MicrobiologyOpen

Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited by Pierre Cornelis, Microbial Interactions, VIB Department of Structural Biology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium

Online ISSN: 2045-8827

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  1. 1 - 11
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Histidine kinases mediate differentiation, stress response, and pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae

      Stefan Jacob, Andrew J. Foster, Alexander Yemelin and Eckhard Thines

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.197

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      This work addresses the hypothesis that histidine kinases are involved in environmental/stress sensing in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It provides a comprehensive overview of 10 histidine kinase encoding genes in this phytopathogenic fungus. The relationship between signaling proteins and pathogenicity-related morphogenesis in M. oryzae was addressed for a better understanding of plant–pathogen interactions. Furthermore, we suggest a first signaling model for hypoxia sensing involving the osmosensing HOG pathway within the rice blast fungus.

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      Arginine promotes Proteus mirabilis motility and fitness by contributing to conservation of the proton gradient and proton motive force

      Chelsie E. Armbruster, Steven A. Hodges, Sara N. Smith, Christopher J. Alteri and Harry L. T. Mobley

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.194

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      We previously determined that Proteus mirabilis swarming can be initiated under normally nonpermissive conditions in response to cues, such as L-arginine, and this process requires putrescine biosynthesis or exogenously supplied putrescine. In this study, we describe a mechanism by which P. mirabilis utilizes L-arginine and arginine decarboxylase (SpeA) for conservation of proton motive force, affecting both motility and fitness independent of the role of this enzyme in putrescine biosynthesis.

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      Ultrastructure and complex polar architecture of the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

      Axel Müller, Morgan Beeby, Alasdair W. McDowall, Janet Chow, Grant J. Jensen and William M. Clemons Jr.

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.200

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      Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most prevalent food-borne pathogens and yet little is known about its general architecture. Here we present the first ultrastructure study of this important pathogen revealing a number of interesting features including a complex polar structure and a novel ribosome exclusion zone.

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      Outer membrane vesicles of Pasteurella multocida contain virulence factors

      Miguel A. Fernández-Rojas, Sergio Vaca, Magda Reyes-López, Mireya de la Garza, Francisco Aguilar-Romero, Edgar Zenteno, Edgardo Soriano-Vargas and Erasmo Negrete-Abascal

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.201

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      Outer membrane vesicles released by Pasteurella multocida contain virulence factors which could promote the survival of the microorganism and could constitute a good immunogen.

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      Dietary differences are reflected on the gut prokaryotic community structure of wild and commercially reared sea bream (Sparus aurata)

      Konstantinos A. Kormas, Alexandra Meziti, Eleni Mente and Athanasios Frentzos

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.202

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      We showed that the gut bacterial communities structure of wild, organically-, and conventionally reared sea bream are different.

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      Identification of the minimal replicon and the origin of replication of the crenarchaeal plasmid pRN1

      Silvia Berkner, Mery Pina Hinojosa, David Prangishvili and Georg Lipps

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.198

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      The minimal replicon of pRN1 has been identified; it comprises only the gene for a transcriptional regulator, the gene for large multifunctional replication protein with primase and helicase activity, and a stem–loop. The latter structural element is conserved in related plasmid stressing the importance of this stem–loop.

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      Biological effects of paenilamicin, a secondary metabolite antibiotic produced by the honey bee pathogenic bacterium Paenibacillus larvae

      Eva Garcia-Gonzalez, Sebastian Müller, Gillian Hertlein, Nina Heid, Roderich D. Süssmuth and Elke Genersch

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.195

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      We here present the identification, isolation, and biological characterization of paenilamicin, a novel peptide-polyketide hybrid with antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activity produced by the bacterial honey bee pathogen P. larvae. Exposure bioassays perfomed with mutant P. larvae lacking paenilamicin production and wild-type P. larvae suggested that paenilamicin might act as a virulence factor during pathogenesis of P. larvae infection by influencing the time course of disease.

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      Mechanisms involved in Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens removal during activated sludge wastewater treatment

      Maite Orruño, Idoia Garaizabal, Zaloa Bravo, Claudia Parada, Isabel Barcina and Inés Arana

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.196

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      Predation appears to be the primary mechanism involved in bacterial removal during the activated sludge process. However, distribution into liquid or solid fractions of bacteria persisted in the system varied depending on the bacterium tested. The real value of bacterial indicators for the control of the wastewater treatment process should be revised as their removal patterns are not useful for predicting the behavior of other bacteria and the evidence of the existence of nonculturable but potentially active cells in sludge.

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      Construction and characterization of stable, constitutively expressed, chromosomal green and red fluorescent transcriptional fusions in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei

      Shengchang Su, Hansraj Bangar, Roland Saldanha, Adin Pemberton, Bruce Aronow, Gary E. Dean, Thomas J. Lamkin and Daniel J. Hassett

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.192

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      The utility of chromosomally integrated and constitutively expressed green and red fluorescent protein tagged Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and Burkholderia mallei strains was proven by macrophage infection assays and lactate dehydrogenase release analysis. Such strains will be extremely useful in high-throughput screens for novel compounds that could either kill these organisms, or interfere with critical virulence processes in these important bioweapon agents and during infection of alveolar macrophages.

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      Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow

      Houjuan Chu, Shiping Wang, Haowei Yue, Qiaoyan Lin, Yigang Hu, Xiangzhen Li, Jizhong Zhou and Yunfeng Yang

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.190

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      The grassland and shrubland are two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow, a region very sensitive to the impact of global warming and anthropogenic perturbation. Herein, we report a study showing that a majority of differences in soil microbial community functional structures, measured by a functional gene array named GeoChip 4.0, in two adjacent shrubland and grassland areas, were explainable by environmental properties. Our results provide mechanistic knowledge about microbial linkages to soil carbon and nitrogen storage and potential consequences of vegetation shifts in the Tibetan alpine meadow.

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      Functional interplay between protein arginine methyltransferases in Trypanosoma brucei

      Kaylen Lott, Lu Zhu, John C. Fisk, Danielle L. Tomasello and Laurie K. Read

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.191

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      In this study, we analyzed single and selected double knockdowns of protein arginine methyltransferases in Trypanosoma brucei (TbPRMTs) for the impact on expression of TbPRMTs and global methylation status. Repression of TbPRMT1 caused a drastic increase in monomethylarginine that was catalyzed by TbPRMT7. Together, our studies indicate that TbPRMTs display a functional interplay at multiple levels.

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