MicrobiologyOpen

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 3

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited by Pierre Cornelis, Microbial Interactions, VIB Department of Structural Biology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium

Impact Factor: 2.148

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 78/123 (Microbiology)

Online ISSN: 2045-8827

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  1. 1 - 43
  1. Reviews

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The rich somatic life of Wolbachia

      Jose E. Pietri, Heather DeBruhl and William Sullivan

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.390

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      Over the last decade many studies have emerged highlighting the prominence of Wolbachia in somatic tissues, implicating somatic tissue tropism as an important aspect of the life history of this endosymbiont. Here, we review our current understanding of Wolbachia–host interactions at both the cellular and organismal level, with a focus on Wolbachia in somatic tissues.

  2. Original Research

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      Isolation of a novel alginate lyase-producing Bacillus litoralis strain and its potential to ferment Sargassum horneri for biofertilizer

      Mingpeng Wang, Lei Chen, Zhengyi Liu, Zhaojie Zhang, Song Qin and Peisheng Yan

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.387

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      A novel alginate-degrading strain named as Bacillus litoralis was isolated and used for seaweed fermentation. Fermentation process of seaweed by Bacillus litoralis were well studied and production of alginate oligosaccharides were stable with different fermentation scale. Alginate oligosaccharide was an unique and effective component in our seaweed fermentation extract for promoting growth of tomato.

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      Influence of temperature, mixing, and addition of microcystin-LR on microcystin gene expression in Microcystis aeruginosa

      Pia I. Scherer, Uta Raeder, Juergen Geist and Katrin Zwirglmaier

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.393

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      Cyanobacteria, such as the toxin producer Microcystis aeruginosa, are predicted to be favored by global warming. In this study, a new RT-qPCR assay was used to investigate the changes in mcyB and mcyD expression, genes responsible for the biosynthesis of the cyanotoxin microcystin, in response to selected environmental factors associated with global warming.

  3. Reviews

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      Recent developments in detection and enumeration of waterborne bacteria: a retrospective minireview

      Rehan A. Deshmukh, Kopal Joshi, Sunil Bhand and Utpal Roy

      Version of Record online: 10 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.383

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      Waterborne diseases pose constant threats to public health. Therefore, public healthcare needs rapid, sensitive, and accurate detection of pathogens for the diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Original Research

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      Analysis of propionate-degrading consortia from agricultural biogas plants

      Stephan Ahlert, Rita Zimmermann, Johannes Ebling and Helmut König

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.386

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      Syntrophic communities form complex networks of microbial interactions. Here, we shed light on the microbial composition of propionate-degrading consortia and postulate an involvement of syntrophic acetate oxidation and autotrophic homoacetogenesis in stable propionate degradation.

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      Performance of MALDI biotyper compared with Vitek 2 compact system for fast identification and discrimination of Staphylococcus species isolated from bovine mastitis

      Ayman Elbehiry, Musaad Al-Dubaib, Eman Marzouk, Salama Osman and Husam Edrees

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.389

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      Bovine mastitis is considered as one of the most significant problem in the dairy industry all over the world. Therefore, a comparison of MALDI-TOF-MS with an automated colorimetric technique using Vitek 2 Compact System for identification and typing of S. aureus and CNS strains as well as discrimination of MRSA from MSSA can be highly important in Saudi Arabia.

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      FolC2-mediated folate metabolism contributes to suppression of inflammation by probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri

      Carissa M. Thomas, Delphine M. A. Saulnier, Jennifer K. Spinler, Peera Hemarajata, Chunxu Gao, Sara E. Jones, Ashley Grimm, Miriam A. Balderas, Matthew D. Burstein, Christina Morra, Daniel Roeth, Markus Kalkum and James Versalovic

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.371

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      The bifunctional dihydrofolate synthase/folylpolyglutamate synthase type 2 (folC2) gene is necessary for 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolic acid production by Lactobacillus reuteri, while the folC gene encodes the enzyme responsible for polyglutamylation of 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate. The folC2 gene is important for suppression of the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), in vitro, and for protection against trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis and mucosal inflammation in vivo. In addition, there is a link between 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolic acid production and histamine, a known potent immunoregulatory molecule produced by probiotics. Specifically, the folC2 mutant yields diminished expression of the hdc gene cluster, which is responsible for the conversion of l-histidine to histamine as well as diminished histamine production.

