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Pharmacology Research & Perspectives

Articles are published under the terms of the Creative Commons License as stated in the final article.

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 4

Editors: Darrell R. Abernethy & Andrew J. Lawrence

Online ISSN: 2052-1707

Associated Title(s): British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, British Journal of Pharmacology



Author Guidelines


Pharmacology, Research & Perspectives (PR&P) publishes research papers and review articles, in all areas of pharmacology. In addition to:

We are particularly keen to publish articles in the following special categories:

  • Pharmacological hypotheses: reviews that are oriented to inform a novel hypothesis
  • Drug discovery reviews: articles that review the strategy, hypotheses and data that resulted in a successful therapeutic drug (written by a member of the relevant Discovery team)
  • Frontiers in translational medicine: articles that review accumulating preclinical data on drugs in development and/or targets undergoing validation for an unmet therapeutic need
  • Target validation: articles that reveal that a target (receptor etc) is not drugable, or that a potential therapeutic mechanism is ineffective. Such articles are sometimes known as ‘negative findings’
  • Replication studies: work that refutes key findings (failed replication), and work that validates key findings (the latter should ideally contain data that takes the replication one step further)

Papers that reassess methods, pharmacological concepts and purely theoretical papers are also welcome.

Correspondence is limited to specific comments or criticisms relating to a recent PR&P paper, whose authors will be invited to reply in print.

PR&P does not publish work on the actions of biological extracts of unknown chemical composition. Compounds studied must be of known chemical structure and concentration.

Originality of material

Manuscripts must not contain the same information as manuscripts under review, accepted or published. This restriction does not apply to results published by the authors as abstracts, letters to editors, or contributions to symposia. Authors must ensure that copyright restrictions do not preclude the reuse of any text or figures from other publications. It is the author's responsibility to obtain permission to use any copyrighted material, such as reproducing a figure from another article, in print and electronic forms, and to acknowledge the source of the material.

Please include in the Methods of your paper a section called 'Compliance with design and statistical analysis requirements' that addresses each of the following issues.

Groups should be designed to have equal n values, of at least 5/group, or statistical analysis should not be attempted

Inclusion and exclusion criteria should be defined, and if a small part of a study uses n<5 (and no statistical analysis) owing to scarcity of samples or cost, this must be justified

Samples run in duplicate or triplicate (etc.) should be stated as 'used only to test precision of n=1 and not analysed as independent experiments’.

Randomization or blinding should be explained and, if not part of the study design, their absence should be explicitly justified

If normalization is undertaken a scientific justification should be provided.

Normalized values should be expressed as % of internal control mean, or % of control mean, allowing standard errors to be determined appropriately and parametric statistical testing to be undertaken.

If a control group has no variance (SEM = zero) the data should not be evaluated using parametric tests (e.g., ANOVA, t test etc).

Submission of a manuscript will be taken to indicate:

  • that authors have, if necessary, obtained permission to publish from their employers or institutions;
  • that approvals are held from any persons acknowledged, or cited as having provided personal communication;
  • that all authors have seen and approved the final version of the submitted paper;
  • that the content of the manuscript is original and that it has not been published or accepted for publication, either in whole or in part, other than as short abstracts, communications or conference proceedings;
  • that no part of the manuscript is currently under consideration for publication elsewhere.

PR&P - CASCADE PROCESS

PR&P receives submissions direct from authors and via a cascade system from other journals. The journals that cascade papers to PR&P mainly belong to the two societies who jointly own the journal with Wiley, ASPET and the BPS. The journal Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology (BCPT), which is owned by the Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT, also cascades papers to PR&P. The complete list of cascading journals, known as supporter journals, is below:

  • British Journal of Pharmacology
  • British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
  • The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
  • Molecular Pharmacology
  • Drug Metabolism and Disposition
  • BCPT

The rejection rates of PR&P’s supporter journals are high. Quality papers are rejected from the supporter journals on the basis of novelty or perceived potential impact, or are studies deemed incremental, confirmatory, out of scope, or which show negative results. This is where PR&P has a role to play in getting those papers to the pharmacological community.

The publication of confirmatory studies and/or negative results’ represents a contribution to the scientific literature often overlooked by other quality journals. Referred papers need to be well-conceived, scientifically sound studies, and conclusions supported by data in order for a manuscript to be published by PR&P.

How it works: Where good quality research deserving of publication is rejected by the supporter journal, the paper is referred to PR&P. This is undertaken by a ‘reject with referral’ decision from the supporter journal. Text in the rejection letter explains that the author’s manuscript has been rejected with a recommendation to progress to PR&P without guaranteeing a specific outcome. At this point, the author decides whether to accept the referral and to transfer the paper to PR&P for further consideration.

