Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics

Cover image for Vol. 120 Issue 7

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Impact Factor: 3.44

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 24/173 (Geosciences Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 2169-9402

Associated Title(s): Journal of Geophysical Research

VIEW

  1. 1 - 74
  1. Research Articles

    1. Magnetospheric Physics

      Multipoint observations of the open-closed field line boundary as observed by the Van Allen Probes and geostationary satellites during the 14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm

      P. Dixon, E. A. MacDonald, H. O. Funsten, A. Glocer, M. Grande, C. Kletzing, B. A. Larsen, G. Reeves, R. M. Skoug, H. Spence and M. F. Thomsen

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020883

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      Key Points

      • Observations consistent with lobe encounters by multiple spacecraft
      • Disturbances on the open-closed field line boundary propagating from the tail
      • Novel data-model comparison method shows some agreement on boundary dynamics
    2. Relation between the short-term variation of the Jovian radiation belt and thermosphere derived from radio and infrared observations

      Hajime Kita, Hiroaki Misawa, Anil Bhardwaj, Fuminori Tsuchiya, Takeshi Sakanoi, Yasumasa Kasaba, Chihiro Tao, Yoshizumi Miyoshi and Akira Morioka

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021374

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      Key Points

      • First comprehensive study to reveal short-term changes in Jovian radiation belt
      • Intensity of Jovian synchrotron radiation and H3+ varied with solar UV/EUV flux
      • Increase in radial diffusion and internal loss process can explain radio image
    3. An empirical profile of VLF triggered emissions

      J. D. Li, M. Spasojevic and U. S. Inan

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021444

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      Key Points

      • Risers undergo a larger net frequency change and can endure for a longer duration than fallers
      • Triggering behavior at initiation depends on the transmitted element but later becomes independent
      • The number of triggered emissions correlates with the total transmitted signal growth and with Kp
    4. Electrostatic solitary waves observed at Saturn by Cassini inside 10 Rs and near Enceladus

      J. S. Pickett, W. S. Kurth, D. A. Gurnett, R. L. Huff, J. B. Faden, T. F. Averkamp, D. Píša and G. H. Jones

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021305

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      Key Points

      • These are the first reported ESWs observed in connection with Enceladus
      • These are the first survey results of the location of ESWs observed near Saturn
      • Characteristics of ESWs observed near Saturn are provided
    5. Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere

      On the variation of the ionospheric potential due to large-scale radioactivity enhancement and solar activity

      Nikolay N. Slyunyaev, Evgeny A. Mareev and Artem A. Zhidkov

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021039

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      Key Points

      • The IP is most sensitive to conductivity perturbations inside and below thunderstorms
      • Stratospheric conductivity enhancement cannot explain the observed 40% IP increase in the 1960s
      • The modeled IP variation over the solar cycle due to GCR flux modulation alone does not exceed 5%
    6. Two-mode ionospheric response and Rayleigh wave group velocity distribution reckoned from GPS measurement following Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake on 25 April 2015

      C. D. Reddy and Gopi K. Seemala

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021502

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      Key Points

      • Lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling
      • Characteristics of ionospheric response of Nepal earthquake
      • Imaging the Rayleigh wave propagation from ionospheric response induced by Nepal earthquake
    7. Solar and Heliospheric Physics

      Probability density functions for the variable solar wind near the solar cycle minimum

      Z. Vörös, M. Leitner, Y. Narita, G. Consolini, P. Kovács, A. Tóth and J. Lichtenberger

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021257

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      Key Points

      • Introduction of model probability density functions
      • Analysis of multiscale and small-scale histograms
      • Conditional probability studies of magnetic fluctuations
    8. Magnetospheric Physics

      Three-dimensional Hall MHD simulation of lunar minimagnetosphere: General characteristics and comparison with Chang'E-2 observations

      Lianghai Xie, Lei Li, Yiteng Zhang, Yongyong Feng, Xinyue Wang, Aibing Zhang and Linggao Kong

