Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 14

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA; Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK; Jennifer Firn, Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Impact Factor: 2.537

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 54/149 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

VIEW

  1. 1 - 78
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      High herbivore pressure favors constitutive over induced defense

      Ryan J. Bixenmann, Phyllis D. Coley, Alexander Weinhold and Thomas A. Kursar

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2208

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In habitats with high herbivore pressure, such as tropical rainforests, leaves invest in constitutive rather than induced defenses, supporting a little tested aspect of the theory of induction. Constitutive defenses can comprise up to 25% D.W. of the young leaves.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Early warning signals detect critical impacts of experimental warming

      Lauren Jarvis, Kevin McCann, Tyler Tunney, Gabriel Gellner and John M. Fryxell

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2339

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Here, we integrate trait performance theory with that of critical tipping points to test whether early warning signals can be reliably used to anticipate thermally induced extinction events. We find that a model parameterized by experimental growth rates exhibits critical slowing down in the vicinity of an experimentally tested critical threshold, suggesting that dynamical early warning signals may be useful in detecting the potentially precipitous onset of population collapse due to global climate change.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Differentiation in putative male sex pheromone components across and within populations of the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana as a potential driver of reproductive isolation

      Paul M. B. Bacquet, Maaike A. de Jong, Oskar Brattström, Hong-Lei Wang, Freerk Molleman, Stéphanie Heuskin, George Lognay, Christer Löfstedt, Paul M. Brakefield, Alain Vanderpoorten and Caroline M. Nieberding

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2298

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Strong divergence of sexual traits between species is often seen as a cue that they trigger reproductive isolation and speciation. As trait divergence can alternatively be a consequence of speciation, it is important to compare genetic and phenotypic divergence to know which arose first. We observed that the putative male sex pheromone in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana diverged among and within wild-caught African populations despite no or low genetic differentiation. Sex pheromone composition may therefore act as a precursor of reproductive isolation and speciation in this butterfly group.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Human-modified habitats change patterns of population genetic structure and group relatedness in Peter's tent-roosting bats

      Maria Sagot, Caleb D. Phillips, Robert J. Baker and Richard D. Stevens

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2255

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this article, we combine information on roosting associations with genetic structure of Peter's tent-roosting bats, Uroderma bilobatum to address how different kinds of environmental characteristics at different scales may be affecting stability of social groups.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Linking leaf veins to growth and mortality rates: an example from a subtropical tree community

      Yoshiko Iida, I-Fang Sun, Charles A. Price, Chien-Teh Chen, Zueng-Sang Chen, Jyh-Min Chiang, Chun-Lin Huang and Nathan G. Swenson

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2311

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We investigated whether leaf venation traits are important predictors of tree demographic rates using a large tree demography dataset from a subtropical forest and compared these results with those of other commonly measured species traits. Our results showed that leaf vein traits are significantly related to tree demographic performance together with other traits.

  2. Reviews

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Strategies for determining kinship in wild populations using genetic data

      Veronika Städele and Linda Vigilant

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2346

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The assessment of kinship among members of wild animal populations is difficult in the absence of detailed multigenerational pedigrees. We suggest possible approaches and discuss how recent advances in single-nucleotide polymorphism-typing technology and whole-genome sequencing from noninvasive samples might eventually lead to highly reliable classifications of even distant kinds of relatives in wild populations.

  3. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dietary habits of polar bears in Foxe Basin, Canada: possible evidence of a trophic regime shift mediated by a new top predator

      Melissa P. Galicia, Gregory W. Thiemann, Markus G. Dyck, Steven H. Ferguson and Jeff W. Higdon

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2173

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We used fatty acid analysis to determine polar bear feeding habits in Foxe Basin and thus potentially identify ecological factors contributing to population stability. The spatial and seasonal variation in diet suggests polar bears are exploiting locally abundant prey and may seasonally shift their foraging preferences. In addition, the presence of bowhead whales in the diets of bears suggests that scavenging on carcasses provided by killer whale predation may serve as an increasingly important supplemental food source.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Robust calling performance in frogs infected by a deadly fungal pathogen

      Sasha E. Greenspan, Elizabeth A. Roznik, Lin Schwarzkopf, Ross A. Alford and David A. Pike

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2256

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We examined whether calls emitted by frogs Litoria rheocola with fungal infections differed from those of uninfected individuals in duration, pulse rate, dominant frequency, call rate, or intercall interval, the attributes commonly linked to mate choice. We found no effects of fungal infection status or infection intensity on any call attribute. This has implications for the evolution of disease resistance and tolerance.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Does stream flow structure woody riparian vegetation in subtropical catchments?

      Cassandra S. James, Stephen J. Mackay, Angela H. Arthington, Samantha J. Capon, Anna Barnes and Ben Pearson

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2249

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study demonstrates the relevance of an ELOHA-type flow classification to variation in the structure of riparian vegetation across a subtropical landscape, and the importance of studying the influence of covarying drivers (particularly climate) on riparian vegetation patterns. Management of environmental flows to influence riparian vegetation assemblages would likely have most potential in sites dominated by rheophytic species where hydrological influences override other controls.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Subterranean termite phylogeography reveals multiple postglacial colonization events in southwestern Europe

      Thomas Lefebvre, Edward L. Vargo, Marie Zimmermann, Simon Dupont, Magdalena Kutnik and Anne-Geneviève Bagnères

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2333

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Phylogeography of termites in southwestern Europe revealed postglacial colonization routes from southern Spain to France, where populations underwent strong genetic bottlenecks after traversing the Pyrenees resulting in parapatric speciation.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A comparison of absolute performance of different correlative and mechanistic species distribution models in an independent area

      Farzin Shabani, Lalit Kumar and Mohsen Ahmadi

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2332

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      There are a variety of models available; each one of them functions slightly differently and needs slightly different background data. For the layman, it is difficult to decide which model is the best for their particular application. We explored the combination of the correlative and mechanistic modeling in complementary fashion, as a means to develop a more robust technique for bioclimatic modeling.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      What explains patterns of species richness? The relative importance of climatic-niche evolution, morphological evolution, and ecological limits in salamanders

