Brain and Behavior

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 2

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Andrei V. Alexandrov, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, USA and Maryann Martone, University of California, San Diego, USA

Online ISSN: 2162-3279

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  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Determinants of psychological resistance and recovery among women exposed to assaultive trauma

      Heather L. Rusch, Erel Shvil, Sarah L. Szanton, Yuval Neria and Jessica M. Gill

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.322

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      Women exposed to assault are at high risk for developing psychiatric disorders; however, this risk is not universal. Putative resilience factors may be protective in the face of challenge, by contributing to psychopathological resistance. High endorsement of mastery and social support may buffer the initial effects of trauma, while posttraumatic growth may facilitate recovery from traumatic stress in its aftermath.

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      Combination of agomelatine and bupropion for treatment-resistant depression: results from a chart review study including a matched control group

      Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Christoph Correll, Christian K. Eberlein, Refik Pul, Helge Frieling, Stefan Bleich and Kai G. Kahl

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.318

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      Bupropion-agomelatine cotreatment was well tolerated and laboratory adverse effect parameters were not altered. The good remission rate in TRD patients receiving agomelatine plus bupropion, particularly in comparison to the monotherapy group, indicates that this combination treatment should be explored further as a potentially promising strategy for patients with TRD.

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      Regional differences of [18F]-FDG uptake within the brain during fatiguing muscle contractions

      John H. Kindred, Kari K. Kalliokoski, Jens Bojsen-Møller and Thorsten Rudroff

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.319

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      Many studies have shown that a position task is more difficult than a force task although both are performed at a similar net muscle force. [18F]-FDG uptake was greater in the occipital and temporal cortices of the brain during the position task compared to the force task which suggests that differences in visual-spatial feedback processing may play a role in the reduced time to failure of position tasks.

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      PMCA4 (ATP2B4) mutation in familial spastic paraplegia causes delay in intracellular calcium extrusion

      Philip Wing-Lok Ho, Shirley Yin-Yu Pang, Miaoxin Li, Zero Ho-Man Tse, Michelle Hiu-Wai Kung, Pak-Chung Sham and Shu-Leong Ho

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.321

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      We recently reported a mutation (R268Q) in a novel gene, PMCA4 (ATP2B4) in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia (FSP). Here, we showed that the R268Q mutation of the PMCA4 gene had functional implication and resulted in delayed attenuation of KCl-induced calcium influx.

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      Polymorphisms of IKBKE gene are associated with major depressive disorder and panic disorder

      Tanel Traks, Kati Koido, Roman Balõtšev, Triin Eller, Sulev Kõks, Eduard Maron, Innar Tõru, Jakov Shlik, Eero Vasar and Veiko Vasar

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.314

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      The presented genetic association study explores the role of innate immunity in major depressive disorder (MDD) and panic disorder (PD). Selected SNPs of inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells, kinase epsilon (IKBKE) gene were genotyped in MDD and PD patients and respective healthy controls. The results revealed several significant allelic and haplotype associations, thus indicating the possible functional role of IKBKE gene in disease development.

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      Risk factors for DSM 5 PTSD symptoms in Israeli civilians during the Gaza war

      Sharon Gil, Michael Weinberg, Keren Or-Chen and Hila Harel

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.316

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      The study aimed at examining the association between levels of DSM 5 PTSD symptoms with pre- and peritraumatic PTSD risk factors, among 510 civilians exposed to continuous life-threatening trauma such as rocket and missile fire in “real time” exposure, whereas the traumatic events unfold. A structural equation model design revealed that higher levels of forgiveness toward situations were associated with fewer PTSD symptoms, whereas peritraumatic dissociation and high levels of objective and subjective threat were positively associated with PTSD symptoms. Additionally, females were at higher risk for PTSD symptoms than males.

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      Involvement of GPR50 polymorphisms in depression: independent replication in a prospective elderly cohort

      Joanne Ryan, Isabelle Carrière, Karen Ritchie and Marie-Laure Ancelin

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.313

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      Despite the explosion in genetic association studies over the last decade, clearly identified genetic risk factors for depression remain scarce and replication studies are becoming increasingly important. Our results provide further support for a female-specific association between GPR50 variants and late-life depression. We also show for the first time that in later life, these associations are strongest for more severe cases of depression and are independent of circulating lipid levels and physical or mental health comorbidity.

