Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA and Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK

Impact Factor: 1.658

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 85/141 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

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  1. 1 - 20
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Landscape-scale accessibility of livestock to tigers: implications of spatial grain for modeling predation risk to mitigate human–carnivore conflict

      Jennifer R. B. Miller, Yadvendradev V. Jhala, Jyotirmay Jena and Oswald J. Schmitz

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1440

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      To detect the best resolution for predicting where large, ambush hunting carnivores access livestock, we examined the spatial patterns associated with livestock killed by tigers in central India using risk models generated at 20, 100, and 200 m spatial grains. The risk of a tiger killing livestock increased near dense, patchy forests and the core zone boundary of the park and was nonlinearly related to human infrastructure and scrub vegetation. Results demonstrated that risk models developed at fine spatial grains (20 m) most accurately predicted where livestock are accessible to large, ambushing carnivores and can offer guidance on the landscape attributes to avoid when grazing livestock to minimize human-carnivore conflict and fulfill conservation goals.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The evolution of plasticity of dauer larva developmental arrest in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

      S. Anaid Diaz and Mark Viney

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1436

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      In this study we examined what selective environments favour the evolution of different developmental arrest phenotypes. We addressed this question by using Caenorhabditis elegans that were experimentally evolved in environments with different food availabilities and arrest-inducing pheromone. We found that C. elegans pheromones are important in the evolution of developmental arrest and its plasticity.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Shade treatment affects structure and recovery of invasive C4 African grass Echinochloa pyramidalis

      Hugo López Rosas, Patricia Moreno-Casasola and Verónica E. Espejel González

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1434

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      Freshwater wetlands of the lowlands of southern Mexico, Central and tropical South America are being invaded by grasses of African origin that have been introduced to promote ranching. Such invasions cause serious changes in the hydrology of wetlands and a consequent loss of plant diversity. In this paper we present the experimental results of treatments that include shading to control the invasive African grass Echinochloa pyramidalis, that have resulted in a reduction of the grass and the increase of plant diversity in the experimental wetland in southeastern Mexico.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A temperature shock can lead to trans-generational immune priming in the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum

      Hendrik Eggert, Maike F. Diddens-de Buhr and Joachim Kurtz

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1443

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      Trans-generational immune priming describes the transfer of immune stimulation to offspring. Here we show that also the exposure of parents to non-pathogen stress (cold shock) increased offspring resistance and immunity. This suggests that connections between stress and immunity also act across generations.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The stress hormone corticosterone in a marine top predator reflects short-term changes in food availability

      Robert T. Barrett, Kjell E. Erikstad, Hanno Sandvik, Mari Myksvoll, Susi Jenni-Eiermann, Ditte L. Kristensen, Truls Moum, Tone K. Reiertsen and Frode Vikebø

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1438

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      This study used a state-of-the-art ocean drift model of larval cod Gadus morhua, an important constituent of the diet of common guillemots Uria aalge in the southwestern Barents Sea, and was able to show clear, short-term correlations between food availability and measurements of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in parental guillemots over a three-year period. This is one of the first studies that suggest that CORT levels in breeding birds increase over the short-term when the availability of prey does not match the period of peak energy requirements during breeding.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Drought-induced changes in flow regimes lead to long-term losses in mussel-provided ecosystem services

      Caryn C. Vaughn, Carla L. Atkinson and Jason P. Julian

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1442

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      Hydrological drought is becoming more frequent and intense in many areas of the world. At the same time many aquatic species are declining. Our study documents how the drought-induced decline of one important freshwater group, long-lived, filter-feeding freshwater mussels, has led to large decreases in regulating ecosystem services.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Morphological and moisture availability controls of the leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio: analysis of measurements on Australian trees

      Henrique Furstenau Togashi, Iain Colin Prentice, Bradley John Evans, David Ian Forrester, Paul Drake, Paul Feikema, Kim Brooksbank, Derek Eamus and Daniel Taylor