      Kenneth H. Kozak and John J. Wiens

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2301

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand why species richness varies among clades and here we test the relative importance of rates of morphological evolution and rates of climatic niche evolution in explaining patterns of richness among major clades of Plethodontidae (the most species-rich family of salamanders). Using phylogenetic multiple regression, we show that rates of climatic-niche evolution explain most variation in richness among plethodontid clades, whereas rates of morphological evolution do not. Overall, our results help explain richness patterns in a major amphibian group and provide possibly the first test of the relative importance of climatic niches and morphological evolution in explaining diversity patterns.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Factors influencing the survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids through multiple dam passages: an individual-based approach

      Timothy Elder, Christa M. Woodley, Mark A. Weiland and Angela L. Strecker

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2326

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Salmonid smolt experience an anthropogenically altered river environment during their seaward migration through the Lower Columbia River hydrosystem. High flow volumes and involuntary spillway discharge created an environment of supersaturated dissolved gas concentrations in which smolt survival was strongly influenced by barometric pressure, fish velocity, and water temperature and was compounded by multiple dam passages compared to fish passing a single dam. Despite spatial isolation between dams in the Lower Columbia River hydrosystem, migrating smolt appear to experience cumulative effects akin to a press disturbance.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Life history evolution and cellular mechanisms associated with increased size in high-altitude Drosophila

      Justin B. Lack, Amir Yassin, Quentin D. Sprengelmeyer, Evan J. Johanning, Jean R. David and John E. Pool

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2327

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We investigate developmental mechanisms of size evolution in the largest known natural population of Drosophila melanogaster, from the highlands of Ethiopia. We find that large size did not result from extended larval development, but is associated with the production of fewer but larger eggs. We also find that both cell proliferation and cell size have contributed to enlarged wing and thoracic muscle cells.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Interspecific variation in the relationship between clutch size, laying date and intensity of urbanization in four species of hole-nesting birds

      Marie Vaugoyeau, Frank Adriaensen, Alexandr Artemyev, Jerzy Bańbura, Emilio Barba, Clotilde Biard, Jacques Blondel, Zihad Bouslama, Jean-Charles Bouvier, Jordi Camprodon, Francesco Cecere, Anne Charmantier, Motti Charter, Mariusz Cichoń, Camillo Cusimano, Dorota Czeszczewik, Virginie Demeyrier, Blandine Doligez, Claire Doutrelant, Anna Dubiec, Marcel Eens, Tapio Eeva, Bruno Faivre, Peter N. Ferns, Jukka T. Forsman, Eduardo García-del-Rey, Aya Goldshtein, Anne E. Goodenough, Andrew G. Gosler, Arnaud Grégoire, Lars Gustafsson, Iga Harnist, Ian R. Hartley, Philipp Heeb, Shelley A. Hinsley, Paul Isenmann, Staffan Jacob, Rimvydas Juškaitis, Erkki Korpimäki, Indrikis Krams, Toni Laaksonen, Marcel M. Lambrechts, Bernard Leclercq, Esa Lehikoinen, Olli Loukola, Arne Lundberg, Mark C. Mainwaring, Raivo Mänd, Bruno Massa, Tomasz D. Mazgajski, Santiago Merino, Cezary Mitrus, Mikko Mönkkönen, Xavier Morin, Ruedi G. Nager, Jan-Åke Nilsson, Sven G. Nilsson, Ana C. Norte, Markku Orell, Philippe Perret, Christopher M. Perrins, Carla S. Pimentel, Rianne Pinxten, Heinz Richner, Hugo Robles, Seppo Rytkönen, Juan Carlos Senar, Janne T. Seppänen, Luis Pascoal da Silva, Tore Slagsvold, Tapio Solonen, Alberto Sorace, Martyn J. Stenning, Piotr Tryjanowski, Mikael von Numers, Wieslaw Walankiewicz and Anders Pape Møller

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2335

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Urban areas have specific environmental characteristics, which could influence the physiology, life history, and population dynamics of animals. Even if urban area becomes more common, few studies analysed local urbanization influence on laying date and clutch size, two life history traits which are important in bird population dynamics. We found that for the four passerine species, the intensity of urbanisation was not correlated with laying date, while clutch sizes in collared and pied flycatchers decreased with increasing degree of urbanisation.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Female fecundity traits in wild populations of African annual fish: the role of the aridity gradient

      Milan Vrtílek and Martin Reichard

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2337

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This article studied the evolution of female reproductive allocation in 25 wild populations of African annual fishes, Nothobranchius furzeri and Nothobranchius orthonotus, with respect to life expectancy gradient associated with aridity and pool desiccation and to population genetic background. Data did not directly support hypothesis of a higher reproductive allocation in populations with shorter life expectancy; local conditions and growth plasticity overridden potential genetic effects that can be detected under natural conditions. Eggs size in arid region, however, was less limited by female fecundity (number of eggs) than in humid region, and this relationship has been confirmed by data from two separate years.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Do not feed the wildlife: associations between garbage use, aggression, and disease in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo)

      Bonnie Fairbanks Flint, Dana M. Hawley and Kathleen A. Alexander

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2343

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Banded mongooses foraging in garbage display more aggression than those in natural foraging habitat. Increased aggression in troops is associated with an increased level of injury. There is a strong association between injuries and the probability of infection with the tuberculosis pathogen Mycobacterium mungi, probably because this pathogen enters through breaks in the skin.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Limiting inbreeding in disjunct and isolated populations of a woody shrub

      Jane F. Sampson, Margaret Byrne, Neil Gibson and Colin Yates

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2322

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mating system parameters and paternity analyses suggest that there is a system to prevent self-pollination and promote outcrossing in disjunct and genetically isolated populations of the fire-sensitive, woody, insect-pollinated shrub H. oldfieldii and that the distribution of mates within populations promotes extensive pollen dispersal and paternal diversity. These features would promote genetic diversity within the limited seed stored in the canopy and contribute to the persistence of isolated populations.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Foraging decisions underlying restricted space use: effects of fire and forage maturation on large herbivore nutrient uptake

