Brain and Behavior

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 7

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Maryann Martone, University of California, San Diego, USA

Impact Factor: 2.128

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 31/51 (Behavioral Sciences); 167/256 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 2162-3279

VIEW

  1. 1 - 39
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dominant hemisphere functional networks compensate for structural connectivity loss to preserve phonological retrieval with aging

      Smriti Agarwal, Emmanuel A. Stamatakis, Sharon Geva and Elizabeth A. Warburton

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.495

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      Bilateral brain engagement with language is well-recognized with aging. With a multifaceted approach, integrating structural and functional imaging data during a language task to assess phonological retrieval, in a group of younger and older adults with equivalent cognitive performance, we aimed to establish whether interactions between hemispheres or reorganization of dominant hemisphere networks preserve function. Our data demonstrate that while key left hemisphere language areas connect bihemispherically with age, preserved function seems to be mediated by within network interactions in the left hemisphere, despite loss of structural connectivity.

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      Striatal morphology correlates with frontostriatal electrophysiological motor processing in Huntington's disease: an IMAGE-HD study

      Lauren M. Turner, David Jakabek, Fiona A. Wilkes, Rodney J. Croft, Andrew Churchyard, Mark Walterfang, Dennis Velakoulis, Jeffrey C. L. Looi, Deborah Apthorp and Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.511

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      Research on Huntington's disease (HD) suggests that presymptomatic individuals show no functional motor abnormalities despite significant and well-established structural degeneration; however, our previous paper (Turner et al., PLoS One, 2015) identified aberrant premotor activation, which we suggest implicated frontostriatal network impairment. Here, we expand on our first study to demonstrate correlations between premotor activation and morphology of the striatum in a combined HD sample, suggesting that functional connectivity and motor compensation is dependent on structural integrity of such regions.

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      Kappa-opioid receptors differentially regulate low and high levels of ethanol intake in female mice

      Ashlee Van't Veer, Karen L. Smith, Bruce M. Cohen, William A. Carlezon Jr and Anita J. Bechtholt

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.523

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      Our findings indicate that KOR activation increases the rewarding value of EtOH via effects mediated, at least in part, by KORs on DA neurons. While the mechanisms of this regulation are unknown, previous work suggests that alterations in negative reinforcement processes, impulsivity-like behavior, or sensitivity to the sensory properties of EtOH can affect preference and intake.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Adjunctive brexpiprazole in patients with major depressive disorder and anxiety symptoms: an exploratory study

      Lori L. Davis, Ai Ota, Pamela Perry, Kana Tsuneyoshi, Emmanuelle Weiller and Ross A. Baker

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.520

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      Anxiety symptoms are common in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and may signal more difficult-to-treat patients. A Phase IIIb open-label study explored brexpiprazole adjunctive to antidepressant monotherapy for participants with MDD and anxiety symptoms who had an inadequate response to their current antidepressant. Anxiety and depressive symptoms and overall functioning improved over the 6-week study, and brexpiprazole was well tolerated.

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      Altered regional brain function in the treatment-naive patients with somatic symptom disorder: a resting-state fMRI study

      Qiang Li, Yong Xiao, Yinghui Li, Lei Li, Na Lu, Zhi Xu, Xiaodong Mou, Shenqin Mao, Wei Wang and Yonggui Yuan

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.521

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      The mechanism of somatic symptom disorder remains unknown. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the somatic symptom disorder group demonstrated significantly higher regional homogeneity value in the frontal brain regions but lower regional homogeneity value in the posterior brain regions. This abnormal resting-state patterns of regional brain activity may contribute to understanding the mechanism of somatic symptom disorder.

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      Depressive symptoms associated with concerns about falling in Parkinson's disease

      Erika Franzén, David Conradsson, Maria Hagströmer and Maria H. Nilsson

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.524

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      Concern about falling is increased in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). This study shows that factors associated with concerns about falling are a multifactorial phenomenon. For its management in elderly with mild-to-moderate PD, one should consider depressive symptoms, balance deficits, and mobility devices.

  2. Reviews

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      Characterizing neurocognitive impairment in young people with major depression: state, trait, or scar?