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      Association of cerebral white matter lesions with cognitive function and mood in Japanese elderly people: a population-based study

      Mika Yamawaki, Kenji Wada-Isoe, Mikie Yamamoto, Satoko Nakashita, Yusuke Uemura, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Takeo Nakayama and Kenji Nakashima

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.315

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      We evaluated the relationships between regional white matter lesions (WMLs), lifestyle factors, and cognitive, motor function, and mood in Japanese elderly people. Our population-based study indicated that WMLs were related to hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance, and that the severity of WMLs was associated with cognitive function and mood.

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      Neural basis of nonanalytical reasoning expertise during clinical evaluation

      Steven J. Durning, Michelle E. Costanzo, Anthony R. Artino, John Graner, Cees van der Vleuten, Thomas J. Beckman, Christopher M. Wittich, Michael J. Roy, Eric S. Holmboe and Lambert Schuwirth

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.309

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      This study utilized established educational theory, two separate participant groups (experts and novices), as well as task items that have been validated and arguably represent the “gold standard” for clinical reasoning, to provide evidence that expertise involves a distributed and refined brain network during nonanalytical reasoning.

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      Education mitigates age-related decline in N-Acetylaspartate levels

      Kirk I. Erickson, Regina L. Leckie, Andrea M. Weinstein, Polina Radchenkova, Bradley P. Sutton, Ruchika Shaurya Prakash, Michelle W. Voss, Laura Chaddock-Heyman, Edward McAuley and Arthur F. Kramer

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.311

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      In this study of older adults, we find that more years of education offsets an age-related decline in N-acetylasparate levels in the frontal cortex.

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      Temporospatial identification of language-related cortical function by a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and magnetoencephalography

      Misako Shinshi, Takufumi Yanagisawa, Masayuki Hirata, Tetsu Goto, Hisato Sugata, Toshihiko Araki, Yumiko Okamura, Yuka Hasegawa, Aya S. Ihara and Shiro Yorifuji

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.317

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      This study has shown that combining TMS and MEG improves the accuracy to identify the laterality of language function.

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      Purkinje cell responses during visually and vestibularly driven smooth eye movements in mice

      Akira Katoh, Soon-Lim Shin, Rhea R. Kimpo, Jacob M. Rinaldi and Jennifer L. Raymond

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.310

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      Oculomotor plasticity is a powerful experimental system for studying the function of the cerebellar circuit. We provide the first thorough analysis of signal processing in cerebellar Purkinje cells of mice during both vestibularly and visually driven smooth eye movements. We found that most individual Purkinje cells in mice carried both vestibular and nonvestibular signals.

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      Depression, anxiety disorders, and metabolic syndrome in a population at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus

      Kai G. Kahl, Ulrich Schweiger, Christoph Correll, Conrad Müller, Marie-Luise Busch, Michael Bauer and Peter Schwarz

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.306

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      We evaluated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in subjects consecutively examined at an outpatient clinic for diabetes prevention who were at-risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Of 260 screened patients, 150 were included. The metabolic syndrome was present in 27% of males and 25% of females, and was significantly associated with having a current anxiety disorder (P < 0.001) and lifetime major depression (P < 0.001). Our data in a high-risk group for T2DM support the association between depressive disorders and MetS, pointing to a similar role of anxiety disorders. Screening for anxiety and depression is recommended in this group at risk for T2DM.

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      Characteristics of pain in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

      Frank Hanisch, Anika Skudlarek, Janine Berndt and Malte E. Kornhuber

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.296

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      In a cross-sectional survey, patients with ALS were screened for occurrence, type, distribution, and treatment of pain and cramps using questionnaires and compared with both age-matched myotonic dystrophy type 2 patients (diseased control) and age-matched population-based controls. Our study showed that pain was a relatively frequent symptom which had an important impact on the quality of life. Pain that requires treatment can occur at every stage of ALS.

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