Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 12

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA and Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK

Impact Factor: 2.32

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 63/144 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

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  2. 21 - 39
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

      Jennifer L. McDonald, Mairead Maclean, Matthew R. Evans and Dave J. Hodgson

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1553

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      We consider both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Our findings suggest cat owners fail to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife, with no correlation between the observed and predicted prey return rates among predatory cats. On the basis of opinions of cat owners in this study, management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness“ campaigns, or restrictions of cat freedom.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Inbreeding and adaptive plasticity: an experimental analysis on predator-induced responses in the water flea Daphnia

      Ine Swillen, Joost Vanoverbeke and Luc De Meester

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1545

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      In this study, we tested the potential of a D. magna population to respond plastically to fish predation pressure, mimicked by kairomones, and whether the ability to show plastic responses was influenced by strong inbreeding in the population. Our results suggest the presence of a trade-off between the extent of purging and the extent of inbreeding depression in severely bottlenecked or single-founder populations. Moreover, we find that the ability to still show plastic responses despite the occurrence of inbreeding strongly depends on the genetic identity of the founder clone.

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      Temporal autocorrelation in host density increases establishment success of parasitoids in an experimental system

      Elodie Vercken, Xavier Fauvergue, Nicolas Ris, Didier Crochard and Ludovic Mailleret

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1505

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      Environmental variance is classically expected to increase extinction risk, however this effect is strongly dependent on the structure of environmental variation. Using experimental microcosms, we demonstrate that host-parasitoid interactions can induce positive temporal autocorrelation in host abundance and that such autocorrelation in the parasitoid's environment enhances its establishment probability.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Detectability of landscape effects on recolonization increases with regional population density

      Anna-Sara Liman, Peter Dalin and Christer Björkman

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1527

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      This study illustrates how temporal variation in regional population density can influence the detectability of landscape-moderated variation in recolonization of disturbed habitat patches.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Consumer trait variation influences tritrophic interactions in salt marsh communities

      Anne Randall Hughes, Torrance C. Hanley, Nohelia P. Orozco and Robyn A. Zerebecki

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1564

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      Consumer trait variation may play an important role in mediating trophic dynamics. We used a series of field surveys and lab experiments to document intra-specific trait variation in the consumer species Littoraria irrorata and to test the effects of this variation on salt marsh communities. Consumer trait variation influenced the cascading effects of a top predator on plant community structure over seasonal time scales, highlighting the central role of consumers in food webs.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Discovery–dominance trade-off among widespread invasive ant species

      Cleo Bertelsmeier, Amaury Avril, Olivier Blight, Hervé Jourdan and Franck Courchamp

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1542

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      The success of invasive ants might stem from a departure from the discovery-dominance trade-off that can promote co-existence in native ant communities, i.e. invasive ants are thought to be at the same time behaviourally dominant and faster discoverers of resources, compared to native species. However, it has not yet been tested whether such a trade-off exists among invasive ants. Here, we used a series of behavioural experiments that demonstrated a discovery-dominance trade-off among four highly invasive ant species.

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      Wind-mediated horseweed (Conyza canadensis) gene flow: pollen emission, dispersion, and deposition

      Haiyan Huang, Rongjian Ye, Meilan Qi, Xiangzhen Li, David R. Miller, Charles Neal Stewart, David W. DuBois and Junming Wang

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1540

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      Studies of horseweed pollen emission and dispersion (either close to source or far from source) are lacking. This study obtained the first experiemntal data.

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      Application of a Bayesian nonparametric model to derive toxicity estimates based on the response of Antarctic microbial communities to fuel-contaminated soil

      Julyan Arbel, Catherine K. King, Ben Raymond, Tristrom Winsley and Kerrie L. Mengersen

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1493

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      This study presents a novel modeling method for deriving point estimate concentrations in toxicological studies. It is unique in its approach and its ability to work with multiple species and large data sets to produce toxicity estimates which reduce complex multispecies responses to a single sensitivity value that represents the response of the community. This approach is not only useful for microbial communities but can also be more widely applied to other ecological data sets.

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      Temporal dynamics of seed excretion by wild ungulates: implications for plant dispersal

      Mélanie Picard, Julien Papaïx, Frédéric Gosselin, Denis Picot, Eric Bideau and Christophe Baltzinger

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1512

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      We quantify seed retention time and germination probability after release by ungulates to test whether endozoochorous dispersal depends on plant and vector functional traits. For this, we calibrate a bayesian dynamic model using experimental data from individual monitoring. We show that seed retention time and germination probability vary according to seed and animal traits. Our model can be applied to further plant-animal systems and used to calibrate time-distance functions in dispersal models.

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      The evolution of obligate sex: the roles of sexual selection and recombination

      Maya Kleiman and Lilach Hadany

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1516

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      An invasion can accompany an advantage in mean fitness (red) or could occur despite a reduction in mean fitness (dashed red). Elimination of the obligate sex allele can happen in conditions where the obligate population is less fit (green), but also when it is fitter (dashed green).