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1344

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      We compiled LA:SA measurements from 183 species of Australian evergreen angiosperm trees. The pipe model was broadly confirmed. LA:SA quantile regression showed positive relationships between two climatic moisture indices and the lowermost and uppermost quantiles.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation of amino acids in an avian marine predator, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua)

      Kelton W. McMahon, Michael J. Polito, Stephanie Abel, Matthew D. McCarthy and Simon R. Thorrold

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1437

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      Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of amino acids has rapidly become a powerful tool in studies of food web architecture, resource use, and biogeochemical cycling. We conducted a controlled feeding experiment on gentoo penguins to examine patterns in individual amino acid carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation in non-lethal, archival feathers. Using the newly derived avian-specific amino acid fractionation factors, we examined wild penguin foraging ecology and trophic dynamics in the Southern Ocean, including identifying the sources of primary production supporting wild penguins and calculating wild penguin trophic position.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Demonstration of pollinator-mediated competition between two native Impatiens species, Impatiens noli-tangere and I. textori (Balsaminaceae)

      Nanako Tokuda, Mitsuru Hattori, Kota Abe, Yoshinori Shinohara, Yusuke Nagano and Takao Itino

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1431

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      (A) Impatiens noli-tangere and (B) I. textori largely share the same pollination niche. The androceim and stigma are located in similar locations of their flowers. for both species. When bumblebee pollinators transit between flowers of I. noli-tangere and I. textori, they touch both androecium and stigma of both species. Thus, heterospecific pollen transfer often occurs. Therefore, intensive pollinator-mediated competition occurs between I. noli-tangere and I. textori.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Distance measures and optimization spaces in quantitative fatty acid signature analysis

      Jeffrey F. Bromaghin, Karyn D. Rode, Suzanne M. Budge and Gregory W. Thiemann

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1429

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      We compare several estimators of diet composition based on quantitative fatty acid signature analysis. Our findings reveal that the selection of an estimation method can meaningfully influence estimates of diet composition. Additional research into estimator performance and model diagnostics is warranted.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A comparative analysis reveals weak relationships between ecological factors and beta diversity of stream insect metacommunities at two spatial levels

      Jani Heino, Adriano S. Melo, Luis Mauricio Bini, Florian Altermatt, Salman A. Al-Shami, David G. Angeler, Núria Bonada, Cecilia Brand, Marcos Callisto, Karl Cottenie, Olivier Dangles, David Dudgeon, Andrea Encalada, Emma Göthe, Mira Grönroos, Neusa Hamada, Dean Jacobsen, Victor L. Landeiro, Raphael Ligeiro, Renato T. Martins, María Laura Miserendino, Che Salmah Md Rawi, Marciel E. Rodrigues, Fabio de Oliveira Roque, Leonard Sandin, Denes Schmera, Luciano F. Sgarbi, John P. Simaika, Tadeu Siqueira, Ross M. Thompson and Colin R. Townsend

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1439

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      Beta diversity should vary along major ecological gradients. We used data for 95 stream insect metacommunities to examine if beta diversity showed general patterns over the world. We did not find clear patterns along latitudinal, altitudinal or environmental gradients, suggesting that stochasticity typical of frequently-disturbed stream ecosystems may hinder finding clear patterns in stream insect beta diversity.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ecological differentiation, lack of hybrids involving diploids, and asymmetric gene flow between polyploids in narrow contact zones of Senecio carniolicus (syn. Jacobaea carniolica, Asteraceae)

      Karl Hülber, Michaela Sonnleitner, Jan Suda, Jana Krejčíková, Peter Schönswetter, Gerald M. Schneeweiss and Manuela Winkler

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1430

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      The degree of reproductive isolation of cytotypes plays a crucial role for their long-term integrity in contact zones. Di-, tetra- and hexaploid Senecio carniolucus (Asteraceae) were found to be spatially and ecologically separated. Individuals with intermediate ploidy levels occurred only in the contact zone of polyploids mediating introgressive gene flow from tetra- to hexaploids, but not vice versa.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mitochondrial genetic differentiation and morphological difference of Miniopterus fuliginosus and Miniopterus magnater in China and Vietnam

