Brain and Behavior

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 1

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Andrei V. Alexandrov, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, USA and Maryann Martone, University of California, San Diego, USA

Online ISSN: 2162-3279

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  1. 1 - 14
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Neural basis of nonanalytical reasoning expertise during clinical evaluation

      Steven J. Durning, Michelle E. Costanzo, Anthony R. Artino, John Graner, Cees van der Vleuten, Thomas J. Beckman, Christopher M. Wittich, Michael J. Roy, Eric S. Holmboe and Lambert Schuwirth

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.309

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      This study utilized established educational theory, two separate participant groups (experts and novices), as well as task items that have been validated and arguably represent the “gold standard” for clinical reasoning, to provide evidence that expertise involves a distributed and refined brain network during nonanalytical reasoning.

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      Education mitigates age-related decline in N-Acetylaspartate levels

      Kirk I. Erickson, Regina L. Leckie, Andrea M. Weinstein, Polina Radchenkova, Bradley P. Sutton, Ruchika Shaurya Prakash, Michelle W. Voss, Laura Chaddock-Heyman, Edward McAuley and Arthur F. Kramer

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.311

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      In this study of older adults, we find that more years of education offsets an age-related decline in N-acetylasparate levels in the frontal cortex.

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      Temporospatial identification of language-related cortical function by a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and magnetoencephalography

      Misako Shinshi, Takufumi Yanagisawa, Masayuki Hirata, Tetsu Goto, Hisato Sugata, Toshihiko Araki, Yumiko Okamura, Yuka Hasegawa, Aya S. Ihara and Shiro Yorifuji

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.317

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      This study has shown that combining TMS and MEG improves the accuracy to identify the laterality of language function.

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      Purkinje cell responses during visually and vestibularly driven smooth eye movements in mice

      Akira Katoh, Soon-Lim Shin, Rhea R. Kimpo, Jacob M. Rinaldi and Jennifer L. Raymond

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.310

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      Oculomotor plasticity is a powerful experimental system for studying the function of the cerebellar circuit. We provide the first thorough analysis of signal processing in cerebellar Purkinje cells of mice during both vestibularly and visually driven smooth eye movements. We found that most individual Purkinje cells in mice carried both vestibular and nonvestibular signals.

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      Depression, anxiety disorders, and metabolic syndrome in a population at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus

      Kai G. Kahl, Ulrich Schweiger, Christoph Correll, Conrad Müller, Marie-Luise Busch, Michael Bauer and Peter Schwarz

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.306

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      We evaluated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in subjects consecutively examined at an outpatient clinic for diabetes prevention who were at-risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Of 260 screened patients, 150 were included. The metabolic syndrome was present in 27% of males and 25% of females, and was significantly associated with having a current anxiety disorder (P < 0.001) and lifetime major depression (P < 0.001). Our data in a high-risk group for T2DM support the association between depressive disorders and MetS, pointing to a similar role of anxiety disorders. Screening for anxiety and depression is recommended in this group at risk for T2DM.

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      Characteristics of pain in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

      Frank Hanisch, Anika Skudlarek, Janine Berndt and Malte E. Kornhuber

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.296

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      In a cross-sectional survey, patients with ALS were screened for occurrence, type, distribution, and treatment of pain and cramps using questionnaires and compared with both age-matched myotonic dystrophy type 2 patients (diseased control) and age-matched population-based controls. Our study showed that pain was a relatively frequent symptom which had an important impact on the quality of life. Pain that requires treatment can occur at every stage of ALS.

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      Emotion recognition specialization and context-dependent risk of anxiety and depression in adolescents

      Albertine J. Oldehinkel, Catharina A. Hartman, Floor V. A. Van Oort and Esther Nederhof

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.299

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      This large population-based study examined whether adolescents with specialized skills in the recognition of either positive or negative emotions have a context-dependent risk of developing an anxiety or depressive disorder during adolescence, depending on exposure to positive or harsh parenting. The results suggest that there is no unequivocal relation between parental rearing and the probability to develop an anxiety or depressive disorder in adolescence, and that emotion recognition specialization may be a promising way to distinguish between various types of context-dependent reaction patterns.

