Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA; Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK; Jennifer Firn, Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Impact Factor: 2.537

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 54/150 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

VIEW

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  2. 21 - 40
  3. 41 - 59
  1. ORIGINAL RESEARCH

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Strong “bottom-up” influences on small mammal populations: State-space model analyses from long-term studies

      John R. Flowerdew, Tatsuya Amano and William J. Sutherland

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2725

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      The “bottom-up” influence of masting, plus population density and climate, was studied by state-space modelling of a 33-years live-trapping data set of bank voles and wood mice in an European ash woodland. There were strong positive effects of masting on bank vole reproductive and population growth rates and weaker influences on wood mouse demographics; density dependence significantly reduced population growth in both species and in bank voles winter temperature appeared to have a modifying influence on winter demography. We conclude that population density and the “bottom-up” influence of masting both have a strong influence on rodent demography but “top-down” (predation) influences need further study.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Environmental enrichment, sexual dimorphism, and brain size in sticklebacks

      Elisavet A. Toli, Kristina Noreikiene, Jacquelin DeFaveri and Juha Merilä

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2717

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      The impact of environmental enrichment on brain size and size of different brain parts was studied experimentally in multiple three-spined stickleback populations. No enrichment effects were detected.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Phylogenetics and biogeography of the two-wing flyingfish (Exocoetidae: Exocoetus)

      Eric A. Lewallen, Andrew J. Bohonak, Carolina A. Bonin, Andre J. van Wijnen, Robert L. Pitman and Nathan R. Lovejoy

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2786

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      Morphological and molecular data of two-wing flyingfish species analyzed within a phylogenetic context revealed three clear species definitions and two others that were less obvious. Cryptic species were not detected, and biogeographic patterns of speciation associated with species range size. Two-wing flyingfish are abundant mid-trophic fishes representative of the tropical epipelagos, such that other taxa within the same habitat should be investigated for similar patterns of phylogenetic history and biogeography, as well as speciation.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Surreptitious sympatry: Exploring the ecological and genetic separation of two sibling species

      Line S. Cordes, Gregory O'Corry-Crowe and Robert J. Small

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2774

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      Climate-induced range shifts may result in increased geographic overlap between previously allopatric or parapatric species which in turn may have consequences for biodiversity through interspecific competition or genetic introgression in closely related species. Despite showing clearly distinctive ecological differences in areas of allopatry, the temporal, gender, and size-specific differences in habitat utilization and dive behavior between harbor and spotted seals were often greater than the species-specific differences in areas of sympatry. The lack of distinct ecological separation between the two species in this area of sympatry suggests that interspecific competition could play an important role in their persistence, particularly as predicted climate-induced environmental change will likely influence the spatial and temporal extent of overlap in these two sibling species.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Sensitivity of sea urchin fertilization to pH varies across a natural pH mosaic

      Lydia Kapsenberg, Daniel K. Okamoto, Jessica M. Dutton and Gretchen E. Hofmann

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2776

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      How ocean pH variability may shape pH sensitivities of marine organisms was investigated for sea urchin fertilization. Of three coastal locations with similar mean pH, but different pH variability exposures, urchins from the site with the narrowest pH variability exposures exhibited a greater pH sensitivity in fertilization dynamics compared to urchins from the sites with wider pH exposures. These results indicate that coastal ocean pH variability may influence how this species will respond to pH changes associated with future ocean acidification.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Lifetime fitness consequences of early-life ecological hardship in a wild mammal population

      Harry H. Marshall, Emma I. K. Vitikainen, Francis Mwanguhya, Robert Businge, Solomon Kyabulima, Michelle C. Hares, Emma Inzani, Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, Kenneth Mwesige, Hazel J. Nichols, Jennifer L. Sanderson, Faye J. Thompson and Michael A. Cant

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2747

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      The mean and variability of early-life ecological conditions may have differing effects on life-history trade-offs and can have sex-specific effects. Male banded mongooses born in better early-life conditions invested more in reproduction but lived shorter lives, that is, “live-fast, die-young”; however, males born in more variable conditions lived longer and had greater reproductive success. We found no such effects in females.

  2. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ecological speciation by temporal isolation in a population of the stonefly Leuctra hippopus (Plecoptera, Leuctridae)

      Louis Boumans, Silje Hogner, John Brittain and Arild Johnsen

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2638

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      Speciation by temporal isolation is theoretically expected to play a role in aquatic insects with a short, synchronized adult life stage, but has been very little documented so far. Our study uses convergent results of AFLP and RAD-based SNP analyses to show that a stonefly population that emerges 1 month earlier than nearby conspecific populations is indeed genetically homogeneous and divergent. The temporal isolation is linked to the flooding of this population's habitat in spring, which necessitates an early completion of the adult stage.