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021647

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      Key Points

      • Three-dimensional Hall MHD studies of the solar wind interaction with lunar magnetic anomaly
      • The effects of solar wind and solar zenith angle on the formation of lunar minimagnetosphere
      • Global simulation with realistic field model for comparison with the observation
    9. The effect of changing solar wind conditions on the inner magnetosphere and ring current: A model data comparison

      S. Patra and E. Spencer

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021299

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      Key Points

      • Flow-out losses early recovery
      • Magnetometer stations movie maps
      • Tail current is important
    10. Nonlinear bounce resonances between magnetosonic waves and equatorially mirroring electrons

      Lunjin Chen, Armando Maldonado, Jacob Bortnik, Richard M. Thorne, Jinxing Li, Lei Dai and Xiaoya Zhan

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021174

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      Key Points

      • Bounce resonance oscillation is nonlinear
      • Bounce resonance enables subsequent scattering due to gyroresonance
      • Bounce resonance is effective for first few harmonics of bounce frequency
    11. Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere

      Characteristics of equatorial plasma bubble zonal drift velocity and tilt based on Hong Kong GPS CORS network: From 2001 to 2012

      Shengyue Ji, Wu Chen, Duojie Weng and Zhenjie Wang

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021493-T

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      Key Points

      • A new zonal drift velocity and tilt estimation method
      • Detailed study on zonal drift velocity and tilt
      • A finding that zonal drift velocity and tilt are correlated
    12. Seasonal variations of MLT tides revealed by a meteor radar chain based on Hough mode decomposition

      You Yu, Weixing Wan, Zhipeng Ren, Bo Xiong, Yun Zhang, Lianhuan Hu, Baiqi Ning and Libo Liu

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021276

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      Key Points

      • Four-year continuous wind observations from a meteor radar chain
      • Simultaneous MLT tidal observation in seasonal variation at middle and low latitudes
      • Seasonal variation of tidal modes revealed by Hough mode decomposition
    13. Magnetospheric Physics

      Acceleration of ions to suprathermal energies by turbulence in the plasmoid-like magnetic structures

      E. E. Grigorenko, A. Yu. Malykhin, E. A. Kronberg, Kh. V. Malova and P. W. Daly

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021314

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      Key Points

      • Spectra of energetic H+, He+, O+ fluxes were studied tailward of X line
      • Strong ion acceleration occurs in turbulent region inside plasmoids
      • Ions are accelerated due to resonant interaction with EM fluctuations
    14. Empirical modeling of 3-D force-balanced plasma and magnetic field structures during substorm growth phase

      Chao Yue, Chih-Ping Wang, Yukitoshi Nishimura, Kyle R. Murphy, Xiaoyan Xing, Larry Lyons, Michael Henderson, Vassilis Angelopoulos, A. T. Y. Lui and Tsugunobu Nagai

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021226

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      Key Points

      • The model reproduces the typical growth phase evolution signatures
      • The ballooning instability is favorable at local plasma beta peak
      • Breakup arc for an event is mapped to X~−14 RE near midnight
    15. Inferring magnetospheric heavy ion density using EMIC waves

      Eun-Hwa Kim, Jay R. Johnson, Hyomin Kim and Dong-Hun Lee

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021092

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      Key Points

      • We show a method how to infer heavy ion concentration using observed EMIC wave
      • The linearly polarized EMIC waves can be generated near the crossover frequency
      • We estimate that the He concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6
    16. A statistical study of fundamental toroidal mode standing Alfvén waves using THEMIS ion bulk velocity data

      Kazue Takahashi, Michael D. Hartinger, Vassilis Angelopoulos and Karl-Heinz Glassmeier

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021207

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      Key Points

      • Ion bulk velocity data are used to characterize fundamental toroidal mode waves
      • Toroidal mode waves are stronger on the dawnside than on the duskside
      • The dawn-dusk asymmetry explains ground observations of Pc5 pulsations at L > 8
    17. Solar and Heliospheric Physics

      3D hybrid simulations of the interaction of a magnetic cloud with a bow shock

      L. Turc, D. Fontaine, P. Savoini and R. Modolo

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021318

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      Key Points

      • The effects of the bow shock on magnetic clouds' magnetic field is investigated
      • The extent of the alteration of the MC's structure depends on the encountered shock configuration
      • The magnetic cloud causes an attenuation of the foreshock
    18. Interstellar hydrogen ionization in the heliosheath