      Kelly Allott, Caroline A. Fisher, Gunther Paul Amminger, Joanne Goodall and Sarah Hetrick

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.527

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      A conceptual discussion and examination of the evidence for neurocognitive deficits as trait, state, and/or scar features of major depressive disorder in adolescence and young adulthood. There is preliminary evidence for scar-related neurocognitive impairments in youth depression. However, the evidence for trait and state impairments is inconclusive, primarily due to a lack of rigorous longitudinal studies.

  3. Original Research

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      Pathological nociceptors in two patients with erythromelalgia-like symptoms and rare genetic Nav 1.9 variants

      Inge P. Kleggetveit, Roland Schmidt, Barbara Namer, Hugh Salter, Tormod Helås, Martin Schmelz and Ellen Jørum

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.528

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      Sodium channels like Nav 1.9 have been implicated in human pain. However, the exact role of these channels are not known. Here, we directly recorded action potentials from two patients with erythromelalgia-like pain and Nav 1.9 variants by using the method of microneurography.

  4. Methods

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      Reliable measurements of brain atrophy in individual patients with multiple sclerosis

      Dirk Smeets, Annemie Ribbens, Diana M. Sima, Melissa Cambron, Dana Horakova, Saurabh Jain, Anke Maertens, Eline Van Vlierberghe, Vasilis Terzopoulos, Anne-Marie Van Binst, Manuela Vaneckova, Jan Krasensky, Tomas Uher, Zdenek Seidl, Jacques De Keyser, Guy Nagels, Johan De Mey, Eva Havrdova and Wim Van Hecke

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.518

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      The manuscript highlights the importance of the measurement error for the translation of brain atrophy (measured on MRI) from clinical research (group level) to clinical practice (individual level). We also describe a method that is able to bridge this gap. We believe the translation is essential for neuroimaging research and will have a huge impact in clinical neurology and neuroradiology.

  5. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Immunomodulation of inflammatory leukocyte markers during intravenous immunoglobulin treatment associated with clinical efficacy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

      Wayne B. Dyer, Joanne C. G. Tan, Timothy Day, Lynette Kiers, Matthew C. Kiernan, Con Yiannikas, Stephen Reddel, Karl Ng, Phillip Mondy, Peta M. Dennington, Melinda M. Dean, Halina M. Trist, Cristobal dos Remedios, P. Mark Hogarth, Steve Vucic and David O. Irving

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.516

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      Changes in markers associated with clinical efficacy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) patients were characterized by flow cytometry. Clinical efficacy was associated with modulation of inflammatory and regulatory pathways across different leukocyte subsets, known to contribute to CIDP disease. Clinical outcome was associated with reduced numbers of the inflammatory CD16+ subset of myeloid dendritic cells.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Hippocampal lipid differences in Alzheimer's disease: a human brain study using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry

      Lakshini H. S. Mendis, Angus C. Grey, Richard L. M. Faull and Maurice A. Curtis

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.517

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      The novel, spatially resolved, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry technique was used to map the distribution of multiple lipids in subregions of the normal and Alzheimer's disease (AD) affected human hippocampus. A number of lipid signals were expressed with different relative abundance in the AD hippocampus, across multiple human samples. These novel findings give insight to the role that specific lipid changes, which are particular to each hippocampal subregion, may play in AD pathophysiology.

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      Temporal regularity of intrinsic cerebral activity in patients with chronic primary insomnia: a brain entropy study using resting-state fMRI

      Fuqing Zhou, Suhua Huang, Lei Gao, Ying Zhuang, Shan Ding and Honghan Gong

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.529

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      Chronic primary insomnia (CPI) patients exhibited significantly increased BEN in the right posterior cingulate cortex, left anterior cingulate cortex, left orbitofrontal cortex, right frontal operculum/insula, right hippocampus, and right basal ganglia, whereas decreased BEN was observed in the right postcentral gyrus and the right temporal–occipital junction. We demonstrated that three altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) patterns were associated with abnormal BEN regions in CPI patients. Finally, the duration of insomnia negatively correlated with the rsFC between the left ACC and right SMA; and sleep quality indices (PSQI scores) were negatively correlated with reduced rsFC, but positively correlated with enhanced rsFC in CPI patients.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A multi-biomarker follow-up study of patients with multiple sclerosis

