Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies

Cover image for Vol. 28 Issue 10

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Luigi Alfredo Grieco

Impact Factor: 1.535

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2016: 54/89 (TELECOMMUNICATIONS); 54/89 (Telecommunications)

Online ISSN: 2161-3915


  1. 1 - 66

    1. You have free access to this content
      Corrigendum: Analytical performance estimation of network-assisted D2D communications in urban scenarios with rectangular cells

      Andrey Samuylov, Aleksandr Ometov, Vyacheslav Begishev, Roman Kovalchukov, Dmitri Moltchanov, Yuliya Gaidamaka, Konstantin Samouylov, Sergey Andreev and Yevgeni Koucheryavy

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3258


    1. Slow adaptive energy-efficient resource allocation in OFDMA HetNets considering demand uncertainty

      Elaheh Vaezpour and Mehdi Dehghan

      Version of Record online: 6 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3228

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      We propose a slow adaptive formulation of jointly allocating power and subchannel for 2-tier heterogeneous networks with the objective of maximizing energy efficiency subject to quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. Considering uncertainty in user's demand, the distributionally robust resource allocation problem is formulated. A decomposition method is used to divide the problem into 2 subproblems and optimization methods are provided to solve each subproblem.

    2. Joint uplink and downlink optimization of pilot assignment for massive MIMO with power control

      José Carlos Marinello Filho, Cristiano Magalhães Panazio and Taufik Abrão

      Version of Record online: 6 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3250

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      • The effects of pilot assignment (PA) in multi-cell massive MIMO systems are investigated. Since it is not possible to achieve the best performance in UL and DL concomitantly, we propose an alternative total capacity metric, aiming to simultaneously achieve a suitable performance in both directions.
      • Due the PA problem is a combinatorial search, we also propose a low complexity suboptimal heuristic algorithm that achieves promising capacity, avoid exhaustive search of factorial order. We combine our proposed PA scheme with an efficient power control algorithm.
      • Numerical results demonstrate that with 64 BS antennas serving 10 users, the proposed method can assure a 95%-likely rate of 4.2 Mbps for both DL and UL, and a symmetric 95%-likely rate of 1.4 Mbps when serving 32 users.


    3. Hybrid PLC-VLC channel model and spectral estimation using a nonparametric approach

      Alain Richard Ndjiongue, Hendrik Christoffel Ferreira, Jian Song, Fang Yang and Ling Cheng

      Version of Record online: 6 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3224

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      A cascaded power line communications and visible light communication channel groups both PLC and VLC channels. Its power spectral density is affected by both PLC and VLC impairment sources. The spectral analysis of the dual channel for cascaded PLC-VLC systems is analised using the nonparametric windowed Welch method, and, experimental results giving varieties of simulated PLC-VLC channel are presented showing the influence of the number of PLC taps and the VLC line-of-sight/ non-line-of-sight gains on the PLC-VLC frequency response.

    4. On the performance of a nonorthogonal multiple-access technique for downlink MIMO cooperative networks

      Yangyang Zhang, Jianhua Ge and Erchin Serpedin

      Version of Record online: 6 OCT 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3225

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      The system performance is evaluated in a NOMA-based downlink multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relaying network in terms of 2 measures, the outage probability and the ergodic rate. Closed-form expressions for the exact outage probability and the ergodic rate at high SINR are derived. Moreover, the diversity order is obtained by analyzing the asymptotic outage probability.

    5. QoS priority-based coordinated scheduling and hybrid spectrum access for femtocells in dense cooperative 5G cellular networks

      Zeeshan Kaleem and KyungHi Chang

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3207

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      We propose QoS priority-based coordinated scheduling and hybrid spectrum access (QoS-CSaHSA) scheme for downlink CoMP transmission in two-tier networks. The proposed QoS-CSaHSA scheme dynamically reduces the femtocells' power requirements by considering the neighbor cell interference, and it also balances the macrocell load by switching the femtocells to hybrid access (HA) mode. Moreover, it can reduce unnecessary muting of the base stations because it only enable the coordinated scheduling CoMP when there is no other possibility to reduce the cross-tier interference.

    6. Learning-based resource allocation in D2D communications with QoS and fairness considerations

      Salma Kazemi Rashed, Reza Shahbazian and Seyed Ali Ghorashi

      Version of Record online: 25 SEP 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3249

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      We modeled the problem of the joint channel and power allocation for D2D users in realistic scenarios as an interactive learning problem, where the channel state information is unknown. We introduced a recency-based Q-learning method to find the best channel-power for each D2D pair. We proved the convergence of the proposed method and showed that it is an order optimal policy that achieves better responses in terms of network sum-rate and fairness criterion in comparison with conventional learning methods.