  3. ORIGINAL RESEARCH

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Revisiting the phylogeny of Wolbachia in Collembola

      Yao Ma, Wan-Jun Chen, Zhao-Hui Li, Feng Zhang, Yan Gao and Yun-Xia Luan

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2738

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      This is the first report on Wolbachia infection in collembolan species sampled in China, covering the symbionts of neelipleonan species for which phylogenetic position has not been determined yet. With the Wolbachia multilocus sequence typing (MLST) system, all the five Wolbachia strains newly recovered from parthenogenetic collembolans were assigned to supergroup E as a unique clade, supporting the monophyletic origin of Wolbachia in parthenogenetic collembolan species. Moreover, our data revealed the discrepancy between the phylogenies of Wolbachia and parthenogenetic collembolans, which may result from the high level of genetic divergence between collembolan Wolbachia, in association with the geographic differentiation of their hosts or the possible horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between different collembolan species.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Plant structural complexity and mechanical defenses mediate predator–prey interactions in an odonate–bird system

      Patrick Grof-Tisza, Eric LoPresti, Sacha K. Heath and Richard Karban

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2705

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      We investigated refuge provisioning by two plant traits, mechanical defenses, and structural complexity, for dragonfly and damselfly nymphs emerging from water bodies to molt into their adult stage. To disentangle the relative effects of these two potentially important functional traits on nymph emergence-site preference and survival, we conducted two fully crossed factorial manipulative field experiments using artificial plants. Results from these experiments were consistent with an observational study, where more exuviae—a proxy for a successful molting event—were found on plants with high structural complexity and mechanical defenses.

  4. Original Research

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      An SSR-based approach incorporating a novel algorithm for identification of rare maize genotypes facilitates criteria for landrace conservation in Mexico

      Corina Hayano-Kanashiro, Octavio Martínez de la Vega, M. Humberto Reyes-Valdés, José-Luis Pons-Hernández, Fernando Hernández-Godinez, Emigdia Alfaro-Laguna, José Luis Herrera-Ayala, Ma. Cristina Vega-Sánchez, José Alfredo Carrera-Valtierra and June Simpson

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2754

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      The manuscript presents a strategy based on SSR analysis and a novel algorithm to define a minimum collection and rare genotypes using landrace populations from Puebla State (Mexico) and was developed as a “proof of concept” for methodology that could be extended to all maize landrace populations in Mexico and eventually to other native crops.

  5. ORIGINAL RESEARCH

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Environmental control of the microfaunal community structure in tropical bromeliads

      Pavel Kratina, Jana S. Petermann, Nicholas A. C. Marino, Andrew A. M. MacDonald and Diane S. Srivastava

      Version of Record online: 9 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2797

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      Insights from bromeliad phytotelmata communities are currently limited by scarce accounts of microfauna assemblages that are critical in transferring, recycling, and releasing nutrients in these model ecosystems. Our findings improve the understanding of this unstudied but crucial component of bromeliad ecosystems and reveal important environmental filters that likely contribute to overall bromeliad community structure and function.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Using a multiscale image processing method to characterize the periodic growth patterns on scallop shells

      Qiang Xing, Tengda Wei, Zhihui Chen, Yangfan Wang, Yuan Lu, Shi Wang, Lingling Zhang and Zhenmin Bao

      Version of Record online: 9 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2789

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      We introduced a novel multiscale image processing method based on the matched filters with Gaussian kernels and the PDE multiscale hierarchical decomposition to segment the small tubular and periodic structures in scallop shell images. The periodic patterns of structures (consisting of bifurcation points, crossover points of the rings and ribs, and the connected lines) could be found by our Space-based Depth-First Search (SDFS) algorithm. The proposed methods are implemented in a Matlab package and can be used as an effective invariable biomarker for biological individual recognition.

  6. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Water, land, fire, and forest: Multi-scale determinants of rainforests in the Australian monsoon tropics

      Stefania Ondei, Lynda D. Prior, Grant J. Williamson, Tom Vigilante and David M. J. S. Bowman

      Version of Record online: 9 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2734

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      Studies of the distribution of rainforest patches in vast savanna landscapes usually rely on coarse satellite tree cover estimates, which overlook the small rainforest fragments typical of the dry monsoon tropics. We analyzed the influence of climatic variables on rainforest density in the northwestern Australian monsoon tropics and employed high-resolution regional-scale analyses to assess the importance of landscape settings and fire activity in determining rainforest density in the northern Kimberley (Western Australia). Our results suggest that moist climate, infrequent fires, topography, and geology are all important stabilizing feedbacks that allow rainforest fragments to persist in frequently burnt savanna landscapes.

