Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 23

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA and Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK

Impact Factor: 1.658

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 85/141 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

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  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Population divergence in compensatory growth responses and their costs in sticklebacks

      Nurul Izza Ab Ghani and Juha Merilä

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1342

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      Compensatory growth (CG) may be an adaptive mechanism that helps to restore an organisms’ growth trajectory and adult size from deviations caused by early life resource limitation. Here, we show that nine-spined sticklebacks show clear evidence for true compensatory growth, but these responses differ between two phenotypically and genetically divergent populations. Evidence is also provided for costs of compensatory growth.

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      Interaction effects between weather and space use on harvesting effort and patterns in red deer

      Inger M. Rivrud, Erling L. Meisingset, Leif E. Loe and Atle Mysterud

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1318

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      Using harvest data from red deer (Cervus elaphus), we investigate how age, sex, weather, moon phase and day of week affect harvesting vulnerability and hunter effort. Moon phase and day of week were strong predictors of harvesting vulnerability and hunter effort, while the effect of weather was more variable. Our study is among the first to highlight that weather, moon phase and day of week may affect harvesting patterns and off-take indirectly through animal and hunter behaviour. Photo: Erling L. Meisingset.

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      A tool for simulating and communicating uncertainty when modelling species distributions under future climates

      Susan F. Gould, Nicholas J. Beeton, Rebecca M. B. Harris, Michael F. Hutchinson, Alex M. Lechner, Luciana L. Porfirio and Brendan G. Mackey

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1319

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      We review potential sources of uncertainty in species distribution modelling under future climates and provide a tool for simulating uncertainty in a spatially explicit way. We also outline protocols for dealing with uncertainty due to climate models and emissions scenarios.

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      Trait-specific consequences of inbreeding on adaptive phenotypic plasticity

      Mads F. Schou, Torsten N. Kristensen and Volker Loeschcke

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1339

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      Effects of inbreeding often interact with the environment and can decrease fitness of inbred individuals exposed to stress more so than that of outbred individuals. In this study we investigate the effects of inbreeding on adaptive phenotypic plasticity of abdominal pigmentation and wing size and shape across a developmental thermal gradient in Drosophila melanogaster. We find that a reduced ability to induce an adaptive phenotypic response is not a general consequence of inbreeding, and thus not a general explanation of inbreeding-environment interaction effects on fitness components.

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      The PREDICTS database: a global database of how local terrestrial biodiversity responds to human impacts