      Mike Gruntman

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021539

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      Key Points

      • Importance of interstellar hydrogen ionization in the heliosheath
      • Estimates of photoionization and electron impact ionization in the heliosheath
      • Effect of ionization on plasma flows in the heliosheath and ENA imaging
    19. General mechanism and dynamics of the solar wind interaction with lunar magnetic anomalies from 3-D particle-in-cell simulations

      Jan Deca, Andrey Divin, Bertrand Lembège, Mihály Horányi, Stefano Markidis and Giovanni Lapenta

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021070

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      Key Points

      • LMA strong enough to stand off the solar wind
      • The LMA configuration is driven by electron motion
      • Kinetic processes and plasma conditions influence structure of LMA system
    20. Magnetospheric Physics

      A new approach to Saturn's periodicities

      J. F. Carbary

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021571

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      Key Points

      • Dual periods not always from superposed sinusoids
      • Dual periods can result from amplitude or frequency modulation
      • Dual periods can also result from random phase or frequency changes
    21. Solar and Heliospheric Physics

      Interplanetary coronal mass ejections from MESSENGER orbital observations at Mercury

      Reka M. Winslow, Noé Lugaz, Lydia C. Philpott, Nathan A. Schwadron, Charles J. Farrugia, Brian J. Anderson and Charles W. Smith

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021200

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      Key Points

      • Comprehensive database of ICMEs from 3.5 years of MESSENGER Magnetometer observations at Mercury
      • Three lines of evidence for ICME speed decrease past Mercury's orbit to 1 AU
      • Magnetic field strength-distance dependence established from Helios data confirmed with MESSENGER
    22. Magnetospheric Physics

      Formation and evolution of high-plasma-pressure region in the near-Earth plasma sheet: Precursor and postcursor of substorm expansion onset

      Y. Yao, Y. Ebihara and T. Tanaka

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021187

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      Key Points

      • High-pressure region moves earthward before onset and tailward after onset
      • Flow convergence is responsible for evolution of the high-pressure region
      • MHD simulation is consistent with THEMIS observation on substorm sequence
    23. Magnetospheric Physics (SMP)

      Centrifugal acceleration at high altitudes above the polar cap: A Monte Carlo simulation

      H. A. Abudayyeh, I. A. Barghouthi, R. Slapak and H. Nilsson

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021325

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      Key Points

      • The outflow of O+ and H+ ions above the polar cap
      • The effect of centrifugal acceleration
      • The correlation between wave-particle interaction and centrifugal acceleration
    24. Magnetospheric Physics

      Van Allen Probes observation and modeling of chorus excitation and propagation during weak geomagnetic activities

      Yihua He, Fuliang Xiao, Qinghua Zhou, Chang Yang, Si Liu, D. N. Baker, C. A. Kletzing, W. S. Kurth, G. B. Hospodarsky, H. E. Spence, G. D. Reeves, H. O. Funsten and J. B. Blake

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021376

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      Key Points

      • RBSP correlated data of chorus waves and energetic electrons
      • Realistic simulation to check effect of electrons on chorus excitation
      • Anisotropic electrons can generate chorus during weak storms
    25. Dependence of the dayside magnetopause reconnection rate on local conditions

      Shan Wang, Lynn M. Kistler, Christopher G. Mouikis and Steven M. Petrinec

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021524

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      Key Points

      • Measured magnetopause reconnection rates show clear correlations with the Cassak-Shay formula
      • Observed magnetospheric hot O+ and cold ions contribute up to ~30% of mass density in reconnection
      • The diffusion region aspect ratio exhibits no clear correlation with O+ abundance or guide field
    26. Asymmetric electrostatic environment around spacecraft in weakly streaming plasmas

      Y. Miyake, Y. Nishimura and Y. Kasaba

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021064

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      Key Points

      • PIC modeling of asymmetric near-spacecraft environment just outside plasmapause
      • Generation of a few mV/m spurious electric field even in subsonic ion flows
      • Enhanced spurious electric field due to heavy ions and field-aligned ion flows
    27. Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The effect of including field-aligned potentials in the coupling between Jupiter's thermosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere

      L. C. Ray, N. A. Achilleos and J. N. Yates

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021319

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      Key Points

      • Presence of field-aligned potentials does not hugely alter thermospheric flows
      • Variations in Pedersen conductance have strongest effects on system
      • Field-aligned potentials strongly affect predicted auroral brightnesses
    28. Magnetospheric Physics

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Down-tail mass loss by plasmoids in Jupiter's and Saturn's magnetospheres

      S. W. H. Cowley, J. D. Nichols and C. M. Jackman

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021500

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      Key Points

      • Plasmoid mass-loss estimates at Jupiter and Saturn fall far short of moon inputs
      • We argue that observed events connect to far-tail structures also disconnected
      • Mass-loss rates are revised upward by at least an order of magnitude
    29. Case and statistical studies on the evolution of hot flow anomalies

      L. L. Zhao, Q. G. Zong, H. Zhang and S. Wang

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020862

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      Key Point

      • The formation of the four types of HFAs with different structure may be due to their evolution stages
    30. Solar and Heliospheric Physics

      Macroscopic quasi-linear theory and particle-in-cell simulation of helium ion anisotropy instabilities

      Peter H. Yoon, Jungjoon Seough, Junga Hwang and Yasuhiro Nariyuki

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021495

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      Key Points

      • Comparison between quasi-linear and PIC simulation of helium ion instability is new
      • Comparison is favorable proving validity of quasi-linear method
      • Some discrepancies are also found, indicating the need for further theory
    31. Revisiting STEREO interplanetary and interstellar dust flux and mass estimates

      David M. Malaspina, Leela E. O'Brien, Frederick Thayer, Zoltan Sternovsky and Andrew Collette

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021352

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      Key Points

      • STEREO estimates of micron-radius dust flux and mass estimates are revised
      • Nanometer dust impact signals nearly ceased on STEREO-A, not on STEREO-B
      • Flux and mass estimates do not differ strongly from those previously reported
    32. Magnetospheric Physics

      In situ observations of multistage electron acceleration driven by magnetic reconnection

      Mingyu Wu, Can Huang, Quanming Lu, Martin Volwerk, Rumi Nakamura, Zoltán Vörös, Tielong Zhang and Shui Wang

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021165

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      Key Points

      • Electron acceleration in magnetic reconnection is a multistage process
      • Electrons can be accelerated successively in different regions
      • The multistage process is an essential ingredient to produce energetic electron
    33. Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere

      Mw dependence of the preseismic ionospheric electron enhancements

      K. Heki and Y. Enomoto

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021353

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      Key Points

      • Reference curves are not used anymore
      • Larger earthquakes are preceded by larger precursors
      • Precursors of larger earthquakes start earlier
    34. Magnetospheric Physics

      Plasma waves around separatrix in collisionless magnetic reconnection with weak guide field

      Yangao Chen, Keizo Fujimoto, Chijie Xiao and Hantao Ji

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021267

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      Key Points

      • Beam excited electrostatic and electromagnetic waves around the separatrix
      • ES waves with distinct speeds in the inflow and outflow regions
      • EM waves are excited due to the beam-driven whistler instability
    35. Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere

      Cassini VIMS observations of H3+ emission on the nightside of Jupiter

      Tom S. Stallard, Henrik Melin, Steve Miller, Sarah V. Badman, Kevin H. Baines, Robert H. Brown, James S. D. Blake, James O'Donoghue, Rosie E. Johnson, Bethany Bools, Nathan M. Pilkington, Oliver T.L. East and Mark Fletcher

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021097

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      Key Points

      • Jupiter's nightside auroral ionosphere is similar to the dayside
      • Sub-auroral emission is concentrated close to the aurora, at eastward longitudes T
      • This emission is best explained by sub-rotating winds flowing from the aurora
    36. Response of the topside and bottomside ionosphere at low and middle latitudes to the October 2003 superstorms

