Brain and Behavior

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 9

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Maryann Martone, University of California, San Diego, USA

Impact Factor: 2.128

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 31/51 (Behavioral Sciences); 167/256 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 2162-3279

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  1. 1 - 42
  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dopaminergic modulation of default mode network brain functional connectivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

      Richard B. Silberstein, Andrew Pipingas, Maree Farrow, Florence Levy and Con K. Stough

      Version of Record online: 28 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.582

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      Methylphenidate robustly reversed the transient increase in brain functional connectivity observed in ADHD diagnosed boys while undertaking the A-X version of the continuous performance task. Brain functional connectivity was assessed using a 13 Hz steady-state visual evoked potential that appeared to preferentially index top-down cortico-cortico communication.

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      Brain functional connectivity abnormalities in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

      Richard B. Silberstein, Andrew Pipingas, Maree Farrow, Florence Levy, Con K. Stough and David A. Camfield

      Version of Record online: 28 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.583

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      Steady-state visually evoked potential coherence was used to examine rapid changes in brain functional connectivity in a group of boys diagnosed with ADHD and a control group. Compared to a low-demand reference task, the control group exhibited a robust reduction in parieto-frontal functional connectivity while performing the more demanding continuous performance task. By contrast, the ADHD group exhibited increased parieto-frontal and prefrontal functional connectivity during the continuous performance task. Our findings are consistent with suggestions of default mode network functional abnormalities in ADHD.

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      Orbitofrontal cortical thinning and aggression in mild traumatic brain injury patients

      Daniel J. Epstein, Margaret Legarreta, Elliot Bueler, Jace King, Erin McGlade and Deborah Yurgelun-Todd

      Version of Record online: 28 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.581

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      Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) comprises upwards of 80% of TBI, but to date, the neurobiological underpinnings of aggression in this population have not been morphologically explored.Compared to a health control group (= 27), a mTBI group (= 55) exhibited a significant decrease in the cortical thickness of the right LOFC. Additionally, the mTBI group displayed increased aggression on the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire, which negatively correlated with lateral OFC (LOFC) cortical thickness.

  2. Commentary

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      A rare association between multiple sclerosis and Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B

      Rosa Cortese, Stefano Zoccolella, Maria Muglia, Alessandra Patitucci, Antonio Scarafino, Damiano Paolicelli and Isabella Laura Simone

      Version of Record online: 25 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.580

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      The association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and hereditary and sporadic demyelinating disorders of the peripheral nervous system is extremely rare. We herein report a case of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B with p.Val102fs mutation in the MPZ gene that developed relapsing remitting MS.

  3. Original Research

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      Tonic immobility differentiates stress responses in PTSD

      Iro Fragkaki, John Stins, Karin Roelofs, Ruud A. Jongedijk and Muriel A. Hagenaars

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.546

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      We investigated body sway during eye closure in PTSD patients and healthy controls. For PTSD patients and not controls, body sway was increased during eye closure relative to eyes open. Moreover, higher tonic immobility (TI) during a previous trauma or frightful event was associated with a distinct response: more TI was related to greater body sway reductions from eyes open to eyes closed.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      U-curve relation between cholesterol and prior ischemic stroke

      Gerd Haga Bringeland, Aliona Nacu, Ulrike Waje-Andreassen, Lars Thomassen and Halvor Naess

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.574

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      Previous studies on ischemic stroke patients have shown conflicting results concerning the association between cholesterol level and patient outcome. We hypothesized that acute ischemic stroke patients with increased cholesterol on admission more frequently had experienced prior ischemic stroke, but we found an association between lower cholesterol levels and higher frequency of prior ischemic stroke in patients with cholesterol <5.5 mmol/L which pertained also to patients who did not use statin.

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      Altered local spontaneous activity in frontal lobe epilepsy: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

      Li Dong, Hechun Li, Zhongqiong He, Sisi Jiang, Benjamin Klugah-Brown, Lin Chen, Pu Wang, Song Tan, Cheng Luo and Dezhong Yao

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.555

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      In our work, alterations of local spontaneous activity in frontoparietal cortex and basal ganglia were found in FLE patients using a novel resting-state measure, named FOur-dimensional (spatiotemporal) Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA).

