both N and P pools in the soil increased along gradients of shrub age and cover, suggesting that N fixation by D. cinerea did not reduce the P supply. This in turn suggests that continued growth and carbon sequestration in this mesic savanna ecosystems are unlikely to be constrained by nutrient limitation and could represent a C sink for several decades.

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      High genetic diversity in a small population: the case of Chilean blue whales

      Juan P. Torres-Florez, Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete, Howard Rosenbaum and Christian C. Figueroa

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.998

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      It is generally assumed that species with low population sizes have lower genetic diversities than larger populations. However, this would not be the case of long-lived species with long generation times, and which populations have declined due to anthropogenic effects. We find no relationship between genetic diversity and population size in probably one of the most endangered species on seas, the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus).

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      Use of posterior predictive checks as an inferential tool for investigating individual heterogeneity in animal population vital rates

      Thierry Chambert, Jay J. Rotella and Megan D. Higgs

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.993

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      We show how posterior predictive checks can be used to strengthen inferences in ecological studies. We demonstrate the application of this method on analyses dealing with the question of individual reproductive heterogeneity in a population of Antarctic pinnipeds.

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      110 Years of change in urban tree stocks and associated carbon storage

      Daniel F. Díaz-Porras, Kevin J. Gaston and Karl L. Evans

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1017

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      Using repeat photography, we demonstrate that in Sheffield, UK, we show that between 1900 to 2010, urban tree stocks initially declined and then increased significantly, resulting in a doubling of aboveground carbon storage. Rates of temporal change were not uniform across the spatial urbanization gradient, which has implications for the use of space-for-time swops in urban environments. Increase in small trees was greatest in areas with little green space, sites which had the smallest increase in large trees. Investment in urban tree planting is required to maintain the positive direction of change, but their long-term legacy requires changes in management to increase the proportion of such trees that mature.

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      Genomic heritability estimation for the early life-history transition related to propensity to migrate in wild rainbow and steelhead trout populations

      Guo Hu, Chunkao Wang and Yang Da

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1038

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      Applying genomic heritability estimation to this dataset, we found that smoltification in the UYR population was completely determined by genetics, with 95.5% additive heritability and 4.5% dominance heritability, whereas smoltification in the UMC population had substantial dominance effects, with 0% additive heritability and 39.3% dominance heritability. Genomic-predicted additive effects completely separated migratory and nonmigratory fish in the UYR population, whereas genomic-predicted dominance effects achieved such complete separation in the UMC population. The UMC population had higher genomic additive and dominance correlations than the UYR population, and fish between these two populations had least genomic correlations. These results suggested blocking the free access to the ocean may have reduced genetic variation associated with the early life-history transition related to propensity to migrate, increased genomic similarity or reduced genetic diversity within the Upper Mann Creek population.

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      Evaluating monitoring methods to guide adaptive management of a threatened amphibian (Litoria aurea)

      Deborah S. Bower, Evan J. Pickett, Michelle P. Stockwell, Carla J. Pollard, James I. Garnham, Madeleine R. Sanders, John Clulow and Michael J. Mahony

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.980

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      We monitored a population of L. aurea at Sydney Olympic Park over 5 years using mark–recapture, capture encounter, noncapture encounter, auditory, tadpole trapping, and dip-net surveys. The methods differed in the cost, time, and ability to detect changes in the population. Only capture encounter surveys were able to detect a decline in the occupancy, relative abundance, and recruitment of frogs during the surveys.

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      Delimiting cryptic pathogen species causing apple Valsa canker with multilocus data

      Xuli Wang, Rui Zang, Zhiyuan Yin, Zhensheng Kang and Lili Huang

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1030

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      We used sequence data from three nuclear loci (ITS, Btu, EF1α) to identify cryptic species within the morphological species Valsa mali causing canker on apple. Our results proved that two varieties of the former morphological species V. mali represented two distinct species, V. mali and V. pyri.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Defining conservation units in a stocking-induced genetic melting pot: unraveling native and multiple exotic genetic imprints of recent and historical secondary contact in Adriatic grayling

      Andreas Meraner, Luca Cornetti and Andrea Gandolfi

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.931

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      The conservation of Thymallus thymallus is particularly complex in its southern distribution area, where the Adriatic grayling evolutionary lineage is endangered by a long history of human pressure. Through mtDNA sequencing and microsatellite genotyping of grayling from 30 Adriatic and European sites, we describe microgeographic population structure and demographic history of the Adriatic populations. We observed significant population substructuring within the Adriatic grayling Evolutionary Significant Unit, and we therefore propose the definition of different conservation units to be preserved according to appropriate management measures.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The genetics of phenotypic plasticity. XIII. Interactions with developmental instability

      Samuel M. Scheiner

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1039

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      In a heterogeneous environment, natural selection on a trait can lead to a variety of outcomes, including phenotypic plasticity and bet-hedging through developmental instability. When plasticity and instability were determined by different loci, the only effect on the evolution of plasticity was the elimination of plasticity as a bet-hedging strategy, while instability was generally disfavored. When plasticity and instability were determined by the same loci, instability acted as a strong limitation on the evolution of plasticity.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Two sexes, one body: intra- and intersex covariation of gamete phenotypes in simultaneous hermaphrodites

      Keyne Monro and Dustin J. Marshall

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1035

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      We present novel empirical evidence of phenotypic integration within and across sexual functions (sperm and eggs) in two broadcast-spawning hermaphrodites, implying that that selection may be unable to target these functions independently because direct selection on traits of one sex is translated into correlated effects on traits of the other.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Do females invest more into eggs when males sing more attractively? Postmating sexual selection strategies in a monogamous reed passerine

      Ján Krištofík, Alžbeta Darolová, Juraj Majtan, Monika Okuliarová, Michal Zeman and Herbert Hoi

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1034

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      Males mate faster when they sing more complex. Female egg investment is related to male song performance in several aspects.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Which host-dependent insects are most prone to coextinction under changed climates?

