Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 7

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA and Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK

Impact Factor: 1.184

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 99/136 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

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  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spatial and temporal genetic structure of a river-resident Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after millennia of isolation

      Odd Terje Sandlund, Sten Karlsson, Eva B. Thorstad, Ole Kristian Berg, Matthew P. Kent, Ine C. J. Norum and Kjetil Hindar

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1040

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      The river-resident “småblank” is a unique endemic island population of Atlantic salmon with a special niche and a unique genetic constitution. Living in a restricted area, it is still diversified into subpopulations, and it experiences downstream asymmetric gene flow between subpopulations. The population is in a precarious situation, as the habitat is subject to a variety of anthropogenic impacts. It is important to maintain population size and avoid further habitat fragmentation.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Intraspecific variability modulates interspecific variability in animal organismal stoichiometry

      Rana W. El-Sabaawi, Joseph Travis, Eugenia Zandonà, Peter B. McIntyre, David N. Reznick and Alexander Flecker

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.981

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      The figure described interspecific and intraspecific variability in two co-existing stream fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Rivulus hartii). The fish are sampled from two types of communities: with predators (High Predation) and without predators (Low Predation). The figure show that interspecific differences in organismal stoichiometry vary significantly between streams, and are therefore sensitive to background environmental conditions. Differences between the predation communities are subtle, but interspecific differences in OS are slightly noisier in high predation compared to low predation communities.

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      Functional traits composition predict macrophytes community productivity along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake

      Hui Fu, Jiayou Zhong, Guixiang Yuan, Leyi Ni, Ping Xie and Te Cao

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1022

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      In this study, we applied a step-wise modeling procedure to test the relative effects of taxonomic diversity, functional identity, and functional diversity on macrophytes community productivity along water depth gradient. Macrophyte community productivity was strongly determined by functional trait composition within community, but not significantly affected by taxonomic diversity. Our results suggested both mechanisms of mass ratio and niche complementarity can operate simultaneously on variations in community productivity, and considering both CWM and FD would lead to a more profound understanding of traits–productivity relationships.

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      Morphological and life-history responses of anurans to predation by an invasive crayfish: an integrative approach

      Ana L. Nunes, Germán Orizaola, Anssi Laurila and Rui Rebelo

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.979

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      This study focuses on predator-induced plasticity in morphology and life-history traits of an anuran community invaded by an exotic crayfish predator around 25 years ago. We found among-species variation in the ability to respond to novel predators, and our results show that some of the prey species within the invaded community do show adaptive defenses against a recently established predator.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      One step forward: contrasting the effects of Toe clipping and PIT tagging on frog survival and recapture probability

      Murilo Guimarães, Décio T. Corrêa, Sérgio S. Filho, Thiago A. L. Oliveira, Paul F. Doherty Jr and Ricardo J. Sawaya

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1047

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      We tested the effects of two marking techniques on anurans to estimate survival probabilites. Survival slightly differed between toe pad-clipped and PIT-tagged frogs but did not vary between sexes. Recapture probability was also variable. We discuss potential effects of each technique on studies of frogs and its implications for individual survival.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genomic replacement of native Cobitis lutheri with introduced C. tetralineata through a hybrid swarm following the artificial connection of river systems

      Ye-Seul Kwan, Myeong-Hun Ko and Yong-Jin Won

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1027

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      The construction of water canals about 80 years ago has unidirectionally introduced C. tetralineata into the native habitat of C. lutheri, and then these species have hybridized in the main stream section of the Dongjin River. All the results suggest that the constant introductions of C. tetralineata from the Seomjin River through canals appear to have resulted in the rapid genetic erosion of the native C. lutheri through a creation of hybrid swarm in the Dongjin River.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The relationship between DRD4 polymorphisms and phenotypic correlations of behaviors in the collared flycatcher

      László Z. Garamszegi, Jakob C. Mueller, Gábor Markó, Eszter Szász, Sándor Zsebők, Gábor Herczeg, Marcel Eens and János Török

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1041

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      Understanding the genetic architecture of behaviors is crucial for making evolutionary implications especially in wild animals. Here, in a Hungarian population of the collared flycatcher, we investigate how males with distinct DRD4 genotypes differ in the consistent elements of their courtship behavior. We found that “AC” heterozygote individuals at the SNP764 take lower risk than the most common “AA” homozygotes (the “CC” homozygotes were not represented in this subsample of males).