Should the author request to transfer their paper by clicking on an embedded link, details of the referred paper including the reviews from the supporter journal are accessed by PR&P’s editorial team. Access to this data only happens if the author agrees to the transfer. At this point, the Editors of PR&P evaluate previous reviews and ask the authors to respond to critiques before issuing an editorial decision. If needed, the Editors seek advice from external reviewers. Out of scope triaged papers from cascading journals are always sent out for external review.

Pharmacology, Research & Perspectives - steps to publication

1. Submit or confirm your submission at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/prp.

2. We will send you an email confirmation of your submission details.

3. After review and acceptance, you will be prompted to sign the Open Access Agreement form. Payment of the article publication charge will be required. You can then track the progress of your article through Wiley Author Services.

4. You will receive notification that your proof is ready for review, and be able to make corrections to your article using e-annotation tools for electronic proof correction.

5. Your article will publish on Wiley Online Library. If you have previously signed up for alerts through Wiley’s Author Services, you will be sent an email when your article is published online.

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Darrell R. Abernethy MD, PhD

DEPUTY EDITOR

Andrew Lawrence

Address correspondence to the Editorial Office:

PRPedoffice@wiley.com

SUBMISSION

The Journal requires that authors submit electronically via the online submission site at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/prp

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Manuscripts must be submitted in grammatically correct English. Manuscripts that do not meet this standard cannot be reviewed. Authors for whom English is a second language may wish to consult an English-speaking colleague or consider having their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/english_language.asp. All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication. A manuscript is considered for review and possible publication on the condition that it is submitted solely to Pharmacology, Research & Perspectives, and that the manuscript or a substantial portion of it is not under consideration elsewhere. All original articles and reviews are peer-reviewed by at least two experts in the field.

Abbreviations

Abbreviations should be used as little as possible, and explained in brackets – for example, bradykinin (BK). An alphabetical list of non-standard abbreviations should be provided – for example HUVEC, human umbilical vein endothelial cells; VSMC, vascular smooth muscle cells. The full name plus abbreviation should also be used in the text on first mention. Commonplace abbreviations need not be included in the list.

Nomenclature

Standard pharmacological nomenclature should be used. Nomenclature of ion channels, receptors, transporters, etc.

Sharing of structures, reagents and data

The chemical structures of any drugs or other compounds used must be in the public domain or provided in the submitted manuscript. The provenance of all materials, particularly new reagents (such as novel drugs, biological therapeutics, cell lines, antibodies, DNA, etc.), developed as part of the work being published, that are not available from commercial suppliers, should be given in sufficient detail to allow application for its acquisition. We encourage authors to share materials with other scientists, where practicable, since validation by others greatly increases the value of their work.

Microarray data, nucleic acid or protein sequences and X-ray crystallographic coordinates must be deposited in a suitable broadly recognized repository (such as GEO, Swiss-Prot etc.). Release embargos are permitted up to the date of publication and the accession number of each database entry must be provided in the text.

Informed consent

Pharmacology, Research & Perspectives requires that all appropriate steps be taken in obtaining informed consent of any and all human subjects participating in the research comprising the manuscript submitted for review and possible publication, and a statement to this effect must be included in the Methods section of the manuscript. Identifying information should not be included in the manuscript unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the study participants or patients (or parents or guardians) give written informed consent for publication.

Protection of human subjects and animals in research

A statement indicating that the protocol and procedures employed were reviewed and approved by the appropriate institutional review committee must be included in the Methods section of the manuscript. When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. For research involving recombinant DNA, containment facilities and guidelines should conform to those of the National Institutes of Health or corresponding institutions. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Helsinki Declaration should be followed. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study.

Disclosure statement

Pharmacology, Research & Perspectives requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, that might be perceived as influencing an author's objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or directly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include, but are not limited to, patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker's fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal.

If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and collectively to list on the cover letter to the Editor-in-Chief, in the manuscript (under the Acknowledgements section), and in the online submission system ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.

Manuscript preparation

Please follow the following guidelines when preparing your article; it is not necessary to try to replicate the layout of the journal in your submission. We ask you to consider your reviewers by supplying your manuscript in a clear, generic and readable layout, and ensure that all relevant sections are included. Our production process will take care of all aspects of formatting and style. The list below can be used as a checklist to ensure that the manuscript adheres to our guidelines and has all the information necessary for successful publication.

Word limits:

The abstract should be no more than 250 words

The limit for the main body of the manuscript is 5000 words excluding references

There should not normally be more than 60 references

Manuscripts should be typewritten and double-spaced

If your manuscript exceeds the above limits, and you are unable to reduce the size, please include a statement in your cover letter declaring that you have exceeded the limits and justify the reasons for doing so for the Editors' consideration.