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      fMRI functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray in PTSD and its dissociative subtype

      Sherain Harricharan, Daniela Rabellino, Paul A. Frewen, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C. McKinnon, Allan N. Schore and Ruth A. Lanius

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.579

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      Posttraumatic stress disorder patients exhibited widespread periaqueductal gray functional connectivity during resting state, which may suggest the presence of greater defensive posturing at rest in these patients. Furthermore, those with the dissociative subtype of PTSD demonstrated unique functional connectivity patterns of the periaqueductal gray, with notable differences in connectivity between the dorsolateral and ventrolateral subdivisions.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Poor sleep quality in patients with multiple sclerosis: gender differences

      Marianna Vitkova, Jaroslav Rosenberger, Zuzana Gdovinova, Jarmila Szilasiova, Pavol Mikula, Johan W. Groothoff, Sijmen A. Reijneveld and Jitse P. van Dijk

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.553

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      Our study explored possible gender differences in factors related to poor sleep quality in patients with MS multiple sclerosis. We found that depression and anxiety contributed to poor sleep quality in women, but pain did so in men. Our findings highlight the need to apply gender-specific approaches to the treatment of sleep disorders.

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      Activity in primary motor cortex during action observation covaries with subsequent behavioral changes in execution

      Nadav Aridan and Roy Mukamel

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.550

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      We demonstrate that following exposure to a video depicting someone else perform a button-pressing task, subjects tend to implicitly shift their spontaneous execution rate toward the rate of the observed action but only if it is higher. The degree of this behavioral shift correlates with the degree of activation elicited during action observation in the relevant motor cortex.

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      Sleep duration and resting fMRI functional connectivity: examination of short sleepers with and without perceived daytime dysfunction

      Brian J. Curtis, Paula G. Williams, Christopher R. Jones and Jeffrey S. Anderson

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.576

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      Using the Human Connectome Project dataset, self-reported habitual short sleep duration (<6 hr/night) is shown to be one of the most informative behavioral characteristics underlying resting brain functional connectivity. Characteristic and reproducible findings differ with reported daytime dysfunction, and suggest that individuals who sleep less than six hours a night, even among those who deny daytime sleepiness, may be dependent on environmental stimulation to sustain wakefulness.

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      Filtering and storage working memory networks in younger and older age

      Anne-Katrin Vellage, Andreas Becke, Hendrik Strumpf, Bernhard Baier, Mircea Ariel Schönfeld, Jens-Max Hopf and Notger G. Müller

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.544

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      With a new paradigm, controlling or visual input, we aimed at redefining neuronal networks sustaining filtering and storage within WM and assesing age-related changes. Extensive neuronal networks were found by means of fMRI in young and elderly participants during filtering and storage of information. In addition, the frontal cortex was recruited in elderly participants in both conditions, pointing to the fact that elderly routinely recruit this region during highly demanding tasks.

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      Association between antiepileptic drugs and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with epilepsy: a population-based case–control study

      Dong-Zong Hung, Cheng-Li Lin, Yi-Wen Li, Yen-Ning Lin, Ying-Ray Lee, Charles-C. N. Wang, Jih-Jung Chen and Yun-Ping Lim

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.554

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      Our results indicate that high dose of phenytoin was associated with a statistically significant increased odds ratio for hepatocellular carcinoma, which was not demonstrated for low-dose phenytoin.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Age-related differences in brain network activation and co-activation during multiple object tracking

      Erlend S. Dørum, Dag Alnæs, Tobias Kaufmann, Geneviève Richard, Martina J. Lund, Siren Tønnesen, Markus H. Sneve, Nina C. Mathiesen, Øyvind G. Rustan, Øivind Gjertsen, Sigurd Vatn, Brynjar Fure, Ole A. Andreassen, Jan Egil Nordvik and Lars T. Westlye

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.533

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      In a study investigating age-related differences in multiple object tracking, we have demonstrated decreased task-related activations in the dorsal attention network (DAN) and decreased task-related deactivations in the default mode network (DMN) for older adults. Correlation between brain network components revealed stronger correlations in task-related activations within DMN components for younger adults and stronger correlations between task-positive and DMN components for older adults, indicating age-related alterations in the coordinated network-level activation during attentional processing.