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      Possible association of diazotrophs with marine zooplankton in the Pacific Ocean

      Kazi Md. Azimuddin, Junya Hirai, Shotaro Suzuki, Md. Nurul Haider, Aiko Tachibana, Keigo Watanabe, Minoru Kitamura, Fuminori Hashihama, Kazutaka Takahashi and Koji Hamasaki

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.385

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      To understand the diversity and abundance of putative diazotrophic communities associated with marine zooplankton, especially copepods, the molecular diversity of the nifH gene was studied by nested PCR amplification, followed by cloning and sequencing of zooplankton-associated microorganisms DNA collected from the Pacific Ocean.

  5. Reviews

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      Pseudomonas aeruginosa in premise plumbing of large buildings

      Emilie Bédard, Michèle Prévost and Eric Déziel

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.391

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      Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that is widely occurring in the environment and is recognized for its capacity to form or join biofilms. This review consolidates current knowledge on P. aeruginosa ecology and its implication in healthcare facilities premise plumbing.

  6. Original Research

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      Isolation of Bdellovibrio sp. from soil samples in Mexico and their potential applications in control of pathogens

      Omotayo Opemipo Oyedara, Erick de Jesus De Luna-Santillana, Omar Olguin-Rodriguez, Xianwu Guo, Marco Antonio Mendoza-Villa, Jorge Luis Menchaca-Arredondo, Temidayo Oluyomi Elufisan, Javier Alfonso Garza-Hernandez, Israel Garcia Leon and Mario Alberto Rodriguez-Perez

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.382

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      We characterized two strains of Bdellovibrio isolated from soil in Mexico. The two strains were observed to exhibit different phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Also, different gram-negative bacteria were preyed upon by these two Bdellovibrio strains thereby suggesting the possibility of using them as future biocontrol agent against bacteria of economic importance.

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      Exploring the mechanisms of action of human secretory RNase 3 and RNase 7 against Candida albicans

      Vivian A. Salazar, Javier Arranz-Trullén, Susanna Navarro, Jose A. Blanco, Daniel Sánchez, Mohammed Moussaoui and Ester Boix

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.373

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      Human RNases 3 and 7 are wide-spectrum host defense antimicrobial proteins. We have chosen here a eukaryotic pathogen to study their mechanism of action. Comparison of wild-type proteins versus active site and cell binding mutants on yeast cultures revealed a dual role. Contribution of enzymatic activity to the RNases antifungal properties envisages cellular RNA targeting as an effective strategy for antibiotic design.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Characterization of the interactions between Escherichia coli receptors, LPS and OmpC, and bacteriophage T4 long tail fibers

      Ayaka Washizaki, Tetsuro Yonesaki and Yuichi Otsuka

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.384

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      Bacteriophage T4 adsorbs to E. coli via two different modes, OmpC-dependent and OmpC-independent. Analysis of T4 phage mutants strongly suggests that the top surface of the distal tip head domain of T4 long tail fibers interacts with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its lateral surface interacts with OmpC.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Protein engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transporter Pdr5p identifies key residues that impact Fusarium mycotoxin export and resistance to inhibition

      Amanda B. Gunter, Anne Hermans, Whynn Bosnich, Douglas A. Johnson, Linda J. Harris and Steve Gleddie

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.381

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      Fusarium mycotoxins are efficiently exported from yeast cells by the multidrug resistance exporter Pdr5p. This ATP-binding cassette transporter can be modified to resist inhibition by both FK506 and enniatin B which suggests it may be possible to use this to engineer Fusarium resistance in plants.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The bactericidal activity of glutaraldehyde-impregnated polyurethane

      Sandeep K. Sehmi, Elaine Allan, Alexander J. MacRobert and Ivan Parkin

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.378

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      Novel antibacterial surfaces were obtained using a simple, up-scalable “swell-encapsulation-shrink” technique to prepare polymer samples incorporating low concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Glutaraldehyde-impregnated samples demonstrated greater bactericidal effects against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than glutaraldehyde-coated polyurethane over short exposure times (h). However, the glutaraldehyde-impregnated polymer did not retain antibacterial activity over longer time frames (days), thus, further work is needed to determine if chemical modification can be used to improve the stability of the antibacterial agent within the polymer in order to render these novel materials useful in reducing the cycle of transmission between patients, staff and the environment in healthcare facilities.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Abundance of sulfur-degrading bacteria in a benthic bacterial community of shallow sea sediment in the off-Terengganu coast of the South China Sea

      Zahar Marziah, Akbariah Mahdzir, Md. Nor Musa, Abu Bakar Jaafar, Azran Azhim and Hirofumi Hara

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.380

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      An Illustration of bacteria diversity and phylogenetic distribution based on NCBI BLASTx database. The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) bar was generated based on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) with the range of 21–27 phylum levels, 35–51 class levels, 46–62 order levels, 76–108 family levels, and 134–217 of genus levels were identified in two sampling location, respectively.