    7. Divide-and-allocate: An uplink successive bandwidth division NOMA system

      Soma Qureshi, Syed Ali Hassan and Dushantha Nalin K. Jayakody

      Version of Record online: 25 SEP 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3216

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      A new hybrid spectrum sharing strategy using non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is proposed. The proposed scheme, successive bandwidth division (SBD)-NOMA, exploits the characteristics of both the conventional NOMA system and the orthogonal multiple access (OMA) system. Closed-form expressions for the outage probability are derived. Performance is evaluated in terms of receiver complexity, average sum rate, energy efficiency etc. To further enhance the performance, we perform optimal power allocation.

    8. Outage analysis of coded-cooperation cognitive multirelay network with direct link over Nakagami-m fading channels

      Zhenzhen Hu, Ning Wei, Zhongpei Zhang and Haijun Zhang

      Version of Record online: 25 SEP 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3218

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      The outage performance of both the best relay selection scheme and the sum relays scheme is close to each other, and the primary network parameters only affect the coding gain and are not related to the diversity order.

    9. Outage analysis in two-way communication with RF energy harvesting relay and co-channel interference

      Sutanu Ghosh, Tamaghna Acharya and Santi P. Maity

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3233

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      The paper explores the dual impact of co-channel interference (CCI) on energy harvesting (EH) and reliability of information transfer in a two-way communication system, supported by an EH-enabled decode-and-forward relay. A detailed outage analysis is done considering both the power splitting relaying and the time switching relaying protocols. Results show that in presence of moderate CCI power both spectral efficiency and energy efficiency of the two-way communication system are better than a similar system without CCI.

    10. Fuzzification supported spectrum decision framework for cognitive radio networks

      A. N. Akhtar, A. Ghafoor, A. Rashdi and F. Arif

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3229

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      A robust spectrum decision framework for the SUs in CRN based on fuzzy logic has been proposed. The proposed framework enables SUs to carryout their transmission without causing interference with the licensed user of the slot while maintaining their QoS.

    11. The impact of the system state on energy-efficient transmission of multiple users' flows on the uplink

      Stavros E. Sagkriotis, Anargyros J. Roumeliotis, Apostolos Z. Papafragkakis and Athanasios D. Panagopoulos

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3235

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      This work investigates an energy-efficient link transmission adapted by the system state, ie, the instantaneous total number of a dynamically varying setting of Mobile Terminals that are served by Round-Robin discipline on the uplink. The analysis shows that state-dependent link adaptation significantly improves energy efficiency on the long term in comparison to link adaptation schemes that have been thoroughly investigated in the literature, offering, at the same time, substantially lower mean latency for transferring files.


    1. Distributed power control in crowdsensing-based femtocell networks with QoS provisioning

      Zhixin Liu, Lu Gao, Yang Liu and Kai Ma

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3236

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      A distributed power control in Crowdsensing based on Stackelberg game is proposed in this paper. The QoS of packet delivery rate and time delay is considered to guarantee the communication quality of femtocell networks. A distributed power control and price bargaining algorithm is derived, and numerical results demonstrate the convergence and effectiveness of our proposed algorithm.


    1. A social-aware probabilistic routing approach for mobile opportunistic social networks

      Ruonan Zhao, Xiaoming Wang, Lichen Zhang and Yaguang Lin

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3230

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      In this paper, a novel routing approach is proposed. We model an MOSN into some overlapping regions, and propose two region-related centrality degrees related to users' social characteristics with the consideration of users' centrality, mobility and the interactions among users. We then design a social-aware probabilistic routing (SAPR) approach, in which a message replica control policy is applied to allow a user with higher encounter probability to the destination could obtain more message replicas.

    2. Minimizing secrecy outage probability in D2D-enabled cellular networks: Access control with power optimization

      Yajun Chen, Xinsheng Ji, Kaizhi Huang, Bin Li and Xiaolei Kang

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3231

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      In this paper, we investigate the uplink secure communication for underlay device-to-device (D2D) communication sharing the uplink resources in cellular networks. We first develop a secrecy outage probability (SOP) minimization model while considering the secrecy requirements for both the cellular users and the D2D pairs. Then, we propose a transmission power optimization scheme for D2D pairs subject to the secrecy requirements of the cellular users. To further support the security performance of this hybrid network, an access control strategy with optimal power strategy is considered.

    3. Energy-efficient multigroup communication

      André Riker, Carlos M. Fonseca, Marilia Curado and Edmundo Monteiro

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3232

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      This paper proposes an Integer Linear Programming solution that maximizes the network lifetime of networks with multiple monitoring groups. The solution applies a data aggregation mechanism that differentiates the intra and inter group traffic. The produced aggregated messages may have multiple payloads, depending on the number of groups the traffic crosses.