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      Weekly multimodal MRI follow-up of two multiple sclerosis active lesions presenting a transient decrease in ADC

      Salem Hannoun, Jean-Amédée Roch, Francoise Durand-Dubief, Sandra Vukusic, Dominique Sappey-Marinier, Charles R.G. Guttmann and Francois Cotton

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.307

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      Weekly follow-up of two active lesions of a multiple sclerosis patient using multimodal analysis revealed a transient decrease in ADC values and a higher rCBV values at the 6th week when lesion appeared with injected T1-weighted image. The infrequency detection of such ADC decrease in a new lesion is probably due to its very short duration. This observation may be consistent with a hyper-acute inflammatory stage concomitant with an increased reactional perfusion.

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      The effect of multidisciplinary rehabilitation on brain structure and cognition in Huntington's disease: an exploratory study

      Travis M. Cruickshank, Jennifer A. Thompson, Juan F. Domínguez D, Alvaro P. Reyes, Mike Bynevelt, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Roger A. Barker and Mel R. Ziman

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.312

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      Multidisciplinary rehabilitation in individuals with manifest Huntington's disease positively impacts on gray matter atrophy and declines in verbal learning and memory.

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      Dopamine D1 receptor blockade impairs alcohol seeking without reducing dorsal striatal activation to cues of alcohol availability

      Rebecca R. Fanelli and Donita L. Robinson

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.305

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      This paper examines the effect of dopamine D1 receptor antagonism on cue-evoked activity in the dorsal striatum. Using extracellular electrophysiology in rats trained to self-administer alcohol, we found significant increases in dorsal striatal firing rates after alcohol-associated cues, but contrary to our hypothesis, these were not attenuated by SCH23390. Instead, SCH23390 reduced basal firing rates, and the magnitude of this effect significantly correlated with increased latency to operantly respond for alcohol.

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      Gestational ketogenic diet programs brain structure and susceptibility to depression & anxiety in the adult mouse offspring

      Dafna Sussman, Jurgen Germann and Mark Henkelman

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.300

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      The ketogenic diet (KD) is known to have a neurological effect, yet its long-term impact on the developing brain has not been characterized. This paper investigates the neuro-anatomical and behavioral changes that occur in the offspring of mice exposed to the KD in utero, and which were fed only a standard-diet in postnatal life.

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      Mean signal and response time influences on multivoxel signals of contextual retrieval in the medial temporal lobe

      Emilie T. Reas and James B. Brewer

      Article first published online: 24 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.302

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      In this study, multivoxel analysis of medial temporal lobe activation patterns was conducted to distinguish between item, spatial and temporal contextual memory retrieval. Hippocampal activity, related to response times, was linked to spatial retrieval, whereas perirhinal cortex activity, related to the mean signal, and parahippocampal cortex activity patterns, were both linked to item retrieval.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Increased volume and impaired function: the role of the basal ganglia in writer's cramp

      Kirsten E. Zeuner, Arne Knutzen, Oliver Granert, Julia Götz, Stephan Wolff, Olav Jansen, Dirk Dressler, Harald Hefter, Mark Hallett, Günther Deuschl, Thilo van Eimeren and Karsten Witt

      Article first published online: 24 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.301

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      We combined structural and functional imaging in 22 writer's cramp patients and 28 matched controls using 3T MRI. With the asymptomatic left hand, all participants learned a complex, sequential, five-element sequence-tapping task as accurate and quickly as possible. While behavior was comparable between groups, the anterior part of the right putamen and the left globus pallidus exhibited reduced blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity in patients during the sequential finger-tapping task. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis showed larger grey matter volume bilateral in the posterior part of the putamen and globus pallidus. The results indicate an impairment of anterior basal ganglia loops involved in producing complex sequential movements of the unaffected hand.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Physiological reactivity to nonideographic virtual reality stimuli in veterans with and without PTSD

      Andrea K Webb, Ashley L. Vincent, Alvin B. Jin and Mark H. Pollack

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.304

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      The efficacy of physiological activity elicited in response to non-ideographic stimuli for discriminating among veterans with and without PTSD was evaluated. Statistically significant differences were found among the Control, Trauma, and PTSD groups. Features extracted from the physiological signals were submitted to discriminant function analysis and resulted in leave-one-out cross-validated classification accuracies between 72% and 94%.

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