  7. ORIGINAL RESEARCH

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Functional dominance rather than taxonomic diversity and functional diversity mainly affects community aboveground biomass in the Inner Mongolia grassland

      Qing Zhang, Alexander Buyantuev, Frank Yonghong Li, Lin Jiang, Jianming Niu, Yong Ding, Sarula Kang and Wenjing Ma

      Version of Record online: 9 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2778

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      Functional dominance rather than taxonomic diversity and functional diversity mainly determines community productivity and that the selection effect plays a dominant role in maintaining the relationship between biodiversity and community productivity in the Inner Mongolia grassland.

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      Quantifying the responses of biological indices to rare macroinvertebrate taxa exclusion: Does excluding more rare taxa cause more error?

      Zhengda Yu, Hui Wang, Jiao Meng, Mingsheng Miao, Qiang Kong, Renqing Wang and Jian Liu

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2798

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      Our study shows that excluding rare taxa in a reasonable way could raise the efficiency and reduce the workload while gaining relative precise indices values as well as theoretical value in the subsampling of freshwater macroinvertebrate.

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      Climatic niche divergence and habitat suitability of eight alien invasive weeds in China under climate change

      Ji-Zhong Wan, Chun-Jing Wang, Jing-Fang Tan and Fei-Hai Yu

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2684

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      In our study, niche divergence of Chinese AIWs between the American continent and China was quantified and changes in the habitat suitability of Chinese AIWs under climate change were examined. The results have broad ecological applications; they provide a solid basis for the use of ENMs and raise questions about the mechanistic underpinnings of broadscale geographic patterns. There was significant niche divergence for all eight Chinese AIWs between the American continent (native ranges) and China (invasive ranges). These eight AIWs may be closer to equilibrium in invasive range than they are in the native range. Furthermore, these AIWs had large ranges of climatically suitable habitats, enabling expansion in regions of low latitudes. Future climate change was predicted to result in a shift in the AIWs in Qinghai and Tibet (regions of higher altitude) as well as Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, and Gansu (regions of higher latitude), indicating the need for prevention and control measures for AIW invasion at the country-wide level.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Native herbivores and environmental heterogeneity as mediators of an exotic grass invasion

      Cody L. Ender, Caroline E. Christian and J. Hall Cushman

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2727

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      We use a 17-year-old exclosure experiment stratified across a coastal grassland to address the relative importance of a reintroduced mammalian herbivore and environmental heterogeneity in mediating the growth, abundance, and recruitment of a problematic grass invader, Holcus lanatus.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Intraspecific functional diversity of common species enhances community stability

      Connor M. Wood, Shawn T. McKinney and Cynthia S. Loftin

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2721

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      Common species with high intraspecific functional diversity (iFD) have greater population stability than those with lower iFD. The stability of those populations imparts a stabilizing influence on whole communities.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The effect of top-predator presence and phenotype on aquatic microbial communities

      Karen E. Sullam, Blake Matthews, Thierry Aebischer, Ole Seehausen and Helmut Bürgmann

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2784

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      We tested how presence, genotype, rearing history, and the resulting phenotype of the predatory three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) influences aquatic microbes using outdoor mesocosms. Our results suggest that fish predation effects on microbial communities can be modulated by phenotypic variation, potentially affecting microbial ecology and processes that can persist after fish are removed.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Modeling nonbreeding distributions of shorebirds and waterfowl in response to climate change

      Gordon C. Reese and Susan K. Skagen

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2755

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      To identify areas on the landscape that may contribute to a robust network of conservation areas, we modeled the probabilities of occurrence of several en route migratory shorebirds and wintering waterfowl in the southern Great Plains of North America, including responses to changing climate. Projected changes in shorebird probabilities of occurrence varied with species-specific general distribution pattern, migration distance, and spatial scale. At an ecoregional extent, probabilities of shorebird occurrence averaged across climate models ranged from −0.015 to 0.045, and spatial shifts are predicted for several shorebird species. When incorporated into partner land management decision tools, results at ecoregional extents can be used to identify wetland complexes with the greatest potential to support birds in the nonbreeding season under a wide range of future climate scenarios. Photo by Joel Jorgensen.

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