    4. An assessment of different user–BS association policies for green HetNets in off-grid environments

      Luis A. Fletscher, José M. Maestre and Catalina Valencia Peroni

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3227

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      The target of this paper is to propose and assess different user–BS association mechanisms to reduce grid consumption in heterogeneous cellular networks (HetNets) powered by hybrid energy sources (grid and renewable energy). These schemes are compared to the traditional best-signal-level mechanism and evaluated via simulation by using key performance indicators related to grid consumption, number of users served, and average transmission rate per user.

    5. Optimization of multiband cooperative spectrum sensing with particle swarm optimization

      Yongqiang Hei, Ran Wei, Wentao Li, Cong Zhang and Xiaohui Li

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3226

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      This paper investigates the multiband linear cooperative spectrum sensing problem of maximizing the aggregated opportunistic throughput in cognitive radio network, by means of jointly optimizing the weight coefficients, the decision threshold, and the sensing time. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm integrated with the golden section search (GSS) method (PSO-GSS) is proposed to solve this problem. And simulation results indicate that PSO-GSS has a powerful searching ability and achieves higher aggregate throughput when compared with the existing algorithms.


    1. CloudAware: Empowering context-aware self-adaptation for mobile applications

      Gabriel Orsini, Dirk Bade and Winfried Lamersdorf

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3210

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      To overcome the inherent resource-constraints of mobile devices, certain tasks of mobile applications can be offloaded either onto nearby resources or cloud service provider. Such a decision is highly context-dependent and requires adaptive strategies to increase the user experience. We therefore conducted an extensive requirements analysis, evaluated over 40 existing solutions pointing out their strengths and weaknesses and present our CloudAware middleware, that supports automated context-aware self-adaptation techniques that ease the development of elastic, scalable, and context-adaptive mobile applications.

    2. MABO-TSCH: Multihop and blacklist-based optimized time synchronized channel hopping

      Pedro Henrique Gomes, Thomas Watteyne and Bhaskar Krishnamachari

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3223

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      This article introduces MABO-TSCH, a solution for distributed blacklisting that is optimized for multihop networks and compliant with the IEEE802.15.4 TSCH standard. The proposal consists of algorithms that negotiate pair-wise blacklists based on stochastic link quality estimation. MABO-TSCH outperforms the default blind frequency hopping with a 43% higher throughput in the simulation and 23% higher throughput in the real experimentation; it is able to select the best frequency approximately 75% of the times.


    1. Efficient rendezvous schemes for fast-varying cognitive radio ad hoc networks

      Abdulmajid Al-Mqdashi, A. Sali, Mohammad J. Abdel-Rahman, Nor Kamariah Noordin, Shaiful J. Hashim and Rosdiadee Nordin

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3217

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      In this paper, we propose two efficient cyclic-quorum-based CH rendezvous schemes, which we refer to as NCQ-CH and MNCQ-CH. These schemes are designed to account for the fast PU dynamics and the related channel variations in CRAHNs. Furthermore, our schemes are adapted to react to fast PU dynamics on the fly using efficient mechanisms for channel ranking and cyclic quorum selection. The simulations results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed schemes under fast PU dynamics, in terms of the time-to-rendezvous and PU detection accuracy, as compared to existing rendezvous schemes in the literature.


    1. Adaptive control-theoretic detection of integrity attacks against cyber-physical industrial systems

      Jose Rubio-Hernan, Luca De Cicco and Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3209

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      In this paper, we survey the advantages of a watermark-based detector against some integrity attacks as well as the weaknesses against other attacks. To cover these weaknesses, we propose a new control and security strategy that complements the watermark-based detector. We validate the detection efficiency of the new strategy via numeric simulation. Experimental results are also presented by using a laboratory testbed based on supervisory control and data acquisition industrial protocols.


    1. Distributed ON/OFF switching and dynamic channel allocation: Decreasing complexity and improving energy efficiency

      Atefeh Hajijamali Arani, Abolfazl Mehbodniya, Mohammad Javad Omidi and Fumiyuki Adachi

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3222

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      HetNet has emerged as a promising approach to deliver higher rate data services. In HetNets, switching OFF base stations (BSs) is known as an effective solution to reduce the energy consumption of networks. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the number of modes for BSs on improving the energy efficiency. Simulation results show that energy consumption reduces with increased number of modes. However, increasing the number of modes beyond a certain limit will not have a significant effect.