      Edward J. Raynor, Anthony Joern, Jesse B. Nippert and John M. Briggs

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2304

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We show the use of the forage maturation hypothesis in understanding landscape-level distribution of an ecologically important large herbivore in a mesic grassland system with an intact fire–grazer interaction. Fine-scale observations are used to address how foraging activities are consistent with predictions of the forage maturation hypothesis in a grassland managed with fire.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of climate warming on plant autotoxicity in forest evolution: a case simulation analysis for Picea schrenkiana regeneration

      Xiao Ruan, Cun-De Pan, Run Liu, Zhao-Hui Li, Shu-Ling LI, De-An Jiang, Jing-Chi Zhang, Geoff Wang, Yin-Xian Zhao and Qiang Wang

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2315

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This work conducted a case study on regeneration of Picea schrenkiana to address how does climate warming affect autotoxicity of plants and then the forest evolution.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Born blonde: a recessive loss-of-function mutation in the melanocortin 1 receptor is associated with cream coat coloration in Antarctic fur seals

      Lucy Peters, Emily Humble, Nicole Kröcker, Birgit Fuchs, Jaume Forcada and Joseph I. Hoffman

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2290

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We sequenced the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) of 70 wild-type and 26 cream-coloured Antarctic fur seals and identified a recessive loss-of-function mutation clearly associated with cream coat colour. In order to evaluate whether homozygosity at the MC1R could be indicative of low genome-wide heterozygosity, we also genotyped all individuals at 50 polymorphic microsatellite loci and found no difference in standardized multilocus heterozygosity between wild-type and cream-coloured individuals. Such a lack of association implies that hypopigmented individuals are unlikely to suffer disproportionally from inbreeding depression and thus do not appear to be at a selective disadvantage in the wider population.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Positive and negative effects of mesograzers on early-colonizing species in an intertidal rocky-shore community

      Daniela Tejada-Martinez, Daniela N. López, César C. Bonta, Roger D. Sepúlveda and Nelson Valdivia

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2323

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, the human-driven extinction of large consumers has resulted in an increase in the dominance of herbivores with smaller body sizes (i.e., “mesograzers”). We used an intertidal rocky-shore community to determine whether mesograzers (i.e., small snails, amphipods, and juvenile limpets) have significant effects on the structure of a macrobenthic sessile community during its early colonization. Our results showed that small herbivores had significant effects on community structure through direct negative and indirect positive effects on benthic species. Therefore, small herbivores might have a strong controlling effect on community structure potentially due to the functional extinction of larger consumers due to exploitation.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Across species-pool aggregation alters grassland productivity and diversity

      Thomas P. McKenna and Kathryn A. Yurkonis

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2325

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The frequency of inter- and intraspecific relationships were manipulated along richness and evenness gradients to determine effects on diversity and productivity responses. Increasing intraspecific interactions decreased biomass production and increased diversity, but biodiversity effects were not altered.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Examining variation in the leaf mass per area of dominant species across two contrasting tropical gradients in light of community assembly

      Margot Neyret, Lisa Patrick Bentley, Imma Oliveras, Beatriz S. Marimon, Ben Hur Marimon-Junior, Edmar Almeida de Oliveira, Fábio Barbosa Passos, Rosa Castro Ccoscco, Josias dos Santos, Simone Matias Reis, Paulo S. Morandi, Gloria Rayme Paucar, Arturo Robles Cáceres, Yolvi Valdez Tejeira, Yovana Yllanes Choque, Norma Salinas, Alexander Shenkin, Gregory P. Asner, Sandra Díaz, Brian J. Enquist and Yadvinder Malhi

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2281

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We examined inter- and intraspecific variation in leaf mass per area (LMA) of sun and shade leaves along a 3330-m elevation gradient in Peru, and in sun leaves across a forest–savanna vegetation gradient in Brazil. We also compared LMA variance ratios (T-statistics metrics) to null models to explore filtering on community structure along the gradients. Patterns in LMA across both gradients were consistent with the leaf economic spectrum and perhaps due to internal filtering in montane forests, and environmental filtering in forests in lowlands and cloud zone edges and in dry savannas.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Steep, coincident, and concordant clines in mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded genes in a hybrid zone between subspecies of Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus

      Jessica L. McKenzie, Rashpal S. Dhillon and Patricia M. Schulte

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2324

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using patterns of genetic variation in 30 nuclear and two mitochondrial SNPs, we detected elevated heterozygote deficit and cytonuclear disequilibrium in populations near the centre of the mtDNA cline which connects the subspecies of the Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Furthermore, when hybrid index was calculated using a subset of non-neutral markers, the distribution of hybrid indices deviated from unimodality. These findings suggest that selection against advanced-generation hybrids is responsible for stabilizing the steep genetic clines observed across this hybrid zone.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Limited spatial response to direct predation risk by African herbivores following predator reintroduction

      Andrew B. Davies, Craig J. Tambling, Graham I.H. Kerley and Gregory P. Asner

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2312

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The functional responses of different prey species to predation risk and how prey strategies vary across ecosystems and in response to predator reintroduction are poorly understood. We investigated the spatial distributions of six African herbivores varying in foraging strategy and body size in response to habitat factors, time of day, and predation risk by recently reintroduced lions in the thicket biome of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, using camera trap surveys, GPS telemetry, kill site locations, and Light Detection and Ranging. Spatial distributions of all species were driven primarily by environmental factors, with limited responses to direct predation risk, suggesting that risk effects are relatively weak when predator densities are low and the time since reintroduction short. These findings emphasize the need for robust, long-term monitoring of predator reintroductions to place such events, which are becoming more common, in the broader context of predation risk effects.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      High-throughput sequencing and graph-based cluster analysis facilitate microsatellite development from a highly complex genome

      Abhijeet B. Shah, Holger Schielzeth, Andreas Albersmeier, Joern Kalinowski and Joseph I. Hoffman

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2305

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      High throughput sequencing and graph-based cluster analysis of repetitive elements facilitates microsatellite development from a highly complex genome.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Introducing BioSARN – an ecological niche model refinement tool

      Marshall J. Heap

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2331

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The BioSARN application provides the ecological modeler with a convenient toolset to refine environmental niche model output to better approximate a biological species' realized distribution. These tools include feature file filtering, niche area quantification, and novel features including enhanced temporal corridor definition and output to a high spatial resolution land class model.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic diversity and evolutionary history of the Schizothorax species complex in the Lancang River (upper Mekong)

