Brain and Behavior

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Maryann Martone, University of California, San Diego, USA

Impact Factor: 2.243

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 30/51 (Behavioral Sciences); 164/252 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 2162-3279

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  1. 1 - 26
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Methylene blue and normobaric hyperoxia combination therapy in experimental ischemic stroke

      Pavel Rodriguez, Jiang Zhao, Brian Milman, Yash Vardhan Tiwari and Timothy Q. Duong

      Article first published online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.478

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      This study evaluated the efficacy of combined MB (methylene blue) and NBO (normobaric hyperoxia) in experimental ischemic stroke in rats. Multimodal MRI was applied in conjunction with behavioral assessments to measure the change in lesion volume and functional recovery. The combination NBO + MB therapy accelerated functional recovery days, and was superior to NBO alone, over a 28 day window.

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      The association between vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphisms and stroke: a meta-analysis

      Tao Wu, Shi Qiu, Peifu Wang, Jilai Li, Qin Li and Jichen Du

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.482

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      This study evaluated the relationships between VEGF gene polymorphisms and stroke by using a meta-analysis. The results showed that +936C>T may be a risk factor for stroke, especially in Asians, while −1154G>A was not associated with stroke.

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      Genetic variation and cognitive dysfunction in opioid-treated patients with cancer

      Geana Paula Kurita, Ola Ekholm, Stein Kaasa, Pål Klepstad, Frank Skorpen and Per Sjøgren

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.471

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      Analysis of 83 SNPs in 35 genes of patients with cancer did not show significant associations with cognitive performance.

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      Immunohistochemical and transcriptome analyses indicate complex breakdown of axonal transport mechanisms in canine distemper leukoencephalitis

      Ingo Spitzbarth, Charlotte Lempp, Kristel Kegler, Reiner Ulrich, Arno Kalkuhl, Ulrich Deschl, Wolfgang Baumgärtner and Frauke Seehusen

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.472

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      The present immunohistochemical study reports the complex sequence of axonal cytoskeletal and transport breakdown mechanisms in cerebella of dogs with canine distemper virus-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis. The immunohistochemical data are supported by transcriptome alterations in a previously published microarray data set. Moreover, though sparse, this is the first report of Schwann cell-mediated remyelination in this disease.

  2. Reviews

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      The treatment of chronic depression with cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled clinical trials

      Philip Negt, Eva-Lotta Brakemeier, Johannes Michalak, Lotta Winter, Stefan Bleich and Kai G. Kahl

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.486

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      Chronic depression is a severe condition with low remission rates and high individual and public health costs. The “cognitive behavioral analyse system of psychotherapy” (CBASP) is the first specific psychotherapy to treat chronic depression. We here demonstrate the usefulness and superiority of CBASP using meta-analytical methods for the first time.

  3. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Intellectual development in Noonan syndrome: a longitudinal study

      Renée L. Roelofs, Nikki Janssen, Ellen Wingbermühle, Roy P.C. Kessels and Jos I.M. Egger

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.479

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      Intellectual development in Noonan syndrome was investigated by this longitudinal study of 16 patients. Childhood IQ appeared to be a significant predictor of adult intelligence. Performance IQ was significantly higher in adulthood compared with childhood scores, while adult verbal IQ did not develop proportionately.

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      The stroke east Saxony pilot project for organized post-stroke care: a case–control study

      Ulf Bodechtel, Kristian Barlinn, Uwe Helbig, Katrin Arnold, Timo Siepmann, Lars-Peder Pallesen, Volker Puetz, Heinz Reichmann, Jochen Schmitt and Jessica Kepplinger

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.455

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      The Stroke East Saxony Pilot Project for Organized Post-Stroke Care was case–control study to explore the feasibility of a self-developed standardized post-stroke pathway and its impact on secondary stroke prevention and long-term outcome in patients with acute stroke. These pilot data suggest that organized post-stroke care enhances achievement of secondary prevention goals.

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      Prognostic significance of carotid and vertebral ultrasound in ischemic stroke patients

      Antonio Muscari, Andrea Bonfiglioli, Donatella Magalotti, Giovanni M. Puddu, Veronica Zorzi and Marco Zoli

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.475

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      The medium and long-term prognostic implications of carotid and vertebral ultrasound in ischemic stroke patients are not yet known. In 309 stroke patients we found that carotid stenoses ≥60%, ipsi- or contralateral to cerebral lesions, were associated with an increased medium and long-term probability of dependency or death, and the abnormalities of vertebrobasilar flow were a significant indicator of death risk, independent of stroke severity and age.