      Jiuhou Lei, Qingyu Zhu, Wenbin Wang, Alan G. Burns, Biqiang Zhao, Xiaoli Luan, Jiahao Zhong and Xiankang Dou

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021310

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      Key Points

      • Bottomside ionosphere made a minor contribution to ionospheric positive storm
      • TEC changes are not necessarily related to ionospheric peak densities
      • TEC increases are also associated with effective plasma scale height variations
    37. First observations of poleward large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances over the African sector during geomagnetic storm conditions

      John Bosco Habarulema, Zama Thobeka Katamzi and Endawoke Yizengaw

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021066

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      Key Points

      • First observations of poleward LS TIDs over the African sector
      • Evidence of EEJ's contribution in generating TIDs during storm period
      • Simultaneous observation of poleward and equatorward LS TIDs
    38. Magnetospheric Physics

      Dipolarization fronts as earthward propagating flux ropes: A three-dimensional global hybrid simulation

      San Lu, Quanming Lu, Yu Lin, Xueyi Wang, Yasong Ge, Rongsheng Wang, Meng Zhou, Huishan Fu, Can Huang, Mingyu Wu and Shui Wang

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021213

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      Key Points

      • Dipolarization fronts as earthward propagating flux ropes
      • Three-dimensional global hybrid simulation of dipolarization fronts
      • Formation, structure, and evolution of dipolarization fronts
    39. Evidence for a seasonally dependent ring plasma in the region between Saturn's A Ring and Enceladus' orbit

      A. M. Persoon, D. A. Gurnett, W. S. Kurth, J. B. Groene and J. B. Faden

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021180

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      Key Points

      • Observe seasonal variation in equatorial electron densities inside 3.25 Rs
      • Seasonal variation diminishes with distance from Saturn, vanishing beyond 4.0 Rs
      • Observe evidence for propagation of ring plasma near inner edge of E Ring
    40. Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere

      Wave structure and polarization electric field development in the bottomside F layer leading to postsunset equatorial spread F

      M. A. Abdu, J. R. de Souza, E. A. Kherani, I. S. Batista, J. W. MacDougall and J. H. A. Sobral

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021235

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      Key Points

      • F layer oscillations due to large-scale wave structure precede ESF development
      • The wave structure amplitude increases toward sunset
      • Larger wave structure amplitudes are accompanied by larger PRE vertical drift
    41. Fringe field dynamics over equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere: A three-dimensional perspective

      E. A. Kherani and A. K. Patra

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021438

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      Key Points

      • Fringe field can form the ascending structure in the valley region
      • The fringe field effect is confined to ±5 latitude
      • It explains the occurrence and nonoccurrence of valley region structures
    42. Magnetospheric Physics

      Threshold for spacecraft charging in double-Maxwellian plasma

      Jianguo Huang, Guoqing Liu and Lixiang Jiang

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021173

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      Key Points

      • Provide a threshold condition for potential jump
      • Discuss charging behaviors at threshold
      • Construct criterion of judgment for potential jump
    43. Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere

      Comparing different assimilation techniques for the ionospheric F2 layer reconstruction

      Tatjana Gerzen, David Minkwitz and Stefan Schlueter

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021067

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      Key Points

      • Reconstruction of the ionospheric F2 layer parameters by data assimilation
      • Comparing Optimal Interpolation, SCM, and Kalman filter
      • Ionosonde data assimilation into background models
    44. Magnetospheric Physics

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      THEMIS two-point measurements of the cross-tail current density: A thick bifurcated current sheet in the near-Earth plasma sheet

      Miho Saito

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021142

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      Key Points

      • Basic properties of the near-Earth current sheet are presented
      • Convincing evidence for a bifurcated current sheet is shown
      • The current density can increase without a high solar wind pressure
    45. Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere

      A self-consistent model of helium in the thermosphere

      Eric K. Sutton, Jeffrey P. Thayer, Wenbin Wang, Stanley C. Solomon, Xianjing Liu and Benjamin T. Foster