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      Position selectivity in face-sensitive visual cortex to facial and nonfacial stimuli: an fMRI study

      David F. Nichols, Lisa R. Betts and Hugh R. Wilson

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.542

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      Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the position sensitivity of the occipital face area and the fusiform face area to both standard rotating wedge retinotopic mapping stimuli and quadrant presentations of facial stimuli. Using a variety of distinct analyses, it was found that the occipital face area exhibited greater position responsivity across stimuli than the fusiform face area and included overlap in the response pattern to the disparate stimulus types.

  4. Reviews

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      Treatment and imaging of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis: current perspectives and future directions

      Ido R. van den Wijngaard, Ghislaine Holswilder, Marianne A. A. van Walderveen, Ale Algra, Marieke J. H. Wermer, Osama O. Zaidat and Jelis Boiten

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.536

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      In this comprehensive review, we give an update on treatment options for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis. Also, conventional and novel imaging modalities available for the evaluation of intracranial atherosclerotic plaques and stenosis will be discussed.

  5. Original Research

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      To see or not to see; the ability of the magno- and parvocellular response to manifest itself in the VEP determines its appearance to a pattern reversing and pattern onset stimulus

      Valentine L. Marcar and Lutz Jäncke

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.552

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      The figure depicts the projection onto the striate cortex of the various dartboard images used to generate pattern reversing and pattern onset stimuli.

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      A machine learning approach to identify functional biomarkers in human prefrontal cortex for individuals with traumatic brain injury using functional near-infrared spectroscopy

      Nader Karamzadeh, Franck Amyot, Kimbra Kenney, Afrouz Anderson, Fatima Chowdhry, Hadis Dashtestani, Eric M. Wassermann, Victor Chernomordik, Claude Boccara, Edward Wegman, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia and Amir H. Gandjbakhche

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.541

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      The manuscript describes a methodology to explore and identify potential hemodynamic biomarkers to be utilized for classifying subjects with TBI. The proposed approach searches a large set of hemodynamic feature combinations and identifies a set of features that provides the optimum classification between the TBI and healthy populations.

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      Dissociable roles of medial and lateral PFC in rule learning

      Bihua Cao, Wei Li, Fuhong Li and Hong Li

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.551

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      Rule-search phase evoked more activation in the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), the rule-following phase caused stronger activation in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Importantly, the intermediate phase, the rule-discovery phase evoked more activations in MPFC than rule search, and more activations in LPFC than rule following. These results suggest partially dissociable contributions of the medial and lateral PFC in rule learning.

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      Grey matter abnormalities in methcathinone abusers with a Parkinsonian syndrome

      Julius Juurmaa, Ricarda A. L. Menke, Pierre Vila, Andreas Müürsepp, Tiiu Tomberg, Pilvi Ilves, Mait Nigul, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Michael Donaghy, Charlotte J. Stagg, Ainārs Stepens and Pille Taba

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.539

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      Recently, a distinctive clinical syndrome has been described in ephedrone abusers, consisting of an irreversible extrapyramidal disorder, made remarkable by highly specific clinical symptoms of hypokinesia, dysarthria, dystonia, and postural instability. Here, we have used advanced MR techniques including voxel-based morphometry and FreeSurfer to demonstrate abnormalities in subcortical structures, in particular the caudate nucleus, where abnormally low volumes in patients are related to the length of ephedrone abuse. In addition, in line with the remarkable clinical syndrome, we demonstrate for the first time widespread thinning of the cortex, and show changes in functional connectivity within patients compared with controls.