      Weitao Chen, Yanjun Shen, Xiaoni Gan, Xuzhen Wang and Shunping He

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2319

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In the current study, multiple sequences from the mitochondrial control region, the cytochrome b gene, and two nuclear genes were used to re-examine genetic diversity and investigate the evolutionary history of the closely related Schizothorax species complex inhabiting the Lancang River.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Determination of DNA methylation associated with Acer rubrum (red maple) adaptation to metals: analysis of global DNA modifications and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism

      Nam-Soo Kim, Min-Ji Im and Kabwe Nkongolo

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2320

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The main objective of the present study was to assess if DNA methylation is involved in A. rubrum adaptation to soil metal contamination. The global modified cytosine ratios in genomic DNA revealed a significant decrease in cytosine methylation in genotypes from a metal-contaminated site compared to uncontaminated populations. Other genotypes from different metal-contaminated sites appear to be recalcitrant to metal-induced DNA alterations even ≥30 years of tree life exposure to nickel and copper. MSAP analysis showed a high level of polymorphisms in both uncontaminated (77%) and metal-contaminated (72%) populations. For methylated loci, molecular variance among and within populations were 1.5% and 13.2%, respectively. These values were low (0.6% for among populations and 5.8% for within populations) for unmethylated loci. Metal contamination is seen to affect methylation of cytosine residues in CCGG motifs in the A. rubrum populations that were analyzed.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mitonuclear coevolution as the genesis of speciation and the mitochondrial DNA barcode gap

      Geoffrey E. Hill

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2338

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Animals must have coadapted mitochondrial and nuclear genotypes to enable core respiratory function, and selection for coadaptation leads to divergence between populations in mitonuclear genotype. Barcoding of mitochondrial genes accurately identifies species because species are defined by mitonuclear genotype. Mitonuclear coevolution to achieve better adaptive function of cellular respiration can also drive speciation.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Seed preferences by rodents in the agri-environment and implications for biological weed control

      Christina Fischer and Manfred Türke

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2329

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The seed fate is one important step in plants’ life cycle and either reduces or facilitates plant recruitment. In a field and a complementary laboratory experiment, we tested small rodents’ seed feeding behavior and their ecosystem functions as seed predators and/or endozoochorous seed dispersers. Our results suggest that voles provide ecosystem services by reducing densities of (common) weed seeds, rather than facilitating plant recruitment by endozoochory. The risk of affecting endangered arable plants by small rodents’ seed predation seems to be low, as these plant species were less preferred than common weed seeds.

    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evolution of opercle bone shape along a macrohabitat gradient: species identification using mtDNA and geometric morphometric analyses in neotropical sea catfishes (Ariidae)

      Madlen Stange, Gabriel Aguirre-Fernández, Richard G. Cooke, Tito Barros, Walter Salzburger and Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2334

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A mitochondrial DNA marker proved suitable to detect species distributions and suggest the existence cryptic species contained in Bagre pinnimaculatus. Opercle shape in neotropical sea catfishes (Ariidae) is strongly affected by phylogeny promoting it as a suitable taxonomic tool for species identification. Further, the adaptation to freshwater habitat shows characteristic opercle shape trajectories, which might be useful to detect habitat preferences in fossils.

    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Endurance of larch forest ecosystems in eastern Siberia under warming trends

      Hisashi Sato, Hideki Kobayashi, Go Iwahana and Takeshi Ohta

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2285

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Larch forest ecosystem in eastern Siberia is considered to be dependent on near-surface permafrost through its function of inhibiting subsurface water drainage. We examined whether this ecosystem has endurance for a forecasted climatic change by the end of the 21st century. Although surface permafrost is forecasted to be disappeared in eastern Siberia, resulting in subsurface water drainage, as both air temperature and annual precipitation are forecasted to increase, soil water content during growing season would not decrease, and hence, larch forest ecosystem is shown to be sustained in eastern Siberia.

    29. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Pollen transfer in fragmented plant populations: insight from the pollen loads of pollinators and stigmas in a mass-flowering species

      Chloé E. L. Delmas, Thomas L. C. Fort, Nathalie Escaravage and André Pornon

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2280

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Understanding the processes by which mate and pollinator limitations affect plant reproduction has become a major scientific challenge in the context of anthropogenic changes. We demonstrate that pollinator limitation decreases the quantity of pollination services while mate limitation decreases both the quantity and quality of pollination services.

    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Patterns of genetic diversity of the cryptogenic red alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) suggest multiple origins of the Atlantic populations

      Alexandre Geoffroy, Christophe Destombe, Byeongseok Kim, Stéphane Mauger, María Paula Raffo, Myung Sook Kim and Line Le Gall

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2135

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The red alga Polysiphonia morrowii has been reported worldwide and we determine (with combined analyses of chloroplastic and mitochondrial DNA) the origin of the French and Argentine introduced populations. The genetic structure of P. morrowii populations from introduced areas, which displayed high haplotype diversity compared with populations from native area, suggested the occurrence of multiple introduction events. Our study suggests recent recurrent introduction events through human activities and we therefore conclude that P. morrowii is a cryptogenic species.

    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Biogeography of dinoflagellate cysts in northwest Atlantic estuaries

      Andrea M. Price, Vera Pospelova, Michael R. S. Coffin, James S. Latimer and Gail L. Chmura

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2262

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A total of 69 surface sediments from 23 northeast USA estuaries, from Maine to Delaware and four estuaries from Prince Edward Island (Canada), were analyzed to determine the effect of estuary type, biogeography and water quality on the spatial distribution of organic walled dinoflagellate cysts. The spatial distribution of cyst taxa was found to reflect biogeographic provinces established by other marine organisms, with Cape Cod separating the northern Acadian province from the southern Virginian province. The large geographic extent of this study, encompassing four main estuary types (riverine, lagoon, coastal embayment, and fjord), allowed us to determine that the type of estuary is an important parameter influencing cyst assemblages.

