Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres


  1. Aerosol and Clouds

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Chemistry and Physics of Minerals and Rocks/Volcanology
    4. Climate and Dynamics
    5. Composition and Chemistry
    6. Seismology
    1. Aerosol formation in basaltic lava fountaining: Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland

      Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Robert S. Martin and Clive Oppenheimer

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016811

      Key Points

      • Aerosol sampled in lava fountaining at Eyjafjallajokull, <2 min from emission
      • Two unusual features: fine particle size and chloride-dominated composition
      • Efficiency of sulfate formation found to correlate with the eruption vigor
    2. Analyzing the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption using satellite remote sensing, lidar and WRF-Chem dispersion and tracking model

      P. W. Webley, T. Steensen, M. Stuefer, G. Grell, S. Freitas and M. Pavolonis

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016817

      Key Points

      • Modeling of airborne volcanic ash concentrations
      • Validation/comparison with satellite and ground observations
      • Significance of source parameters on volcanic ash modeling
    3. Optical properties and radiative forcing of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash layer observed over Lille, France, in 2010

      Y. Derimian, O. Dubovik, D. Tanre, P. Goloub, T. Lapyonok and A. Mortier

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016815

      Key Points

      • The derived ash optical model and forcing relied on AERONET column observations
      • Uncertainties in the derived ash aerosol model and forcing are evaluated
      • The indicated higher sensitivity of phase function to aerosol mixture assumption
    4. In situ observations of volcanic ash clouds from the FAAM aircraft during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010

      Ben Johnson, Kate Turnbull, Phil Brown, Rachel Burgess, James Dorsey, Anthony J. Baran, Helen Webster, Jim Haywood, Richard Cotton, Z. Ulanowski, Evelyn Hesse, Alan Woolley and Philip Rosenberg

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016760

      Key Points

      • Assessing the risk of volcanic ash to aviation
      • Validating ash forecasts from dispersion models
      • Providing key physical/optical parameters for ash remote sensing
    5. A comparison of atmospheric dispersion model predictions with observations of SO2 and sulphate aerosol from volcanic eruptions

      Imogen P. C. Heard, Alistair J. Manning, James M. Haywood, Claire Witham, Alison Redington, Andy Jones, Lieven Clarisse and Adam Bourassa

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016791

      Key Points

      • Volcanic SO2 and sulphate aerosol are modeled using the NAME dispersion model
      • NAME results compare well with observations despite many uncertainties in both
      • NAME shows promise as a tool for modeling SO2 and sulphate from volcanoes
    6. Satellite remote sensing analysis of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash cloud over the North Sea during 4–18 May 2010

      Sundar A. Christopher, Nan Feng, Aaron Naeger, Ben Johnson and Franco Marenco

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016850

      Key Points

      • We analyze spectral signatures of volcanic ash
      • Compare satellite with aircraft data
      • Assess radiative forcing of volcanic ash
    7. Sensitivity analysis of dispersion modeling of volcanic ash from Eyjafjallajökull in May 2010

      B. J. Devenish, P. N. Francis, B. T. Johnson, R. S. J. Sparks and D. J. Thomson

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016782

      Key Points

      • Modeling of volcanic ash dispersion in the atmosphere
      • Comparison of model results with satellite and aircraft observations
      • Estimate of distal fine ash fraction
    8. A new application of a multifrequency submillimeter radiometer in determining the microphysical and macrophysical properties of volcanic plumes: A sensitivity study

      Anthony J. Baran

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016781

      Key Points

      • Sensitivity of submillimeter frequencies to aerosol
      • Frequencies sensitive to altitude, atmospheric state, effective diameter, mass
      • Important to determine the refractive index of ash at submillimeter frequencies
    9. Simulated volcanic ash imagery: A method to compare NAME ash concentration forecasts with SEVIRI imagery for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010

      S. C. Millington, R. W. Saunders, P. N. Francis and H. N. Webster

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016770

      Key Points

      • Atmospheric dispersion model output can be used to simulate satellite imagery
      • Location of forecast ash cloud can be validated against satellite observations
      • Aids understanding of the properties of ash and factors affecting imagery
    10. CALIOP observations of the transport of ash from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April 2010