    2. GDSoC: Green dynamic self-optimizing content caching in ICN-based 5G network

      Shujie Yang, Xuesong Qiu, Haiyong Xie, Jianfeng Guan, Yang Liu and Changqiao Xu

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3221

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      In this paper, through balancing the tradeoff between data caching energy consumption and data transport energy consumption, an optimization problem is formulated with the consideration of dynamic network topology. By leveraging a dynamic self-optimization algorithm, the formulated optimization problem is solved and the Green Dynamic Self-optimizing In-network CCS (GDSoC) is therefore proposed.

    3. A tunable 3-D statistical channel model for spatio-temporal characteristics of wireless communication networks

      Syed Junaid Nawaz, Shurjeel Wyne, Konstantinos B. Baltzis, Sardar M. Gulfam and Kanapathippillai Cumanan

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3213

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      A 3-D geometric channel model is proposed with multiple degrees of freedom in its scattering volume geometry, which enables accurate modeling of realistic propagation scenarios for emerging Machine-to-Machine (M2M) wireless networks. Analytical expressions for the joint and marginal statistics in delay and angular domains are derived. Relative to existing models, the proposed model is shown to more accurately adapt to different propagation environments envisioned for emerging communication scenarios such as in indoor pico-cellular and Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication applications.

    4. Radio resource allocation in heterogeneous cellular networks based on effective capacity maximization: Perspective mobile data offloading

      Mohamad Hassan Gholami, Paeiz Azmi, Nader Mokari and Moslem Forouzesh

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3220

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      In this paper, a new radio resource allocation approach for mobile data offloading, by means of a local access point (LAP) in the heterogeneous cellular networks is proposed. Our aim in this paper is to allocate resources to determine the best strategy for providing the required quality of service with the criterion of minimum delay in terms of effective capacity maximization. The basis of this work is optimization for the strategy selection.

    5. Employing antenna selection to improve energy efficiency in massive MIMO systems

      Masoud Arash, Ehsan Yazdian, Mohammad Sadegh Fazel, Glauber Brante and Muhammad Ali Imran

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3212

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      In this paper we propose an antenna selection algorithm which selects the best antennas according to the better channel conditions with respect to the users, aiming at improving the overall energy efficiency. Then, due to the complexity of the mathematical formulation, a tight approximation for the consumed power is presented, using the Wishart theorem, and it is used to find a deterministic formulation for the energy efficiency.

    6. Awa: Using water distribution systems to transmit data

      Karun M. Joseph, Thomas Watteyne and Branko Kerkez

      Version of Record online: 4 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3219

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      The paper describes a novel method by which to transmit data in underground water networks. Rather than using radio frequencies, the method uses the actual water-filled pipe as the transmission channel. The transmission channel is analyzed in a real-world water system, showing a very narrow low-frequency band in which the approach can transmit data across hundreds of meters.

    7. Gateway selection and clustering in multi-interface wireless mesh networks considering network reliability and traffic

      Arash Bozorgchenani, Mohsen Jahanshahi and Daniele Tarchi

      Version of Record online: 4 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3215

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      Gateway Selection and clustering in wireless mesh networks is the focus of this work. Exploiting path tracing method and considering network traffic a gateway selection strategy is intoduced. Moreover, Exploiting genetic algorithm a novel clustering scheme is proposed. The idea is demonstrated to have good throughput in different data rates and low energy consumption.

    8. Short certificate-based proxy signature scheme from pairings

      Girraj Kumar Verma and B. B. Singh

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3214

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      The article introduces the first short certificate-based proxy signature scheme from pairings. The proposal is the most efficient and least bandwidth consuming and thus, can be applied to wireless sensor networks.

    9. CCR: Cost-aware cell relocation in 6TiSCH networks

      Tengfei Chang, Thomas Watteyne, Xavier Vilajosana and Qin Wang

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3211

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      We define “cell equivalence” and verify it on a large data set gathered in 8 experimental measurement campaigns. We design CCR and model its behavior mathematically and implement it practically on IoT-Lab testbed. CCR is pushed through the standardization process at IETF 6TiSCH, with the goal for it to be accepted as the relocation algorithm of SF0.

    10. Cost-efficient deployment of mmW small cells with hybrid backhauls

      Wei Cao, Gang Feng, Shuang Qin and Liang Liang

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3203

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      In this paper, we propose a cost-efficient deployment framework for mmW small cell with hybrid backhaul. We model the deployment cost of mmW networks and the number of admitted UEs. We formulate the deployment problem as an optimization problem to maximize the cost efficiency under the constraint of wireless backhaul link capacity, and derive the optimal number of BANs and WBSs. We find that the number of WBSs per cluster should be small due to the limited wireless backhaul capacity.

    11. One-on-one contract game–based dynamic virtual machine migration scheme for Mobile Edge Computing

      Sungwook Kim

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3204

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      This paper designs a one-on-one contract game model for ENs and MUs. The contract game process is operated independently, based on the step-by-step interactive mechanism, and works to maximize overall MEC system performance while satisfying QoE requirements.