    32. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus lives close to the upper thermal limit for early development in a tropical lagoon

      Rachel Collin and Kit Yu Karen Chan

      Version of Record online: 17 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2317

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We tested critical upper thermal limits for various life stages of the tropical urchin L. variegatus and found that early embryonic development (but not fertilization) appears to be the stage most susceptible to acute thermal stress. Growth and survival of larvae raised under a range of temperatures show that they may already occasionally experience conditions that reduce growth and survival at our study site. These results are important because global warming will likely heat tropical nearshore waters and could extirpate species with low thermal tolerances like these important ecosystem engineers.

    33. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Fitness implications of seasonal climate variation in Columbian ground squirrels

      F. Stephen Dobson, Jeffrey E. Lane, Matthew Low and Jan O. Murie

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2279

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Seasonal climate variables influence fitness in Columbian ground squirrels. Snow melt-off in spring has gotten later in the past 21 years, and early summer rainfall has become sparser. Both climate variables had significant negative influences on annual fitness, although the latter was a slightly stronger influence.

    34. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evolution of alternative insect life histories in stochastic seasonal environments

      Sami M. Kivelä, Panu Välimäki and Karl Gotthard

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2310

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We model the effects of stochastic variation in seasonality on the expression of alternative life history phenotypes and the degree of trait differentiation between these alternative phenotypes, using insects as the model system. The results suggest that selection favors the expression of alternative life history phenotypes in stochastically varying seasonal environments, but that trait differentiation is affected by the developmental stage that is used for overwintering. Seasonality itself seems a key factor promoting the evolution of alternative life histories, and environmental stochasticity may modulate their expression.

    35. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Seeds, browse, and tooth wear: a sheep perspective

      Anusha Ramdarshan, Cécile Blondel, Noël Brunetière, Arthur Francisco, Denis Gautier, Jérôme Surault and Gildas Merceron

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2241

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We here provide a unique dual dataset combining controlled food and dental microwear textures on a set of 40 domestic sheep. This study explores the variations in dental microwear textures among the guild of browsing ungulates feeding on leaves, fruits, and seeds. More than an experiment to explore the cause of toothwear, this study will be key work for paleoecologists to track the feeding ecology of earliest ruminants.

    36. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Lack of sex-specific movement patterns in an alien species at its invasion front – consequences for invasion speed

      Ivar Herfindal, Claudia Melis, Per-Arne Åhlén and Fredrik Dahl

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2300

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The movement pattern of raccoon dog, an invasive alien species in Europe, is described with particular emphasis on temporal variation in dispersal behaviour in male and females. Dispersal occurred throughout the year, but was most pronounced during the dark hours. Few sex-differences were found in dispersal behaviour, which results in that encounters between dispersing male and female raccoon dogs is likely to occur far from the source population.

    37. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Inter- and intraspecific variation in body- and genome size in calanoid copepods from temperate and arctic waters

      Hans Petter Leinaas, Marwa Jalal, Tove M. Gabrielsen and Dag O. Hessen

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2302

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Four calanoid copepods with populations from arctic and temperate waters, followed Bergmann clines in body size and with correspondingly larger genomes in northern populations, suggesting that body size at least partly is determined by cell size. Interspecific differences were more complex, pointing to phylogeny and life history traits as additional determinant of body size variation among species.

    38. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Modeling stream fish distributions using interval-censored detection times

      Mário Ferreira, Ana Filipa Filipe, David C. Bardos, Maria Filomena Magalhães and Pedro Beja

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2295

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Dealing with imperfect detectability in SDMs: An approach using time to detection and interval-censored data. We modelled the distribution of fish in a river basin while accounting for imperfect detectability. Data from single visits provided time intervals for first detection of each species; our modelling approach combines occupation-detection modelling with survival analysis techniques.

    39. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic diversity and structuring across the range of a widely distributed ladybird: focus on rear-edge populations phenotypically divergent

      Émilie Lecompte, Mohand-Ameziane Bouanani, Alexandra Magro and Brigitte Crouau-Roy

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2288

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We provide an empirical test of the central-marginal model using a widespread species distributed on the entire Palearctic region, focusing on genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the rear-edge populations. The genetic diversity and differentiation observed is in agreement with the phenotypic structure across species range. A clear genetic break between populations of Algeria, the Eastern Asia and the remaining populations is a dominant feature of the data. We discuss factors, as historical isolation and/or local adaptation, which may have contributed to their distinct genotypic and phenotypic characteristics.

  4. Original Researches

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Coping with potential bi-parental inbreeding: limited pollen and seed dispersal and large genets in the dioecious marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum

      Brigitta Ine Van Tussenbroek, Tania Valdivia-Carrillo, Irene Teresa Rodríguez-Virgen, Sylvia Nashieli Marisela Sanabria-Alcaraz, Karina Jiménez-Durán, Kor Jent Van Dijk and Guadalupe Judith Marquez-Guzmán

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2309

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We expected bi-parental inbreeding in Thalassia testudinum, a dioecious seagrass with large genets but very limited pollen and seed dispersal; thus, small genetic neighbourhoods. However, kinship and seedling analysis did not find any evidence for this, which may be attributed to a highly dispersed guerrilla-like clonal growth form (which is unusual for a clonal climax species) that increases the probability of crossing between different potentially unrelated genets.

  5. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Population genetic evidence for sex-specific dispersal in an inbred social spider

      Deborah R. Smith, Yong-Chao Su, Reut Berger-Tal and Yael Lubin

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2200

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We analyzed population genetic structure in the inbreeding cooperative social spider Stegodyphus dumicola (Eresidae) using mtDNA sequences and genomic Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs). Samples were collected from three sites in South Africa during and shortly after the mating season to detect male dispersal among colonies. Our results indicate adult male dispersal takes place over short distances and may be important in maintaining gene flow among colonies in local populations.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Unexpectedly complex gradation of coral population structure in the Nansei Islands, Japan

      Yuna Zayasu, Yuichi Nakajima, Kazuhiko Sakai, Go Suzuki, Noriyuki Satoh and Chuya Shinzato

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2296

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We detected more complex gradation of population structures and opposite gene flow (north to south) in some regions that may be related to previously ignored ocean currents. We succeeded in clarifying source and sink population relationships in the Nansei Islands. Our study demonstrates that population structure of marine organisms is not as simple as previously thought.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Reintroduction of rare arable plants by seed transfer. What are the optimal sowing rates?