      Lawrence N. Hudson, Tim Newbold, Sara Contu, Samantha L. L. Hill, Igor Lysenko, Adriana De Palma, Helen R. P. Phillips, Rebecca A. Senior, Dominic J. Bennett, Hollie Booth, Argyrios Choimes, David L. P. Correia, Julie Day, Susy Echeverría-Londoño, Morgan Garon, Michelle L. K. Harrison, Daniel J. Ingram, Martin Jung, Victoria Kemp, Lucinda Kirkpatrick, Callum D. Martin, Yuan Pan, Hannah J. White, Job Aben, Stefan Abrahamczyk, Gilbert B. Adum, Virginia Aguilar-Barquero, Marcelo A. Aizen, Marc Ancrenaz, Enrique Arbeláez-Cortés, Inge Armbrecht, Badrul Azhar, Adrián B. Azpiroz, Lander Baeten, András Báldi, John E. Banks, Jos Barlow, Péter Batáry, Adam J. Bates, Erin M. Bayne, Pedro Beja, Åke Berg, Nicholas J. Berry, Jake E. Bicknell, Jochen H. Bihn, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Teun Boekhout, Céline Boutin, Jérémy Bouyer, Francis Q. Brearley, Isabel Brito, Jörg Brunet, Grzegorz Buczkowski, Erika Buscardo, Jimmy Cabra-García, María Calviño-Cancela, Sydney A. Cameron, Eliana M. Cancello, Tiago F. Carrijo, Anelena L. Carvalho, Helena Castro, Alejandro A. Castro-Luna, Rolando Cerda, Alexis Cerezo, Matthieu Chauvat, Frank M. Clarke, Daniel F. R. Cleary, Stuart P. Connop, Biagio D'Aniello, Pedro Giovâni da Silva, Ben Darvill, Jens Dauber, Alain Dejean, Tim Diekötter, Yamileth Dominguez-Haydar, Carsten F. Dormann, Bertrand Dumont, Simon G. Dures, Mats Dynesius, Lars Edenius, Zoltán Elek, Martin H. Entling, Nina Farwig, Tom M. Fayle, Antonio Felicioli, Annika M. Felton, Gentile F. Ficetola, Bruno K. C. Filgueiras, Steven J. Fonte, Lauchlan H. Fraser, Daisuke Fukuda, Dario Furlani, Jörg U. Ganzhorn, Jenni G. Garden, Carla Gheler-Costa, Paolo Giordani, Simonetta Giordano, Marco S. Gottschalk, Dave Goulson, Aaron D. Gove, James Grogan, Mick E. Hanley, Thor Hanson, Nor R. Hashim, Joseph E. Hawes, Christian Hébert, Alvin J. Helden, John-André Henden, Lionel Hernández, Felix Herzog, Diego Higuera-Diaz, Branko Hilje, Finbarr G. Horgan, Roland Horváth, Kristoffer Hylander, Paola Isaacs-Cubides, Masahiro Ishitani, Carmen T. Jacobs, Víctor J. Jaramillo, Birgit Jauker, Mats Jonsell, Thomas S. Jung, Vena Kapoor, Vassiliki Kati, Eric Katovai, Michael Kessler, Eva Knop, Annette Kolb, Ádám Kőrösi, Thibault Lachat, Victoria Lantschner, Violette Le Féon, Gretchen LeBuhn, Jean-Philippe Légaré, Susan G. Letcher, Nick A. Littlewood, Carlos A. López-Quintero, Mounir Louhaichi, Gabor L. Lövei, Manuel Esteban Lucas-Borja, Victor H. Luja, Kaoru Maeto, Tibor Magura, Neil Aldrin Mallari, Erika Marin-Spiotta, E. J. P. Marshall, Eliana Martínez, Margaret M. Mayfield, Grzegorz Mikusinski, Jeffrey C. Milder, James R. Miller, Carolina L. Morales, Mary N. Muchane, Muchai Muchane, Robin Naidoo, Akihiro Nakamura, Shoji Naoe, Guiomar Nates-Parra, Dario A. Navarrete Gutierrez, Eike L. Neuschulz, Norbertas Noreika, Olivia Norfolk, Jorge Ari Noriega, Nicole M. Nöske, Niall O'Dea, William Oduro, Caleb Ofori-Boateng, Chris O. Oke, Lynne M. Osgathorpe, Juan Paritsis, Alejandro Parra-H, Nicolás Pelegrin, Carlos A. Peres, Anna S. Persson, Theodora Petanidou, Ben Phalan, T. Keith Philips, Katja Poveda, Eileen F. Power, Steven J. Presley, Vânia Proença, Marino Quaranta, Carolina Quintero, Nicola A. Redpath-Downing, J. Leighton Reid, Yana T. Reis, Danilo B. Ribeiro, Barbara A. Richardson, Michael J. Richardson, Carolina A. Robles, Jörg Römbke, Luz Piedad Romero-Duque, Loreta Rosselli, Stephen J. Rossiter, T'ai H. Roulston, Laurent Rousseau, Jonathan P. Sadler, Szabolcs Sáfián, Romeo A. Saldaña-Vázquez, Ulrika Samnegård, Christof Schüepp, Oliver Schweiger, Jodi L. Sedlock, Ghazala Shahabuddin, Douglas Sheil, Fernando A. B. Silva, Eleanor M. Slade, Allan H. Smith-Pardo, Navjot S. Sodhi, Eduardo J. Somarriba, Ramón A. Sosa, Jane C. Stout, Matthew J. Struebig, Yik-Hei Sung, Caragh G. Threlfall, Rebecca Tonietto, Béla Tóthmérész, Teja Tscharntke, Edgar C. Turner, Jason M. Tylianakis, Adam J. Vanbergen, Kiril Vassilev, Hans A. F. Verboven, Carlos H. Vergara, Pablo M. Vergara, Jort Verhulst, Tony R. Walker, Yanping Wang, James I. Watling, Konstans Wells, Christopher D. Williams, Michael R. Willig, John C. Z. Woinarski, Jan H. D. Wolf, Ben A. Woodcock, Douglas W. Yu, Andrey S. Zaitsev, Ben Collen, Rob M. Ewers, Georgina M. Mace, Drew W. Purves, Jörn P. W. Scharlemann and Andy Purvis

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1303

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      The collation of biodiversity datasets with broad taxonomic and biogeographic extents is necessary to understand historical declines and to project – and hopefully avert – future declines. We describe a newly collated database of more than 1.6 million biodiversity measurements from 78 countries representing over 28,000 species, collated from existing spatial comparisons of local-scale biodiversity exposed to different intensities and types of anthropogenic pressures, from terrestrial sites around the world.

