Brain and Behavior

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Andrei V. Alexandrov, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, USA and Maryann Martone, University of California, San Diego, USA

Online ISSN: 2162-3279


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  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Neural adaptation to silence in the human auditory cortex: a magnetoencephalographic study

      Hidehiko Okamoto and Ryusuke Kakigi

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.290

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      We investigated the effects of the repetition of silences and pure tones on auditory evoked N1m responses in a continuous pure tone and in silence, respectively, using magnetoencephalography (MEG). We demonstrated that N1m decrements were mainly caused by bottom-up driven neural refractoriness in the case of repetitive pure tones as reported previously, while habituation, which is a form of the implicit learning process, played an important role in the case of repetitive silences in a continuous sound.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Childhood maltreatment and amygdala connectivity in methamphetamine dependence: a pilot study

      Andy C. Dean, Milky Kohno, Gerhard Hellemann and Edythe D. London

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.289

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      In methamphetamine-dependent adults, a history of childhood maltreatment is associated with increased resting state functional connectivity in limbic regions. Limbic connectivity strength is also positively associated with current depression and anxiety and negatively associated with healthy emotion regulation strategies in these individuals. Childhood maltreatment warrants further investigation as a potentially important etiological factor in the neurobiology and treatment of substance use disorders.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Task-dependent reorganization of functional connectivity networks during visual semantic decision making

      Matthew N. DeSalvo, Linda Douw, Shigetoshi Takaya, Hesheng Liu and Steven M. Stufflebeam

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.286

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      Functional connectivity networks are more widely distributed at rest compared to during visual semantic decision making. During a semantic decision task, classical language areas as well as default mode areas form distinct highly intraconnected functional networks which may be related to language and verbal memory function.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Reading acceleration training changes brain circuitry in children with reading difficulties

      Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Jennifer J. Vannest, Darren Kadis, Nicole Cicchino, Yingying Y. Wang and Scott K. Holland

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.281

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      The results of the current study demonstrate differential effects of RAP on neural circuits supporting reading in typical readers and children with dyslexia, and suggest that the intervention may stimulate the use of typical neural circuits for reading and also engage compensatory pathways to support reading in the developing brain of children with reading difficulties.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Winning and losing: differences in reward and punishment sensitivity between smokers and nonsmokers

      Laura E. Martin, Lisa S. Cox, William M. Brooks and Cary R. Savage

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.285

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      Results indicate that smokers are hyperresponsive to the anticipation of punishment and hyporesponsive to the delivery of rewards.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter regulates astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in the striatum

      David J. Hinton, Moonnoh R. Lee, Jin Sung Jang and Doo-Sup Choi

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.283

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      We performed microarray experiments in ENT1 null mice and found that GFAP levels are downregulated in the dorsal striatum compared to wild-type mice. We validated the reduction and provide a potential role of ENT1 in regulating astrocyte function.

  2. Methods

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      Intravoxel incoherent motion magnetic resonance imaging findings in the acute phase of MELAS: a case report

      Ryuji Uehara, Koji Yamashita, Akio Hiwatashi, Osamu Togao, Kazufumi Kikuchi, Jun Yokoyama, Dai Matsuse, Takashi Yoshiura and Hiroshi Honda

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.282

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      We report a patient in the acute phase of MELAS who appears to show characteristic radiological findings using IVIM imaging. This type of imaging is a valuable technique that allows noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of both regional perfusion and diffusion.

  3. Reviews

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      Comparative efficacy of different acute reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke: a comprehensive benefit–risk analysis of clinical trials

      Georgios Tsivgoulis, John Alleman, Aristeidis H. Katsanos, Andrew D. Barreto, Martin Kohrmann, Peter D. Schellinger, Carlos A Molina and Andrei V. Alexandrov

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.279

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      Intravenous (IV) thrombolysis with tenecteplase (TNK) and sonothrombolysis appear to have the higher benefit-to-risk ratios among investigational reperfusion therapies. The combination of sonothrombolysis with IV administration of TNK could have a potentially promising therapeutic option that deserves further investigation.

  4. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Impact of pregabalin treatment on synaptic plasticity and glial reactivity during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

      Gleidy A. A. Silva, Fernando Pradella, Adriel Moraes, Alessandro Farias, Leonilda M. B. dos Santos and Alexandre L. R. de Oliveira

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.276

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      The present study investigated the evolution of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in pregabalin-treated animals up to the remission phase. The results demonstrated a delay in the onset of the disease with statistical differences at the 10th and the 16th day after immunization. Overall, the results herein indicate that pregabalin is efficient for reducing the seriousness of EAE, delaying its course as well as reducing synaptic loss and astroglial reaction.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Estimating intracranial volume using intracranial area in healthy children and those with childhood status epilepticus

      Rory J. Piper, Michael M. Yoong, Suresh Pujar and Richard F. Chin

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.271

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      The manuscript describes an original study performed by the authors and the development of a new streamlined technique that has both research and clinical applications. The study shows that the intracranial area measured at a single sagittal slice in a brain MRI volume can be used to predict the intracranial volume in children with either normally developing brains or children with convulsive status epilepticus (localized neuropathology). The intracranial area technique shows promise to increase research productivity by avoiding laborious or expensive methods of measuring the actual intracranial volume.


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