      D. M. Winker, Z. Liu, A. Omar, J. Tackett and D. Fairlie

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016499

      Key Points

      • Remote sensing of volcanic ash using satellite lidar
      • Observation of the dispersion of volcanic aerosols
    11. Eyjafjallajökull ash concentrations derived from both lidar and modeling

      Patrick Chazette, Marc Bocquet, Philippe Royer, Victor Winiarek, Jean-Christophe Raut, Philippe Labazuy, Mathieu Gouhier, Mélody Lardier and Jean-Pierre Cariou

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015755

      Key Points

      • Assessment of the ash plume mass concentration
      • Comparison between lidar and modeling
      • Retrieval of the optical properties of the ash plume
    12. A case study of observations of volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption: 2. Airborne and satellite radiative measurements

      Stuart M. Newman, Lieven Clarisse, Daniel Hurtmans, Franco Marenco, Ben Johnson, Kate Turnbull, Stephan Havemann, Anthony J. Baran, Debbie O'Sullivan and Jim Haywood

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016780

      Key Points

      • This case study comprises a unique data set of airborne/satellite observations
      • Airborne ash properties are used to test fundamental radiative transfer
      • We independently validate satellite ash retrieval algorithm for the first time
    13. A case study of observations of volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption: 1. In situ airborne observations

      Kate Turnbull, Ben Johnson, Franco Marenco, Jim Haywood, Andreas Minikin, Bernadett Weinzierl, Hans Schlager, Ulrich Schumann, Susan Leadbetter and Alan Woolley

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016688

      Key Points

      • In situ measurements of volcanic ash over the UK during 17 May 2010
      • Comparison of measurements by two aircraft, FAAM and DLR Falcon
      • Measurements of volcanic ash optical properties
    14. Performance assessment of a volcanic ash transport model mini-ensemble used for inverse modeling of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

      N. I. Kristiansen, A. Stohl, A. J. Prata, N. Bukowiecki, H. Dacre, S. Eckhardt, S. Henne, M. C. Hort, B. T. Johnson, F. Marenco, B. Neininger, O. Reitebuch, P. Seibert, D. J. Thomson, H. N. Webster and B. Weinzierl

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016844

      Key Points

      • The source parameters of volcanic emissions are crucial for ash forecasts
      • The source parameters can be substantially improved by assimilating observations
      • The simulated ash transport is improved with new source term estimates
    15. Modeling the resuspension of ash deposited during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in spring 2010

      S. J. Leadbetter, M. C. Hort, S. von Löwis, K. Weber and C. S. Witham

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016802

      Key Points

      • A forecast of resuspension of recently deposited volcanic ash is investigated
      • Model predictions compare well with observations of resuspended ash
    16. Retrieval of physical properties of volcanic ash using Meteosat: A case study from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

      Peter N. Francis, Michael C. Cooke and Roger W. Saunders

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016788

      Key Points

      • New techniques for detection and physical property retrieval of volcanic ash
      • Demonstration of strong sensitivity to refractive index
      • Validation against independent data
    17. Operational prediction of ash concentrations in the distal volcanic cloud from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

      H. N. Webster, D. J. Thomson, B. T. Johnson, I. P. C. Heard, K. Turnbull, F. Marenco, N. I. Kristiansen, J. Dorsey, A. Minikin, B. Weinzierl, U. Schumann, R. S. J. Sparks, S. C. Loughlin, M. C. Hort, S. J. Leadbetter, B. J. Devenish, A. J. Manning, C. S. Witham, J. M. Haywood and B. W. Golding

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016790

      Key Points

      • A method for forecasting peak volcanic ash concentrations is described
      • Method validated using observations from the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption
      • Uncertainties in modeled ash concentrations are numerous and large
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      Determining the contribution of volcanic ash and boundary layer aerosol in backscatter lidar returns: A three-component atmosphere approach

      Franco Marenco and Robin J. Hogan

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015415

      Key Points

      • Lidar retrieval for aerosol types with different depolarization
      • Quantification of volcanic ash above Exeter on 16 and 18 April 2010
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      Airborne lidar observations of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash plume