    12. A survey and taxonomy on nonorthogonal multiple-access schemes for 5G networks

      Mehak Basharat, Waleed Ejaz, Muhammad Naeem, Asad Masood Khattak and Alagan Anpalagan

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3202

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      This paper provides the reader with a holistic view of multiple access schemes, methods, and strategies for optimization in NOMA. First, we discuss the taxonomy of multiple access schemes in the literature, then provide a detailed discussion of objectives, constraints, problem types, and solution approaches for NOMA. This paper also discusses the decoding methods and key performance indicators used in NOMA. Finally, we outline future research directions.

    13. Distributed device association for multiservice heterogeneous cellular networks with QoS provisioning

      M. K. Elhattab, Mahmoud M. Elmesalawy and I. I. Ibrahim

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3181

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      In this paper, an association algorithm is proposed to consider the QoS requirements for H2H devices (H2HDs) and IoT devices (IoTDs) coexisted in HCN. In this context, H2HDs are modeled as primary service devices (PSDVs), while IoTDs are modeled as secondary service devices (SSDVs). The device association problem is formulated as a unified optimization problem that aims to maximize the system revenue in terms of the number of accommodated SSDVs while minimizing the PSDVs' global outage probability with QoS provisioning.

    14. SymbioCity: Smart cities for smarter networks

      Federico Chiariotti, Massimo Condoluci, Toktam Mahmoodi and Andrea Zanella

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3206

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      In Symbiocity paradigm, communication network and smart city services form symbiotic association. While communication network provides always and everywhere connectivity to smart city services, those services can be exploited to enhance performance of the communication network. We demonstrate the capabilities of Symbiocity with one use case in City of London on using the road traffic density for optimizing mobile networks.


    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Experimental evaluation of fog computing techniques to reduce latency in LTE networks

      César Augusto García-Pérez and Pedro Merino

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3201

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      This paper evaluates MEC/fog architectures (Fog Gateway and GTP Gateway) so as to reduce the latency in LTE and future 5G networks. The solutions are based on redirecting the data in the GTP tunnels towards the fog services. The Fog Gateway solution can be deployed off-the-shelf in existing LTE networks while the GTP Gateway requires the eNB to be modified but offers a better performance by splitting its functionality. The results show that both solutions are feasible to reduce latency.


    1. On the secrecy capacity region of 3-user cognitive multiple-access channels with confidential messages

      Amir Sonee and Ghosheh Abed Hodtani

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3197

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      Three-user cognitive multiple-access channel with confidential messages (CMAC-CM) under the perfect secrecy criterion and for the overlay paradigm is studied. For the discrete alphabet and memoryless model of this channel, an inner bound and an outer bound on the secrecy capacity region along with the secrecy capacity region for a class of less noisy eavesdropping channels is obtained. Next, an inner bound on the secrecy capacity region of the Gaussian CMAC-CM, the secrecy capacity region and secrecy sum-capacity under a special security situation for a class of degraded three-user GCMAC-CM is proposed.

    2. A collaborative key management scheme for distributed smart objects

      Fatma Hendaoui, Hamdi Eltaief and Habib Youssef

      Version of Record online: 28 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3198

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      This paper proposes a collaborative key management scheme for smart devices. The proposed solution respects the restraints of IoT devices such as processing, storage and communication resources. The key update does not engender further costs.

    3. Modeling and analysis of traffic-aware spectrum handover schemes in cognitive HetNets

      Ameneh Habibzadeh, Shahriar Shirvani Moghaddam, Seyed Mohammad Razavizadeh and Mahyar Shirvanimoghaddam

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3199

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      This paper proposes two traffic-aware spectrum handover (SHO) schemes for cognitive HetNets, which use shared-to-reserved (SR) or reserved-to-shared (RS) SHO strategies. The performance of the proposed schemes is mathematically analyzed and two closed-form expressions are derived for blocking probability of the primary users and forced termination probability of the cognitive secondary users. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes outperform the existing SHO approaches, such as always-change, always-stay, and proactive methods, specifically at higher arrival rates of primary users and also the proposed centralized schemes offer higher performance compared to the distributed ones.

    4. On the trade-off between energy saving and number of switchings in green cellular networks

      Marco Dolfi, Cicek Cavdar, Simone Morosi, Pierpaolo Piunti, Jens Zander and Enrico Del Re

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3193

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      In this paper, we propose a multiobjective optimization framework aimed at minimizing the power consumption and the number of BS sleep-mode switchings in cellular networks, by jointly considering QoS requirements. The proposed optimization can obtain up to 60% energy savings during off-peak hours, guaranteeing QoS target requirements. By optimizing the network configuration, a 70% reduction in BS switch on/off operations can be reached in a day with 3% more energy expense.