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      Ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi respond differently to long-term experimentally increased snow depth in the High Arctic

      Sunil Mundra, Rune Halvorsen, Håvard Kauserud, Mohammad Bahram, Leho Tedersoo, Bo Elberling, Elisabeth J. Cooper and Pernille Bronken Eidesen

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.375

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      Long-term increase in snow depth imposes negative effect on the richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi, while positive effect on saprotrophic fungi, which suggests that some fungal species are favored, while some fungi may go locally extinct due to changes in the amount of snow.

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      Identification of pigmented Serratia marcescens symbiotically associated with Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

      Maria Scrascia, Carlo Pazzani, Franco Valentini, Marta Oliva, Valentina Russo, Pietro D'Addabbo and Francesco Porcelli

      Version of Record online: 1 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.377

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      This study has contributed to the knowledge on the mutualistic relationship between bacteria and red palm weevil.

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      Effects of human serum and apo-Transferrin on Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A biofilm formation

      Pengfei She, Lihua Chen, Yong Qi, Huan Xu, Yuan Liu, Yangxia Wang, Zhen Luo and Yong Wu

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.379

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      Human serum inhibits Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation, and this is mainly due to the complement and serum proteins at the size more than 100 kDa; apo-Transferrin could partially reduce the biofilm formation at the concentration that do not inhibit planktonic cell growth.

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      Increased biofilm formation ability in Klebsiella pneumoniae after short-term exposure to a simulated microgravity environment

      Haili Wang, Yanfeng Yan, Dan Rong, Jing Wang, Hongduo Wang, Zizhong Liu, Jiaping Wang, Ruifu Yang and Yanping Han

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.370

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      The ability of biofilm formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae was enhanced after short-term exposure to the simulated microgravity environment. The cellulose is the major component of the biofilm produced by SMG-treated K. pneumoniae. Those genes responsible for type 3 fimbriae (MrkABCDF) and its regulator (MrkH) are upregulated in SMG-treated bacterial cells.

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      Comparative analysis of the fecal bacterial community of five harbor seals (Phoca vitulina)

      Daniela Numberger, Daniel P. R. Herlemann, Klaus Jürgens, Guido Dehnhardt and Heide Schulz-Vogt

      Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.369

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      We investigated the fecal bacterial community in five harbor seals by 454 amplicon sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The results showed that the fecal community mainly consisted of the bacterial phyla Firmicutes (19–43%), Bacteroidetes (22–36%), Fusobacteria (18–32%), and Proteobacteria (5–17%).

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      A new mercury-accumulating Mucor hiemalis strain EH8 from cold sulfidic spring water biofilms

      Enamul Hoque and Johannes Fritscher

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.368

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      Here, we report about a unique aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalis EH8 that can remove toxic ionic mercury from water by intracellular accumulation and reduction into elemental mercury. It removed 99% of mercury from water within 10–48 h after exposure to Hg(II). Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated occurrence of intracellular mercury in germinating sporangiospores exposed to mercury.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The endochitinase ChiA Btt of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis DSM-2803 and its potential use to control the phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

      Norma M. de la Fuente-Salcido, Luz E. Casados-Vázquez, Ada P. García-Pérez, Uriel E. Barboza-Pérez, Dennis K. Bideshi, Rubén Salcedo-Hernández, Blanca E. García- Almendarez and José E. Barboza-Corona

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.372

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      It is reported for the first time the cloning and characterization of a chitinase synthesized by the commercial strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis DSM-2803.We show that purified recombinant enzyme from B. thuringiensis is active against the fungus Colletotrichium gloeosporioides.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Zinc coordination is essential for the function and activity of the type II secretion ATPase EpsE

      Chelsea S. Rule, Marcella Patrick, Jodi L. Camberg, Natalie Maricic, Wim G. Hol and Maria Sandkvist