      Shi Li, Keping Sun, Guanjun Lu, Aiqing Lin, Tinglei Jiang, Longru Jin, Joseph R. Hoyt and Jiang Feng

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1428

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      We used DNA barcodes and two other mitochondrial DNA genes to study the phylogeny, genetic differentiation and spatial distribution of the M. fuliginosus and M. magnater sampled from China and one site in Vietnam, and analyzed the morphological difference. The results revealed M. fuliginosus ranged in the Chinese mainland and M. magnater in tropical regions. Quaternary glacial cycles, climate difference and their ecological attributes might have also played important roles in modulating their geographic distribution pattern. In addition, their forearm length, maxillary third molar width and greatest length of the skull show significant difference.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Natural selection for earlier male arrival to breeding grounds through direct and indirect effects in a migratory songbird

      William Velmala, Samuli Helle, Markus P. Ahola, Marcel Klaassen, Esa Lehikoinen, Kalle Rainio, Päivi M. Sirkiä and Toni Laaksonen

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1423

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      Natural selection directly favours earlier male arrival in the Pied Flycatcher. The study foud that there is a direct effect of male arrival date on fitness while accounting for those effects that are mediated by effects of the social partner.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Potential for adaptive evolution at species range margins: contrasting interactions between red coral populations and their environment in a changing ocean

      Jean-Baptiste Ledoux, Didier Aurelle, Nathaniel Bensoussan, Christian Marschal, Jean-Pierre Féral and Joaquim Garrabou

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1324

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      In marine conservation, the deep-refugia hypothesis proposes that disturbed shallow and marginal populations of a given species can be replenished by mesophotic populations. Combining reciprocal transplant and common garden experiments with population genetics analyses we question the relevance of this hypothesis in the red coral, Corallium rubrum. Our study highlights the conservation value of marginal populations as a putative reservoir of adaptive genetic polymorphism.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Tree height–diameter allometry across the United States

      Catherine M. Hulshof, Nathan G. Swenson and Michael D. Weiser

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1328

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      Tree height-diameter allometry is plastic and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies due to climatic variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate depends largely on differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms.

  2. Hypotheses

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Stress relief may promote the evolution of greater phenotypic plasticity in exotic invasive species: a hypothesis

      Qiao Q. Huang, Xiao Y. Pan, Zhi W. Fan and Shao L. Peng

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1424

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      An open question in invasion ecology is why some exotic invaders can even evolve to be more plastic given that there may be costs to being plastic. We propose a hypothesis stating that any factors mitigating stress in the introduced range may promote exotic invaders to evolve increased adaptive plasticity by reducing the costs and increasing the benefits of plasticity.

  3. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster

      Christina M. May, Agnieszka Doroszuk and Bas J. Zwaan

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1389

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      We show that adult fecundity and lifespan depend on the developmental nutritional environment experienced in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In particular, we highlight two main findings: first: contrary to expectations, experiencing very calorically poor food during development can lead to a longer lifespan and increased fecundity in the adult fly, while calorically rich developmental food has the opposite effect; and second, the magnitude of the long term effect of developmental nutrition depends on the reproductive potential of the adult environment experienced. These findings are important for both the study of the interplay between life history traits and evolution, but also for understanding long term developmental effects on adult health.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Shifting ranges and conservation challenges for lemurs in the face of climate change

      Jason L. Brown and Anne D. Yoder

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1418

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      Major distribution patterns predicted for lemurs resulting from future climate change. Our results predict that most lemurs will experience considerable range shifts into the future.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      No-tillage and fertilization management on crop yields and nitrate leaching in North China Plain

      Manxiang Huang, Tao Liang, Lingqing Wang and Chenghu Zhou

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1420

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      A field experiment was performed from 2003 to 2008 to evaluate the effects of tillage system and nitrogen regimes on crop yields and nitrate leaching from the fluvo-aquic soil with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) double cropping system.

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