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      Accounting for tagging-to-harvest mortality in a Brownie tag-recovery model by incorporating radio-telemetry data

      Frances E. Buderman, Duane R. Diefenbach, Mary Jo Casalena, Christopher S. Rosenberry and Bret D. Wallingford

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1025

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      The Brownie tag-recovery model is useful for estimating harvest rates but assumes all tagged individuals survive to the first hunting season; otherwise, mortality between time of tagging and the hunting season will cause the Brownie estimator to be negatively biased. We developed a joint model to estimate harvest and annual survival rates that combines known-fate data from animals fitted with transmitters to estimate the probability of surviving the period from capture to the first hunting season, and data from reward-tagged animals in a Brownie tag-recovery model. The joint known-fate tag-recovery model eliminates the requirement to capture and mark animals immediately prior to the hunting season to obtain accurate and precise estimates of harvest rate.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Woody encroachment reduces nutrient limitation and promotes soil carbon sequestration

      Wilma J. Blaser, Griffin K. Shanungu, Peter J. Edwards and Harry Olde Venterink

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1024

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      We studied the effects of woody encroachment on soil N, P, and C pools, and availabilities of N and P to Dichrostachys cinerea shrubs and to the understory vegetation. Both N and P pools in the soil increased along gradients of shrub age and cover, suggesting that N fixation by D. cinerea did not reduce the P supply. This in turn suggests that continued growth and carbon sequestration in this mesic savanna ecosystems are unlikely to be constrained by nutrient limitation and could represent a C sink for several decades.

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      High genetic diversity in a small population: the case of Chilean blue whales

      Juan P. Torres-Florez, Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete, Howard Rosenbaum and Christian C. Figueroa

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.998

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      It is generally assumed that species with low population sizes have lower genetic diversities than larger populations. However, this would not be the case of long-lived species with long generation times, and which populations have declined due to anthropogenic effects. We find no relationship between genetic diversity and population size in probably one of the most endangered species on seas, the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus).

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      Use of posterior predictive checks as an inferential tool for investigating individual heterogeneity in animal population vital rates

      Thierry Chambert, Jay J. Rotella and Megan D. Higgs

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.993

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      We show how posterior predictive checks can be used to strengthen inferences in ecological studies. We demonstrate the application of this method on analyses dealing with the question of individual reproductive heterogeneity in a population of Antarctic pinnipeds.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      110 Years of change in urban tree stocks and associated carbon storage

      Daniel F. Díaz-Porras, Kevin J. Gaston and Karl L. Evans

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1017

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      Using repeat photography, we demonstrate that in Sheffield, UK, we show that between 1900 to 2010, urban tree stocks initially declined and then increased significantly, resulting in a doubling of aboveground carbon storage. Rates of temporal change were not uniform across the spatial urbanization gradient, which has implications for the use of space-for-time swops in urban environments. Increase in small trees was greatest in areas with little green space, sites which had the smallest increase in large trees. Investment in urban tree planting is required to maintain the positive direction of change, but their long-term legacy requires changes in management to increase the proportion of such trees that mature.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genomic heritability estimation for the early life-history transition related to propensity to migrate in wild rainbow and steelhead trout populations

      Guo Hu, Chunkao Wang and Yang Da

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1038

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      Applying genomic heritability estimation to this dataset, we found that smoltification in the UYR population was completely determined by genetics, with 95.5% additive heritability and 4.5% dominance heritability, whereas smoltification in the UMC population had substantial dominance effects, with 0% additive heritability and 39.3% dominance heritability. Genomic-predicted additive effects completely separated migratory and nonmigratory fish in the UYR population, whereas genomic-predicted dominance effects achieved such complete separation in the UMC population. The UMC population had higher genomic additive and dominance correlations than the UYR population, and fish between these two populations had least genomic correlations. These results suggested blocking the free access to the ocean may have reduced genetic variation associated with the early life-history transition related to propensity to migrate, increased genomic similarity or reduced genetic diversity within the Upper Mann Creek population.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evaluating monitoring methods to guide adaptive management of a threatened amphibian (Litoria aurea)

