Brain and Behavior

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 1

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Maryann Martone, University of California, San Diego, USA

Impact Factor: 2.243

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 30/51 (Behavioral Sciences); 164/252 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 2162-3279

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  1. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evolution of universal review and disclosure of MRI reports to research participants

      Jody M. Shoemaker, Caitlin Cole, Linda E. Petree, Deborah L. Helitzer, Mark T. Holdsworth, John P. Gluck and John P. Phillips

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.428

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      Unexpected findings of potential clinical significance, known as incidental findings, may be encountered during clinical and research imaging scans. These findings pose ethical and logistical challenges for physicians, investigators, and institutions. By reporting on both the system development process and the relevant outcome data, this article suggests a negligible adverse impact of performing radiology reviews and reporting the incidental findings to the participants.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Microstructural white-matter abnormalities and their relationship with cognitive dysfunction in obsessive–compulsive disorder

      Paola Magioncalda, Matteo Martino, Benjamin A. Ely, Matilde Inglese and Emily R. Stern

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.442

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      Patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder demonstrated increases in mean diffusivity in the bilateral posterior corona radiata, left anterior corona radiata, and left posterior limb of the internal capsule. Increased mean diffusivity value in the internal capsule was correlated with a specific disturbance in cognitive performance following negative internal thoughts, which was greater in the obsessive–compulsive group overall. This relationship suggests that alterations in white-matter microstructure may be linked to obsessive–compulsive-related behaviors.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evidence for cerebral edema, cerebral perfusion, and intracranial pressure elevations in acute mountain sickness

      Dana M. DiPasquale, Stephen R. Muza, Andrea M. Gunn, Zhi Li, Quan Zhang, N. Stuart Harris and Gary E. Strangman

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.437

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      The pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness (AMS) is not well understood due to difficulties studying the symptom complex at high altitude, but it is thought to be cerebral in nature. Subjects were exposed to 8 h of normobaric and hypobaric hypoxia to induce AMS while near-infrared spectroscopy was used to assess tissue perfusion and edema, and optic nerve sheath ultrasound was measured to estimate intracranial pressure. AMS was associated with increased cerebral perfusion, increased cerebral tissue scattering of near-infrared light, and increased optic nerve sheath diameter.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Disrupted functional brain network organization in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

      Bumhee Park, Jose A. Palomares, Mary A. Woo, Daniel W. Kang, Paul M. Macey, Frisca L. Yan-Go, Ronald M. Harper and Rajesh Kumar

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.441

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      This study is aimed to examine resting functional interactions and the complex network organization of these interactions across the whole brain in 69 obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) subjects, relative to 82 control subjects. OSA subjects showed significantly altered functional connectivity in various brain regions regulating autonomic, affective, executive, sensorimotor, and cognitive functions and entire functional brain network in OSA emerged significantly less efficient integration. Previous studies in OSA showed altered functional responses to evoked autonomic, motor, or ventilatory challenges; the findings here suggest that the dysfunction extends to resting conditions, and the altered connectivity and impaired network organization may underlie the impaired responses in cognitive, autonomic, and sensorimotor functions.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of progesterone on hyperoxia-induced damage in mouse C8-D1A astrocytes

      Friederike Weber, Stefanie Endesfelder, Christoph Bührer and Monika Berns

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.435

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      Exposure of C8D1A mouse astrocytes to hyperoxia reduced cell viability and progesterone exposure displayed no protective effect. The inhibitor RU 496 abolished the progesterone effect, mainly explained by reduced proliferation of the cells and a downregulation of the progesterone receptor in hyperoxia.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      High-gamma power changes after cognitive intervention: preliminary results from twenty-one senior adult subjects

      Yoritaka Akimoto, Takayuki Nozawa, Akitake Kanno, Toshimune Kambara, Mizuki Ihara, Takeshi Ogawa, Takakuni Goto, Yasuyuki Taki, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Yuka Kotozaki, Rui Nouchi, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Hikaru Takeuchi, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Motoaki Sugiura, Eiichi Okumura, Takashi Sunda, Toshiyuki Shimizu, Eiji Tozuka, Satoru Hirose, Tatsuyoshi Nanbu and Ryuta Kawashima

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.427

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      We analyzed magnetoencephalography data obtained from 21 healthy elderly subjects (60–75 years old) who had participated in our previous intervention study, which included three types of intervention groups. After cognitive intervention, high-gamma activities (52–100 Hz) were differently altered between groups. Our preliminary results suggest the usefulness of high-gamma activities as an index of the effectiveness of cognitive training in elderly subjects.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A MS-lesion pattern discrimination plot based on geostatistics

      Robert Marschallinger, Paul Schmidt, Peter Hofmann, Claus Zimmer, Peter M. Atkinson, Johann Sellner, Eugen Trinka and Mark Mühlau

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.430

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      A geostatistics-based MS-lesion pattern description is developed. The resulting graphical representations are considered efficient exploratory data analysis tools to accompany cross-sectional, follow-up, and medication impact analysis.

  2. Methods

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Fully automated open-source lesion mapping of T2-FLAIR images with FSL correlates with clinical disability in MS

      Nathan C. Wetter, Elizabeth A. Hubbard, Robert W. Motl and Bradley P. Sutton

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.440

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      The paper discusses automated extraction of quantitative measures of the neuroimaging biomarker of white matter hyperintensities from MRI images. We have created an open-source software that delivers quantitative measures that correlate well with clinical and behavioral scores in subjects with MS. We feel that the method outlined in this paper will enable a wider base of neuroimaging studies to use consistent and comparable measures for lesion volume and other volumetric measures with MRI.

