Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 19

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA and Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK

Impact Factor: 1.658

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 85/140 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

VIEW

  1. 1 - 20
  2. 21 - 31
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Sexual size dimorphism is not associated with the evolution of parental care in frogs

      Melanie J. Monroe and Suzanne H. Alonzo

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1263

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      Previous research suggests that sex differences in parental care are associated with the magnitude and direction of differential selection on the sexes. The majority of these studies focus on the correlations between male-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and female parental care, even though, female-biased SSD is much more common throughout the animal kingdom. Our study evaluates the correlation between parental care and female-biased SSD and suggests that unlike male-biased SSD and its strong correlation with female parental care, there is little to no correlation between female-biased SSD and parental care, or the type of care provided (biparental, maternal, paternal).

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The application of eDNA for monitoring of the Great Crested Newt in the UK

      Helen C. Rees, Keith Bishop, David J. Middleditch, James R. M. Patmore, Ben C. Maddison and Kevin C. Gough

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1272

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      Current ecological surveys for the Great Crested Newt (GCN) are time consuming and expensive and can only be carried out within a short survey window. Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis has been applied to pond water samples within the UK and compared to field survey results with an 84% success rate and a Kappa coefficient of agreement between methods of 0.86. Additionally, one pond determined as field survey negative was found to be positive by eDNA analysis and there is an indication that eDNA analysis could be used to detect GCN after the current survey window has passed.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Intraspecific competition reduces niche width in experimental populations

      Christine E. Parent, Deepa Agashe and Daniel I. Bolnick

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1254

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      We present a surprising counter-example of competitive diversification to identify circumstances that can lead intraspecific competition to promote niche contraction. Using Tribolium castaneum flour beetles we conducted experiments to test whether competition changes the fitness landscape to favor niche expansion, and if competition indeed drives niche expansion. We show that fitness is maximized on a mixed diet, and that at higher population density, the optimal diet shifts towards greater use of corn, favoring niche expansion. In stark contrast, when beetles were given a choice of resources, we found that competition caused niche contraction onto the ancestral resource. This presents a puzzling mismatch between how competition alters the fitness landscape, versus competition's effects on resource use. We discuss several explanations for this mismatch, highlighting potential reasons why optimality models might be misleading.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Allometric scaling relationship between above- and below-ground biomass within and across five woody seedlings

      Dongliang Cheng, Yuzhu Ma, Quanling Zhong and Weifeng Xu

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1184

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      We focus on the scaling relationships among different organs within and across five evergreen species in Fujian province. Our analysis shown that significant variation was observed in the Y-intercepts of the biomass scaling curves, resulting in the divergence for intra- and inter-specific scaling relationships for leaf versus stem and leaf versus root biomass, but not for stem and aboveground versus root biomass. Thus, our paper demonstrated the difference between inter- and intra-specific biomass allocation patterns, which should appeal to a wide audience of ecologist.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Integrating environmental, molecular, and morphological data to unravel an ice-age radiation of arctic-alpine Campanula in western North America

      Eric G. DeChaine, Barry M. Wendling and Brenna R. Forester

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1168

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      The Cordilleran Campanula L. (Campanulaceae Juss.), a monophyletic clade of mostly endemic arctic-alpine taxa from western North America, experienced a recent and rapid radiation. We integrated environmental, genetic, and morphological datasets, tested biogeographic hypotheses, and analyzed the potential consequences of the various factors on the evolutionary history of the clade. Our results show that the combined effect of Quaternary climatic variation, isolation among differing environments in the mountains in western North America, and biotic factors influencing floral morphology contributed to speciation in this group during the mid-Pleistocene.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Diversity of honey stores and their impact on pathogenic bacteria of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

      Silvio Erler, Andreas Denner, Otilia Bobiş, Eva Forsgren and Robin F. A. Moritz

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1252

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      We test eight honeybee bacterial disease strains and the growth inhibitory activity of three honey types. Using a high-throughput cell growth assay, we show that all honeys have high growth inhibitory activity and the two monofloral honeys appeared to be strain specific. The specificity of the monofloral honeys, and the strong antimicrobial potential of the polyfloral honey suggests that the diversity of honeys in the honey stores of a colony may be highly adaptive for its ‘social immunity’ against the highly diverse suite of pathogens encountered in nature.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      CO2 efflux from subterranean nests of ant communities in a seasonal tropical forest, Thailand

      Sasitorn Hasin, Mizue Ohashi, Akinori Yamada, Yoshiaki Hashimoto, Wattanachai Tasen, Tomonori Kume and Seiki Yamane

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1255

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      Many ant species construct subterranean nests. The presence of their nests may explain soil respiration “hot spots”, an important factor in the high CO2 efflux from tropical forests. We established 61 experimental plots containing 13 subterranean ant species to evaluate the CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests in a tropical seasonal forest, Thailand. The mean CO2 efflux from nests was significantly higher than those from the surrounding soil in the wet and dry seasons. The CO2 efflux was species-specific, showing significant differences among the 13 ant species.

  2. Reviews

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The design and function of birds' nests

      Mark C. Mainwaring, Ian R. Hartley, Marcel M. Lambrechts and D. Charles Deeming

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1054

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      All birds construct nests in which to lay eggs and/or raise offspring. Traditionally, it was thought that natural selection and the requirement to minimize the risk of predation determined nest-building behaviors and the design of completed nests. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that sexual selection, ectoparasitism, and environmental conditions also influence nest design.

  3. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Benefits and costs of ecological restoration: Rapid assessment of changing ecosystem service values at a U.K. wetland

      Kelvin S.-H. Peh, Andrew Balmford, Rob H. Field, Anthony Lamb, Jennifer C. Birch, Richard B. Bradbury, Claire Brown, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Martin Lester, Ross Morrison, Isabel Sedgwick, Chris Soans, Alison J. Stattersfield, Peter A. Stroh, Ruth D. Swetnam, David H. L. Thomas, Matt Walpole, Stuart Warrington and Francine M. R. Hughes

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1248

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      A detailed site-scale assessment of benefits and costs of the conversion of arable land to wetland has been carried out in terms of ecosystem service values in the two states. It shows that restoration is associated with a net gain to society of $199 ha−1y−1 and that the balance of benficiaries shifts from the private to the public sector.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Rapid evolutionary adaptation to elevated salt concentrations in pathogenic freshwater bacteria Serratia marcescens

      Tarmo Ketola and Teppo Hiltunen

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1253

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      Natural variation of Serratia marcescens colonies expressing different levels of red pigment prodigiosin. Photomosaic of Charles Darwin using ca. 4000 bacterial colony pictures was created using software: AndreaMosaic. Library of colony pictures was created using Matlab scrip (written by TK) for extracting separate colony figures from petri dish figures accumulated during the experiment.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effective population size does not predict codon usage bias in mammals

      Michael D. Kessler and Matthew D. Dean

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1249

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      It has long been argued that differences in codon usage bias should scale with effective population size across species. We present evidence to the contrary.

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