      Deborah S. Bower, Evan J. Pickett, Michelle P. Stockwell, Carla J. Pollard, James I. Garnham, Madeleine R. Sanders, John Clulow and Michael J. Mahony

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.980

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      We monitored a population of L. aurea at Sydney Olympic Park over 5 years using mark–recapture, capture encounter, noncapture encounter, auditory, tadpole trapping, and dip-net surveys. The methods differed in the cost, time, and ability to detect changes in the population. Only capture encounter surveys were able to detect a decline in the occupancy, relative abundance, and recruitment of frogs during the surveys.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Delimiting cryptic pathogen species causing apple Valsa canker with multilocus data

      Xuli Wang, Rui Zang, Zhiyuan Yin, Zhensheng Kang and Lili Huang

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1030

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      We used sequence data from three nuclear loci (ITS, Btu, EF1α) to identify cryptic species within the morphological species Valsa mali causing canker on apple. Our results proved that two varieties of the former morphological species V. mali represented two distinct species, V. mali and V. pyri.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Defining conservation units in a stocking-induced genetic melting pot: unraveling native and multiple exotic genetic imprints of recent and historical secondary contact in Adriatic grayling

      Andreas Meraner, Luca Cornetti and Andrea Gandolfi

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.931

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      The conservation of Thymallus thymallus is particularly complex in its southern distribution area, where the Adriatic grayling evolutionary lineage is endangered by a long history of human pressure. Through mtDNA sequencing and microsatellite genotyping of grayling from 30 Adriatic and European sites, we describe microgeographic population structure and demographic history of the Adriatic populations. We observed significant population substructuring within the Adriatic grayling Evolutionary Significant Unit, and we therefore propose the definition of different conservation units to be preserved according to appropriate management measures.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The genetics of phenotypic plasticity. XIII. Interactions with developmental instability

      Samuel M. Scheiner

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1039

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      In a heterogeneous environment, natural selection on a trait can lead to a variety of outcomes, including phenotypic plasticity and bet-hedging through developmental instability. When plasticity and instability were determined by different loci, the only effect on the evolution of plasticity was the elimination of plasticity as a bet-hedging strategy, while instability was generally disfavored. When plasticity and instability were determined by the same loci, instability acted as a strong limitation on the evolution of plasticity.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Two sexes, one body: intra- and intersex covariation of gamete phenotypes in simultaneous hermaphrodites

      Keyne Monro and Dustin J. Marshall

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1035

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      We present novel empirical evidence of phenotypic integration within and across sexual functions (sperm and eggs) in two broadcast-spawning hermaphrodites, implying that that selection may be unable to target these functions independently because direct selection on traits of one sex is translated into correlated effects on traits of the other.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Do females invest more into eggs when males sing more attractively? Postmating sexual selection strategies in a monogamous reed passerine

      Ján Krištofík, Alžbeta Darolová, Juraj Majtan, Monika Okuliarová, Michal Zeman and Herbert Hoi

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1034

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      Males mate faster when they sing more complex. Female egg investment is related to male song performance in several aspects.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Which host-dependent insects are most prone to coextinction under changed climates?

      Melinda L. Moir, Lesley Hughes, Peter A. Vesk and Mei Chen Leng

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1021

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      The Bluff Knoll leaf beetle (Cudnellia sp. nov.; Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera, inset) from the biodiversity hotspot of southwest Australia is potentially threatened with coextinction with climate change. It occurs on threatened Ericaceae plants (Leucopogon, Sphenotoma, and Andersonia, flowering in picture) and is restricted to the two highest summits in the region.

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