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      Maintaining microendemic primate species along an environmental gradient – parasites as drivers for species differentiation

      Simone Sommer, Solofomalla Jacques Rakotondranary and Jörg U. Ganzhorn

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1311

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      Madagascar's primate species richness is unparalleled in the world due to many microendemic species with very restricted ranges. Our study of three partially sympatric species of mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) shows that two species can produce hybrids. These hybrids have higher loads of intestinal parasites than either of the parent species which might indicate an advantage of the parent species over hybrids which contributes to the maintenance of distinct parent species.

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      Inferring the temperature dependence of population parameters: the effects of experimental design and inference algorithm

      Gian Marco Palamara, Dylan Z. Childs, Christopher F. Clements, Owen L. Petchey, Marco Plebani and Matthew J. Smith

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1309

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      Using simulated data we provide a systematic investigation of both the effect of experimental design and of the inference method in estimating the temperature dependence of single species population parameters. The fraction of habitat searched played the most important role in determining the precision and the accuracy of estimates. Applying the best performing methods to a real case study we found that direct and indirect methods are complementary in capturing the functional form describing the temperature dependence of population parameters.

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      Disturbance, neutral theory, and patterns of beta diversity in soil communities

      Stefanie Maaß, Massimo Migliorini, Matthias C. Rillig and Tancredi Caruso

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1313

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      We propose a method based on neutral theory and a recent definition of beta diversity to monitor the effect of disturbance and management practices on community dynamics. The beta diversity of a real set of local assemblages (vertical lines) can be similar to (blue line), higher than (red line), or smaller than (black line) the mean of a distribution of beta diversity values (histogram) obtained from a neutral model. Applications to soil communities show that beta diversity increased when disturbance increased the heterogeneity of spatial properties or the sampling strategy encompassed a range of diverging environmental conditions. On the contrary, we observed patterns consistent with neutrality when disturbance could determine homogenization of soil properties in space or the sampling strategy encompassed fairly homogeneous areas.

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      The potential for arms race and Red Queen coevolution in a protist host–parasite system

      Lars Råberg, Elisabet Alacid, Esther Garces and Rosa Figueroa

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1314

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      We investigate the relative potential for arms race and Red Queen coevolution in a protist host–parasite system by dissecting the nature of host geontype-by-parasite genotype interactions (G × G). G × Gs were mainly a result of crossing reaction norms, indicating high potential for Red Queen dynamics.

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      Optimizing passive acoustic sampling of bats in forests

      Jérémy S. P. Froidevaux, Florian Zellweger, Kurt Bollmann and Martin K. Obrist

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1296

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      We quantified the necessary effort in terms of equipment, time spent for surveys and analyses, as well as total costs, to achieve comparable results in ecological research on species diversity and habitat use of bats in forests. We found that multipoint sampling in 3D space is required, extending over full nights to confidently sample at least 90% of the species present.

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      Seasonal changes in the body size of two rotifer species living in activated sludge follow the Temperature-Size Rule

      Anna Kiełbasa, Aleksandra Walczyńska, Edyta Fiałkowska, Agnieszka Pajdak-Stós and Jan Kozłowski

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1292

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      We found that temperature and oxygen are among parameters most affecting the activated sludge properties. Both parameters drive size variability in rotifers in activated sludge, but the response is species-related and disturbed by sludge age. We showed that sludge organisms follow a common evolutionary rule, the Temperature-Size Rule.

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      Extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata (Fabricius, 1793)

      Alexis L. Beaurepaire, Bernard F. Kraus, Gudrun Koeniger, Nikolaus Koeniger, Herbert Lim and Robin F. A. Moritz

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1284

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      We studied the composition of three giant honeybee (Apis dorsata) Drone Congregation Areas during 2 consecutive days of sampling by comparing the genotype of males sampled in these mating arenas to the genotype of queens coming from neighboring colonies. We could demonstrate that the genetic diversity found in these mating arenas reaches tremendous levels, and that the dispersion of drones contributes effectively to population admixture for this inbreeding sensitive species.

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      MODISTools – downloading and processing MODIS remotely sensed data in R

      Sean L. Tuck, Helen R.P. Phillips, Rogier E. Hintzen, Jörn P.W. Scharlemann, Andy Purvis and Lawrence N. Hudson

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1273

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      We present MODISTools, an R package to improve the accessibility, downloading and processing of time series of MODIS Land Processes remotely-sensed data for specific locations. MODISTools automates the collection and processing of data from any number of locations, time periods and MODIS data products, reducing the risk of human error and the researcher effort required to access these data. MODISTools will be useful to a range of ecologists who are modelling with MODIS data, particularly those whose work includes multiple sites, such as meta-analyses, observation networks, and globally distributed experiments.