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      In vivo injection of α-bungarotoxin to improve the efficiency of motor endplate labeling

      Wentao Chen, Tingting Yu, Bo Chen, Yisong Qi, Peixun Zhang, Dan Zhu, Xiaofeng Yin and Baoguo Jiang

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.468

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      In vivo injection of α-bungarotoxin could greatly improve the efficiency of motor endplate labeling compared with traditional procedure. It was rapid, convenient, and time-saving, providing a novel neuroscience method to study motor endplate, simplifying the traditional immunohistochemistry procedure.

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      Is peripheral paraneoplastic neurological syndrome possible in primary brain tumors?

      Magdalena Koszewicz, Slawomir Michalak, Malgorzata Bilinska, Slawomir Budrewicz, Mikolaj Zaborowski, Krzysztof Slotwinski, Ryszard Podemski and Maria Ejma

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.465

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      The aim of the study was the evaluation of peripheral nervous system involvement, and presence of immunity in patients with primary brain tumors. We assessed onconeuronal and antineural antibodies, and we performed not only standard electrophysiological tests but also analyzed small fibers' function. The results made the diagnosis of paraneoplastic neurological syndrome possible.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genome-wide time-to-event analysis on smoking progression stages in a family-based study

      Liang He, Janne Pitkäniemi, Kauko Heikkilä, Yi-Ling Chou, Pamela A.F. Madden, Tellervo Korhonen, Antti-Pekka Sarin, Samuli Ripatti, Jaakko Kaprio and Anu Loukola

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.462

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      We investigated which SNPs across the whole genome contribute to the hazard ratio of transitions between different stages of smoking behavior by performing time-to-event analyses within a large Finnish twin family cohort (N = 1962), and further conducted mediation analyses of plausible intermediate traits for significant SNPs. Genome-wide significant signals were detected for three of the four transitions: (1) for smoking cessation on 10p14 (P = 4.47e-08 for rs72779075 flanked by RP11-575N15 and GATA3), (2) for tolerance on 11p13 (P = 1.29e-08 for rs11031684 in RP1-65P5.1), mediated by smoking quantity, and on 9q34.12 (P = 3.81e-08 for rs2304808 in FUBP3), independent of smoking quantity, and (3) for smoking initiation, rs73050610 on 19q13.33 (flanked by TRPM4 and SLC6A16) was highlighted, and achieved genome-wide significance (P = 3.37e-08) when adjusted for first time sensations.

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      Airborne copper exposure in school environments associated with poorer motor performance and altered basal ganglia

      Jesus Pujol, Raquel Fenoll, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Ioar Rivas, Joan Forns, Joan Deus, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Xavier Querol and Jordi Sunyer

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.467

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      School children are vulnerable to copper levels common in urban environments. Copper appears to interfere with the development of frontobasal ganglia circuits. Copper contribution to neurodegenerative disorders may start early in life.

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      Diaphragm assessment in mice overexpressing phospholamban in slow-twitch type I muscle fibers

      Val Andrew Fajardo, Ian Curtis Smith, Eric Bombardier, Paige J. Chambers, Joe Quadrilatero and Allan Russell Tupling

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.470

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      In this study, we examined diaphragm function and histological structure in a novel mouse model of human centronuclear myopathy (CNM) induced by type I fiber-specific phospholamban overexpression. Contrary to the postural limb muscles from these mice, the diaphragm did not exhibit all of the pathological CNM hallmarks or any impairment in muscle force production. Future studies examining the mechanisms underlying the diaphragm's resistance to the CNM phenotype may aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Relationship between dyslipidemia and carotid plaques in a high-stroke-risk population in Shandong Province, China

      Te Mi, Shangwen Sun, Guoqing Zhang, Yaser Carora, Yifeng Du, Shougang Guo, Mingfeng Cao, Qiang Zhu, Yongxiang Wang, Qinjian Sun, Xiang Wang and Chuanqiang Qu

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.473

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      The purpose of this study was to explore the association between different dyslipidemia with carotid plaque in high-stroke-risk populations in China. Assessing this relationship will not only help to elucidate the pathophysiological association between elevated lipoproteins and carotid intimae aetherogenisis but also to refine the stroke screening and prevention guidelines in China.