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of the Epichloë fungal endophyte symbiosis with Schedonorus pratensis on host grass invasiveness

      Kruti Shukla, Heather A. Hager, Kathryn A. Yurkonis and Jonathan A. Newman

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1536

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      We investigated the generality of the grass-fungal endophyte work on host invasiveness, which has mostly involved studies of Schedonorus arundinaceusEpichloë coenophiala, by studying a pair of closely related species, S. pratensis and E. uncinata. Grass abundance, endophyte infection rate, and the co-occurring vegetation were sampled 3, 4, 5, and 6 years, and aboveground invertebrate community 3 and 4 years, after cultivars with different levels of endophyte infection were experimentally seeded into an old-field habitat. Contrary to expectations, endophyte infection did not enable the grass to achieve high abundance in the plant community, and high-endophyte S. pratensis increased plant species richness. However, high-endophyte S. pratensis marginally decreased invertebrate taxon richness relative to low-endophyte cultivars. Our results suggest that the effect of the grass-fungal symbiosis on diversity is specific to species, cultivar, infection, and potentially site.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Variation in freshwater fish assemblages along a regional elevation gradient in the northern Andes, Colombia

      Juan D. Carvajal-Quintero, Federico Escobar, Fredy Alvarado, Francisco A. Villa-Navarro, Úrsula Jaramillo-Villa and Javier A. Maldonado-Ocampo

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1539

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      We perform the first regional analysis of elevation diversity gradients in freshwater fish. For this we used 141 localities between 250 and 2533 m a.s.l. from seven sub-regions in the Northern Andes, Colombia. The results of our study suggest a novel pattern of variation in species richness with elevation: species richness increases at the headwaters of the Northern Andes owing to the cumulative number of endemic species there.

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      BEMOVI, software for extracting behavior and morphology from videos, illustrated with analyses of microbes

      Frank Pennekamp, Nicolas Schtickzelle and Owen L. Petchey

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1529

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      Video analysis is a promising approach to quantify traits and abundances of species in an automated fashion. In addition, it provides detailed behavioral information, capturing dynamic processes such as movement, and hence has the potential to describe the interactions between individuals. We introduce BEMOVI, an R package to automatically extract such information from sets of videos and show the general validity and accuracy of the method using microcosms of aquatic microbes.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of grass species and grass growth on atmospheric nitrogen deposition to a bog ecosystem surrounded by intensive agricultural land use

      Miriam Hurkuck, Christian Brümmer, Karsten Mohr, Oliver Spott, Reinhard Well, Heinz Flessa and Werner L. Kutsch

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1534

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      A 15N biomonitoring technique was used to determine grass species and grass growth effects on atmospheric nitrogen (N) uptake. While correlations between plant N status and N supply were found for both used species, plants responded differently in terms of produced biomass.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Integration and scaling of UV-B radiation effects on plants: from DNA to leaf

      Vasile Alexandru Suchar and Ronald Robberecht

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1332

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      There is considerable research regarding the effects of UV-B radiation on plant processes, but not much on how they are related. This is the first mathematical model to integrate the effects of increased UV-B radiation on molecular to organ level, and examine hypothesis too difficult to approach through experimental research.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Host-associated differentiation in a highly polyphagous, sexually reproducing insect herbivore

      Josephine B. Antwi, Gregory A. Sword and Raul F. Medina

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1526

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      Our study assesses HAD in the cotton fleahopper on 13 of its host-plant species. We found that this sexually reproducing highly polyphagous insect presents a relatively low degree of HAD across the host-plants tested. Our results stress the importance of sexual recombination as a factor decreasing the likelihood of HAD.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Environmental factors prevail over dispersal constraints in determining the distribution and assembly of Trichoptera species in mountain lakes

      Guillermo de Mendoza, Marc Ventura and Jordi Catalan

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1522

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      We analyzed the distribution and assembly of the most common Trichoptera based on a survey of 82 lakes of the Pyrenees covering the geographical and environmental extremes of the lake district. Spatial autocorrelation in species composition was determined using Moran's Eigenvector Maps (MEM). Redundancy Analysis (RDA) was applied to explore the influence of MEM variables and in-lake, and catchment environmental variables on Trichoptera assemblages. Variance partitioning analysis (partial RDA) revealed that the fraction of variation in species composition that was uniquely explained by environmental variability was larger than that uniquely explained by MEM variables. Generalized Linear Models (GLM) showed that the distribution of species with longitudinal bias is related to specific environmental factors with geographical trend.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evaluation of habitat suitability index models by global sensitivity and uncertainty analyses: a case study for submerged aquatic vegetation

      Zuzanna Zajac, Bradley Stith, Andrea C. Bowling, Catherine A. Langtimm and Eric D. Swain

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1520

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      We present a state-of the-art statistical evaluation of Habitat Suitability Index Models through global sensitivity and uncertainty analyses (GSA/UA). We illustrate the GSA/UA framework for two species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in southwest Everglades National Park: Vallisneria americana (tape grass) and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Furthermore we demonstrate the advantages of applying GSA/UA for decision making in a context of resources management.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Exploring seascape genetics and kinship in the reef sponge Stylissa carteri in the Red Sea

      Emily C. Giles, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Nigel E. Hussey, Timothy Ravasi and Michael L. Berumen

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1511

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Here both a seascape genetics approach and an analysis of kinship and was used to gain insight regarding barriers to gene flow and reproductive strategy of a common reef sponge, Stylissa carteri in the Red Sea. At large scales environmental gradients are stronger predictors of genetic isolation than geographic distance and at fine to medium scales we have found evidence for potential nonrandom mating and self-fertilization events.

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