      Marion Lang, Julia Prestele, Christina Fischer, Johannes Kollmann and Harald Albrecht

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2303

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Reintroduction of rare arable plants is a new approach to support declining agro-biodiversity that needs further methodological research. Adding increasing sowing rates of these plants to winter rye caused density-dependent effects in both plant numbers and seed production of the study species in a field experiment. We propose sowing rates of 50–100 seeds m−2 per species, resulting in successful establishment of the rare plants and marginal yield losses of the crop. Our results on optimal sowing rates improve conservation practice and help to increase biodiversity in arable fields.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Extensive variation, but not local adaptation in an Australian alpine daisy

      Megan J. Hirst, Jason P. Sexton and Ary A. Hoffmann

      Version of Record online: 10 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2294

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Alpine plants often occupy diverse habitats within a similar elevation range, but most research on local adaptation in these plants has focused on elevation gradients. We found little evidence for local adaptation for survival or plant size, based on three adaptation measures; Home vs Away (HA), Local vs Foreign (LF) and Sympatric vs Allopatric (SA). This lack of local advantage may signal weak past selection, or adaptive trans-generation (plasticity) effects, but may be important for future environmental shifts.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Nematode endoparasites do not codiversify with their stick insect hosts

      Chloé Larose and Tanja Schwander

      Version of Record online: 10 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2264

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We report on endoparasitic nematodes infecting different Timema stick insect species throughout California, and tested whether divergence among hosts may drive parallel divergence in the endoparasites. We found a complete lack of codivergence between the endoparasitic nematodes and their hosts. The accumulating evidence for lack of codiversification between parasites and their hosts at macroevolutionary scales contrasts with the overwhelming evidence for coevolution within populations and calls for studies linking micro- versus macroevolutionary dynamics in host–parasite interactions.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Why do ovigerous females approach courting males? Female preferences and sensory biases in a fiddler crab

      Chun-Chia Chou and Patricia R. Y. Backwell

      Version of Record online: 10 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2307

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We experimentally investigated the origin of female preference of banana fiddler crabs. We showed that ovigerous females, who are unable to mate and should not concern about male quality, preferred males with fast wave rate, suggesting the preference for wave rate originated from perceptual bias, while these females had no preference for leading waves, suggesting leading wave evolves under mating context, conveying information about male quality.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Out of the forest: past and present range expansion of a parthenogenetic weevil pest, or how to colonize the world successfully

      Marcela S. Rodriguero, Analía A. Lanteri, Noelia V. Guzmán, Jerson V. Carús Guedes and Viviana A. Confalonieri

      Version of Record online: 6 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2180

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The present distribution of Naupactus cervinus results from an expansion from its original area, the Paranaense forest, southwards to open vegetation during Pleistocene times and a present expansion related to human activities. Parthenogenesis would be advantageous for the colonisation of new environments by preventing the break-up of successful gene combinations.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A family of functional dissimilarity measures for presence and absence data

      Carlo Ricotta, János Podani and Sandrine Pavoine

      Version of Record online: 5 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2214

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Traditional dissimilarity measures for presence/absence scores are usually based on different combinations of the matching/mismatching components of the 2 × 2 contingency table. However, more recently, dissimilarity measures that incorporate information about the degree of functional differences between the species in a given pair of plots have received increasing attention. This is because such “functional dissimilarity measures” capture information on the species' functional traits, which is ignored by traditional coefficients. Therefore, functional dissimilarity measures tend to correlate more strongly with ecosystem-level processes, as species influence these processes via their traits. In this study, we introduce a new family of dissimilarity measures for presence and absence data, which consider functional dissimilarities among species in the calculation of the matching/mismatching components of the 2 × 2 contingency table.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Hierarchical neighbor effects on mycorrhizal community structure and function

      Holly V. Moeller, Ian A. Dickie, Duane A. Peltzer and Tadashi Fukami

      Version of Record online: 5 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2299

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Neighboring communities can shape one another's composition and function, but empirical tests of these effects are rare. We used tree seedlings and their associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities to quantify the strength and directionality of these effects. We found that the direction and strength of these effects followed a dominance hierarchy that was predictable with a priori knowledge of the ecological history of the system.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A goodness-of-fit test for occupancy models with correlated within-season revisits

      Wilson J. Wright, Kathryn M. Irvine and Thomas J. Rodhouse

      Version of Record online: 5 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2292

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We develop a join count chi-square test more powerful for indicating serial correlation in occupancy models. This tool is demonstrated using data from bat acoustic surveys in North America.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Detecting the small island effect and nestedness of herpetofauna of the West Indies

      De Gao and Gad Perry

      Version of Record online: 5 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2289

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We applied regression-based analyses, including linear regression and piecewise regressions with two and three segments, to detect the SIE and then used the Akaike's information criterion (AIC) as a criterion to select the best model. We used the NODF (a nestedness metric based on overlap and decreasing fill) to quantify nestedness and employed two null models to determine significance. Moreover, a random sampling effort was made to infer about the degree of nestedness at portions of the entire community.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Phylogeographic insights into the invasion history and secondary spread of the signal crayfish in Japan

      Nisikawa Usio, Noriko Azuma, Eric R. Larson, Cathryn L. Abbott, Julian D. Olden, Hiromi Akanuma, Kenzi Takamura and Noriko Takamura

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2286

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We found that the introduced signal crayfish populations in Japan originate from multiple source populations from a wide geographic range in the native range of western North America. A combination of genetic admixture, especially for older populations in the invasive range, and rapid adaptation to colonisation, manifested as larger chela in recent invasions, likely contribute to invasion success of signal crayfish in Japan.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evidence of weaker phenotypic plasticity by prey to novel cues from non-native predators

      Johan Hollander and Paul E. Bourdeau

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2271

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Understanding how naive interactions develop and evolve is crucial in order to predict how global changes might affect indigenous species. However, because of differences in the way novel predators induce defenses in prey, a general consensus is missing on how naive prey exposed to novel predator coevolve. For that reason, this study is unique and timely since it takes a broader perspective by combining a large number of studies in order to identify general patterns and test theoretical predictions about the interface of predator−prey co-evolution and phenotypic plasticity.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Incipient sympatric speciation in Midas cichlid fish from the youngest and one of the smallest crater lakes in Nicaragua due to differential use of the benthic and limnetic habitats?