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      Procalcitonin in cerebrospinal fluid in meningitis: a prospective diagnostic study

      Imanda M. E. Alons, Rolf J. Verheul, Irma Kuipers, Korné Jellema, Marieke J. H. Wermer, Ale Algra and Gabriëlle Ponjee

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.545

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      We determined procalcitonin in CSF in patients suspected of bacterial meningitis. We found procalcitonin is raised in CSF in bacterial meningitis and may become a diagnostic marker in these patients.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dose-dependent short- and long-term effects of ionizing irradiation on neural stem cells in murine hippocampal tissue cultures: neuroprotective potential of resveratrol

      Isabell Prager, Ina Patties, Katrin Himmelbach, Eva Kendzia, Felicitas Merz, Klaus Müller, Rolf-Dieter Kortmann and Annegret Glasow

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.548

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      Radiation therapy in the treatment of brain tumors often leads to neurocognitive deficits especially in pediatric patients. In organotypic entorhinal–hippocampal slice cultures, we could show that irradiation doses from 4.5 to 16 Gy, single dose, reduced the nestin-positive neural progenitor pool irreversibly, possibly by a combinatorial effect of proliferation inhibition, cell death induction, and aberrant differentiation. Resveratrol was able to partially reverse the irradiation-induced decline of progenitor cells, indicating some neuroprotective potential.

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      Genetic and environmental components of female depression as a function of the severity of the disorder

      James S. M. Rusby, Fiona Tasker and Lynn Cherkas

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.519

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      The aim of the study was to estimate the genetic and environmental components of female depression as a function of the severity of the disorder using twin pair model analysis. It was found that the most severe level of depression had a significant additive genetic component and that the more moderate forms had a larger environmental component plus a modest dominant component. The corollary of this is that severe, or recurrent, depression is homozygotic and so more heritable.

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      Brain metabolite levels and language abilities in preschool children

      Catherine Lebel, Frank P. MacMaster and Deborah Dewey

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.547

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      Language skills in preschool predict later reading ability, but the relationship between language and brain metabolites in young children is unknown. In this study, we find that brain metabolites are associated with language abilities in children before reading begins. We show glutamate–language relationships consistent with previous studies, and present novel data showing creatine–language and inositol–language relationships that may be unique to preschool children.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Functional neuroimaging of visual creativity: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Laura M. Pidgeon, Madeleine Grealy, Alex H. B. Duffy, Laura Hay, Chris McTeague, Tijana Vuletic, Damien Coyle and Sam J. Gilbert

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.540

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      This review synthesizes 7 fMRI and 19 EEG studies of visual creativity, the generation of novel and useful visual imagery. Activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of six fMRI studies which compared visual creativity to non-rest control conditions revealed significant clusters in thalamus, left fusiform gyrus, and right middle and inferior frontal gyri. Qualitative synthesis of EEG studies revealed reduced alpha and theta power, but increased beta power during visual creativity compared to baseline rest conditions.

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      Prevalence and impact of autoimmune thyroid disease on myasthenia gravis course

      Justyna Kubiszewska, Beata Szyluk, Piotr Szczudlik, Zbigniew Bartoszewicz, Małgorzata Dutkiewicz, Maksymilian Bielecki, Tomasz Bednarczuk and Anna Kostera-Pruszczyk

      Version of Record online: 4 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.537

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      Autoimmune thyroid disease frequently accompanies early- and late-onset MG, while thymoma-MG is related to higher risk of nonautoimmune thyroid disease. Myasthenia coexisting with ATD follows milder course than MG alone.

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      Mandarin functional MRI Language paradigms

      He Ci, Andre van Graan, Gloria Gonzálvez, Pamela Thompson, Andrea Hill and John S. Duncan

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.525

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      This study used Chinese language stimuli, modified from English stimuli, in healthy volunteers, to explore activation patterns in Chinese people.

  6. Reviews

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      Mesenchymal stem cell-based treatments for stroke, neural trauma, and heat stroke

      Yogi Chang-Yo Hsuan, Cheng-Hsien Lin, Ching-Ping Chang and Mao-Tsun Lin

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.526

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      Ischemic stroke, neural trauma, and heatstroke all cause cerebral ischemia-related deficits. Exogenous MSC therapy is promising as a means of augmenting brain ischemia-induced deficits. MSC may improve outcomes of brain ischemia-induced deficits by reducing overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines or microglial activation.