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021223

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      Key Points

      • TIE-GCM has been modified to account for neutral helium
      • Seasonal behavior is successfully captured
      • Neutral densities from the new model agree well with previous observations
    46. Asymmetric penetration of shocked solar wind down to 400 km altitudes at Mars

      Kazunari Matsunaga, Kanako Seki, Takuya Hara and David A. Brain

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020757

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      Key Points

      • Magnetosheath often penetrates into Martian ionosphere under away IMF period
      • Magnetosheath often penetrates into Martian ionosphere in northern hemisphere
      • The magnetosheath penetrations mainly occur in upward electric field hemisphere
    47. Magnetospheric Physics

      Low-harmonic magnetosonic waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

      J. L Posch, M. J. Engebretson, C. N. Olson, S. A. Thaller, A. W. Breneman, J. R. Wygant, S. A. Boardsen, C. A. Kletzing, C. W. Smith and G. D. Reeves

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021179

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      Key Points

      • Low-harmonic magnetosonic waves can occur independently of higher harmonics
      • Waves often occurred within 3 h after substorm injections
      • Observations confirm ray-tracing studies of wave refraction and/or reflection
    48. Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere

      Time-varying ionosonde trend: Case study of Sodankylä hmF2 data 1957–2014

      Lassi Roininen, Marko Laine and Thomas Ulich

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021176

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      Key Points

      • We discuss trend analysis of nonstationary ionosonde hmF2 Sodankylä 1957–2014 time series
      • We model the hmF2 with a dynamic regression time series model
      • The trend shows an almost 30 km decrease of the F2 layer peak
    49. Thermal cell structures in the high-latitude thermosphere induced by ion drag

      R. L. Walterscheid and G. Crowley

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021122

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      Key Points

      • Dynamical response to ion drag generates high-latitude thermal cells
      • Centripetal force due to high-latitude curved flow can dominate Coriolis force
      • Strong two cell ion-drag forcing can give four cell neutral density structure
    50. High-latitude intermittent ionospheric scintillations: Exploring the Castaing distribution

      H. Mezaoui, A. M. Hamza and P. T. Jayachandran

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021304

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      Key Point

      • Multifractal analysis of the GPS L1 signal
  2. Technical Reports: Methods

    1. Magnetospheric Physics

      The calculation of moment uncertainties from velocity distribution functions with random errors

      Daniel J. Gershman, John C. Dorelli, Adolfo F.-Viñas and Craig J. Pollock

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020775

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      Key Points

      • Random counting errors affect plasma moments
      • New 'covariance moments' enable quantification of moment errors
      • Heat flux errors uncertainties estimated for Cluster data
  3. Research Articles

    1. Solar and Heliospheric Physics

      UV solar irradiance in observations and the NRLSSI and SATIRE-S models

      K. L. Yeo, W. T. Ball, N. A. Krivova, S. K. Solanki, Y. C. Unruh and J. Morrill

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021277

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      Key Points

      • UV SSI variability produced by SATIRE-S model well supported by observations
      • Variation in UV SSI over the solar cycle in NRLSSI model too weak above 300 nm
      • UV SSI from SATIRE-S more reliable than that from NRLSSI for climate studies
    2. Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere

      Formation of polar ionospheric tongue of ionization during minor geomagnetic disturbed conditions

      Jing Liu, Takuji Nakamura, Libo Liu, Wenbin Wang, Nanan Balan, Takanori Nishiyama, Marc R. Hairston and E. G. Thomas

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021393

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      Key Points

      • Appearance of SED/TOI structures in the geomagnetic storm late recovery phase
      • UT dependency of the SED/TOI strength
      • TEC enhancements mainly occurred in the topside ionosphere
  4. Technical Reports: Methods

    1. Magnetospheric Physics

      The relative proportions of water group ions in Saturn's inner magnetosphere: A preliminary study

      R. J. Wilson, F. Bagenal, T. Cassidy, B. L. Fleshman and F. Crary

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020557

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      Key Points

      • A technique to estimate relative abundance of water group ion species within CAPS data is provided
      • Does not require model line profiles for each species at each energy
      • Computationally quick and easy to apply
  5. Research Articles