    5. Cryptanalysis and improvement of a biometric-based remote user authentication protocol usable in a multiserver environment

      Preeti Chandrakar and Hari Om

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3200

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      We scrutinize recently published Amin-Biswas's authentication protocol and find that it is vulnerable to identity guessing attack, password guessing attack, user untraceability attack, user-server impersonation attack, new smart card issue attack, and privileged insider attack. To overcome these security weaknesses, we propose an elliptic curve cryptography and biometric-based remote user authentication protocol for a multi-server environment. We have proved using the formal and informal security verification that the proposed scheme is secured against various kinds of vulnerabilities.

    6. Statistical analysis and modeling of a novel parameter for resource allocation in multicarrier PLC systems

      Guilherme R. Colen, Lucas G. de Oliveira, Camila B. Zeller, A. J. Han Vinck and Moises V. Ribeiro

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3180

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      This work outlines a novel parameter for resource allocation purposes in multicarrier power line communication systems, the so-called normalized signal-to-noise ratio coherence bandwidth. Based on noise measurements and channel estimates, a statistical modeling of the proposed parameter is presented for in-home, outdoor, and hybrid power line communication–wireless environments, in the frequency bands of 1.7 to 30, 1.7 to 50, and 1.7 to 100 MHz, considering multiple single component and Gaussian mixture distributions.

    7. Multiband chirp OCC-UWB system design for suppression of multiple narrowband interferences

      Zhiquan Bai, Shen Gao, Shanshan Peng, Peihao Dong and Xinghai Yang

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3196

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      This paper proposes a multiband OCC-UWB system design based on chirp waveforms to improve the spectrum utilization of UWB systems and suppress multiple NBIs and other typical interferences in UWB environments. The system design can be implemented in two different ways, named as the equant multiband scheme and the non-equant multiband scheme. Simulation results and theoretical analysis show the efficiency of the proposed multiband UWB system design in the interference suppression and spectrum utilization.


    1. Combining distributed queuing with energy harvesting to enable perpetual distributed data collection applications

      Francisco Vazquez-Gallego, Pere Tuset-Peiró, Luis Alonso and Jesus Alonso-Zarate

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3195

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      EH-DQ is an energy-aware hybrid MAC protocol based on Distributed Queuing for data collection applications using long-range and low-power wireless technologies. Analytical modelling and simulation results show that EH-DQ performs close to the optimum in terms of data delivery and time efficiency compared to deterministic and random access MAC protocols typically used in such scenarios, i.e. TDMA or FSA. In addition, EH-DQ does not require updated topology information to maintain a collision-free schedule, making it suitable for dynamic networks.


    1. Hybrid teaching-learning optimization of wireless sensor networks

      Antonios Tsiflikiotis, Sotirios K. Goudos and George K. Karagiannidis

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3194

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      This paper deals with the power allocation of decentralized detection in an optimal wireless sensor network (WSN). We propose a novel stochastic optimization algorithm, called TLBO-Jaya algorithm, which is a hybrid form of two recently proposed algorithms, i.e., the Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO), and the Jaya algorithms. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than other well-known algorithms in almost all WSN tested cases.

    2. Joint effect of jamming and noise on the secrecy outage performance of wiretap channels with feedback delay and multiple antennas

      Yosbel R. Ortega, Prabhat K. Upadhyay, Daniel Benevides da Costa, Petros S. Bithas, Athanasios G. Kanatas, Ugo S. Dias and Rafael Timoteo de Sousa Junior

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3191

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      In this paper, we investigate the secrecy performance of multiple-input-multiple-output wiretap channels with outdated channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. The joint effect of multiple jamming signals and noise at the eavesdropper is studied assuming that the transmitter adopts a transmit antenna selection technique, while both the legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper use a maximal-ratio combining scheme to achieve spatial diversity in reception.


    1. Application of the Fog computing paradigm to Smart Factories and cyber-physical systems

      M.S. de Brito, S. Hoque, R. Steinke, A. Willner and T. Magedanz

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3184

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      This work sets a Programmable Fog Node Architecture by applying containerized solutions and discuss the importance of Orchestration mechanisms to distribute task, services, and applications in a Fog environment. Through discrete events simulation, we show how Smart Factories can achieve flexibility and dynamicity by applying the findings in this paper.


    1. FASPM: Fuzzy logic-based adaptive security protocol for multihop data dissemination in intelligent transport systems

      Muhammad Awais Javed, Sherali Zeadally, Muhammad Usman and Guftaar Ahmad Sardar Sidhu

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3190

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      FASPM reduces the security queuing delay of ITS messages and results in faster multihop warning dissemination along with fewer transmissions.

