Brain and Behavior

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Andrei V. Alexandrov, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, USA and Maryann Martone, University of California, San Diego, USA

Online ISSN: 2162-3279


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  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Estimating intracranial volume using intracranial area in healthy children and those with childhood status epilepticus

      Rory J. Piper, Michael M. Yoong, Suresh Pujar and Richard F. Chin

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.271

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      The manuscript describes an original study performed by the authors and the development of a new streamlined technique that has both research and clinical applications. The study shows that the intracranial area measured at a single sagittal slice in a brain MRI volume can be used to predict the intracranial volume in children with either normally developing brains or children with convulsive status epilepticus (localized neuropathology). The intracranial area technique shows promise to increase research productivity by avoiding laborious or expensive methods of measuring the actual intracranial volume.

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      Factors affecting the determination of cerebrovascular reactivity

      Rosemary E. Regan, Joseph A. Fisher and James Duffin

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.275

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      Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) measures the ability of the cerebrovasculature to respond to a vasoactive stimulus. CVR is often expressed as the ratio of the change in cerebral blood flow in response to a change in a carbon dioxide stimulus. We show that this measurement is affected by several factors including the range and dynamics of the stimulus, the subject's position and concomitant changes in blood pressure. We conclude that blood pressure increases with carbon dioxide and is a confounding factor.

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      Eight years later: outcomes of CBT-treated versus untreated anxious children

      Gili W. Adler Nevo, David Avery, Lisa Fiksenbaum, Alex Kiss, Sandra Mendlowitz, Suneeta Monga and Katharina Manassis

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.274

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      Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood and significantly impact life trajectory, but ethical concerns do not enable controlled long-term follow-up of treatment. This study was able to compare outcome of 60 children, diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, who were treated with cognitive–behavioral therapy, with 60 matched controls over an average of 8 years. Results showed a significant decrease in anxiety diagnoses rate in both groups and an inverse relationship between self-efficacy/self-esteem and anxiety levels at LTFU.

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      Validation of operant social motivation paradigms using BTBR T+tf/J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains

      Loren Martin, Hannah Sample, Michael Gregg and Caleb Wood

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.273

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      BTBR and B6 mice were tested in novel operant paradigms designed to measure social motivation. BTBR mice demonstrated reduced lever-pressing behavior for a social reward as predicted, but also showed reduced lever pressing for a food reward suggesting a generalized deficit in motivated behavior.

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      Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) positive effects on muscle fiber degeneration and gait recovery after nerve lesion in MDX mice

      Gustavo F. Simões, Suzana U. Benitez and Alexandre L. R. Oliveira

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.250

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      MDX dystrophic mice present a decreased peripheral nerve regeneration, secondarily to muscle degeneration. G-CSF treatment increases motor function in MDX mice, by increasing axonal regrowth and Schwann cell activity.

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      Structural covariance of superficial white matter in mild Alzheimer's disease compared to normal aging

      Cristian Carmeli, Eleonora Fornari, Mahdi Jalili, Reto Meuli and Maria G. Knyazeva

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.252

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      The network model of superficial WM myelination in healthy subjects and in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) shows that (1) regional covariance is predominant in the left hemisphere in both groups; (2) AD pathology coordinates demyelination in the temporal and paralimbic regions; (3) demyelination of other regions in AD is accompanied by their decreased covariance. Myelination topography and the network model complementarily describe the AD process.

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      Social feedback processing from early to late adolescence: influence of sex, age, and attachment style

      Pascal Vrtička, David Sander, Brittany Anderson, Deborah Badoud, Stephan Eliez and Martin Debbané

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.251

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      In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we looked at brain activity during social feedback processing in 33 healthy adolescents, aged 12 to 19 years. Besides investigating neural activation changes related to participant age and sex, we also assessed the influence of individual differences in attachment style.

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      Factors influencing aversion to specific electrodiagnostic studies

      Nivedita U. Jerath, Scott B. Strader, Chandan G. Reddy, Andrea Swenson, Jun Kimura and Edward Aul

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.240

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      Nerve conduction studies are more uncomfortable than needle EMG for most patients, and predictions regarding which test will be more uncomfortable for a given patient are possible.

