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Physiological Reports

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Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 7

Editor-in-Chief: Susan Wray, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom

Online ISSN: 2051-817X

Virtual Issue: New Directions in Muscle Research


Foreword by Susan Wray, Editor-in-Chief

My aim in compiling this exciting virtual issue of Physiological Reports is to showcase how new techniques, approaches and insights have changed the landscape of physiological studies of muscle. I have selected papers that reflect scientific advances in all three types of muscle, i.e. cardiac, smooth and skeletal. All too often researchers identify with only one type of muscle (guilty as charged!), and so as an Editor it is satisfying to be able to make use of our virtual technology, to bring research on muscle together.

I have chosen a paper that shows advances in technology that have enabled use to be made of the muscle sound that comes with activity (Portable acoustic myography – a realistic noninvasive method for assessment of muscle activity and coordination in human subjects in most home and sports settings) and one which uses something we may well be familiar with (cardiac power, the product of flow and pressure) in a new way (Cardiac power integral: a new method for monitoring cardiovascular performance). As physiologists we rely on animal models, but perhaps even 10 years ago we would have queried claims to obtain useful data using zebra fish or fruit fly larvae, and yet now these are centre stage in many physiological laboratories. It is therefore fitting that I have highlighted a paper using one of these model organisms (Pharmacological analysis of dopamine modulation in the Drosophila melanogaster larval heart) and one which is used because of its ability to live under extreme conditions, the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), a small rodent that lives at high (>5000 m) altitude (see Cardiac adaptation to high altitude in the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae)). Extreme environment also features in a paper investigating responses to diving (Effects of hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning on cardiac stress markers after simulated diving)./p>

Transgenic animal models are still used to provide unique insight into physiological processes and have been used in many of the papers we have published. Here I highlight the use of this technology to investigate pulmonary function. One paper uses a model of cystic fibrosis, and shows how airway smooth muscle structure and function are affected by the disease (Abnormal tracheal smooth muscle function in the CF mouse) and a second examines pulmonary function in mice lacking cavin-1, part of the protein complex required for caveolae formation, and finds elevated pulmonary pressure (Elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and altered expression of Ddah1 and Arg1 in mice lacking cavin-1/PTRF). Hypertension is also the focus of a microarray study investigating the mechanisms limiting arterial growth (Molecular basis for impaired collateral artery growth in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: insight from microarray analysis). Smooth muscle is also the focus of two other interesting papers: The effect of high [K+]o on spontaneous Ca2+ waves in freshly isolated interstitial cells of Cajal from the rabbit urethra and Effect of type 1 diabetes on the production and vasoactivity of hydrogen sulfide in rat middle cerebral arteries. I have selected four papers which highlight the diversity of skeletal muscle research, featuring exercise, training and regeneration: Novel perspective: exercise training stimulus triggers the expression of the oncoprotein human double minute-2 in human skeletal muscle; Insulin signaling in skeletal muscle of HIV-infected patients in response to endurance and strength training; Monocarboxylate transporter expression at the onset of skeletal muscle regeneration; and Nutrient ingestion increased mTOR signaling, but not hVps34 activity in human skeletal muscle after sprint exercise. I like the ways these papers show us insights into pathways and interactions we might not have previously been aware of. My final paper is chosen because it intrigued me: the authors show that exercise promotes transitions to deeper sleep stages and inhibits transitions to lighter sleep stages for control subjects and those suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but CFS patients also reported increased fatigue and continued to have REM sleep disruption. To learn more about this dissociation you will have to read the paper: The effects of exercise on dynamic sleep morphology in healthy controls and patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

Table of Contents

Portable acoustic myography- a realistic noninvasive method for assessment of muscle activity and coordination in human subjects in most home and sport settings
Adrian P. Harrison, Bente Danneskiold-Samsøe, and Else M. Bartels

Cardiac power integral: a new method for monitoring cardiovascular performance
Audun E. Rimehaug, Oddveig Lyng, Dag O. Nordhaug, Lasse Løvstakken, Petter Aadahl, and Idar Kirkeby-Garstad

Pharmacological analysis of dopamine modulation in the Drosophila melanogaster larval heart
Josh S. Titlow, Jenna M. Rufer, Kayla E. King and Robin L. Cooper

Cardiac adaptation to high altitude in the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae)
Aurélien Pichon, Bai Zhenzhong, Dominique Marchant, Guoen Jin, Nicolas Voituron, Yun Haixia, Fabrice Favret, Jean-Paul Richalet,and Ri-Li Ge

Effects of hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning on cardiac stress markers after simulated diving
Arve Jørgensen, Philip P. Foster, Alf O. Brubakk and Ingrid Eftedal

Elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and altered expression of Ddah1 and Arg1 in mice lacking cavin-1/PTRF
Karl Swärd, Mardjaneh K. Sadegh, Michiko Mori, Jonas S. Erjefält and Catarina Rippe

Molecular basis for impaired collateral artery growth in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: insight from microarray analysis
Joseph L. Unthank, Jeanette N. McClintick, Carlos A. Labarrere, Lang Li, Matthew R. DiStasi, and Steven J. Miller.

The effect of high [K+]o on spontaneous Ca2+ waves in freshly isolated interstitial cells of Cajal from the rabbit urethra
Bernard T. Drumm, Gerard P. Sergeant, Mark A. Hollywood, Keith T. Thornbury, Toshio T. Matsuda, Akemichi Baba, Brian J. Harvey and Noel G. McHale.

Effect of type 1 diabetes on the production and vasoactivity of hydrogen sulfide in rat middle cerebral arteries
Elosie Y. Streeter, Emilio Badoer, Owen L. Woodman and Joanne L Hart.

Novel perspective: exercise training stimulus triggers the expression of the oncoprotein human double minute-2 in human skeletal muscle
Emilie Roudier, Julian Aiken, Dara Slopack, Fares Gouzi, Jazques Mercier, Tara L. Haas, Thomas Gustafsson, Maurice Hayot and Olivier Birot.

Insulin signaling in skeletal muscle of HIV-infected patients in response to endurance and strength training
Christa Broholm, Neha Mathur, Thine Hvid, Thomas Sahl Grøndahl, Christian Frøsig, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, and Birgitte Lindegaard.

Monocarboxylate transporter expression at the onset of skeletal muscle regeneration
Tyrone A. Washington, Lemuel Brown, Dameon A. Smith, Gina Davis, Jamie Baum, and Walter Bottje

Nutrient ingestion increased mTOR signaling, but not hVps34 activity in human skeletal muscle after sprint exercise
Håkan C. Rundqvist, Mats R. Lilja, Olav Rooyackers, Krzysztofa Odrzywol, James T. Murray, Mona Esbjörnsson, and Eva Jansson

The effects of exercise on dynamic sleep morphology in healthy controls and patients with chronic fatigue syndrome
Akifumi Kishi, Fumiharu Togo, Dane B. Cook, Marc Klapholz, Yoshiharu Yamamoto, David M. Rapoport and Benjamin H. Natelson

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