      Melinda L. Moir, Lesley Hughes, Peter A. Vesk and Mei Chen Leng

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1021

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      The Bluff Knoll leaf beetle (Cudnellia sp. nov.; Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera, inset) from the biodiversity hotspot of southwest Australia is potentially threatened with coextinction with climate change. It occurs on threatened Ericaceae plants (Leucopogon, Sphenotoma, and Andersonia, flowering in picture) and is restricted to the two highest summits in the region.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Changes in ground beetle assemblages above and below the treeline of the Dolomites after almost 30 years (1980/2009)

      Roberto Pizzolotto, Mauro Gobbi and Pietro Brandmayr

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.927

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      This study focuses on an altitudinal habitat sequence from subalpine spruce forest to alpine grassland in a low disturbance area of the southeastern Dolomites, the Paneveggio Regional Park.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A statistical simulation model for field testing of non-target organisms in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

      Paul W. Goedhart, Hilko van der Voet, Ferdinando Baldacchino and Salvatore Arpaia

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1019

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      This paper describes a general framework for simulating data typically encountered in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. The framework comprises most aspects of comparative field experiments such as count data, excess-zeros, blocking, multiple trials, genotype by environment interaction and repeated measures. It enables a prospective power analysis.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      High rates of growth recorded for hawksbill sea turtles in Anegada, British Virgin Islands

      Lucy A. Hawkes, Andrew McGowan, Annette C. Broderick, Shannon Gore, Damon Wheatley, Jim White, Matthew J. Witt and Brendan J. Godley

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1018

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      In the present study, we estimated growth rate of juvenile hawksbill turtles around Anegada, British Virgin Islands, using capture–mark–recapture of 59 turtles over periods of up to 649 days. Across all sizes, turtles grew at an average rate of 9.3 cm per year (range 2.3–20.3 cm year−1), and gained mass at an average of 3.9 kg year−1 (range 850 g–16.1 kg year−1). These are among the fastest rates of growth reported for this species, with seven turtles growing at a rate that would increase their body size by more than half per year (51–69% increase in body length).

    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Flow-mediated plasticity in the expression of stickleback nesting glue genes

      Paul J. Seear, Megan L. Head, Ceinwen A. Tilley, Ezio Rosato and Iain Barber

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1016

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      Nest construction is an essential component of the reproductive behavior of many species, and to maximize reproductive success, nests must be suited to local environmental conditions. Here, we examine the effect of experimentally manipulated water flow rates on the expression of genes that encode a protein glue (“spiggin”) that plays a critically important role in nest construction in three-spined stickleback fish. We found that the flow regime experienced by nest-building male fish not only dramatically alters the overall level of spiggin gene expression, but also that the relative expression of different spiggin genes – which encode different components of the glue – is differentially affected.

    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Active colonization dynamics and diversity patterns are influenced by dendritic network connectivity and species interactions

      Mathew Seymour and Florian Altermatt

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1020

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      Network connectivity influences colonization dynamics, species invasions, and biodiversity patterns. Recent theoretical work suggests that dendritic networks, such as those found in rivers, alter expectations regarding colonization and dispersal dynamics compared with other network types. Here, we tested the effect of network connectivity and species interactions on colonization dynamics using continuous linear and dendritic (i.e., river-like) microcosm networks, which allow for active dispersal. Our experimental findings confirm previous theoretical work and show that network connectivity, species-specific dispersal ability, and species interactions greatly influence the dispersal and colonization of dendritic networks.

    29. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Modelling the distribution of Aspalathus linearis (Rooibos tea): implications of climate change for livelihoods dependent on both cultivation and harvesting from the wild

      Daleen Lötter and David le Maitre

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.985

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      Bioclimatic modelling was employed to model A. linearis' (Rooibos tea) distribution and develop possible scenarios of range/suitability shift under future climate conditions. The species exhibited substantial range contraction with some range shifts southeastwards and upslope. As an invaluable wild resource for local people and commercially cultivated plant, these findings are critical to protect wild rooibos populations and sustain commercial production.

    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Color expression in experimentally regrown feathers of an overwintering migratory bird: implications for signaling and seasonal interactions

      Christopher M. Tonra, Kristen L. D. Marini, Peter P. Marra, Ryan R. Germain, Rebecca L. Holberton and Matthew W. Reudink

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.994

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      We examined the production of colorful feathers known to play a role in sexual selection in a migratory bird while on its tropical wintering grounds. Regardless of habitat and physiological condition, adult males experienced a reduction in the color quality in replaced feathers. Our findings illustrate how visual signals can be limited by the ability of individuals to maintain their quality throughout the year, and for migratory animals, across multiple locations.

    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs

      Susan Hodgson, Catherine de Cates, Joshua Hodgson, Neil J. Morley, Brian C. Sutton and Alan C. Gange

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.953

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      Endophyte fungi in forbs are transmitted within plant generations on and inside pollen grains. They are transmitted between plant generations via the seeds.

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