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      Food-derived hydrophilic antioxidant ergothioneine is distributed to the brain and exerts antidepressant effect in mice

      Noritaka Nakamichi, Keigo Nakayama, Takahiro Ishimoto, Yusuke Masuo, Tomohiko Wakayama, Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Keita Sutoh, Koji Usumi, Shoichi Iseki and Yukio Kato

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.477

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      This paper deals with the first demonstration of the antidepressant-like effect of the food edible mushroom component ERGO (ergothioneine) and the possible mechanism involved, in addition to the discussion on the pharmacokinetics of ERGO. Our results indicate that the antioxidant ERGO is highly distributed to the brain across the blood–brain barrier in a transporter-mediated manner after oral ingestion, and may exert its antidepressant-like effect at least partially via promotion of neuronal differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

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      Variable activation in striatal subregions across components of a social influence task in young adult cannabis users

      Jodi M. Gilman, Sang Lee, John K. Kuster, Myung Joo Lee, Byoung Woo Kim, Andre van der Kouwe, Anne J. Blood and Hans C. Breiter

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.459

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      Decades of research have demonstrated the importance of social influence in the initiation and maintenance of drug use, but little is known about neural mechanisms underlying social influence in young adults who use recreational drugs. This study shows that marijuana users, but not controls, show differential brain activation across striatal subregions when applying social information to make a decision, following or going against a group of peers, or receiving positive feedback. The current work suggests that differential neural sensitivity to social influence in regions such as the striatum may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of marijuana use.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Exercise therapy improves aerobic capacity of inpatients with major depressive disorder

      Arno Kerling, Anne von Bohlen, Momme Kück, Uwe Tegtbur, Lena Grams, Sven Haufe, Elke Gützlaff and Kai G. Kahl

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.469

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      Regarding the coincidence of depressive illnesses with cardiovascular and cardiometabolic disorders, a structured training program carried out during the inpatient stay is a meaningful addition to the standard therapy of inpatients with major depressive disorder.

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      Carbamazepine modulates the spatiotemporal activity in the dentate gyrus of rats and pharmacoresistant humans in vitro

      Natalie L. M. Cappaert, Taco R. Werkman, Nuria Benito, Menno P. Witter, Johannes C. Baayen and Wytse J. Wadman

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.463

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      This study demonstrates that carbamazepine reduced electrically evoked activity in the in vitro rat dentate gyrus and in the dentate gyrus of patients clinically diagnosed as pharmacoresistant for carbamazepine. This implies that in the human epileptic brain the targets of carbamazepine, the voltage-gated Na+ channels, are still sensitive, although there is no possibility to assess the actual carbamazepine concentration that reached the target in the patient.

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      Influence of daily social stimulation on behavioral and physiological outcomes in an animal model of PTSD

      Shyam Seetharaman, Monika Fleshner, Collin R. Park and David M. Diamond

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.458

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      We have a well-established rat model of PTSD based on predator exposure occurring on a background of social instability. In this work, we have shown that daily social stimulation blocked the expression of predator-based cued fear conditioning, normalized the startle response, prevented heightened anxiety on the elevated plus maze, and reversed the stress-induced suppression of growth rate. These findings provide additional validation of our animal PTSD model by demonstrating that, as in clinical PTSD, the social environment is a critical factor in modulating one's response to trauma.

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      Pruning or tuning? Maturational profiles of face specialization during typical development

      Xun Zhu, Ramesh S. Bhatt and Jane E. Joseph

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.464

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      Brain regions involved in social cognition undergo a different pattern of developmental change than brain regions involved in basic perceptual and motor aspects of face processing. Regions associated with social function increase in face specialization with age with no change in response to objects. In contrast, regions involved in more basic perceptual and motor processing show competitive interactions in which increased face specialization with age is accompanied by a decrease in preference for objects, suggesting that more generalized mechanisms are adopted for face processing during late childhood.