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.376

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      Type II secretion ATPases contain a unique zinc-binding domain which is absent from homologous type IV pilus retraction ATPases and type IV secretion ATPases. Removal of the entire zinc-binding domain or disruption of zinc coordination in the type II secretion ATPase EpsE abrogates secretion and prevents ATP hydrolysis, indicating that zinc coordination is essential for the function and activity of type II secretion ATPases.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Biochemical characterization of essential cell division proteins FtsX and FtsE that mediate peptidoglycan hydrolysis by PcsB in Streptococcus pneumoniae

      Ruchika Bajaj, Kevin E. Bruce, Amy L. Davidson, Britta E. Rued, Cynthia V. Stauffacher and Malcolm E. Winkler

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.366

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      The FtsEX:PcsB complex forms a molecular machine that carries out peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolysis during normal cell division of the major respiratory pathogenic bacterium, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). We report the purification and biochemical characterization of S. pneumoniae FtsE and full-length FtsX, including initial attempts to isolate and reconstitute the FtsEX:PcsB complex biochemically in detergent micelles and nanodiscs and to determine the ATP binding and ATPase activity of pneumococcal FtsE.

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      Revisiting the pink-red pigmented basidiomycete mirror yeast of the phyllosphere

      Alec Cobban, Virginia P. Edgcomb, Gaëtan Burgaud, Daniel Repeta and Edward R. Leadbetter

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.374

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      Ten isolates of the ballistoconidium-forming genus Sporobolomyces were recovered from leaf samples, seven from the eastern and three from the western coasts of the United States, to explore similarities in phylogeny and physiology within this polyphyletic genus. All isolates were similarly pigmented, capable of growth under aerobic and microaerophilic conditions, tolerant of freeze/thaw cycles, and moderately tolerant to desiccation and elevated temperatures. Phylogenies based on the D1/D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal RNA and on small subunit ribosomal RNA show these isolates to be closely related, suggesting the importance of future investigation of the taxonomy and shared characteristics of Sporobolomyces and its closest relatives.

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      Analysis of random PCR-originated mutants of the yeast Ste2 and Ste3 receptors

      Serena Gastaldi, Michela Zamboni, Giulia Bolasco, Gianfranco Di Segni and Glauco P. Tocchini-Valentini

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.361

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      The G protein-coupled receptors Ste2 and Ste3 bind to α- and a-factor, respectively, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify amino acid residues that are important for signal transduction, the STE2 and STE3 genes were mutagenized by a random PCR-based method. Many hyperactive mutations were found in STE3, whereas none was detected in STE2. This result is consistent with the different strategies that the two genes have adopted to be expressed.

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      A putative amino acid transporter determines sensitivity to the two-peptide bacteriocin plantaricin JK

      Camilla Oppegård, Morten Kjos, Jan-Willem Veening, Jon Nissen-Meyer and Tom Kristensen

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.363

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      Strains of Weissella viridescent with increased resistance to the two-peptide bacteriocin plantaricin JK carry mutations in a gene encoding a APC superfamily protein. The protein is likely to be an amino acid permease. The results indicate that the APC superfamily protein is involved in the action mechanism of plantaricin JK, possibly as a membrane receptor of the bacteriocin.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Diversity and effect of Trichoderma spp. associated with green mold disease on Lentinula edodes in China

      Gangzheng Wang, Xiantao Cao, Xiaolong Ma, Mengpei Guo, Changhao Liu, Lianlian Yan and Yinbing Bian

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.364

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      We collected Trichoderma species on L. edodes rot logs. They were identified as T. harzianum, T. atroviride, T. viride, T. pleuroticola, T. longibrachiatum, and T. oblongisporum based on the internal transcribed spacer or tef1-α sequences and morphology characteristics.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Cecal microbiota of Tibetan Chickens from five geographic regions were determined by 16S rRNA sequencing

      Xueyan Zhou, Xiaosong Jiang, Chaowu Yang, Bingcun Ma, Changwei Lei, Changwen Xu, Anyun Zhang, Xin Yang, Qi Xiong, Peng Zhang, Shuai Men, Rong Xiang and Hongning Wang

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.367

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      The cecal bacterial populations of Tibetan Chickens were surveyed by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the bacterial 16S rRNA hypervariable region V3-V4 (16S rRNAV3-V4) combined with community-fingerprinting analysis of the 16S rRNA gene based on polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The cecal microbiota of Tibetan Chicken have slightly diverged due to exposure to different geographic environments. Differences in the intestinal bacterial communities of Tibetan Chicken and LM/DH were noted.