    2. A distributed learning–based user association for heterogeneous networks

      Atefeh Hajijamali Arani, Mohammad Javad Omidi, Abolfazl Mehbodniya and Fumiyuki Adachi

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3192

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      In this paper, we investigate the UE association (UEA) problem in heterogeneous networks and propose a load-aware UEA mechanism based on the BS's estimated load and signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio. We model this strategic UE-BS association as a noncooperative game. To solve the game, we develop a fully distributed algorithm inspired by machine learning techniques, whereby the proposed UEA scheme corresponds to a Markov chain.


    1. Leveraging fog computing and software defined systems for selective forwarding attacks detection in mobile wireless sensor networks

      Qussai Yaseen, Firas Albalas, Yaser Jararwah and Mahmoud Al-Ayyoub

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3183

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      A model for detecting selective forwarding attacks in mobile wireless sensor networks. The model leverages the infrastructure of fog computing and its close proximity from sensor layers to provide a global intrusion detection systems that can trace and monitor mobile wireless sensors in their movement and detect malicious ones.


    1. Modeling and analysis of simultaneous information and energy transfer in Internet of Things

      Chang Liu and Balasubramaniam Natarajan

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3177

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      This paper, for the first time, investigates the modeling and analysis of SIET in a network where IoT nodes are powered via IoT gateways, using a Ginibre point process to capture the repulsion between spatially distributed nodes. We derive closed-form expressions for power outage probability and transmission outage probability for a practical case. Then our work uncovers a strategy to balance the trade-off between these two probabilities.

    2. Physical-layer intrusion detection system for smart jamming attacks

      Awais Yousaf, Asim Loan, Radu F. Babiceanu and Onaiza Yousaf

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3189

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      In this paper, a physical-layer intrusion detection system (PLIDS) for direct-sequence spread-spectrum systems is developed against smart jammers, which is efficient due to its high detection rates, usability, and accuracy.


    1. Anomaly behavior analysis for IoT sensors

      Jesus Pacheco and Salim Hariri

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3188

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      IoT sensors will introduce major security challenges as they contribute to a significant increase in the IoT attack surface. In this paper, we present a methodology to develop an intrusion detection system based on the anomaly behavior analysis paradigm to detect when a sensor has been compromised. Our preliminary experimental results show that our approach can accurately detect known and unknown sensor attacks with high detection rate and low false alarms.

    2. ReCAP: A distributed CAPTCHA service at the edge of the network to handle server overload

      Ahmad T. Al-Hammouri, Zaid Al-Ali and Basheer Al-Duwairi

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3187

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      Our proposed system, called ReCAP, can relieve the overloaded server by redirecting incoming requests to geographically distributed nodes that can distinguish humans from bots using the CAPTCHA mechanism. In case of a DDoS attack, legitimate requests are forwarded to the Web server through CAPTCHA nodes, while in case of a flash crowd event; an informative message about the overload condition is sent to users by the CAPTCHA nodes.


    1. Simultaneous energy harvesting and information processing considering multi-relay multi-antenna using maximum ratio transmission and antenna selection strategies

      Abdulhamid Zahedi, Mohammad Lari, Azhar Albaaj and Qassem Alabkhat

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3182

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      In this paper, multirelay multiantenna scheme is proposed for improving energy harvesting, and consequently, the throughput of the communication system in delay-tolerant and delay-limited system conditions. Two transmission strategies for multiantenna signals of multirelay structure, MRT and AS with 2 relaying protocols, TSR and PSR, have been implemented in this paper. From MRT and AS schemes, the throughput of MRT method is better than the AS one. Also for comparison of PSR and TSR protocols, PSR is better than TSR.

    2. Power allocation and cooperative jamming for enhancing physical layer security in opportunistic relay networks in the presence of interference

      Ahmed H. Abd El-Malek, Anas M. Salhab, Salam A. Zummo and Mohamed-Slim Alouini

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3178

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      The impact of non-identical CCI on the secrecy performance of dual-hop DF relaying is investigated where the outage and intercept probabilities are obtained for the ORS model under a single/multiple passive eavesdropper(s) attack. Cooperative jamming (CJ) techniques are used to enhance the physical layer (PHY) security performance. The results show that, although the CCI increases the system outage probability, it might improve the system secrecy performance. Moreover, the proposed CJ-ORS model enhances the system secrecy performance.