  3. Original Research

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Reduced functional connectivity of somatosensory network in writer's cramp patients

      Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Yi-Jhan Tseng, Rou-Shayn Chen and Yung-Yang Lin

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.433

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      Although the locally regional somatosensory cortical responses were relatively preserved, we provided evidence of reduced functional connectivity in the somatosensory network in patients with writer's cramp. These results imply that abnormal neural coupling among somatosensory-associated regions may contribute to the widespread sensory or sensorimotor impairments in patients with writer's cramp.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Fine tuning breath-hold-based cerebrovascular reactivity analysis models

      Christiaan Hendrik Bas van Niftrik, Marco Piccirelli, Oliver Bozinov, Athina Pangalu, Antonios Valavanis, Luca Regli and Jorn Fierstra

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.426

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      This article is an elaboration on existing analysis methods for breath-hold-derived cerebrovascular reactivity measurements and describes novel insights and models toward more exact CVR interpretation.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Brain white matter integrity in heroin addicts during methadone maintenance treatment is related to relapse propensity

      Wei Li, Jia Zhu, Qiang Li, Jianjun Ye, Jiajie Chen, Jierong Liu, Zhe Li, Yongbin Li, Xuejiao Yan, Yarong Wang and Wei Wang

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.436

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      Future heroin relapsers have lower white matter integrity compared to abstainers during methadone maintenance treatment. Lower white matter integrity is associated with higher frequency of relapse. Impairment of white matter integrity might underlie an increased risk for heroin relapse.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mortality in individuals with intellectual disabilities in Finland

      Maria Arvio, Tommi Salokivi, Aila Tiitinen and Leena Haataja

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.431

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      Compared to general population people with an intellectual disability (ID) have a shorter life span and in general women live longer than men. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for females with a mild ID was 2.8 (95% CI: 2.6–3.0) and for males 2.0 (95% CI: 1.9–2.1), and for females with a moderate-profound ID 5.2 (95% CI: 5.0–5.5) and for males 2.6 (95% CI: 2.5–2.7). The strength of our data is being population-based consisting of all people living in Finland who during 1996–2011 received a disability pension, disability allowance or care allowance due to an ID and the number of cases ceased due to death.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The variance shared across forms of childhood trauma is strongly associated with liability for psychiatric and substance use disorders

      Sean Kristjansson, Vivia V. McCutcheon, Arpana Agrawal, Michael T. Lynskey, Elizabeth Conroy, Dixie J. Statham, Pamela A. F. Madden, Anjali K. Henders, Alexandre A. Todorov, Kathleen K. Bucholz, Louisa Degenhardt, Nicholas G. Martin, Andrew C. Heath and Elliot C. Nelson

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.432

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      Confirmatory factor analysis was used to derive a higher order, childhood trauma factor representing a measure of the common variance across three forms of trauma: childhood physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, and parental partner abuse. We replicated the model in a second sample. We then examined the association of childhood trauma score with risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders in these samples and a third sample in which the primary sample's factor loadings were applied finding factor scores to be strongly and consistently associated with liability for psychiatric and substance use disorders in all three samples.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Risk of pneumonia associated with zero-degree head positioning in acute ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator

      Paola Palazzo, Amy Brooks, David James, Randy Moore, Andrei V. Alexandrov and Anne W. Alexandrov

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.425

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      A zero-degree head of bed position is recommended to increase cerebral perfusion in nonhypoxic acute ischemic stroke patients able to tolerate lying flat. However, this is not uniformly applied in clinical practice, most likely due to concerns of aspiration pneumonia. In our retrospective descriptive study, zero-degree positioning in the first 24 h following an acute ischemic stroke treated with IV-tPA was associated with acceptable rates of pneumonia.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene moderates the protective effects of a family-based prevention program on telomere length

      Erica L. Smearman, Tianyi Yu and Gene H. Brody

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.423

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      Nonsupportive parenting, intervention participation, and OXTR rs53576 genotype interact to predict telomere length across 5 years. Individuals with the rs53576 GG genotype were found to have the greatest sensitivity to environmental context, evidencing the shortest telomeres when exposed to nonsupportive parenting and randomized to the control condition, and longer telomeres when randomized to the intervention, an association that may be mediated through changes in chronic anger. In contrast, individuals with the AA/AG genotype were found to have the least sensitivity, showing no significant difference in telomere length across environmental conditions.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Quantifying brain volumes for Multiple Sclerosis patients follow-up in clinical practice – comparison of 1.5 and 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging

      Andreas P. Lysandropoulos, Julie Absil, Thierry Metens, Nicolas Mavroudakis, François Guisset, Eline Van Vlierberghe, Dirk Smeets, Philippe David, Anke Maertens and Wim Van Hecke

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.422

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      Brain atrophy tends to become an important parameter in Multiple Sclerosis patients' follow-up. Since in clinical practice both 1.5Tesla (T) and 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems are used for MS patients follow-up, questions arise regarding compatibility and a possible need for standardization. Therefore, in this study, brain volume measurements at 1.5T and 3T MRI are evaluated. Our results demonstrate that a small brain atrophy measurement error can be achieved, especially when data of the same scanner are compared, in the order of 0.06–0.08% for both MSmetrix and SIENA.

  4. Reviews

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      Mechanical thrombectomy for emergent large vessel occlusion: a critical appraisal of recent randomized controlled clinical trials

      Georgios Tsivgoulis, Apostolos Safouris, Aristeidis H. Katsanos, Adam S. Arthur and Andrei V. Alexandrov

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.418

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      MT is a safe and highly effective treatment for patients with emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) in the anterior circulation. For every six ELVO patients treated with MT three more will achieve complete recanalization at 24 h following symptom onset and one more will be functionally independent at 3 months in comparison to best medical therapy.

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