Two novel regulators of N-acetyl-galactosamine utilization pathway and distinct roles in bacterial infections
Huimin Zhang, Dmitry A. Ravcheev, Dan Hu, Fengyu Zhang, Xiufang Gong, Lina Hao, Min Cao, Dmitry A. Rodionov, Changjun Wang and Youjun Feng
Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.307
Bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus species have evolved multiple strategies to hijack/exploit metabolic pathways for facilitating their successful infection cycles. Although that the two amino sugars (d-galactosamine [GalN] and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine [GalNAc]) function as the common components of various cell surface structures and are required for three domains of life, this metabolism is poorly known in Streptococcus species. Nothing is elucidated regarding the relevance of GalN/GalNAc catabolism pathway to bacterial pathogenesis. We report, for the first time, the genomic reconstruction of GalN/GalNAc utilization pathway with variations in Firmicutes (and/or Streptococci) and the diversified aga regulons. More importantly, we are first to define that the maintenance/regulation of GalN/GalNAc utilization pathway contributes to Streptococcal infections. To the best of our knowledge, it represents a first paradigm that links the GalN/GalNAc catabolism pathway to bacterial pathogenesis.