      Andreas F. Kautt, Gonzalo Machado-Schiaffino, Julian Torres-Dowdall and Axel Meyer

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2287

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study shows that Midas cichlid fish in the extremely young and small crater lake Asososca Managua differentially use the limnetic and benthic habitats. Some of the conditions for sympatric speciation are given, and demographic analyses suggest that the young age of the population has precluded the build-up of genetic differentiation at neutral markers yet.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A shift from exploitation to interference competition with increasing density affects population and community dynamics

      Erica M. Holdridge, Catalina Cuellar-Gempeler and Casey P. terHorst

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2284

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our study tested whether the strength of interference competition changes with protozoa population density, using experimental microcosms and a dynamic predator–prey model. We found that the strength of interference competition increased with protozoan density and that bacterial community composition changed with protozoan density and resource availability.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Feral Cat Globetrotters: genetic traces of historical human-mediated dispersal

      Katrin Koch, Dave Algar and Klaus Schwenk

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2261

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hawaiian, Asian, and Australian feral cat island populations were investigated verifying their European ancestry and indicating a potential pattern of isolation by distance. This pattern is explained by extensive passive dispersal on global maritime trade routes in the beginning of the 19th century, connecting Australian, Asian, and Hawaiian islands. Thus, islands populations which are characterized by low levels of current gene flow represent valuable sources of information on historical, human-mediated global dispersal patterns of feral cats.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Does asymmetric gene flow among matrilines maintain the evolutionary potential of the European eel?

      Miguel Baltazar-Soares and Christophe Eizaguirre

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2098

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Three major matrilines were identified among three consecutive cohorts of European eel juveniles. We hypothesized those matrilines to be associated to reproductive demes, a plausible consequence of the abundance collapse that the species has been experiencing since the early 1980s. Population genetic models supported the existence of matriline-driven demes (as an alternative to complete panmixia) and reveal gene flow asymmetries, overall contributing for the species's viability and maintaining its evolutionary potential.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      High dissimilarity within a multiyear annual record of pollen assemblages from a North American tallgrass prairie

      Julie L. Commerford, Kendra K. McLauchlan and Thomas A. Minckley

      Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2259

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Grasslands have been historically influenced by multiple abiotic and biotic drivers, including fire, herbivory and topography. Here, we evaluate the influence of those drivers on grassland pollen (a key proxy for interpreting grassland composition throughout the past), while quantifying the amount of spatial and temporal variation in those pollen assemblages. We examine a four-year annual record of modern pollen data from Kansas, and find significant but varied influence of fire, herbivory, and topography, as well as high variability in pollen assemblage composition across the study area.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Preference for C4 shade grasses increases hatchling performance in the butterfly, Bicyclus safitza

      Ossi Nokelainen, Brad S. Ripley, Erik van Bergen, Colin P. Osborne and Paul M. Brakefield

      Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2235

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We examined mechanisms for the plant–herbivore interactions between C3 and C4 grasses that grow either in open or shaded habitats using a generalist grass-feeding butterfly Bicyclus safitza. We show, against theoretical expectation, that females preferred C4 shade grasses, which optimized hatchling growth and survival. Our findings demonstrate that plant–herbivore interactions can influence the direction of selection and, thus more generally, contribute to expansions into new unexploited ecological niches and butterfly radiations.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ecosystem size matters: the dimensionality of intralacustrine diversification in Icelandic stickleback is predicted by lake size

      Kay Lucek, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson, Skúli Skúlason and Ole Seehausen

      Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2239

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We estimated the number of distinct phenotypic groups in three-spine stickleback populations from nine lakes in Iceland and in one marine population to test whether ecosystem size, approximated by lake size and depth, or isolation from the ancestral marine gene pool may predict the occurrence and the extent of phenotypic and genetic diversification within lakes. We find intralacustrine phenotypic diversification to be the rule rather than the exception, occurring in all but the youngest lake population and differing in ecologically important phenotypic traits. We find the dimensionality of phenotypic differentiation to be positively related to lake size, but evidence for restricted gene flow between sympatric phenotypic groups was only found in the largest lakes where phenotypic differentiation was highly dimensional.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Leaf litter arthropod responses to tropical forest restoration

      Rebecca J. Cole, Karen D. Holl, Rakan A. Zahawi, Philipp Wickey and Alan R. Townsend

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2220

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Soil and litter arthropods represent a large proportion of tropical biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, but little is known about the efficacy of different tropical forest restoration strategies in facilitating their recovery in degraded habitats. Arthropod abundance, richness, and functional groups were measured in three, 8-year-old restoration treatments (natural regeneration, plantations, and tree islands) and reference forest. The less resource-intensive restoration strategy of planting tree islands was more effective than tree plantations in restoring arthropod abundance, richness and functional diversity although none of the restoration strategies resulted in similar composition as the reference forest.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Specialist pollinators deplete pollen in the spring ephemeral wildflower Claytonia virginica

      Alison J. Parker, Neal M. Williams and James D. Thomson

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2252

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Pollinators that collect pollen – and specifically, pollen-specialist bees – are often considered to be the best pollinators of a (host) plant, but they can also exert substantial costs because they are motivated to collect as much pollen as possible. We measured the costs and benefits of nectar-collecting, pollen-collecting, and pollen-specialist pollinators to the spring ephemeral Claytonia virginica; the pollen-specialist contributed most to C. virginica pollen delivery because of high visitation rates, but also removed a great deal of grains that may have otherwise been more effectively delivered by other visiting pollinators.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Facing environmental predictability with different sources of epigenetic variation

      Christelle Leung, Sophie Breton and Bernard Angers

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2283

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this study, we assessed the sources of epigenetic changes on clonal fish from predictable (lakes) and unpredictable (intermittent streams) environments. Consistent with theoretical models, results revealed that distinct sources of epigenetic variation prevail according to the environmental uncertainty. This represents a rigorous approach for further exploring the capacity of organisms to respond to environmental conditions.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Forest edges have high conservation value for bird communities in mosaic landscapes

      Julien Terraube, Frédéric Archaux, Marc Deconchat, Inge van Halder, Hervé Jactel and Luc Barbaro