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      Exploring the directionality of Escherichia coli formate hydrogenlyase: a membrane-bound enzyme capable of fixing carbon dioxide to organic acid

      Constanze Pinske and Frank Sargent

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.365

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      The formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex of Escherichia coli has been characterized in vivo and in vitro. As well as performing hydrogen evolution linked to formate oxidation, FHL has now been shown to be capable of converting CO2 into formate using molecular hydrogen as reductant. The enzyme activity was analyzed in combination with a comprehensive mutagenic analysis of the subunits of the FHL membrane domain, HycC and HycD. FHL is probably not an energy-conserving enzyme.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and AHL lactonase on the control of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in tilapia

      Wenshu Liu, Chao Ran, Zhi Liu, Qian Gao, Shude Xu, Einar Ringø, Reidar Myklebust, Zemao Gu and Zhigang Zhou

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.362

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      Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 and acylated homoserine lactonase AIO6 enhanced the resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila. Density of tilapia fed AIO6 was significantly lower than those of the control. Lb. plantarum JCM1149 is recommended to control the A. hydrophila infection in tilapia.

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      Spatial and temporal variability of bacterial communities within a combined sewer system

      Henriette Stokbro Jensen, Raju Sekar, Will J. Shepherd, Andrew M. Osborn, Simon Tait and Catherine A. Biggs

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.356

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      Microbial communities in sewers influence the sewer environment and cause problems such as odor generation. Little is known about the long-term variations in these communities. In this work, it was found that the bacterial communities in the wastewater and biofilms are distinctly different and see variations in very different length and timescales.

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      RNA-seq transcriptome analysis of a Pseudomonas strain with diversified catalytic properties growth under different culture medium

      Jia-Wei Yang, Dai-Jun Zheng, Bao-Dong Cui, Min Yang and Yong-Zheng Chen

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.357

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      In this study, a Pseudomonas strain exhibit versatile oxidation activity to synthesize chiral sulfoxides and reduction activity to synthesize chiral alcohols growth under different culture mediums, respectively. Further comparative transcriptome analysis provides insights into the mechanism of diversity in catalytic properties, as well as candidate enzymes for application of enantiomerically pure molecules and pharmaceuticals biocatalysis.

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      Molecular and proteome analyses highlight the importance of the Cpx envelope stress system for acid stress and cell wall stability in Escherichia coli

      Kristin Surmann, Emina Ćudić, Elke Hammer and Sabine Hunke

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.353

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      Here, we asked how the absolute molecular amounts and stoichiometry of the envelope stress proteins CpxA, CpxR, and CpxP are affected to better understand the functionality and dynamics of the Cpx envelope stress two-component system in Escherichia coli and how activation of the Cpx system impacts on the global proteome. Using selected reaction monitoring, we report that the amounts of CpxA and CpxR and their stoichiometry are only marginally affected by Cpx activation, but a 10-fold excess of CpxP is required to turn off the Cpx response. Global proteome analysis identifies a previously unknown role for Cpx system in downregulating the acid stress response and assigns the Cpx system a general role in cell wall stability.

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      Identification of inhibitors of the transmembrane protease FlaK of Methanococcus maripaludis

      Ina Coburger, Yvonne Schaub, Dirk Roeser, Kornelia Hardes, Patrick Maeder, Nina Klee, Torsten Steinmetzer, Diana Imhof, Wibke E. Diederich and Manuel E. Than

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.358

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      FlaK represents a GxGD-type intramembrane cleaving proteases (I-CLiP) with homology to the Alzheimer protein gamma-secretase. We developed an optimized gel-shift activity assay for FlaK, analyzed its inhibition, and identified the nonpeptidic compound 9 as its first inhibitor. In this way, we provided the needed tools to further study its enzymatic cycle and also to enable further studies toward a functional understanding of other GxGD-type intramembrane cleaving proteases (I-CLiPs).