  7. Original Research

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      Prognostic value of plasma galectin-3 levels after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

      Hua Liu, Yong Liu, Jinbing Zhao, Hongyi Liu and Shengxue He

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.543

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      Galectin-3 levels are increased after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Galectin-3 levels have close relation to clinical severity. Galectin-3 levels have independent association with 6-month clinical outcomes.

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      Fatigue in myasthenia gravis: risk factors and impact on quality of life

      Sarah Hoffmann, Johanna Ramm, Ulrike Grittner, Siegfried Kohler, Jana Siedler and Andreas Meisel

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.538

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      Our study emphasizes the importance of fatigue in myasthenia gravis and its impact on activity of daily life and quality of life. Clinical characteristics of myasthenia gravis help to identify patients at risk for fatigue allowing early treatment adjustments.

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      Socioeconomic status, white matter, and executive function in children

      Alexandra Ursache, Kimberly G. Noble and for the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition and Genetics Study

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.531

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      In a diverse sample of 1082 children and adolescents aged 3–21 years, we examine socioeconomic disparities in white matter macrostructure and microstructure. We further investigate relations between family SES, children's white matter volume and integrity in tracts supporting EF, and performance on EF tasks.

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      The feasibility of 11C-PIB-PET/CT for amyloid plaque burden: validation of the effectiveness of CT-based partial volume correction

      Kei Sasaki, Norihide Maikusa, Etsuko Imabayashi, Tetsuya Yuasa and Hiroshi Matsuda

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.532

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      We investigated the feasibility of correcting PVE in amyloid PET using CT, obtained by PET/CT, instead of MRI. We demonstrated the efficacy of the partial volume correction (PVC) based on CT by comparing the results of CT-based PVC and those of MRI-based PVC using images acquired from AD patients and controls.

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      Striatal morphology correlates with frontostriatal electrophysiological motor processing in Huntington's disease: an IMAGE-HD study

      Lauren M. Turner, David Jakabek, Fiona A. Wilkes, Rodney J. Croft, Andrew Churchyard, Mark Walterfang, Dennis Velakoulis, Jeffrey C. L. Looi, Deborah Apthorp and Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.511

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      Research on Huntington's disease (HD) suggests that presymptomatic individuals show no functional motor abnormalities despite significant and well-established structural degeneration; however, our previous paper (Turner et al., PLoS One, 2015) identified aberrant premotor activation, which we suggest implicated frontostriatal network impairment. Here, we expand on our first study to demonstrate correlations between premotor activation and morphology of the striatum in a combined HD sample, suggesting that functional connectivity and motor compensation is dependent on structural integrity of such regions.

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      Adjunctive brexpiprazole in patients with major depressive disorder and anxiety symptoms: an exploratory study

      Lori L. Davis, Ai Ota, Pamela Perry, Kana Tsuneyoshi, Emmanuelle Weiller and Ross A. Baker

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.520

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      Anxiety symptoms are common in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and may signal more difficult-to-treat patients. A Phase IIIb open-label study explored brexpiprazole adjunctive to antidepressant monotherapy for participants with MDD and anxiety symptoms who had an inadequate response to their current antidepressant. Anxiety and depressive symptoms and overall functioning improved over the 6-week study, and brexpiprazole was well tolerated.

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      Altered regional brain function in the treatment-naive patients with somatic symptom disorder: a resting-state fMRI study

      Qiang Li, Yong Xiao, Yinghui Li, Lei Li, Na Lu, Zhi Xu, Xiaodong Mou, Shenqin Mao, Wei Wang and Yonggui Yuan

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.521

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      The mechanism of somatic symptom disorder remains unknown. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the somatic symptom disorder group demonstrated significantly higher regional homogeneity value in the frontal brain regions but lower regional homogeneity value in the posterior brain regions. This abnormal resting-state patterns of regional brain activity may contribute to understanding the mechanism of somatic symptom disorder.

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      Depressive symptoms associated with concerns about falling in Parkinson's disease

      Erika Franzén, David Conradsson, Maria Hagströmer and Maria H. Nilsson

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.524

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      Concern about falling is increased in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). This study shows that factors associated with concerns about falling are a multifactorial phenomenon. For its management in elderly with mild-to-moderate PD, one should consider depressive symptoms, balance deficits, and mobility devices.