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      Clinical evaluation of the bed cycling test

      Katharina Feil, Nicolina Boettcher, Franziska Lezius, Maximilian Habs, Tobias Hoegen, Katrin Huettemann, Carolin Muth, Ozan Eren, Florian Schoeberl, Andreas Zwergal, Otmar Bayer and Michael Strupp

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.445

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      In recent years, the sensitivity and specificity of different clinical tests were systematically investigated. However, there is a variety of clinical tests to diagnose a cerebral lesion. In clinical practice, it is important to make a fast clinical decision whether the patients suffer from paresis. Analogously to some validated tests of the upper limb function (which is well examined, for example, forearm rolling test, thumb rolling test), we now developed and evaluated a new clinical bedside test to detect unilateral lower limb dysfunction: the so named “bed cycling test” and compared it to the leg holding test, which was clinically evaluated in our study as well. This easy to perform bedside test is a good clinical value to detect mild to moderate unilateral lower limb dysfunction – and so to make the decision to further examine the patient.

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      Differences in the distribution of risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population in urban and rural areas of Eastern China

      Te Mi, Shangwen Sun, Yifeng Du, Shougang Guo, Lin Cong, Mingfeng Cao, Qinjian Sun, Yi Sun and Chuanqiang Qu

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.461

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      As the Chinese lifestyle has changed rapidly with the growth of economy and society during the past 3 decades, the incidence of risk factors for stroke in China has become similar to that in the Western countries. Hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, atrial fibrillation, physical inactivity, obesity, and stroke family history are the major stroke factors for risk assessment. The objective of this study was to find out distribution differences in stroke risk factors between the urban and rural areas among high-risk population in eastern China and thus to provide further direction of stroke management and prevention for high-risk population.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Homocysteinemia and early outcome of acute ischemic stroke in elderly patients

      Paola Forti, Fabiola Maioli, Giorgia Arnone, Maura Coveri, Gian Luca Pirazzoli, Marco Zoli and Gaetano Procaccianti

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.460

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      Blood total homocysteine (tHcy) is an acknowledged risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS), but it is still uncertain whether homocisteinemia is associated with outcome of acute IS. This study shows that, in elderly patients with acute IS admitted to Stroke Unit (SU), high admission plasma tHcy is unrelated to mortality during SU stay, but is an independent predictor of poor functional status at SU discharge in survivors. The association, however, is limited to patients with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia.

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      Possible relationship between common genetic variation and white matter development in a pilot study of preterm infants

      Michelle L. Krishnan, Zi Wang, Matt Silver, James P. Boardman, Gareth Ball, Serena J. Counsell, Andrew J. Walley, Giovanni Montana and Anthony David Edwards

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.434

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      We apply our previously validated pathway- and network-based statistical methods to discover possible sources of common genetic variation associated with imaging features indicative of structural brain damage. Lipid pathways were highly ranked by Pathways Sparse Reduced Rank Regression in a model examining the effect of prematurity, and PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) signaling was the highest ranked pathway once degree of prematurity was accounted for. This suggests an important role for lipid pathways in brain injury of prematurity, and in particular a significant role for interindividual genetic variation in PPAR signaling.

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      Reliability and reproducibility of individual differences in functional connectivity acquired during task and resting state

      Lubdha M. Shah, Justin A. Cramer, Michael A. Ferguson, Rasmus M. Birn and Jeffrey S. Anderson

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.456

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      Multiband functional connectivity shows reproducibility that improves with the square root of imaging time. Systematic differences in functional connectivity are observed between resting state and task acquisitions. Whether data are acquired in a task or resting state condition, individual differences in functional connectivity are preserved. Scrubbing (motion censoring) shows only small effects on reliability, while truncating a scan results in much larger effects.

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      Deficits in Visual System Functional Connectivity after Blast-Related Mild TBI are Associated with Injury Severity and Executive Dysfunction

      Casey S. Gilmore, Jazmin Camchong, Nicholas D. Davenport, Nathaniel W. Nelson, Randy H. Kardon, Kelvin O. Lim and Scott R. Sponheim

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.454

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      In this manuscript, we show that the severity of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is associated with the strength of resting state functional connectivity between major nodes in the visual system and frontal and parietal brain areas. Further, lower functional connectivity between visual network regions and frontal cortical regions predicted worse performance on executive functioning tasks. Our results are the first published that directly illustrate the relationship between blast-related mTBI severity, visual pathway neural networks, and executive dysfunction – results that highlight the detrimental relationship between blast-related brain injury and the integration of visual sensory input and executive processes.

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