      Morten Stilund, Mikkel Carstensen Gjelstrup, Tove Christensen, Holger Jon Møller and Thor Petersen

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.509

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      This article is a follow-up study of patients with MS focusing on biomarkers of inflammation and neurodegeneration, especially the macrophage/microglia-specific protein, sCD163. Fifty-six patients were included at baseline with full diagnostic work-up and 21 patients agreed to have a serum and CSF resample after a minimum of 12 months. Elevated baseline sCD163 CSF/serum ratio levels were an indicator of shorter time to disease activity and biomarker levels were treatment-dependent.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Epidemiology of persistent iatrogenic spinal cord injuries in Western Norway

      Mathias S. Æsøy, Stein-Erik H. Solvang, Marit Grønning and Tiina Rekand

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.522

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      The study investigates epidemiology of iatrogenic spinal cord injuries in Norway. Although the annual incidence rate of iatrogenic SCI is low in Norway, the individual consequences are serious. Most SCIs may be prevented by following local and international guidelines. Increased awareness of the causes of SCI may decrease the risk of iatrogenic SCI.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      CBT reduces CBF: cognitive-behavioral therapy reduces cerebral blood flow in fear-relevant brain regions in spider phobia

      Leila M. Soravia, Ariane Orosz, Simon Schwab, Masahito Nakataki, Roland Wiest and Andrea Federspiel

      Version of Record online: 6 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.510

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      Here, we explored the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on resting state brain activity measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) in phobic patients. CBT significantly reduced spider phobic symptoms in all patients and was accompanied by reduced cerebral blood flow in the parahippocampal gyrus bilaterally, ventral anterior thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex and in the bilateral insula. Therefore, ASL might be a suitable method for monitoring and evaluating the efficacy of psycho- or pharmacotherapy approaches with the advantage of being sensitive to slow variations in neural activity and task independence.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Early-life single-episode sevoflurane exposure impairs social behavior and cognition later in life

      Daisy Lin, Jinyang Liu, Lea Kramberg, Andrea Ruggiero, James Cottrell and Ira S. Kass

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.514

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      This study used the mouse as a model system to investigate early-life exposure to one of the most commonly used volatile anesthetics, sevoflurane, in a clinically relevant and comprehensive manner. Our data demonstrated that single-episode, 2-h sevoflurane treatment during postnatal day 7 impairs social interaction and cognition later in life.

  6. Reviews

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      A review of novel analytical diagnostics for liquid biopsies: spectroscopic and spectrometric serum profiling of primary and secondary brain tumors

      Katie Spalding, Ruth Board, Timothy Dawson, Michael D. Jenkinson and Matthew J. Baker

      Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.502

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      Schematic showing the process for serum profiling via FTIR.

  7. Original Research

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      Reduced specialized processing in psychotic disorder: a graph theoretical analysis of cerebral functional connectivity

      Sanne C. T. Peeters, Ed H. B. M. Gronenschild, Therese van Amelsvoort, Jim van Os, Machteld Marcelis and for Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (G.R.O.U.P.)

      Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.508

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      Resting-state functional brain networks were constructed using a relatively large sample of patients with psychotic disorder, unaffected siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and controls (n = 228) Results revealed that patients with psychotic disorder have specific disturbances at a whole brain level that are predominantly related to the ability for specialized processing to occur within highly interconnected brain regions, whereas the ability to combine specialized information from dispersed brain regions is still intact. However, no evidence for an intermediate phenotype was found.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Physical comorbidities increase the risk of psychiatric comorbidity in multiple sclerosis

      Ruth Ann Marrie, Scott B. Patten, Jamie Greenfield, Lawrence W. Svenson, Nathalie Jette, Helen Tremlett, Christina Wolfson, Sharon Warren, Joanne Profetto-McGrath, John D. Fisk and for the CIHR Team in the Epidemiology and Impact of Comorbidity on Multiple Sclerosis

      Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.493

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      Several physical comorbidities are associated with an increased incidence of depression, anxiety disorders, or bipolar disorder in multiple sclerosis.

