Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 16

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editors-in-Chief: Allen Moore, University of Georgia, USA and Andrew Beckerman, University of Sheffield, UK

Impact Factor: 2.32

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 63/144 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 2045-7758

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  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Induced responses to grazing by an insect herbivore (Acentria ephemerella) in an immature macrophyte (Myriophyllum spicatum): an isotopic study

      Karl-Otto Rothhaupt, Felix Fornoff and Elizabeth Yohannes

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1624

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      The means by which young aquatic plants defend themselves from herbivory are little studied. This study addresses this gap in knowledge. Nitrogen tracers were used in two mesocosm experiments investigating the response of young Myriophyllum spicatum plants to grazing by the generalist insect herbivore Acentria ephemerella. Results indicate (1) exposure to an insect herbivore induces a rapid (within 48 h) reduction in the nutritional value of vulnerable tissues, (2) high level grazing intensity did not limit the ability of young plants to induce resistance; (3) young plants exposed to herbivory exhibit differential patterns of nutrient allocation in vulnerable and secure tissues.

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      Tracking changes in life-history traits related to unnecessary virulence in a plant-parasitic nematode

      Philippe Castagnone-Sereno, Karine Mulet and Cathy Iachia

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1643

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      Evaluating trade-offs in life-history traits of plant pathogens is essential to understand the evolution and epidemiology of diseases. Here, we designed experiments to investigate whether traits directly linked to the establishment of host–parasite interactions, that is, ability to locate and move toward the roots of the host plant, and to invade roots and develop into mature females, are affected in an asexual nematode adapted to plant resistance.

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      American pika in a low-elevation lava landscape: expanding the known distribution of a temperature-sensitive species

      Matt Shinderman

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1626

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      This study documents persistence of a newly discovered population of American pika at elevations below those predicted as optimal for the species. Like other lava environments where pika have been recently documented, lava flows at NNVM appear to be serving as thermal refugia for pika, despite summer temperatures which regularly exceed thermal maxima for the species. It is likely that pika inhabit other low-elevation lava flows in areas that have never been surveyed.

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      Insect responses to host plant provision beyond natural boundaries: latitudinal and altitudinal variation in a Chinese fig wasp community

      Rong Wang, Stephen G. Compton, Rupert J. Quinnell, Yan-Qiong Peng, Louise Barwell and Yan Chen

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1622

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      The fig wasps associated with a single plant resource (ovules of Ficus microcarpa) along a 1200 km transect in SW China that extended for 1000 km beyond the tree's natural northern range margin were recorded. The proportion of figs utilized by any fig wasps declined with increasing latitude, as did the proportion of ovules that were occupied and the species richness, diversity and abundance of fig wasps. Parasitoids declined more steeply with latitude than phytophages.

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      Candidate gene–environment interactions and their relationships with timing of breeding in a wild bird population

      Audrey Bourret and Dany Garant

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1630

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      Monitoring and predicting evolutionary changes underlying current environmental modifications are complex challenges and these objectives can be achieved by assessing the genetic variation and effects of candidate genes on traits indicating adaptive potential. Here, we studied a population of Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) to assess the relationships between four candidate genes (CLOCK, NPAS2, ADCYAP1, CREB1) and two phenological traits related to reproduction (laying date and incubation duration), and also determine the importance of GxE in this system. Our results suggest that all four candidate genes potentially affect timing of breeding in birds and that gene-environment interactions (GxE) are more prevalent and important than previously reported in this context.

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      An experimental test on time constraint and sexual conflict over parental care

      Matteo Griggio

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1620

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      If the main advantage of brood desertion is remating, then this will be a time constraint, because the deserting individual will require a certain minimum period of time to breed again in the same breeding season. I experimentally created two groups of pairs: the control pairs that started to breed as soon as they were ready and the experimental pairs that were forced to postpone their breeding phase because the breeding sites were available later. As predicted, I found that in the experimental pairs the percentage of deserting individuals was significantly higher than in the control groups. To my knowledge, this is the first experimental study that demonstrates a direct link between time constraint and brood desertion.

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      Quantification of correlational selection on thermal physiology, thermoregulatory behavior, and energy metabolism in lizards

      Paulina Artacho, Julia Saravia, Beatriz Decencière Ferrandière, Samuel Perret and Jean-François Le Galliard

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1548

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      The annual survival and total fecundity of common lizards were significantly influenced by correlational selection acting on body mass and resting metabolic rate, but with opposite directions for the two life history traits.

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      Living in isolation – population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Cheddar pink)

      Christina M. Putz, Christoph Schmid and Christoph Reisch

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1611

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      We analysed the population structure, reproduction and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus from two geographic regions with a different magnitude of isolation. We observed differences in population structure but similar reproduction and genetic variation. We concluded that the isolation of populations of naturally rare species must not necessarily result in the loss of fitness and genetic variation.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Phylogenetic and ecological patterns in nighttime transpiration among five members of the genus Rubus co-occurring in western Oregon

      Brandon McNellis and Ava R. Howard

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1608

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      Nighttime transpiration was measured in a greenhouse common garden in five species of Rubus. A phylogenetic signal was detected in the data, while nighttime and daytime transpiration were not correlated across the genus. This suggests that interspecific differences may contribute to differences in nighttime water use.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Early subtropical forest growth is driven by community mean trait values and functional diversity rather than the abiotic environment

      Wenzel Kröber, Ying Li, Werner Härdtle, Keping Ma, Bernhard Schmid, Karsten Schmidt, Thomas Scholten, Gunnar Seidler, Goddert von Oheimb, Erik Welk, Christian Wirth and Helge Bruelheide

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1604

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      The manuscript addresses an approach to the framework suggested by Díaz et al. (2007, PNAS) to disentangle the effect of environment, species identity and functional diversity in tree communities. We present a dataset with 231 plots varying in ecological characteristics, species and functional diversity. We used a set of 41 plant functional traits for 23 tree species. Our most striking result is that the ecological environment only explained 4% of plot mean values in crown increment, whereas community weighted mean values and functional diversities of trait combinations explained 42 and 31%, respectively, adding up to 51% explained variation in combination. We can conclude that functional diversity even 3 years after planting has a significant impact on productivity.

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      Population structure of the Indonesian giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon: a window into evolutionary similarities between paralogous mitochondrial DNA sequences and their genomes

      Muslihudeen A. Abdul-Aziz, Gerhard Schöfl, Grit Mrotzek, Haryanti Haryanti, Ketut Sugama and Hans Peter Saluz

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1616

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      While examining genetic diversity and population structure of Penaeus monodon shrimp in Indonesian waters. Similarities between mtCR sequences and microsatellite data for one mtCR clade are discovered. Evidence points towards nuclear DNA as source of this mtCR clade.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Individual variation in parental workload and breeding productivity in female European starlings: is the effort worth it?

      Melinda A. Fowler and Tony D. Williams

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1625

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      Traditional metrics of parental workload vary considerably and we elucidate an uncoupling of female provisioning effort and fitness benefits. We suggest females are making predictable decisions about their workload during provisioning that maximizes their overall fitness based on an integration of information on their current environment.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agroecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards

      Laura Russo, Mia Park, Jason Gibbs and Bryan Danforth

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1582

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      Extensive sampling in New York apple orchards demonstrates that the bee fauna of this crop is incredibly diverse, but also very difficult to fully characterize. We recommend multi-year sampling in order to fully describe the bee fauna of agricultural crops.

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