Brain and Behavior

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Andrei V. Alexandrov, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, USA and Maryann Martone, University of California, San Diego, USA

Online ISSN: 2162-3279

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  1. Original Research

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      Social feedback processing from early to late adolescence: influence of sex, age, and attachment style

      Pascal Vrtička, David Sander, Brittany Anderson, Deborah Badoud, Stephan Eliez and Martin Debbané

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.251

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      In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we looked at brain activity during social feedback processing in 33 healthy adolescents, aged 12 to 19 years. Besides investigating neural activation changes related to participant age and sex, we also assessed the influence of individual differences in attachment style.

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      Factors influencing aversion to specific electrodiagnostic studies

      Nivedita U. Jerath, Scott B. Strader, Chandan G. Reddy, Andrea Swenson, Jun Kimura and Edward Aul

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.240

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      Nerve conduction studies are more uncomfortable than needle EMG for most patients, and predictions regarding which test will be more uncomfortable for a given patient are possible.

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      Validation of a polygenic risk score for dementia in black and white individuals

      Jessica R. Marden, Stefan Walter, Eric J. Tchetgen Tchetgen, Ichiro Kawachi and M. Maria Glymour

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.248

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      The current paper thus has two goals: first, to show that the genetic loci previously shown to predict Alzheimer's disease (AD) in other samples also predict dementia risk in HRS; second, to take advantage of the racial diversity in HRS and evaluate whether the AD-related genes have similar associations with cognitive outcomes in black and white Americans. We found that the primary polygenic risk score predicted dementia risk in both whites and blacks. The polygenic score including APOE had larger relative effects on dementia in whites compared to blacks, but similar additive effects (because the overall prevalence of dementia was higher in blacks).

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      Beneficial effects of environmental enrichment and food entrainment in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease

      Elizabeth A. Skillings, Nigel I. Wood and A. Jennifer Morton

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.235

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      It has been shown previously that motor and cognitive performance, as well as survival, can be improved in transgenic mouse models of HD through the provision of environmental enrichment. Here, we compared the effect of two different overnight entrainment paradigms presented either separately or in combination. While there were no significant differences in cognitive performance between groups on different schedules, environmental enrichment delayed the onset of general health deterioration, whereas food entrainment slowed the loss of body weight, aided the maintenance of body temperature, and improved locomotor behavior.

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      A conceptual framework of stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women: potential uses in research on complementary therapies for depression

      Patricia A. Kinser and Debra E. Lyon

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.249

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      Describing a conceptual framework about the complex and bidirectional relationship between stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women, the authors elucidate how the framework can be applied in clinical research about cellular aging and on the mechanisms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for depression, using yoga as an example of a CAM modality. The proposed conceptual framework may be helpful for adding depth to the body of knowledge about the use of mind-body therapies for individuals at high risk of stress vulnerability and/or depression.

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      Task-dependent recruitment of intrinsic brain networks reflects normative variance in cognition

      Jennifer L. Gess, Jennifer S. Fausett, Tonisha E. Kearney-Ramos, Clinton D. Kilts and George Andrew James

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.243

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      The authors introduce the Cognitive Connectome Project, a merging of clinical neuropsychology and functional neuroimaging with the goal of mapping normative variance in brainbehavior relationships. The authors replicate past findings that resting-state brain networks are recruited by task, and also demonstrate that task-dependent network recruitment may vary with task performance and cognitive ability. The Cognitive Connectome lays a methodological framework for translating functional MRI into clinical decision making.

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      Clinical evaluation of fatigue in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease

      Kenichiro Tanaka, Kenji Wada-Isoe, Mikie Yamamoto, Shugo Tagashira, Yuki Tajiri, Satoko Nakashita and Kenji Nakashima

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.247

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      We evaluated Parkinson's disease patients with fatigue. More than half of our patients had fatigue. Several motor and nonmotor symptoms might be related to fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease.

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      Age of second language acquisition affects nonverbal conflict processing in children: an fMRI study

      Seyede Ghazal Mohades, Esli Struys, Peter Van Schuerbeek, Chris Baeken, Piet Van De Craen and Robert Luypaert

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.246

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      We investigated if extraverbal switching affects brain function during nonverbal conflict tasks (stimulus–stimulus and stimulus–response conflicts) using fMRI. Three groups of 8–11-year-old children (bilinguals from birth [2L1], second language learners [L2L], and control group of monolinguals 1L1) were scanned. We focused on congruency effect to distinguish the differences between groups. We found that bilingualism in children increases neural activity in caudate nucleus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and STG. In addition, the activation of these areas is higher in 2L1 compared to L2L.

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      Insight into the neurophysiological processes of melodically intoned language with functional MRI

      Carolina P. Méndez Orellana, Mieke E. van de Sandt-Koenderman, Emi Saliasi, Ineke van der Meulen, Simone Klip, Aad van der Lugt and Marion Smits

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.245

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      Compared to spoken language, melodically intoned language activated sensory motor regions and articulatory language networks in the left hemisphere, but only when meaningful language was used. Our results suggest that the facilitatory effect of MIT may – in part – depend on an auditory input which combines melody and meaning. As such, they provide a sound basis for further investigation of melodic language processing in aphasic patients, and eventually the neurophysiological processes underlying MIT.

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      Withholding and canceling a response in ADHD adolescents

      Mehereen Bhaijiwala, Andre Chevrier and Russell Schachar

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.244

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      We examined how neural activity evoked during prospective reactive inhibition varies in adolescents with and without attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD).

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