    3. Variable rate and power M-QAM for DPS/DPB CoMP with adaptive modulation

      Hengguo Song, Qimei Cui, Huiling Zuo, Xuefei Zhang and Hui Wang

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3185

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      This paper investigates the average spectral efficiency (ASE) of M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) satisfying instantaneous bit error rate constraint for dynamic point selection/dynamic point blanking coordinated multipoint system with 3 different adaptive modulation strategies. Closed-form expressions of the ASE for continuous-rate M-QAM are obtained. We also analyze the ASE for discrete-rate M-QAM which is more useful for the practical dynamic point selection/dynamic point blanking coordinated multipoint wireless communication systems. Monte Carlo simulations are used to verify the correctness of our analysis.

    4. An SDN orchestrator for cloud data center: System design and experimental evaluation

      D. Adami, B. Martini, A. Sgambelluri, L. Donatini, M. Gharbaoui, P. Castoldi and S. Giordano

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3172

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      Software-defined network (SDN) paradigm can play a key role in addressing the new challenges in data delivery operations in cloud data centers, thanks to automated and multigranular network control operations. This paper presents an SDN-based orchestrator able to coordinate the provision of both cloud and network services while jointly arranging Virtual Machines and delivery path allocations based on the current load. A prototype is presented with focus on the software design and on the orchestration strategies exploiting measurement-based load estimation mechanisms.

    5. Performance of dual-hop DF relaying systems with QAM schemes over mixed η-μ and κ-μ fading channels

      Dharmendra Dixit and P. R. Sahu

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3179

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      Performance of a dual-hop decode-and-forward relaying system is analyzed over mixed η-μ and κ-μ fading channels. Mathematical expressions for average symbol error rate, diversity order, coding gain, and optimal power allocation are obtained and verified through simulation results.

    6. Efficient message recovery proxy blind signature scheme from pairings

      Girraj Kumar Verma and B. B. Singh

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3167

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      In this article, we introduce a proxy blind signature scheme with message recovery to shorten the message signature size. Through comparison with existing efficient proxy blind signature schemes, we show that the proposed scheme is the shortest in size and more efficient in computation cost.

    7. Adaptive spectrum scanning techniques for reducing the identification time of the frequency coded chipless RFID system

      Ahmed El-Awamry, Maher Khaliel, Abdelfattah Fawky and Thomas Kaiser

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3173

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      The time taken by the reader to identify the Frequency Coded (FC) chipless RFID tags existent in the reader's interrogation region is called system latency. The frequency scanning methodology, number of averaging for clutter removal and hop duration are the three main parameters that signi?cantly affect the overall system latency. Consequently, the Adaptive Frequency Hopping (AFH) and Adaptive Sliding Window (ASW) methodologies are proposed and proofed to be ef?cient for the chipless RFID systems from the latency and accuracy perspectives.


    1. SIMDOM: A framework for SIMD instruction translation and offloading in heterogeneous mobile architectures

      Junaid Shuja, Abdullah Gani, Kwangman Ko, Kyoungyoung So, Saad Mustafa, Sajjad A. Madani and Muhammad Khurram Khan

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3174

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      We propose a framework for optimization and acceleration of precompiled SIMD instruction-based application translation and offloading in MCC and FMEC architectures. We develop a system model of SIMDOM framework for translation and offloading of mobile applications. We evaluate the SIMDOM framework in cloud and edge deployments to provide comparison with existing native code translation framework of Qemu.


    1. Energy detection–based spectrum sensing with constraint region in cognitive LTE systems

      Nan Wang, Yue Gao, Fengyi Yang, Qi Bi, Weiliang Xie and Clive Parini

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3171

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      An error decision probability is proposed to solve the trade-off problem between detection and false alarm probability with the constraint region requirement. By implementing both Welch and wavelet-based energy detectors, the adaptive threshold-setting algorithm demonstrates a more reliable and robust sensing result for both primary users and secondary users in comparison with the conventional fixed one.


    1. Providing ultra-short latency to user-centric 5G applications at the mobile network edge

      I. Farris, T. Taleb, H. Flinck and A. Iera

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3169

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      MEC solutions need to efficiently cope with user mobility, which requires fast relocation of service instances to guarantee the desired latency requirements. In this paper, by leveraging the potential of lightweight container virtualization, we investigate a proactive service replication approach for stateless applications, to drastically reduce the time of service migration between different edge nodes. The performance evaluation shows promising results of our approach with respect to classic reactive service migration.


    1. A provably secure RFID authentication protocol based on elliptic curve signature with message recovery suitable for m-Health environments

      Mustapha Benssalah, Mustapha Djeddou and Karim Drouiche

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ett.3166

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      We propose a secure mobile radio frequency identification authentication protocol to increase the safety of the patient data records and the work efficiency of medical staff. Our proposal uses the elliptic curve signature with message recovery to guarantee all the important security aspects of medical applications.


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