      Franco Marenco, Ben Johnson, Kate Turnbull, Stuart Newman, Jim Haywood, Helen Webster and Hugo Ricketts

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016396

      Key Points

      • Estimation of volcanic ash concentrations by airborne lidar
      • Quantification of volcanic ash above the UK during May 2010
    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ice formation in ash-influenced clouds after the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April 2010

      P. Seifert, A. Ansmann, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, J. Schmidt, F. Schnell, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger and M. Wiegner

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015702

      Key Points

      • Lidar-based observation of the interaction between volcanic ash and clouds
      • Case studies of ash-affected heterogeneous freezing in free-tropospheric clouds
      • Statistical evaluation of the ice nucleating efficiency of volcanic aerosol
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      Evaluating the structure and magnitude of the ash plume during the initial phase of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption using lidar observations and NAME simulations

      H. F. Dacre, A. L. M. Grant, R. J. Hogan, S. E. Belcher, D. J. Thomson, B. J. Devenish, F. Marenco, M. C. Hort, J. M. Haywood, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis and L. Clarisse

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD015608

      Key Points

      • Quantitative prediction of volcanic ash concentrations
      • Estimation of distal fine ash fraction
      • Reconstruction of volcano plume height time series
    22. You have free access to this content
      Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010

      A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger and M. Wiegner

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015567

      Key Points

      • New lidar technique to separate volcanic sulfate and ash particles
      • Observation of the evolution of volcanic aerosols over central Europe
      • Synergistic EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations
  2. Chemistry and Physics of Minerals and Rocks/Volcanology

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Chemistry and Physics of Minerals and Rocks/Volcanology
    4. Climate and Dynamics
    5. Composition and Chemistry
    6. Seismology
    1. You have free access to this content
      Distal deposition of tephra from the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 summit eruption

      J. A. Stevenson, S. Loughlin, C. Rae, T. Thordarson, A. E. Milodowski, J. S. Gilbert, S. Harangi, R. Lukács, B. Højgaard, U. Árting, S. Pyne-O'Donnell, A. MacLeod, B. Whitney and M. Cassidy

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JB008904

      Key Points

      • Tephra from Eyjafjallajokull was deposited across Europe
      • Tephra grains deposited in Europe were up to 100 microns diameter
      • Air quality monitoring equipment allows tephra sampling above 3000 km from the source
    2. You have free access to this content
      Geothermobarometry of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption: New constraints on Icelandic magma plumbing systems

      Jakob K. Keiding and Olgeir Sigmarsson

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JB008829

      Key Points

      • Highly variable mineral and glass compositions suggest complex plumbing system
      • Crystallization temperatures from 1000 deg C to 1170 deg C
      • Crystallization depths of 2-5 km and 16-18 km
    3. You have free access to this content
      Impact of the Eyjafjallajökull ash cloud: A newspaper perspective

      Andrew J. L. Harris, Lucia Gurioli, Elizabeth E. Hughes and Sandra Lagreulet

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JB008735

      Key Points

      • There was extensive and influencial newspaper coverage of the eruption
      • Volcanology articles covered significant space
      • The readers opinion of the response and responders was likely not high
    4. You have free access to this content
      Melt inclusion constraints on the magma source of Eyjafjallajökull 2010 flank eruption

      S. Moune, O. Sigmarsson, P. Schiano, T. Thordarson and J. K. Keiding

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JB008718

      Key Points

      • Fimmvorthuhals eruption provides a rare opportunity to assess magmatic processes
      • MI contents result from mixing between 2 end-members and crystallization trends
      • The mixing end-members are related to the parental magmas of Katla and Surtsey
    5. You have free access to this content
      High levels of particulate matter in Iceland due to direct ash emissions by the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and resuspension of deposited ash

      Throstur Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn Jóhannsson, Andreas Stohl and Nina I. Kristiansen