  8. Reviews

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      Review of clinical studies of perampanel in adolescent patients

      Heung Dong Kim, Ching-Shiang Chi, Tayard Desudchit, Marina Nikanorova, Anannit Visudtibhan, Charcrin Nabangchang, Derrick W. S. Chan, Choong Yi Fong, Kai-Ping Chang, Shang-Yeong Kwan, Fe De Los Reyes, Chao-Ching Huang, Surachai Likasitwattanakul, Wang-Tso Lee, Ada Yung and Amitabh Dash

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.505

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      This review sets the consensus treatment recommendations to guide the use of perampanel in adolescent epileptic patients ≥12 years of age. Analysis of the adolescent subgroup data of three pivotal placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 3 trials investigating perampanel in patients with ongoing focal epileptic seizures despite receiving one to three antiepileptic drugs which has been published was reviewed and practical considerations were recommended for appropriate use in adolescent patients.

  9. Original Research

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      The anterior versus posterior hippocampal oscillations debate in human spatial navigation: evidence from an electrocorticographic case study

      Isabel C. Duarte, João Castelhano, Francisco Sales and Miguel Castelo-Branco

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.507

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      We used a virtual reality paradigm to investigate spatial memory during active visuospatial navigation, requiring 3D positional encoding and retrieval of object location during active motion along a path. We found evidence for a dual involvement within delta and theta frequency bands across hippocampal subregions using direct brain ECoG recordings in a navigational task.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Long-term acclimatization to high-altitude hypoxia modifies interhemispheric functional and structural connectivity in the adult brain

      Ji Chen, Jinqiang Li, Qiaoqing Han, Jianzhong Lin, Tianhe Yang, Ziqian Chen and Jiaxing Zhang

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.512

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      This is the first combined fMRI/DTI study of adults adapt to high altitude (HA) hypoxia. We found that homotopic functional connectivity between bilateral visual cortex was enhanced in HA immigrants when compared with sea-level controls, the functional brain enhancement shows a relationship with physiological adaptation, fibers connecting homotopic visual areas were elongated in HA immigrants, and correlated with the increased functional connectivity. Multimodal relationships highlight important compensatory processes in adults during prolonged HA adaptation.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Collateral state and the effect of endovascular reperfusion therapy on clinical outcome in ischemic stroke patients

      Johannes C. Gerber, Marketa Petrova, Pawel Krukowski, Matthias Kuhn, Andrij Abramyuk, Ulf Bodechtel, Imanuel Dzialowski, Kay Engellandt, Hagen Kitzler, Lars-Peder Pallesen, Hauke Schneider, Ruediger von Kummer, Volker Puetz and Jennifer Linn

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.513

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      CTA-collateral status was the strongest pretherapeutic predictor of clinical outcome in ischemic stroke patients treated with endovascular therapy (EVT). CTA-collaterals are thus well suited for patient selection in EVT.

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      Dynamic interactions of the cortical networks during thought suppression

      Toshihiko Aso, Kazuo Nishimura, Takashi Kiyonaka, Takaaki Aoki, Michiyo Inagawa, Masao Matsuhashi, Yoshikazu Tobinaga and Hidenao Fukuyama

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.503

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      While the essential component of thought suppression is inhibition of unwanted thoughts, the behavior of the brain's inhibitory system during sustained thought suppression has yet to be elucidated. Using functional MRI, we observed a dynamic interaction between the inhibitory system and large-scale cortical networks such as the executive control and default mode networks, as well as reciprocal activity in the imagery-related system.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Age-specific birth rates in women with epilepsy: a population-based study

      Anette Huuse Farmen, Jacob Holter Grundt, Torbjörn Tomson, Karl O. Nakken, Jakob Nakling, Petter Mowinchel, Merete Øie and Morten I. Lossius

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.492

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      In the birth registry Oppland Perinatal Database, birth rates in women with epilepsy were equal to women without epilepsy before the age of 20, then decreased significantly. The use of hormonal contraception was significantly lower in the younger epilepsy group compared to women without epilepsy.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Sex determines cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute physical and psychosocial stress in patients with avoidant personality disorder

      Yoshihiro Tanaka, Yoshinobu Ishitobi, Ayako Inoue, Harumi Oshita, Kana Okamoto, Chiwa Kawashima, Mari Nakanishi, Saeko Aizawa, Koji Masuda, Yoshihiro Maruyama, Haruka Higuma, Masayuki Kanehisa, Taiga Ninomiya and Jotaro Akiyoshi