Title page, including title, authors’ names, authors’ affiliations, and contact information*

Abstract

Text (introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion)

Acknowledgements

References cited

Tables (may be sent as a separate file if necessary)

Figure legends

*You will be asked to provide the full address information for the corresponding author. Please be sure to do this, as the processing of your manuscript may be delayed without complete address information for the corresponding author.

Abstract

Abstracts of more than 250 words will not be accepted. The abstract must be a single paragraph 'unstructured abstract' without additional subheadings. Keywords. Up to 10 keywords or phrases of two to three words (including names and terms used in the title) should be displayed at the end of the summary. Avoid unhelpful or unqualified terms such as ‘inhibition’, ‘drug’ etc. Abbreviations and keywords should be detailed at the foot of the summary page.

Introduction

The introduction should give a short and clear account of the background of the problem and the rationale of the investigation. Only previous work that has a direct bearing on the present problem should be cited. The final sentence should summarise the broad conclusions of the paper.

Materials and methods

The methods must be described in sufficient detail to allow the experiments to be interpreted and repeated by an experienced investigator. Where published methods are used, references should be given, together with a brief outline. For experiment studies, the methods are presented in headed paragraphs covering:

Test systems used (animal tests, isolated tissues, cultured cells, in vitro systems, etc.); Measurements made (with technical details); Experimental design; Data analysis and statistical procedures; Drugs, chemicals reagents and other materials (including sources).

For animal studies, the species, strain and total number used must be stated, as well as conditions of maintenance (food, water, light/dark cycles and compliance with ethical guidelines). The doses (initial and subsequent) of anaesthetics and analgesics should be clearly stated; the method of assessing anaesthesia, particularly after the administration of neuromuscular blocking drugs, must be clearly stated. For animal studies performed under anaesthesia vital signs (e.g. blood pressure, heart rate and blood gases) should be monitored and these data be included in the Methods.

The description of drugs, chemicals and other materials should include the names and brief address of the relevant suppliers. Drug names should be International Non-proprietary Names (INN). See website http://mednet.who.int for a full list. If a drug has no INN its full chemical name must be used (for nomenclature rules, see Handbook for Chemical Society Authors (London, Chemical) Society – http://rsc.org), or its structural formula given. Cumbersome chemical names should be suitably abbreviated for later reference in the paper.

Results

The description of the experimental results should be succinct, but in sufficient detail to allow the experiments to be analysed and interpreted by an independent reader. Typical single experiments may be presented with a clear statement that n number of similar experiments had similar results. Where appropriate, however, the mean results with confidence limits or standard errors, and the number of observations, should be given. Statistical tests of significance should be performed where appropriate. Headed paragraphs should be used to subdivide the text for ease of reference. Repetition of data in the text, tables and figures should be avoided. The rationale for performing the experiments may be briefly mentioned in the Results section, but conclusions should not be presented. Theoretical considerations may be included if appropriate to the results.

Discussion and Conclusions

The purpose of the discussion is to present a brief (normally not exceeding 1500 words) and pertinent interpretation of the results against the background of existing knowledge. Any assumptions on which conclusions are based must be stated clearly. Recapitulation of the results should be avoided. A review-like treatment, which reduces the impact on the reader, should also be avoided. The main conclusions should be conveyed in a final paragraph with a clear statement of how the study advances knowledge and understanding in the field.

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements should be brief but should include reference to sources of financial support. Sources of drugs not widely available commercially should be acknowledged.

References

In the text, references to other work should take the form: (Smith and Jones, 2000) or ‘Smith and Jones (2000) showed that’. References to ‘unpublished observations’ or ‘personal communications’ should be mentioned in the text only, and not included in the list of references. Papers which have been accepted for publication may be included in the list of references as ‘in press’. Copies of these papers should be included as supplementary information accompanying the submitted manuscript. Papers in preparation or which have been submitted but not yet finally accepted for publication must not be included in the list of references.

The reference list at the end of the manuscript must be arranged alphabetically according to the surname of the first author. When the surnames of first authors are identical, the alphabetical order of the surnames of subsequent authors takes precedence over the year of publication. If more than one paper by the same authors in one year is cited, a, b, c, etc. are placed after the year of publication, both in the text and in the list of references. All authors should be quoted for papers with up to six authors; for papers with more than six authors, the first six should be quoted followed by et al.

