Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 8

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA and Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK

Impact Factor: 1.184

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 99/136 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

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  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Fin whale MDH-1 and MPI allozyme variation is not reflected in the corresponding DNA sequences

      Morten Tange Olsen, Christophe Pampoulie, Anna K. Daníelsdóttir, Emmelie Lidh, Martine Bérubé, Gísli A. Víkingsson and Per J. Palsbøll

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1046

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      Studies of North Atlantic fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) population structure have reported contrasting degrees of genetic differentiation in allozyme and nuclear markers. We sequenced the exons encoding for the two most divergent allozyme loci (MDH-1 and MPI) and failed to detect mutations that could account for the reported levels of genetic variation at these markers. Thus, the reported allozyme variation does not appear to be a result of genetic drift, migration, or selection on the MDH-1 and MPI exons themselves, stressing the importance of interpreting allozyme data with caution.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Intraspecific variation in vertical habitat use by tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in the western North Atlantic

      Jeremy J. Vaudo, Bradley M. Wetherbee, Guy Harvey, Richard S. Nemeth, Choy Aming, Neil Burnie, Lucy A. Howey-Jordan and Mahmood S. Shivji

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1053

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      We examined the vertical movements of tiger sharks in the northern Caribbean Sea and Bermuda. Although all individuals spent a considerable amount of time near the surface and making oscillatory dives in the upper 50 m, deep diving behaviors were common. In addition, a great deal of intraspecific variability in vertical habitat use was observed that does not appear to be related to tagging location, horizontal movements, sex, or size.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Egg load dynamics and the risk of egg and time limitation experienced by an aphid parasitoid in the field

      Christine Dieckhoff, Julian C. Theobald, Felix L. Wäckers and George E. Heimpel

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1023

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      We used a series of field and laboratory studies to investigate factors contributing to the risk for egg and time limitation in the field of this parasitoid species, a biological control agent of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Our results suggest that fecundity of B. communis benefits both from dynamic egg maturation strategies and from sugar-feeding.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Very low levels of direct additive genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in a red squirrel population

      S. Eryn McFarlane, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman, Murray M. Humphries, Stan Boutin and Andrew G. McAdam

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.982

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      Additive genetic variance in fitness is needed for microevolution. Here, we tested whether sexual antagonism or temporal fluctuations in selection could be maintaining additive genetic variance in fitness in a wild red squirrel population. We found no evidence for either of these mechanisms or for direct genetic variance in fitness.

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      Immune priming and pathogen resistance in ant queens

      Dumas Gálvez and Michel Chapuisat

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1070

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      We performed the first test of immune priming in ant queens, which have extraordinarily long life span and high fertility. We show that immune priming occurs in naturally mated Lasius niger queens exposed twice to a fungal pathogen. Moreover, the pathogen resistance of ant queens increases after mating. Overall, ant queens are able to invest heavily in both reproduction and maintenance.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Optimal surveillance strategy for invasive species management when surveys stop after detection

      Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Cindy E. Hauser and Michael A. McCarthy

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1056

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      We provide tools for establishing the optimal level of surveillance when managing invasive species. Developed within a decision-theoretic spatially explicit framework, our method takes into account species prevalence, detectability, and the costs of monitoring and early/delayed management. Previous work had addressed this optimal resource allocation problem assuming that surveys continue despite detection, until the initially planned survey effort is consumed. Here, we consider an often more realistic scenario where surveys at a site cease once the species is detected and then management begins.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Testing for shared biogeographic history in the lower Central American freshwater fish assemblage using comparative phylogeography: concerted, independent, or multiple evolutionary responses?

      Justin C. Bagley and Jerald B. Johnson

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1058

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      A central goal of comparative phylogeography is determining whether codistributed species experienced concerted, independent, or multiple evolutionary responses to past geological and climatic events, as indicated by tests for spatial and temporal congruence. We tested these competing hypotheses using DNA sequence data from three livebearing fish species codistributed in the Nicaraguan depression of Central America (Alfaro cultratus, Poecilia gillii, and Xenophallus umbratilis) that we predicted might display congruent responses due to co-occurrence in identical freshwater drainages. Overall, we found evidence for incongruent spatial-genetic structuring and temporal population divergences in these fishes. Our results suggest that multiple evolutionary responses to historical events have shaped the population structuring of freshwater species codistributed within the complex landscapes in/around the Nicaraguan depression.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spatial genetic features of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) in the Gulf of Mexico: northward movement of a secondary contact zone

      Joel D. Anderson, William J. Karel, Christopher E. Mace, Brian L. Bartram and Matthew P. Hare