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.506

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      The aims of this study were to explore the relationship between avoidant personality (AVPD) disorder and physical and psychological stress and psychological tests. The heightened reactivity in female AVPD patients co-occurred with attenuated physiological responses to electrical stimulation stress and that there was a significant difference between the AVPD patients and controls in mood, anxiety, social cognition, and autonomic nervous activity.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Neural correlates of text-based emoticons: a preliminary fMRI study

      Ko Woon Kim, Sang Won Lee, Jeewook Choi, Tae Min Kim and Bumseok Jeong

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.500

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      Like nonverbal cues in oral interactions, text-based emoticons, which are textual portrayals of a writer's facial expressions, are commonly used in electronic device–mediated communication. Little is known, however, about how text-based emoticons are processed in the human brain. This study investigated the discrete neural systems involved in the recognition of text-based emoticons. The results of this study imply that people recognize text-based emoticons as pictures representing face expressions.

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      Organizational topology of brain and its relationship to ADHD in adolescents with d-transposition of the great arteries

      Vincent J. Schmithorst, Ashok Panigrahy, J. William Gaynor, Christopher G. Watson, Vince Lee, David C. Bellinger, Michael J. Rivkin and Jane W. Newburger

      Version of Record online: 9 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.504

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      Adolescents with dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) show increased vulnerability for ADHD. Here, we show that worse performance on the Connors ADHD/DSM-IV (CADS) ADHD battery is mediated by structural topology differences at both the global and regional level.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Twenty years trends in mortality rates from stroke in Klaipeda

      Henrikas A. Kazlauskas, Nijole Raskauskiene, Rima Radziuviene and Vinsas Janusonis

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.499

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      The study found that age-adjusted stroke mortality rates in Klaipeda (Lithuania) declined from 1994 through 2013 by 50% (by 35% among men and by 63% among women aged 35–79 years). Our results indicate that stroke mortality in Klaipeda population aged 35–79 years peaked in the period 1994–1997; it began to decrease after that by −9.9% per year up until 2001 and leveled off between 2001 and 2013.

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      Brain potentials predict substance abuse treatment completion in a prison sample

      Brandi C. Fink, Vaughn R. Steele, Michael J. Maurer, Samantha J. Fede, Vince D. Calhoun and Kent A. Kiehl

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.501

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      Using electroencephalography (EEG), this study investigated stimulus-locked ERP components elicited by distractor stimuli in three tasks (VO-Distinct, VO-Repeated, Go/NoGo). Those who discontinued treatment early exhibited a less positive P3a amplitude and a less positive PC4 in the VO-D task. In the VO-R task, however, those who discontinued treatment early exhibited a more negative N200 amplitude rather than the hypothesized less positive P3a amplitude. Our pattern of findings is consistent with the context-updating theory of P300 and may help identify subtypes of ultrahigh-risk substance abusers who need specialized treatment programs.

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      Beyond main effects of gene-sets: harsh parenting moderates the association between a dopamine gene-set and child externalizing behavior

      Dafna A. Windhorst, Viara R. Mileva-Seitz, Ralph C. A. Rippe, Henning Tiemeier, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Frank C. Verhulst, Marinus H. van IJzendoorn and Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.498

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      We examined the interplay of a dopamine gene-set and harsh parenting experiences on child externalizing behavior. Our findings are suggestive of gene-environment interplay, with associations between dopamine genes and externalizing behavior present in children without harsh parenting, but not in children with harsh parenting experiences. Harsh parenting may overrule the role of genetic factors in externalizing behavior.

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      Hint1 gene deficiency enhances the supraspinal nociceptive sensitivity in mice

      Fei Liu, Jing Ma, Peng Liu, Zheng Chu, Gang Lei, Xiao-di Jia, Jia-bei Wang and Yong-hui Dang

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.496

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      The major findings of this study were that the absence of Hint1 gene-enhanced supraspinal nociceptive sensitivity in mice, including thermal, mechanical, and inflammatory hyperalgesia. Meanwhile, there was no certain evidence indicating the haploinsufficiency and gender differences of Hint1 gene in pain-related behaviors.