  8. Reviews

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      Characterizing neurocognitive impairment in young people with major depression: state, trait, or scar?

      Kelly Allott, Caroline A. Fisher, Gunther Paul Amminger, Joanne Goodall and Sarah Hetrick

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.527

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      A conceptual discussion and examination of the evidence for neurocognitive deficits as trait, state, and/or scar features of major depressive disorder in adolescence and young adulthood. There is preliminary evidence for scar-related neurocognitive impairments in youth depression. However, the evidence for trait and state impairments is inconclusive, primarily due to a lack of rigorous longitudinal studies.

  9. Original Research

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      Pathological nociceptors in two patients with erythromelalgia-like symptoms and rare genetic Nav 1.9 variants

      Inge P. Kleggetveit, Roland Schmidt, Barbara Namer, Hugh Salter, Tormod Helås, Martin Schmelz and Ellen Jørum

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.528

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      Sodium channels like Nav 1.9 have been implicated in human pain. However, the exact role of these channels are not known. Here, we directly recorded action potentials from two patients with erythromelalgia-like pain and Nav 1.9 variants by using the method of microneurography.

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      Immunomodulation of inflammatory leukocyte markers during intravenous immunoglobulin treatment associated with clinical efficacy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

      Wayne B. Dyer, Joanne C. G. Tan, Timothy Day, Lynette Kiers, Matthew C. Kiernan, Con Yiannikas, Stephen Reddel, Karl Ng, Phillip Mondy, Peta M. Dennington, Melinda M. Dean, Halina M. Trist, Cristobal dos Remedios, P. Mark Hogarth, Steve Vucic and David O. Irving

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.516

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      Changes in markers associated with clinical efficacy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) patients were characterized by flow cytometry. Clinical efficacy was associated with modulation of inflammatory and regulatory pathways across different leukocyte subsets, known to contribute to CIDP disease. Clinical outcome was associated with reduced numbers of the inflammatory CD16+ subset of myeloid dendritic cells.

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      Hippocampal lipid differences in Alzheimer's disease: a human brain study using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry

      Lakshini H. S. Mendis, Angus C. Grey, Richard L. M. Faull and Maurice A. Curtis

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.517

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      The novel, spatially resolved, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry technique was used to map the distribution of multiple lipids in subregions of the normal and Alzheimer's disease (AD) affected human hippocampus. A number of lipid signals were expressed with different relative abundance in the AD hippocampus, across multiple human samples. These novel findings give insight to the role that specific lipid changes, which are particular to each hippocampal subregion, may play in AD pathophysiology.

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      Temporal regularity of intrinsic cerebral activity in patients with chronic primary insomnia: a brain entropy study using resting-state fMRI

      Fuqing Zhou, Suhua Huang, Lei Gao, Ying Zhuang, Shan Ding and Honghan Gong

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.529

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      Chronic primary insomnia (CPI) patients exhibited significantly increased BEN in the right posterior cingulate cortex, left anterior cingulate cortex, left orbitofrontal cortex, right frontal operculum/insula, right hippocampus, and right basal ganglia, whereas decreased BEN was observed in the right postcentral gyrus and the right temporal–occipital junction. We demonstrated that three altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) patterns were associated with abnormal BEN regions in CPI patients. Finally, the duration of insomnia negatively correlated with the rsFC between the left ACC and right SMA; and sleep quality indices (PSQI scores) were negatively correlated with reduced rsFC, but positively correlated with enhanced rsFC in CPI patients.

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      Epidemiology of persistent iatrogenic spinal cord injuries in Western Norway

      Mathias S. Æsøy, Stein-Erik H. Solvang, Marit Grønning and Tiina Rekand

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.522

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      The study investigates epidemiology of iatrogenic spinal cord injuries in Norway. Although the annual incidence rate of iatrogenic SCI is low in Norway, the individual consequences are serious. Most SCIs may be prevented by following local and international guidelines. Increased awareness of the causes of SCI may decrease the risk of iatrogenic SCI.

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