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      High intraspecific variability in the functional niche of a predator is associated with ontogenetic shift and individual specialization

      Tian Zhao, Sébastien Villéger, Sovan Lek and Julien Cucherousset

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1260

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      This study investigated the importance of intraspecific variations in the functional niche of a freshwater predator species. We demonstrated the existence of “ontogenetic specialists” in the population that displayed distinct functional and trophic niches driven by ontogenetic shifts (differences between age classes) and trophic specialization (differences within age classes), revealing the importance of accounting for intraspecific trait variability when quantifying the functional diversity of animal communities.

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      The risks of learning: confounding detection and demographic trend when using count-based indices for population monitoring

      Vincenzo Gervasi, Henrik Brøseth, Olivier Gimenez, Erlend B. Nilsen and John D. C. Linnell

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1258

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      When a population process retains a certain degree of temporal auto-correlation, a monitoring system is intrinsically prone to increase its knowledge about such a process with time, even if no intensification of effort and no change in the monitoring conditions occur. This can produce severe bias in the estimation of the direction and strength of the process itself. Failure to include detection probability in the estimation of population growth rate can lead to serious bias and severe consequences for management and conservation.

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      Are all species necessary to reveal ecologically important patterns?

      Edwin Pos, Juan Ernesto Guevara Andino, Daniel Sabatier, Jean-François Molino, Nigel Pitman, Hugo Mogollón, David Neill, Carlos Cerón, Gonzalo Rivas, Anthony Di Fiore, Raquel Thomas, Milton Tirado, Kenneth R. Young, Ophelia Wang, Rodrigo Sierra, Roosevelt García-Villacorta, Roderick Zagt, Walter Palacios, Milton Aulestia and Hans ter Steege

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1246

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      By using three often used macro-ecological analyses, we show that omitting unidentified species from datasets does not affect our conclusions as much as is often thought. Results were extremely similar using either the complete dataset or only named taxa on species level. We also show that using a higher taxon-level approach, similarity values are much more deviating from what was expected based on the all taxa dataset in comparison to using only the named dataset.

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      Reconstruction of a windborne insect invasion using a particle dispersal model, historical wind data, and Bayesian analysis of genetic data

      Tonya A. Lander, Etienne K. Klein, Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio, Jean-Noël Candau, Cindy Gidoin, Alain Chalon, Anne Roig, Delphine Fallour, Marie-Anne Auger-Rozenberg and Thomas Boivin

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1206

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      We investigated the explanatory power of dispersal histories reconstructed based on local-scale wind data and a regional-scale wind-dispersed particle trajectory model for an invasive habitat-specialist insect species. We showed that prevailing winds can favour the spread of invasive species facing habitat fragmentation through increased frequencies of long-distance dispersal events.

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      Seasonal flooding regime and ecological traits influence genetic structure of two small rodents

      Rita Gomes Rocha, Eduardo Ferreira, Carlos Fonseca, Juliana Justino, Yuri Luiz Reis Leite and Leonora Pires Costa

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1336

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      We examined population genetic structure and diversity of two cricetid rodent species from the mid-Araguaia River in central Brazil, using mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Species with different ecological adaptations have different responses to physical and temporal events, and such events can leave fingerprints on the genetic diversity and differentiation patterns.

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      Habitat heterogeneities versus spatial type frequency variances as driving forces of dispersal evolution

      Sebastian Novak

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1289

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      This article presents a theoretical framework that brings together spatial habitat heterogeneities and kin selection models for the evolution of dispersal in a conceptually illuminative way. The impact of the former is measured in terms of spatial fluxes of individuals, while the effect of relatedness is expressed via type frequency variances, which provides striking insight: any force that induces variation into the dispersal type frequencies causes selection for increased dispersal. Consequently, a common scale for different factors of dispersal evolution is established, indicating that future studies should focus on the type frequency variability as a force promoting dispersal.

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      Step selection techniques uncover the environmental predictors of space use patterns in flocks of Amazonian birds

      Jonathan R. Potts, Karl Mokross, Philip C. Stouffer and Mark A. Lewis

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1306

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      Movement of multi-species bird flocks in Amazonia is driven by both canopy height and topography, both of which have large effects on the resources present there. Higher canopies and lower ground tend to be preferable.

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