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      Using iPSC-derived human DA neurons from opioid-dependent subjects to study dopamine dynamics

      Yang Sheng, Emily Filichia, Elizabeth Shick, Kenzie L. Preston, Karran A. Phillips, Leslie Cooperman, Zhicheng Lin, Paul Tesar, Barry Hoffer and Yu Luo

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.491

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      Using iPSC technology, we produced dopaminergic neurons differentiated using iPSCs derived from opioid-dependant and control subjects. In this study, we present the first evidence suggesting that the 3′ VNTR polymorphism in human dopamine transporter (DAT or SLC6A3) gene affects human DAT expression level in iPSC-derived human dopaminergic neurons. In addition, the effects of valproic acid exposures on iPSC-derived human DA neurons are also examined.

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      Power modulation of electroencephalogram mu and beta frequency depends on perceived level of observed actions

      Shiri Simon and Roy Mukamel

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.494

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      In this study, we investigated whether conscious perception of actions is necessary to trigger activity in the human mirror neuron system. We rendered videos of actions randomly invisible to conscious perception, and measured the magnitude of corresponding mirror neuron activity using EEG. Our data suggest that the intensity of mirror system responses during action observation decreases with reduction in the observers' perception level and yet remain responsive during observation of invisible actions.

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      Bone density and depressive disorder: a meta-analysis

      Julietta Ursula Schweiger, Ulrich Schweiger, Michael Hüppe, Kai G. Kahl, Wiebke Greggersen and Eva Fassbinder

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.489

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      Bone mineral density is reduced in patients with depressive disorders at the lumbar spine, femur, and hip. Studies up to now provide little evidence for mediating factors.

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      Cortical folding of the preterm brain: a longitudinal analysis of extremely preterm born neonates using spectral matching

      Eliza Orasanu, Andrew Melbourne, Manuel Jorge Cardoso, Herve Lomabert, Giles S. Kendall, Nicola J. Robertson, Neil Marlow and Sebastien Ourselin

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.488

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      This study provides, for the first time, an intrasubject longitudinal mapping of brain white–grey matter surface in preterm born infants. Each infant was scanned at two different time points at which it presents very different morphologies with significant changes in cortical folding. The prefrontal cortex and temporal lobe, especially in the left hemisphere, are the regions that develop the most during the preterm birth.

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      Statin use after intracerebral hemorrhage: a 10-year nationwide cohort study

      Shu-Yu Tai, Feng-Cheng Lin, Chung-Yin Lee, Chai-Jan Chang, Ming-Tsang Wu and Chen-Yu Chien

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.487

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      Statin therapy has demonstrated benefits in ischemic stroke patients, but statin use and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remain a concern. Hydrophilic statin therapy is associated with a reduced risk of recurrent ICH in post-ICH patients. The intensity of statin use had no significant effect on recurrent ICH or other components of the composite outcome.

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      Autonomic and peripheral nervous system function in acute tick-borne encephalitis

      Bernhard Neumann, Wilhelm Schulte-Mattler, Sophie Brix, Peter Pöschl, Wolfgang Jilg, Ulrich Bogdahn, Andreas Steinbrecher and Ingo Kleiter

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.485

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      In this prospective study, we show that the autonomic nervous system is affected during acute tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Furthermore, we present evidence that the peripheral motoric and sensory nervous system is involved in acute TBE, which questions that the TBE virus is only neurotropic to the CNS. Routine screening for dysfunction of the autonomic and peripheral motoric and sensory nervous system as well as appropriate cardiovascular monitoring and therapy might be of relevance in the care of patients with acute TBE.

  10. Reviews

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      The treatment of chronic depression with cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled clinical trials

      Philip Negt, Eva-Lotta Brakemeier, Johannes Michalak, Lotta Winter, Stefan Bleich and Kai G. Kahl

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.486

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      Chronic depression is a severe condition with low remission rates and high individual and public health costs. The “cognitive behavioral analyse system of psychotherapy” (CBASP) is the first specific psychotherapy to treat chronic depression. We here demonstrate the usefulness and superiority of CBASP using meta-analytical methods for the first time.

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