Minimum reference information

Journal Article

Author(s) in full

Year of publication

Article title

Journal title (preferably not abbreviated)

Volume number

Issue number

Page range

Book

Author(s) in full

Year of publication

Book title

Place of publication

Publisher

No. Pages

Book Chapter

Author(s) in full

Year of publication

Chapter title Book

Author/Editor Book title

Place of publication

Publisher

Page range

Online resources

References to online research articles should always include a DOI, where available. When referring to other Web pages, it is useful to include a date on which the resource was accessed.

Tables

All tables must be cited in the text in the order that they should appear.

Figure Legends

Figure legends should be typed on a separate page of the main manuscript document. Legends should explain the figures in sufficient detail that, whenever possible, they can be understood without reference to the text. Legends, captions and labels should be consistent with terminology or nomenclature used in the text.

Figures

All figures must be cited in the text in the order that they should appear. Illustrations are an important medium through which to convey the meaning in your article, and there is no substitute for preparing these to the highest possible standard. Therefore, please create your illustrations carefully with reference to our graphics guidelines (see http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/illustration.asp). It is very difficult to improve an image that has been saved or created in an inappropriate format. We realize that not everyone has access to high-end graphics software, so the following information may help if you are having difficulty in deciding how to get the best out of the tools at your disposal.

1. Check your software options to see if you can ‘save as’ or ‘export’ using one of the robust, industry-standard formats. These are:

-Encapsulated PostScript (EPS)

-Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)

-Portable Network Graphics (PNG)

-Portable Document Format (PDF)

2. As a general rule of thumb, images that contain text and line art (graphs, charts, maps, etc.) will reproduce best if saved as EPS or PDF. If you choose this option, it is important to remember to embed fonts. This ensures that any text reproduces exactly as you intend.

3. Images that contain photographic information are best saved as TIFF or PNG, as this ensures that all data are included in the file. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) should be avoided if possible, as information is lost during compression; however, it is acceptable for purely photographic subjects if the image was generated as a JPEG from the outset (many digital cameras, for example, output only in JPEG format).

4. If you are not sure which format would be the best option, it is always best to default to EPS or PDF as these are more likely to preserve the high-quality characteristics of the original.

5. Microsoft Office. If you have generated your images in Microsoft Office software (Word, Excel, PowerPoint), or similar, it is often best simply to send us the files in their native file formats.

6. Please ensure all images are a minimum of 600 dpi.

Metric system

The metric system should be used for all measurements, weights, etc. Temperatures should be expressed in degrees Celsius (centigrade).

Units and Symbols

SI units and symbols should be used for physicochemical quantities. Negative index notation (e.g. mg kg−1, pmol mm −2 min−1) should be used rather than solidus notation (e.g. mg/kg, pmol/mm2/min). Please refer to the SI Guide www.bipm.org/en/si/ for standard units.

Supporting Information and Appendices

Authors are encouraged to submit Supporting Information that could aid readers in understanding the authors' findings. This may include (but is not limited to) additional figures, tables, video clips, movies and animations (QuickTime, mpeg, SWF), data sets, and program code. Supporting Information must be submitted at the time of peer review, although the reviewers and editors may also suggest that figures or tables be provided as Supporting Information during the review process. Supporting Information should be numbered in order, but independently of figures in the main article. Please note that supplementary material is not edited by the publisher after final acceptance by the editors, and is posted online in the format in which it is supplied. We would encourage you, where possible and appropriate, to include additional figures and tables in an Appendix in your main manuscript document instead of designating it as Supporting Information. To ensure that others will be able to view your supplementary material, it is best to supply the files in a popular format that most readers have the software to access.

English Language Editing Service

Ensure your paper is clearly written in standard, scientific English language appropriate to your discipline. Visit our site to learn about the options. Please note that using the Wiley English Language Editing Service does not guarantee that your paper will be accepted by this journal. Fees will apply.

CrossCheck

CrossCheck is a multi-publisher initiative to screen published and submitted content for originality. Pharmacology, Research & Perspectives uses iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. To find out more about CrossCheck visit http://www.crossref.org/crosscheck.html.

Publication Forms

You will be prompted to sign the Open Access Agreement electronically after manuscript review and acceptance. We have introduced a convenient new process for signing your Open Access Agreement electronically (eOAA) that will save you considerable time and effort. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper. You may preview the copyright terms and conditions here.

Proofs

Soon after acceptance, you will receive an email alert containing a link to a web site to access your proofs for final content correction within our rapid production workflow. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Once you have submitted your corrections, the production office will finalize the layout of your article for publication.

Reprints

As this is an open access journal, you have free, unlimited access to your article online.

Production Questions

Please direct any questions regarding the production of your article to the Production Editor at PRP@wiley.com.

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