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2273

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study investigates the response of bird communities to habitat edges between woodland patches and open areas in a multi-region sampling design in French temperate mosaic landscapes. We found that forest edges exhibited higher Conservation Value Index, bird species richness and total abundance. Species sharing life-history traits expected to be good predictors of vulnerability to global change showed as well a positive response to forest edges. Our results confirmed that forest edges are valuable for conserving and even enhancing biodiversity in managed, fragmented landscapes, by increasing local habitat heterogeneity and mitigating the effects of landscape homogenization linked to modern forestry practices.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Into the deep: the functionality of mesopelagic excursions by an oceanic apex predator

      Lucy A. Howey, Emily R. Tolentino, Yannis P. Papastamatiou, Edward J. Brooks, Debra L. Abercrombie, Yuuki Y. Watanabe, Sean Williams, Annabelle Brooks, Demian D. Chapman and Lance K.B. Jordan

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2260

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Although often regarded as the consummate predator, sharks face a life-long challenge to locate and capture prey. Using a theoretical approach and the most current biotelemetry instruments, we show that even the oceans' apex predators regularly survey extreme environments (deep depths, low temperatures) as a foraging strategy. At the apex of these deep-water excursions, sharks exhibit a variable behavioral response for the return to more hospitable surface waters, perhaps, indicating the presence or absence of prey.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Whitebark pine facilitation at treeline: potential interactions for disruption by an invasive pathogen

      Diana F. Tomback, Sarah C. Blakeslee, Aaron C. Wagner, Michael B. Wunder, Lynn M. Resler, Jill C. Pyatt and Soledad Diaz

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2198

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      At treeline in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, Pinus albicaulis initiates tree islands at higher frequencies than other conifers. We examined interactions experimentally that might facilitate tree island formation for different life history stages of leeward conifers using three types of nurse objects, including P. albicaulis. We simulated the loss of P. albicaulis from the invasive pathogen Cronartium ribicola to determine whether established leeward conifers experience more stress in the absence of protection. P. albicaulis microsites were associated with higher survival of cotyledon seedlings during the growing season; and death of windward P. albicaulis reduced shoot growth of leeward trees.

    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic reconstruction of a bullfrog invasion to elucidate vectors of introduction and secondary spread

      Pauline L. Kamath, Adam J. Sepulveda and Megan Layhee

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2278

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study examined the invasion history of the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) in Montana. Genetic data provided evidence for multiple independent introductions into the state from the western region of the North American native range, but little dispersal within the state. These data will inform appropriate management actions for identifying and controlling bullfrog importation and secondary spread.

    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      North African hybrid sparrows (Passer domesticus, P. hispaniolensis) back from oblivion – ecological segregation and asymmetric mitochondrial introgression between parental species

      Abdelkrim Ait Belkacem, Oliver Gast, Heiko Stuckas, David Canal, Mario LoValvo, Gabriele Giacalone and Martin Päckert

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2274

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our study provides new data on breeding behaviour and population structure of North African house sparrows and Spanish sparrows and their putative hybrids. These results are flanked by analyses of morphometry and mitochondrial DNA. North African sparrow populations show striking differences in breeding phenology and nest site choice and mtDNA diversity suggests ongoing mitochondrial introgression even among the two parental species.

    29. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Sex determination, longevity, and the birth and death of reptilian species

      Niv Sabath, Yuval Itescu, Anat Feldman, Shai Meiri, Itay Mayrose and Nicole Valenzuela

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2277

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We investigate whether the mechanism of sex determination (SDM) is associated with diversification in turtles and lizards and whether lifespan's effect on transition rates explains the prevalence of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in turtles and genotypic sex determination (GSD) in lizards (including and excluding snakes), using a comprehensive dataset of SDM states for squamates and turtles, and leveraging large phylogenies for these two groups. We found no evidence that SDMs affect turtle or lizard diversification, but instead, that SDM transition rates differ between groups (in lizards, TSD-to-GSD transitions prevail and explain the predominance of GSD lizards; while in turtles, SDM transitions do not differ such that TSD predominance results from TSD retention). Based on the macro-evolutionary evidence, we hypothesize that turtles and lizards followed different evolutionary trajectories with respect to SDM, likely mediated by differences in lifespan, as the generally shorter lizard lifespan renders TSD detrimental favoring GSD evolution in squamates, whereas turtle longevity permits the retention of an ancestral TSD state.

    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Variation of life-history traits of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis in relation to temperature and geographical latitude

      Liang Xiao, Hai-Min He, Li-Li Huang, Ting Geng, Shu Fu and Fang-Sen Xue

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2275

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our results reveal that the relationship between body size and rearing temperature in Ostrinia furnacalis did not follow the temperature–size rule; all populations exhibited the highest pupal and adult weights at high temperatures or intermediate temperatures. Contrary to Rensch's rule, the sexual size dimorphism tended to increase with rising temperature. Development time, growth rate, and body weight did not show a latitudinal gradient.

    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Temporal variation in selection on male and female traits in wild tree crickets

      Kyla Ercit

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2105

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Viability selection (via predation from a common wasp) was observed in a natural population of tree crickets over 4 years, and the strength and form of selection on traits was estimated among years and between the sexes. Selection varied significantly from year to year, and significant linear selection was detected more frequently among adult males, and nonlinear selection detected more frequently among females. Although viability selection via predation has the potential to drive phenotypic change and sexual dimorphism, temporal variation in selection may maintain stasis.

    32. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dmrt1 polymorphism covaries with sex-determination patterns in Rana temporaria

      Wen-Juan Ma, Nicolas Rodrigues, Roberto Sermier, Alan Brelsford and Nicolas Perrin

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2209

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Dmrt1, a gene that plays a key role in sex determination and sexual development across all metazoans, displays significant sex differentiation in the common frog, Rana temporaria, in the North Sweden in Tvedöra with a Y-specific haplotype distinct from Ammarnäs. It is less differentiated and associates with both delayed gonadal differentiation and imperfect match between phenotypic and genotypic sex. Our findings suggest that the variance in patterns of sex determination documented in common frogs might result from a genetic polymorphism within a small genomic region that contains Dmrt1.

VIEW

  1. 1 - 78

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION