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Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 2

Edited By: Susan V. Bryant and Enrique Amaya

Online ISSN: 2052-4412

Author Guidelines

Table of Contents

REFERENCESLast updated on 01 JULY 2015


Regeneration is a peer-reviewed, Wiley Open Access journal dedicated to the publication of papers covering regeneration and tissue repair in animals and plants. In the last several decades we have learned much about the molecular details of rapidly developing model organisms, but much less about models with remarkable regenerative abilities as adults. Against the backdrop of basic research in developmental biology, and in conjunction with the ascendancy of stem cell biology, the time is ripe to explore the next frontier: natural and assisted healing and regeneration. The goals of the Editors and publishers of Regeneration are to provide the first dedicated venue for research related to repair and regeneration in its many forms, and in all relevant species.

Areas covered include, but are not limited to the following areas:
• Regeneration biology
• Stem cell biology
• Tissue engineering
• Pattern formation
• Plasticity
• Dedifferentiation
• Wound healing

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Manuscripts must provide a clear conceptual or mechanistic advance, and must be appropriately referenced and contain data and figures that support the conclusions. The editors will reject papers that require major changes, including addition of significant experimental data or other significant revision.

Manuscripts must be grammatically and linguistically correct. Manuscripts that do not meet this standard cannot be reviewed. Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found here. All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication. A manuscript is considered for review and possible publication on the condition that it is submitted solely to Regeneration, and that the manuscript or a substantial portion of it is not under consideration elsewhere.

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On submission of a paper, authors must confirm whether any of the data or content is already in the public domain (e.g. in a publicly accessible pre-print repository or report), and all relevant sources must be cited.

Submission of a manuscript implies that it reports unpublished work and that neither the article nor parts of it have been published, or is under consideration for publication, elsewhere. By submitting a manuscript to Regeneration, the authors guarantee that they have the appropriate authority from their employers and/or funding agencies to publish the work. Any related work under consideration, review and revision, or accepted for publication elsewhere, should accompany the submission if they are relevant to its scientific assessment.

Additionally, once a paper is accepted, in signing the Creative Commons Attribution License OAA form the authors sign to represent that the contribution has not been submitted elsewhere for publication. Dual publication of an article is not permitted.

Regeneration reserves the right not to publish material that has already been pre-published (either in electronic or other media). The details of the preprint server concerned and any accession numbers must be included in the cover letter accompanying the manuscript submission (see MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION section for further instructions).

Any queries concerning manuscript submission and acceptance should be directed to the Managing Editor.

Any queries concerning the production of an accepted paper, copyrights and publication charges should be directed to the Production Editor.

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Plagiarism includes both the theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work. Regeneration uses CrossCheck, a multi-publisher initiative to screen submitted content for plagiarism, to detect overlapping and similar text (including self-plagiarism) prior to publication. To find out more about CrossCheck, visit

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Regeneration publishes Original Research articles, Short Communications and Reviews. In addition, the journal publishes Editorials as well as Letters to the Editors.

Original Research articles are primary research papers reporting novel results of well-controlled experiments related to repair and regeneration of any part of any organism. The manuscript length should be limited to approx. 9000 words.

Reviews presents broad and scholarly overviews of a particular topic related to regeneration, noting the most recent developments in the field. Reviews are supplemented with explanations for non-specialist readers and provide online links to relevant sources of additional information.

Short Communications are brief papers on research projects that have progressed to a point where dissemination of important preliminary observations would be beneficial to the field. The manuscript length should be limited to approx. 2000 words and with a maximum of three display items. Short Communications should contain Abstract and Significance sections but not organised into the typical Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections.

Letters to the Editor are opinion pieces which address important, topical issues to the field (e.g. unexpected and novel research finding, or are a response to, or a comment, on a previous publication). They are intended to reflect primarily the views of the author(s) on the issue under review and authors are encouraged to put forward their own ideas and opinions. The manuscript length should be limited to approx. 1500 words, 12 references and a maximum of one display item. Letters to the Editor should contain an abstract and a single section in the main body – which includes the relevant discussion, results, conclusions and methods. Exceptions are made based on editorial decisions.

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Submissions to Regeneration should be made online at: ScholarOne Manuscript (S1M).

The corresponding author will need to create an account (top left hand corner) the first time he/she accesses the site, and will be asked to provide full contact details. Regeneration – S1M will then create a user name and password which should be retained for future access to the site. Once the author is logged into the system, the Main Menu will be displayed. Clicking on the Author Centre will bring up instructions for uploading the manuscript and associated files. However, all diagrams, tables and figures must be uploaded as separate files. As part of the submission process, any uploaded files will then be converted into journal specific PDF and HTML versions (with covering page) which you will be required to open and check before submitting. After submission, you will receive an acknowledgement within a few minutes. All subsequent correspondence regarding the manuscript will be handled by e-mail.

Submissions to Regeneration must represent the independent work of the authors.

If the author is absolutely unable to submit the manuscript through Regeneration– S1M, he/she should contact the Editorial Office by e-mail.

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All manuscripts submitted to Regeneration will be assessed by one of the co-Editors-in-Chief or Associate Editors to evaluate if the paper conforms with the Aims and Scope of the journal, as well as the quality of the science and appropriateness of the topic. For those manuscripts judged to be suitable, anonymous peer reviewers (at least two) will evaluate each manuscript.

Authors are encouraged to suggest at least three names of appropriate peer reviewers and their email addresses, and are welcome to list individuals they wish to exclude from the manuscript review process. The editors reserve the right to accept or decline these requests.

Authors of manuscripts judged to be of sufficient interest and quality, but needing changes prior to publication, will be invited to revise their manuscript in response to the reviewers’ and editor’s critiques. When submitting the revised manuscript, we ask the authors to respond in a point-by-point fashion to each criticism/comment raised by the editor(s) and peer reviewers with the appropriate author response, especially if there is a disagreement. We ask the authors to provide this information as instructed on the submission website.

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When a manuscript is returned to authors for revision, the revised version should be submitted within three months of the authors' receipt of the referee reports, unless another date is specified in the decision letter. Please contact the Editorial Office by the deadline in cases where extra time is required for revision. Additional time may be granted upon request at the editors' discretion, assuming the conceptual advance of the study stands (with regard to the current literature).

As a matter of policy, we do not consider any competing manuscripts published during the specified revision period as negatively impacting on the conceptual advance presented by your study. However, we request that you contact the editor as soon as possible upon publication of any related work, to discuss how to proceed. Only a single round of revision is generally permitted. The initial decision letter on the original version of the manuscript provides a URL that should be used for submission of revised manuscripts. Please do not upload revisions as new submissions.

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The Editors reserve the right to return manuscripts that are not in accordance with the following instructions however manuscripts will not be rejected out of hand for format reasons. The correct presentation of manuscripts is detailed below.

Articles submitted to Regeneration should be accompanied by a stand-alone cover letter that is submitted when prompted by the online manuscript submission site. This letter should contain any relevant details regarding the study presented in the paper, as well as recommendations for preferred and non-preferred referees. Information about related papers, details regarding preprint publication servers and accession number and potential conflicts of interest should also be included in the cover letter.

The title page must contain:

  • Article title. It should be short and informative, and should not contain any abbreviations (e.g. ‘Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition’ should not be abbreviated). However, commonly used gene/protein acronyms are acceptable. The total length of the title should not exceed 175 characters (including spaces). Serial titles are not accepted.
  • Full name(s), affiliation(s) and e-mail address(es) of all author(s). Surnames should be underlined and multiple first-authorships are acceptable but should be indicated. Numbers in superscript should be used to indicate the department, institution, city and country for each author, including any change in address.
  • Abstract. As a single paragraph summary describing all key novel findings of the paper and not exceeding 175 words. Reference citations are not permitted and abbreviations should be avoided where possible. The word count must be indicated.
  • Keywords. Up to 5 keywords for indexing purposes, which may or may not appear in the title, should be given in alphabetical order and after the abstract. It is very important that the keywords be chosen carefully.
  • Corresponding author(s). The complete mailing address, email address, telephone and fax numbers should be provided. While it is possible to name more than one corresponding author in the published article, however Editorial Office will by default address all submission-related correspondence to the single author listed as ‘Corresponding Author’ at submission.
  • Short running title. Consists of no more than 50 characters including spaces.
  • Article type. For example, Research, Review, Short Communication and Letter to Editor.
  • Word count. Indicate the number of words in the main text (excluding abstract, acknowledgements, references, table and figure legends) and abstract.
  • Number of figures and tables.
  • Conflict of Interest. If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this (see CONFLICT OF INTEREST section for detailed information). The details of the preprint server concerned and any accession numbers must be included.

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(a) Introduction The introduction should be succinct and without subheadings, outlining essential background information and aims, and has a very brief statement of what has been achieved by the work without including the results/conclusions.

(b) Materials and Methods This section should contain sufficient detail so that all procedures can be repeated (in conjunction with cited references). Reagents must be described in such a way that allows readers to identify them unequivocally and/or reproduce them. For example, antibodies epitopes should be described and siRNA and other probe sequences must be provided. In cases where detailed methods cannot be described within the length limits of the article, additional materials and methods can be included as Supporting Information. It is, however, impermissible to move the entire Materials and Methods section into the online supplement. Supporting Information should be important but ancillary information that is not of immediate importance to the understanding of the study.

Where specific equipment or materials/products are named, including software packages, the manufacturer's name, location (e.g. town, state, country) or a source reference (e.g. if a standard or replicated procedure is being followed) should be given in parentheses, generally, after first mention.

(c) Results The Results section should present the experiments that support the conclusions to be drawn later in the Discussion. The Results section should conform to a high standard of rigour. Extended lines of inference, arguments or speculations should not be placed in the Results.

Detailed methodological descriptions should be restricted to the Materials and Methods section., and material appropriated to the Discussion should not be included in this section.

All data presented should be displayed in the main figures/tables and/or Supporting Information (i.e. 'data not shown' is not permitted).

(d) Discussion The Discussion section should be separate from the Results section. It allows authors to propose their interpretation of the results, and to suggest what they might mean in a broader context. Related published data must be appropriately discussed and cited. Speculation is allowed but should be clearly labelled as such. It should end with a clear statement highlighting the significance of the results and place them in the context of other work.

(e) Acknowledgements This should be placed at the end of the text and not in footnotes. Personal acknowledgements should precede those of institutions/agencies. Grant numbers are permissible. Conflict of interest must be declared/stated even if authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. Dedications are discouraged.

(f) References See REFERENCES section for detailed information to in-text citations and Reference list.

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(a) Figures All illustrations (including photographs) are classified as figures and should be cited consecutively in the text by Arabic numerals (Fig. 1, Fig. 2 etc.) and grouped together either at the end of the paper or in a separate file(s). Each figure must contain a heading and each panel a subheading. General text applying to all subpanels should be placed before the subheadings. All symbols and abbreviations used in the figure must be defined, unless they are common abbreviations or have already been defined in the text.

Figure captions should be limited to 150 words per figure, typed and grouped at the end of the paper, and contains sufficient information to data presented without having to refer to text. Redundant information/details (e.g. experimental details should, where possible, be given in the Materials and Methods section) are to be avoided in figure captions.

Line and combination figures should preferably be submitted in vector graphics format (e.g. either embedded as vector graphics in a Word document or saved separately in PDF/eps format). If this is not possible, they should be saved separately as pixel-based graphics at 600 dpi in TIFF (not jpg) format (or embedded as such in Word). Photographic figures should be saved at 300 dpi in TIFF format, or jpg format with low compression. Figures should be drawn/submitted at their smallest practicable size (to fit a single column (82 mm), two-thirds page width (110 mm) or full page width (173 mm). Over-sized figures will be reduced to fit the journal requirements. If figures are drawn larger than reproduction size, component parts such as symbols and text must be large enough to allow for the necessary reduction. For full instructions on preparing your figures, see the Electronic Artwork Guidelines page.

(b) Cover Submissions Authors are encouraged to submit original images for consideration as cover art. Submission of cover art is not limited to authors. Black and white or color images can be submitted, should be trimmed to fit into the photograph area of the cover (21 cm wide, 24 cm high, 300 dpi or higher resolution), supplied at full size and accompanied by a cover legend.

(c) Tables Tables should be consecutively cited and numbered with Arabic numerals (Table 1, Table 2 etc.) in the text, and submitted in an editable format (e.g. MS Excel or MS Word documents). Each table should be self-explanatory, informatively titled and typed on a separate sheet.

Table captions should not exceed 150 words per table (footnote included). Column headings should be brief and units must be clearly indicated for each of the entries in the table, with units of measurement in parentheses. Footnotes to tables should be identified by lower-case superscript letters or symbols (* † ‡ § ¶) and placed at the bottom of the table. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns.

Regeneration's table-of-contents (TOC) will be presented in graphical form with a brief abstract. The TOC entry must include the article title, the authors' names (with the corresponding author indicated by an asterisk), an 80-words abstract summarising the key findings presented in the paper and a figure that best represents the scope of the paper. Table-of-contents entry should be entitled ‘Graphical Abstract’ and uploaded as one file to ScholarOne Manuscript (S1M) during the manuscript submission process. The supplied image (e.g. tiff, eps, JPEG, PDF file formats) should fit within the dimensions of 50mm x 60mm and has a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.

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In the interests of transparency and to help editors and reviewers assess any potential bias, Regeneration requires authors of original research papers to declare any competing commercial interests in relation to the submitted work. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise that might be perceived as influencing an author's objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Referees and editors are also subject to Conflict of Interest regulations.

Potential sources of conflict of interest include but are not limited to patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker's fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal. It is difficult to specify a threshold at which a financial interest becomes significant, but as a practical guideline, we would suggest this to be any undeclared interest that could embarrass you; if it were to become publicly known.

If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and to collectively list ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships in the:
- cover letter*,
- manuscript* (e.g. in the footnote, Conflict of Interest or Acknowledgements section),
- and online submission system.

*see MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION section for further instructions

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The title page must contain a brief statement of authorship. All authors must agree to submission of a manuscript, and each author carries a degree of responsibility for the accuracy, integrity and ethics of the manuscript and works described therein. Some authors, especially the lead author, are responsible for the integrity of the entire manuscript. Other authors are primarily responsible for the integrity and accuracy of methods or data they contributed. The lead author is responsible for ensuring agreement on such roles prior to submission.

The lead author shall be the first listed author on the manuscript unless indicated otherwise at the time of submission. Any changes to authorship after the initial submission need to be approved in a letter signed by all authors. All authors are expected to make a substantial intellectual contribution to a manuscript. Honorary authorships are discouraged: merely providing facilities, obtaining funding or heading a research group that houses authors are not sufficient reasons for authorship, nor is provision of a small amount of data collected primarily for purposes other than those in the manuscript.

The journal conforms to the authorship policies specified in the international standards set out by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (see, for example, Defining the Role of Authors and Contributors).

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In the text, references should always be listed chronologically and in full by giving the author's name with the year of publication, with one or both in parentheses, except when there are more than two authors [e.g. Smith & Jones 2003; Smith & Jones (2003); Smith et al. 2000; Smith et al. (2000)]. In the references list, names and initials of all authors should be provided for papers with six authors or less. For papers with more than six authors, cite only the first six authors should be cited and followed by “et al.”. If several papers by the same author(s) and from the same year are cited -- a, b, c, etc. should be put after the year of publication.

References should be listed in the following standard forms and titles of journals should not be abbreviated:

  • Journal articles
  • Last name, Initials. et al. (Year). Full title of article. Full journal title, Volume number, page range.
  • Books
  • Last name, Initials. et al. (Year). Full title of book. Edition (only include this if not the first edition). Publisher, place (cities only except for USA and UK), pp. (page range)
  • Chapters in books
  • Last name, Initials. et al. (Year). Full title of chapter. In: (Full title of book), Edition (only include this if not the first edition) {  [ed(s).]  [Editors(s) last name, initials]  }. Publisher, City (Include state and country for USA and UK), pp. (page range).
  • Data
  • Last name, Initials. et al. (Year). Data from: (Title of article). Dryad Digital Repository. Available at:
  • Websites
  • Authorship or Source. (Year). Title of web document or web page. Available at: [URL]. Last accessed DD MONTH YYYY. References to material available on the World Wide Web can be given only if the information is available on an official site and without charge to readers.

Reference to unpublished works:

  • ‘In press’ papers
  • Only permissible for papers that had been accepted for publication (documentary evidence of acceptance must be provided).
    Example: Vázquez, D.P. & Simberloff, D. (2003). Changes in interaction biodiversity induced by an introduced ungulate. Ecol. Lett., in press (accepted).
  • Personal communication
  • Citation must be accompanied by the names of all persons concerned. Any person cited as the source of a 'personal communication' must have approved the reference.
  • Unpublished material, except for PhD theses
  • It should not be included in the reference list but should be cited as 'X. Xxxxx, unpubl. data' in the text.

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Supporting Information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supporting Information include additional tables, data sets, references cited within the Supporting Information, figures, movie files (less than 5Mb), audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. Supporting Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included in each Supporting Information file. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format. For further information on recommended file types and requirements for submission, please visit: Author Services (Supporting Information).

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Before acceptance, manuscripts will be checked for appropriate formatting and image processing, and for plagiarism. Upon acceptance of a manuscript, the Editorial Office corresponds only with the corresponding author, whose responsibility is to communicate with all other authors. Authors of accepted papers should be aware that publication of their manuscript cannot proceed without payment of the article publication charge.

The Accepted Article (i.e. version accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process) will be published online upon receipt of payment of the article publication charge. Accepted Articles that are published online will be assigned a DOI. Accepted Article versions may thus have some differences with the Version of Record (accepted articles that are copyedited, typeset, paginated and proofread).

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All Regeneration articles are published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which allows users to copy, distribute and transmit an article, adapt the article and make commercial use of the article. The CC BY license permits commercial and non-commercial re-use of an open access article, as long as the author is properly attributed.

The open access agreement is administered electronically. The author identified as the corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services where, via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS), they will be able to complete the Open Access Agreement (OAA) license on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For further information on OAA and Creative Commons License, please visit the following websites:

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In general, the journal follows conventions given in Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors and Publishers (1994), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 6th ed. Please follow Chemical Abstracts and its indexes for chemical names.

For guidance in the use of biochemical terminology, follow the recommendations issued by the IUPAC-IUBMB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature ( In general, genes and genotypes should be indicated in italics; proteins and phenotypes should not be italicized. Authors should use approved gene and gene product nomenclature and apply the italicization and capitalization formatting as appropriate for each organism's standard nomenclature.

Please consult the appropriate nomenclature databases for correct gene names and symbols. Some useful general resources are: Entrez Gene (; UniProt (

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The editorial staff of Regeneration is strongly committed to maintaining high standards of integrity of the published scientific record. The journal requests that authors take note of and adhere to guidelines established by The Office of Research Integrity (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services). The journal will investigate suspected instances of scientific fraud, inappropriate image manipulation, plagiarism, duplicate publication and other cases that violate research ethics. Depending on the outcome of these investigations, the journal may opt to publish erratum or corrigendum, or, in cases of serious scientific misconduct, either ask authors to retract their paper or impose retraction on them. In such cases, the authors' employers may also be contacted. As a matter of policy, the journal will collaborate with independent institutional investigations into misconduct and usually accept the outcome of such investigations. An erratum is notification of an important error made by the journal, whereas a corrigendum is notification of an important error made by the author(s). Regeneration is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

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Presented data must represent the findings in a fair and accurate manner. This includes appropriate statistical analysis and image processing. The editors reserve the right to request original versions of figures and the source data that were used to assemble the figure from the authors of a paper under consideration.

Deposition of Large Datasets

Prior to submission of a paper to Regeneration, the primary data from high-throughout experiments must be deposited in the appropriate public database, and details about the how editors and referees can access this data confidentially must be included in the cover letter. The data sets must be released at the time of publication and accession numbers included in the final manuscript.
The Gene Expression Omnibus or ArrayExpress are the recommended repositories for most functional genomics data. Sequences must be submitted to the EMBL Database Library or GenBank. Protein sequences that have been determined by direct sequencing of the protein must be submitted to SWISS-PROT at the EBI. All accession numbers should be included in the manuscript. For data where there is no appropriate public database, we encourage submission of large datasets in Dryad or Figshare.

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For any article submitted to Regeneration reporting experiments on live animals, the corresponding author must confirm that all experiments were performed in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations. The manuscript must include a statement in the Materials and Methods identifying the institutional and/or licensing committee approving the experiments, including any relevant details.

Occasionally, submitted manuscripts may contain data or describe experiments that raise ethical concerns about animal welfare. The editors reserve the right to consult with appropriate experts and reject manuscripts that contain experiments which do not conform to National Institutes of Health (NIH; or Medical Research Council (MRC; guidelines for animal welfare.

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For experiments involving human subjects, the submission must include a statement informing consent was obtained from all subjects and that the experiments conformed to the principles set out in WMA’s (World Medical Association) “Declaration of Helsinki” policy and USDHHS’s (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services) “The Belmont Report”.

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The corresponding author will receive an email notification containing a link to a website. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF file from this site. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following website: This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the email notification.

Only corrections and essential changes should be made at this stage. Excessive alterations may delay publication of the article. To avoid delay in publication, corrected proofs should be returned to the Publisher within 48 hours of receipt. The Editors reserve the right to make minor modifications to manuscripts that do not conform to accepted standards. Such alterations will always be submitted to the authors for approval at the proof stage.

Free access to final PDF offprint of the published article will be provided to the corresponding author, and will be available via Wiley’s Author Services only. Please register for free access by visiting Author Services and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers. PDF offprints may be distributed subject to the Wiley's terms and conditions.

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Online production tracking is now available for your article through Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their accepted paper through the production process, from receipt by the publisher to publication online. Authors can check the status of their article online and/or choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. Sign up for the service when you receive your registration e-mail after your paper has been accepted for publication (a valid e-mail address is required). Visit Author Services for more details on this online production-tracking service and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

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Please note that unless specifically requested, the Publisher will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted 2 months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the Managing Editor or the Production Editor as soon as possible.