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1064

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      Eastern oysters from samples taken in the western Gulf of Mexico were examined using microsatellite markers. Two populations were observed, which overlap in Aransas Bay, TX, with hybrid formation occurring rarely in the contact zone. We present evidence suggesting that Aransas Bay is a zone of recent secondary contact between northern and southern oyster populations.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Estimating migratory connectivity of birds when re-encounter probabilities are heterogeneous

      Emily B. Cohen, Jeffrey A. Hostetler, J. Andrew Royle and Peter P. Marra

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1059

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      Understanding the biology and conducting effective conservation of migratory species requires knowledge of migratory connectivity, the geographic linkages of populations between stages of the annual cycle. Unfortunately, we are lacking this information for most migratory species. We demonstrate the use of available large-scale banding and re-encounter data to estimate migratory connectivity for North American breeding birds in a multistate recapture and recovery model that accounts for re-encounter probabilities.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Using soil seed banks to assess temporal patterns of genetic variation in invasive plant populations

      Mark Fennell, Tommy Gallagher, Luis Leon Vintro and Bruce Osborne

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1043

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      The paper describes a new methodology for analyzing temporal variations in population genetic structure using seeds derived from soil cores. While there are difficulties in interpreting such data, including accounting for the effects of selection, seed loss, and seed migration, a clear pattern of increasing total allele counts, percentage polymorphic loci, and genetic diversity was observed with decreases in soil depth.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Fitness dynamics within a poplar hybrid zone: I. Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers impacting a native poplar hybrid stand

      Amanda D. Roe, Chris J. K. MacQuarrie, Marie-Claude Gros-Louis, J. Dale Simpson, Josyanne Lamarche, Tannis Beardmore, Stacey L. Thompson, Philippe Tanguay and Nathalie Isabel

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1029

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      Native hybrids between Populus deltoides and P. balsamifera expressed fitness traits intermediate to their parental species and were not universally unfit. That said, native hybrid seedlings were absent from the seedling population, which may indicate additional selective pressures controlling their recruitment. Understanding the process of hybridization and subsequent introgression provides insight into the processes shaping the evolutionary trajectory of plant populations.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dynamics of sex ratio and female unmatedness under haplodiploidy

      Andy Gardner

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1045

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      Stable oscillation of the sex ratio in haplodiploid populations has been predicted by classic models, and it remains a puzzle as to why this is not observed in natural populations. I investigate the dynamics of sex allocation over ecological and evolutionary timescales to assess the potential for such sustained oscillation. My model, taken together with empirical estimates of female unmatedness in haplodiploid taxa, suggests that sustained oscillation of the sex ratio is implausible in natural populations, explaining why it is not widely observed.

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      Probabilistic maturation reaction norms assessed from mark–recaptures of wild fish in their natural habitat

      Esben M. Olsen, Dimitar Serbezov and Leif A. Vøllestad

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1044

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      Probabilistic maturation reaction norms, describing probabilities of maturing at combinations of age and body size, have been much applied for separating phenotypic plasticity from evolutionary changes in maturation. However, due to typical field data limitations, this method still needs to be assessed. Using 13 years of direct mark–recapture observations on individual growth and maturation in a population of brown trout (Salmo trutta), we show that the probabilistic maturation reaction norm approach may perform well even if a key assumption of equal survival of juvenile and maturing fish may not hold.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effect of age-based and environment-based cues on reproductive investment in Gambusia affinis

      Eric J. Billman and Mark C. Belk

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1055

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      We examined the multivariate life-history trajectories of age 0 and age 1 female Gambusia affinis to determine relative effects of age-based and environment-based cues on reproductive investment. The reproductive restraint and terminal investment patterns exhibited by age 0 and age 1 females, respectively, were consistent with the predictions from the cost of reproduction hypothesis. Individuals use multiple cues to determine the level of reproductive investment, and the response to each cue is dependent on the age of an individual.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Selection and demographic history shape the molecular evolution of the gamete compatibility protein bindin in Pisaster sea stars

      Iva Popovic, Peter B. Marko, John P. Wares and Michael W. Hart

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1042

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      This study investigates the interacting roles of molecular, selective, and demographic processes in promoting patterns of spatial variation and divergence in the gamete compatibility locus, bindin, for species of the sea star genus Pisaster. We discover that positive selection acts on bindin allelic variation in the widespread keystone predator P. ochraceus but not in P. brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus and the predicted effects of selection driven by sexual conflict over fertilization rate. Importantly, we show that the spatial patterns of bindin differentiation and positive selection in P. ochraceus can be explained in a demographic context of low gene flow and relatively recent range expansions along the northeastern Pacific coast, coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution within species.