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      Validation of a polygenic risk score for dementia in black and white individuals

      Jessica R. Marden, Stefan Walter, Eric J. Tchetgen Tchetgen, Ichiro Kawachi and M. Maria Glymour

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.248

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      The current paper thus has two goals: first, to show that the genetic loci previously shown to predict Alzheimer's disease (AD) in other samples also predict dementia risk in HRS; second, to take advantage of the racial diversity in HRS and evaluate whether the AD-related genes have similar associations with cognitive outcomes in black and white Americans. We found that the primary polygenic risk score predicted dementia risk in both whites and blacks. The polygenic score including APOE had larger relative effects on dementia in whites compared to blacks, but similar additive effects (because the overall prevalence of dementia was higher in blacks).

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      Beneficial effects of environmental enrichment and food entrainment in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease

      Elizabeth A. Skillings, Nigel I. Wood and A. Jennifer Morton

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.235

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      It has been shown previously that motor and cognitive performance, as well as survival, can be improved in transgenic mouse models of HD through the provision of environmental enrichment. Here, we compared the effect of two different overnight entrainment paradigms presented either separately or in combination. While there were no significant differences in cognitive performance between groups on different schedules, environmental enrichment delayed the onset of general health deterioration, whereas food entrainment slowed the loss of body weight, aided the maintenance of body temperature, and improved locomotor behavior.

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      A conceptual framework of stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women: potential uses in research on complementary therapies for depression

      Patricia A. Kinser and Debra E. Lyon

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.249

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      Describing a conceptual framework about the complex and bidirectional relationship between stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women, the authors elucidate how the framework can be applied in clinical research about cellular aging and on the mechanisms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for depression, using yoga as an example of a CAM modality. The proposed conceptual framework may be helpful for adding depth to the body of knowledge about the use of mind-body therapies for individuals at high risk of stress vulnerability and/or depression.

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      Task-dependent recruitment of intrinsic brain networks reflects normative variance in cognition

      Jennifer L. Gess, Jennifer S. Fausett, Tonisha E. Kearney-Ramos, Clinton D. Kilts and George Andrew James

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.243

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      The authors introduce the Cognitive Connectome Project, a merging of clinical neuropsychology and functional neuroimaging with the goal of mapping normative variance in brainbehavior relationships. The authors replicate past findings that resting-state brain networks are recruited by task, and also demonstrate that task-dependent network recruitment may vary with task performance and cognitive ability. The Cognitive Connectome lays a methodological framework for translating functional MRI into clinical decision making.

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      Clinical evaluation of fatigue in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease

      Kenichiro Tanaka, Kenji Wada-Isoe, Mikie Yamamoto, Shugo Tagashira, Yuki Tajiri, Satoko Nakashita and Kenji Nakashima

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.247

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      We evaluated Parkinson's disease patients with fatigue. More than half of our patients had fatigue. Several motor and nonmotor symptoms might be related to fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease.

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      Age of second language acquisition affects nonverbal conflict processing in children: an fMRI study

      Seyede Ghazal Mohades, Esli Struys, Peter Van Schuerbeek, Chris Baeken, Piet Van De Craen and Robert Luypaert

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.246

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      We investigated if extraverbal switching affects brain function during nonverbal conflict tasks (stimulus–stimulus and stimulus–response conflicts) using fMRI. Three groups of 8–11-year-old children (bilinguals from birth [2L1], second language learners [L2L], and control group of monolinguals 1L1) were scanned. We focused on congruency effect to distinguish the differences between groups. We found that bilingualism in children increases neural activity in caudate nucleus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and STG. In addition, the activation of these areas is higher in 2L1 compared to L2L.

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      Insight into the neurophysiological processes of melodically intoned language with functional MRI

      Carolina P. Méndez Orellana, Mieke E. van de Sandt-Koenderman, Emi Saliasi, Ineke van der Meulen, Simone Klip, Aad van der Lugt and Marion Smits

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.245

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      Compared to spoken language, melodically intoned language activated sensory motor regions and articulatory language networks in the left hemisphere, but only when meaningful language was used. Our results suggest that the facilitatory effect of MIT may – in part – depend on an auditory input which combines melody and meaning. As such, they provide a sound basis for further investigation of melodic language processing in aphasic patients, and eventually the neurophysiological processes underlying MIT.

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      Withholding and canceling a response in ADHD adolescents

      Mehereen Bhaijiwala, Andre Chevrier and Russell Schachar

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.244

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      We examined how neural activity evoked during prospective reactive inhibition varies in adolescents with and without attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD).


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