Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 14

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA and Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK

Impact Factor: 1.658

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 85/140 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

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  1. Original Research

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      Survival relative to new and ancestral host plants, phytoplasma infection, and genetic constitution in host races of a polyphagous insect disease vector

      Michael Maixner, Andreas Albert and Jes Johannesen

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1158

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      The tri-trophic interactions of pathogens, vectors and plants determine the epidemiology of plant diseases. We studied survival in host-race evolution of a plant disease vector in relation to genetic differentiation embedded in the framework of ecological specialisation, together with the effects of phytoplasma infection on the vector.

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      Can patterns of chromosome inversions in Drosophila pseudoobscura predict polyandry across a geographical cline?

      Paul Herrera, Michelle L. Taylor, Alison Skeats, Tom A. R. Price and Nina Wedell

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1165

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      Here we examine whether variation in female remating levels of Drosophila pseudoobscura from three locations in North America are associated with patterns of chromosome inversions, which may explain patterns of polyandry across the geographic range. Populations differed with respect to the frequency of polyandry and the presence of inversion polymorphisms on the third chromosome. However, we found no strong relationship between female remating levels and specific karyotypes between isolines.

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      Wildlife road traffic accidents: a standardized protocol for counting flattened fauna

      Wendy J. Collinson, Daniel M. Parker, Ric T. F. Bernard, Brian K. Reilly and Harriet T. Davies-Mostert

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1097

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      Previous assessments of wildlife road mortality have not used directly comparable methods and, at present, there is no standardized protocol for the collection of such data. Consequently, there are no internationally comparative statistics documenting roadkill rates. In this study, we used a combination of experimental trials and road transects to design a standardized protocol to assess roadkill rates on both paved and unpaved roads.

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      Life-history traits predict perennial species response to fire in a desert ecosystem

      Daniel F. Shryock, Lesley A. DeFalco and Todd C. Esque

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1159

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      We explored linkages between perennial species recovery, species traits, and fire in a desert ecosystem that has only recently become fire-prone. Life-history traits, including lifespan and seed size, were found to significantly influence how species responded to fire, and these traits could be used to classify species into plant-functional-types. Based on this classification, we show that dominant, long-lived species in this ecosystem possess a combination of traits rendering them susceptible to a novel fire regime.

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      How the cascading effects of a single behavioral trait can generate personality

      Frédérique Dubois and Luc-Alain Giraldeau

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1157

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      Our study demonstrates that labile behavioral correlations can arise from nongenetic means when some key behavior, under some specific ecological circumstances, exert cascading effects on the range of behaviors available to individuals. More specifically our simulation model shows that boldness can be one such key behavior exerting its cascading effects on both aggregation tendency and foraging tactic use under conditions of high predation pressure.

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      Temporal and spatial dynamics of amphioxus population (Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtaneuse) and its influential factors in Luan River Estuary, China

      Luo Hao, Ma Minghui, Liang Bin and Bao Chenguang

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1152

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      Amphioxus density and biomass have shown a rapid decline in the Luan River Estuary. Highest density distribution of amphioxus occurs where >90% of the sediment particles are between 0.063 and 0.5 mm. Changes in the sedimentary environment may affect the amphioxus population distribution. The changes to the sediment in this region primarily result from the reduction in sediment discharge from Luan River and expansion of the raft-cultivation area.

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      Dosage and duration effects of nitrogen additions on ectomycorrhizal sporocarp production and functioning: an example from two N-limited boreal forests

      Niles J. Hasselquist and Peter Högberg

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1145

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      Increasing nitrogen availability was coupled to a reduction in the amount of carbon allocated to ectomycorrhizal sporocarps and a change in fungal species; however, this response was strongly dependent on the amount and duration of nitrogen additions. Despite the general negative effect, this response was not permanent and 20 years after the termination of nitrogen additions, the abundance and diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi was able to recover after high nitrogen loading. Results from this study also provide evidence that long-term nitrogen additions disrupts the tight coupling between the amount of carbon allocated to and nitrogen retained in ectomycorrhizal fungi, which could have important ramifications on the cycling of carbon and nitrogen in boreal forests.

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      Asymmetric dispersal structures a riverine metapopulation of the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera laevis

      Akira Terui, Yusuke Miyazaki, Akira Yoshioka, Kenzo Kaifu, Shin-ichiro S. Matsuzaki and Izumi Washitani

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1135

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      Unidirectional water flow results in the downstream-biased, asymmetric dispersal of many riverine organisms. However, little is known of how asymmetric dispersal influences riverine population structure and dynamics, limiting our ability to properly manage riverine organisms. Our finding suggests that upstream subpopulations can be disproportionately important as immigrant sources when dispersal is strongly asymmetric.

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      Patterns in root traits of woody species hosting arbuscular and ectomycorrhizas: implications for the evolution of belowground strategies

      Louise H. Comas, Hilary S. Callahan and Peter E. Midford

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1147

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      We examined root traits of 33 woody species co-existing in Northeastern US forests that form two of the most common types of mutualisms with fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) and ectomycorrhizas (EM). We found patterns of plants forming roots with thinner diameters as species diversified across time; and that the AM habit was associated with lower branching intensity (rPIC = −0.77) and thicker root diameter (rPIC = −0.41) and the EM habit. We discuss findings in light of selection pressures on root traits and trade-offs for supporting different types of fungal symbionts.

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      Protected areas alleviate climate change effects on northern bird species of conservation concern

      Raimo Virkkala, Juha Pöyry, Risto K. Heikkinen, Aleksi Lehikoinen and Jari Valkama

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1162

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      Protected area networks may enhance the resilience of regional populations of species of conservation concern, resulting in slower species loss in landscapes with a significant amount of protected habitat compared to unprotected landscapes. Based on national bird atlases compiled in 1974–89 and 2006–2010, this study examines the recent range shifts in 90 forest, mire, marshland and Arctic mountain heath bird species of conservation concern in Finland, as well as the changes in their species richness in protected vs. unprotected areas. Protected areas maintained a higher level of species richness than unprotected areas, and thus this finding provides support for the significance and resilience provision of protected area networks in preserving species of conservation concern under climate change.

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