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JB008756

      Key Points

      • Direct emissions and resuspension of ash lead to very poor air quality
      • Highest values of PM10 ever measured, over 13 mg/m3, in Iceland due to ash
      • Resuspension may interfere with inverse modeling of ash emission
    6. You have free access to this content
      Ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland): Fragmentation processes and aerodynamic behavior

      P. Dellino, M. T. Gudmundsson, G. Larsen, D. Mele, J. A. Stevenson, T. Thordarson and B. Zimanowski

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JB008726

      Key Points

      • Eyjafjallajokull eruption of 2010 produced very fine ash
      • Fine ash was produced by both magmatic and phreatomagmatic fragmentation
      • Ash morphology infuence atmospheric transportation
    7. You have free access to this content
      Charge mechanism of volcanic lightning revealed during the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull

      Pordur Arason, Alec J. Bennett and Laura E. Burgin

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JB008651

      Key Points

      • Cause of volcanic lightning is being debated
      • High res data collected: lightning locations, plume height, status of atmosphere
      • Evidence that electrification of volcanic plumes is analogous to thunderstorms
    8. You have free access to this content
      Estimation of ash injection in the atmosphere by basaltic volcanic plumes: The case of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption

      E. Kaminski, S. Tait, F. Ferrucci, M. Martet, B. Hirn and P. Husson

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JB008297

      Key Points

      • Present a model based on mass partitioning between plume and ground flow
      • The production of ash in the conduit controls the ash concentration in the plume
      • Errors on the volcanic source directly affect the forecasting of ash dispersion
  3. Climate and Dynamics

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Chemistry and Physics of Minerals and Rocks/Volcanology
    4. Climate and Dynamics
    5. Composition and Chemistry
    6. Seismology
    1. The impact of the atmosphere on the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption plume

      G. N. Petersen, H. Bjornsson and P. Arason

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016762

      Key Points

      • Observed impact of atmosphere on explosive volcanic plume
      • The unusual weather situation of spring 2010
      • Observed impact of stability and buoyancy on meso to micro scale
  4. Composition and Chemistry

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Chemistry and Physics of Minerals and Rocks/Volcanology
    4. Climate and Dynamics
    5. Composition and Chemistry
    6. Seismology
    1. Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash concentrations determined using Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager measurements

      A. J. Prata and A. T. Prata

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016800

      Key Points

      • Quantitative satellite retrievals for volcanic ash are presented and validated
      • A new ash concentration chart is presented
      • A new concept for ash thresholds based on dosages is introduced
    2. Volcanic SO2, BrO and plume height estimations using GOME-2 satellite measurements during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in May 2010

      M. Rix, P. Valks, N. Hao, D. Loyola, H. Schlager, H. Huntrieser, J. Flemming, U. Koehler, U. Schumann and A. Inness

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016718

      Key Points

      • SO2 and BrO in the eruption plume of Eyjafjallajokull using GOME-2
      • Direct retreival of the SO2 plume height from GOME-2 measurements
      • Comparison of GOME-2 data with model simulations, Falcon and Brewer observations
    3. Improved detection of sulphur dioxide in volcanic plumes using satellite-based hyperspectral infrared measurements: Application to the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption

      J. C. Walker, E. Carboni, A. Dudhia and R. G. Grainger

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016810

      Key Points

      • Eyjafjallajokull SO2 was difficult to measure from space
      • Volcanic plume can be clearly distinguished using MetOp IASI
      • SO2 detection limit is order of magnitude better than thought previously
  5. Seismology

    1. Top of page
    2. Aerosol and Clouds
    3. Chemistry and Physics of Minerals and Rocks/Volcanology
    4. Climate and Dynamics
    5. Composition and Chemistry
    6. Seismology
    1. You have free access to this content
      Using microearthquakes to track repeated magma intrusions beneath the Eyjafjallajökull stratovolcano, Iceland

      Jon Tarasewicz, Bryndís Brandsdóttir, Robert S. White, Martin Hensch and Bergthóra Thorbjarnardóttir

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JB008751

      Key Points

      • Microearthquakes track melt migration from the mantle to the surface
      • Automatic earthquake locations reveal a complex intrusion prior to eruption
      • Position and timing of seismicity constrains melt movement and source processes

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