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      Identification of ABCC2 as a binding protein of Cry1Ac on brush border membrane vesicles from Helicoverpa armigera by an improved pull-down assay

      Zishan Zhou, Zeyu Wang, Yuxiao Liu, Gemei Liang, Changlong Shu, Fuping Song, Xueping Zhou, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón and Jie Zhang

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.360

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      Cry1Ac toxin could bound to six classes of aminopeptidase-N, alkaline phosphatase, cadherin-like protein, ABCC2, actin, ATPase, polycalin, and some other proteins not previously characterized as Cry toxin-binding molecules such as dipeptidyl peptidase or carboxyl/choline esterase and some serine proteases. This is the first report that provides evidence of direct binding of Cry1Ac toxin to ABCC2 in Helicoverpa armigera.

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      Adaptive responses of outer membrane porin balance of Yersinia ruckeri under different incubation temperature, osmolarity, and oxygen availability

      Evgeniya Bystritskaya, Anna Stenkova, Dmitriy Chistuylin, Nadezhda Chernysheva, Valentina Khomenko, Stanislav Anastyuk, Olga Novikova, Alexander Rakin and Marina Isaeva

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.354

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      The capability of Yersinia ruckeri to survive in the aquatic systems reflects its adaptation to the unfavorable environments. The nonspecific porins are a key factor contributing to the permeability. We studied the influence of the stimuli, such as temperature, osmolarity, and oxygen availability on regulation of Y. ruckeri porins.

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      Autophagy is dispensable to overcome ER stress in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

      Anne-Marie Burggraaf and Arthur F. J. Ram

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.359

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      The prevention of protein accumulations in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by efficient clearance of misfolded proteins is important for cellular function. This study investigates whether improperly folded proteins are removed via the autophagy pathway as an alternative to proteasomal degradation via ER-associated degradation. The results show that the degradation of misfolded proteins from the ER is independent of autophagy in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger.

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      Response of enzyme activities and microbial communities to soil amendment with sugar alcohols

      Huili Yu, Peng Si, Wei Shao, Xiansheng Qiao, Xiaojing Yang, Dengtao Gao and Zhiqiang Wang

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.355

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      Our analysis of changes in microbial functional diversity and soil enzyme activities identified different susceptibilities to sorbitol and mannitol, revealing selective pressure on the function of the soil microbial community during the cultivable period.

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      Constitutive aneuploidy and genomic instability in the single-celled eukaryote Giardia intestinalis

      Pavla Tůmová, Magdalena Uzlíková, Tomáš Jurczyk and Eva Nohýnková

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.351

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      The Giardia cells are constitutively aneuploid with a large inter- and intrapopulational karyotype heterogeneity. Aneuploidy is likely tolerated and propagated due to absence of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and might serve as a mechanism for generating genetic diversity of this human parasite. A proliferative disadvantage was detected in Giardia cell lines with chromosomal instability

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      Estimation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis load in raw bulk tank milk in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) by qPCR

      Matteo Ricchi, Roberto Savi, Luca Bolzoni, Stefano Pongolini, Irene R Grant, Caterina De Cicco, Giulia Cerutti, Giuliana Cammi, Chiara A. Garbarino and Norma Arrigoni

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.350

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      The bulk tank milk from Emilia-Romagna region (2934 samples) has been screened for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by two qPCRs. Positive samples were also quantified by qPCR, indicating low potential exposure for consumers if the milk subsequently undergoes pasteurization.

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      Refactoring the λ phage lytic/lysogenic decision with a synthetic regulator

      Gonzalo Durante-Rodríguez, José Miguel Mancheño, Eduardo Díaz and Manuel Carmona

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.352

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      We construct a new synthetic regulator that allows us to reprogram crucial molecular cell decision with the orthogonal inducers. The construction of artificial regulators paves the way for a novel experimental approach to create new à la carte regulatory proteins to reprogram crucial cell functions.

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      Anaerobic microbial community response to methanogenic inhibitors 2-bromoethanesulfonate and propynoic acid

      Tara M. Webster, Adam L. Smith, Raghav R. Reddy, Ameet J. Pinto, Kim F. Hayes and Lutgarde Raskin

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.349

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      This manuscript reports a comprehensive approach to characterizing the effects of commonly used methanogenesis inhibitors on an anaerobic microbial community. We use mock and environmental communities and target two genes using DNA- and RNA-based methods. Results from Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA cDNA, mcrA gene, and mcrA transcript cDNA highlight shifts in both methanogenic archaeal activity and syntrophic bacterial activity.

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