  2. Reviews

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      Benthic N2 fixation in coral reefs and the potential effects of human-induced environmental change

      Ulisse Cardini, Vanessa N. Bednarz, Rachel A. Foster and Christian Wild

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1050

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      Here, we review the current state of knowledge on benthic dinitrogen (N2) fixation in coral reefs, providing an overview of the symbioses between benthic reef organisms and N2-fixing bacteria. Additionally, we focus on the effects of global anthropogenic stressors on N2 fixation in reef ecosystems. As N2 fixation is fundamental in sustaining the high productivity of coral reefs, environmentally induced changes in the input of fixed nitrogen may alter the functioning of the entire ecosystem.

  3. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Power lines, roads, and avian nest survival: effects on predator identity and predation intensity

      Brett A. DeGregorio, Patrick J. Weatherhead and Jinelle H. Sperry

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1049

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      Nest predators are a driving force shaping avian nesting ecology. Often, nest predators use landscape features, such as roads or power lines, that can influence the frequency of their interactions with nesting birds. Using radiotelemetry and surveys of nest predators, coupled with video monitoring of nests, we documented several strong relationships between the use of landscape features by predators and subsequent effects on avian nesting success.

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      On estimation and identifiability issues of sex-linked inheritance with a case study of pigmentation in Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba)

      Camilla T. Larsen, Anna M. Holand, Henrik Jensen, Ingelin Steinsland and Alexandre Roulin

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1032

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      A nestling Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba) displaying many large black spots. Photo Alexandre Roulin.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      BIOFRAG – a new database for analyzing BIOdiversity responses to forest FRAGmentation

      Marion Pfeifer, Veronique Lefebvre, Toby A. Gardner, Victor Arroyo-Rodriguez, Lander Baeten, Cristina Banks-Leite, Jos Barlow, Matthew G. Betts, Joerg Brunet, Alexis Cerezo, Laura M. Cisneros, Stuart Collard, Neil D'Cruze, Catarina da Silva Motta, Stephanie Duguay, Hilde Eggermont, Felix Eigenbrod, Adam S. Hadley, Thor R. Hanson, Joseph E. Hawes, Tamara Heartsill Scalley, Brian T. Klingbeil, Annette Kolb, Urs Kormann, Sunil Kumar, Thibault Lachat, Poppy Lakeman Fraser, Victoria Lantschner, William F. Laurance, Inara R. Leal, Luc Lens, Charles J. Marsh, Guido F. Medina-Rangel, Stephanie Melles, Dirk Mezger, Johan A. Oldekop, William L. Overal, Charlotte Owen, Carlos A. Peres, Ben Phalan, Anna M. Pidgeon, Oriana Pilia, Hugh P. Possingham, Max L. Possingham, Dinarzarde C. Raheem, Danilo B. Ribeiro, Jose D. Ribeiro Neto, W Douglas Robinson, Richard Robinson, Trina Rytwinski, Christoph Scherber, Eleanor M. Slade, Eduardo Somarriba, Philip C. Stouffer, Matthew J. Struebig, Jason M. Tylianakis, Teja Tscharntke, Andrew J. Tyre, Jose N. Urbina Cardona, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, Oliver Wearn, Konstans Wells, Michael R. Willig, Eric Wood, Richard P. Young, Andrew V. Bradley and Robert M. Ewers

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1036

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      Taita Thrush - a critically endangered, forest-dependent bird that is endemic to the Taita Hills, Kenya. We have compiled primary datasets on biodiversity responses to forest fragmentation from fragmented landscapes around the world. We describe the organization of data for our new relational BIOFRAG database, its structure, and current status, and how the datasets may be used to analyze habitat fragmentation impacts consistently across landscapes and taxa. The database is dynamic and inclusive, and we detail minimum data requirements and processing steps required to add further inventories to the database, which are warmly invited.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spatial and temporal genetic structure of a river-resident Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after millennia of isolation

      Odd Terje Sandlund, Sten Karlsson, Eva B. Thorstad, Ole Kristian Berg, Matthew P. Kent, Ine C. J. Norum and Kjetil Hindar

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1040

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      The river-resident “småblank” is a unique endemic island population of Atlantic salmon with a special niche and a unique genetic constitution. Living in a restricted area, it is still diversified into subpopulations, and it experiences downstream asymmetric gene flow between subpopulations. The population is in a precarious situation, as the habitat is subject to a variety of anthropogenic impacts. It is important to maintain population size and avoid further habitat fragmentation.

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