    1. Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere

      Nighttime magnetic field fluctuations in the topside ionosphere at midlatitudes and their relation to medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances: The spatial structure and scale sizes

      Jaeheung Park, Hermann Lühr, Guram Kervalishvili, Jan Rauberg, Ingo Michaelis, Claudia Stolle and Young-Sil Kwak

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021315

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      Key Points

      • Midlatitude magnetic fluctuations are elongated in NW-SE (SW-NE) in NH (SH)
      • Areas hosting midlatitude magnetic fluctuations are likely to be field aligned
      • Zonal coherence length of the fluctuations is smaller than 150 km
    2. The interaction between gravity waves and solar tides: Results from 4-D ray tracing coupled to a linear tidal model

      B. Ribstein, U. Achatz and F. Senf

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021349

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      Key Points

      • Middle atmosphere solar tides and internal gravity waves interaction is analyzed
      • A 4-D ray tracer model is coupled to a linear tidal model
      • Conventional parameterization leads to overestimated gravity wave fluxes
    3. Magnetospheric Physics

      A statistical study of the low-altitude ionospheric magnetic fields over the north pole of Venus

      T. L. Zhang, W. Baumjohann, C. T. Russell, M. N. Villarreal, J. G. Luhmann and W. L. Teh

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021153

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      Key Points

      • Statistical study of the Venusian ionospheric magnetic fields
      • Strong magnetic fields in the Venusian ionosphere
      • Magnetic belts in Venusian ionosphere during solar minimum
    4. Statistical study of auroral fragmentation into patches

      Ayumi Hashimoto, Kazuo Shiokawa, Yuichi Otsuka, Shin-ichiro Oyama, Satonori Nozawa, Tomoaki Hori, Mark Lester and Magnar Gullikstad Johnsen

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021000

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      Key Points

      • Statistical study of auroral fragmentation through finger-like structures
      • Changing magnetic field configuration could affect generation of the structures
      • MHD instability or ion finite Larmor radius seems to generate these structures
    5. Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere (SIA)

      An empirical model of the extreme ultraviolet solar spectrum as a function of F10.7

      Z. Girazian and P. Withers

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021436

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      Key Points

      • We construct an empirical model of the EUV spectrum as a function of F10.7P
      • We compare our spectra to the HEUVAC model
      • We quantify the relationship between F10.7P and the ionizing irradiance
    6. Magnetospheric Physics

      Statistical characteristics of slow earthward and tailward flows in the plasma sheet

      L. Q. Zhang, W. Baumjohann, J. Y. Wang, H. Rème, M. W. Dunlop and T. Chen

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021354

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      Key Points

      • Earthward and tailward flows in the CPS
      • Earthward and tailward flows in the OPS
      • Origins of the tailward flows in the plasma sheet
    7. Kinetic simulations of secondary reconnection in the reconnection jet

      S. Y. Huang, M. Zhou, Z. G. Yuan, H. S. Fu, J. S. He, F. Sahraoui, N. Aunai, X. H. Deng, S. Fu, Y. Pang and D. D. Wang

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020969

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      Key Points

      • Secondary reconnection is simulated in reconnection jet in details
      • Secondary reconnection is caused by the compression of high-speed outflow
      • Results can be used to interpret to the fate of earthward magnetic island
    8. Survey of Saturn Z-mode emission

      J. D. Menietti, T. F. Averkamp, S.-Y. Ye, R. B. Horne, E. E. Woodfield, Y. Y. Shprits, D. A. Gurnett, A. M. Persoon and J.-E. Wahlund

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021426

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      Key Points

      • Saturn Z-mode intensity is binned in r, latitude, and local time
      • Parametric fits of intensity versus frequency, r, and latitude determined
      • Z-mode could supplement chorus to accelerate electrons
    9. Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere

      A numerical study of the effects of migrating tides on thermosphere midnight density maximum

      Haibing Ruan, Jian Du, Matt Cook, Wenbin Wang, Jia Yue, Quan Gan, Xiankang Dou and Jiuhou Lei

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021190

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      Key Points

      • Terdiurnal tide at the MLT contributes to MTM/MDM
      • Interplay between diurnal, semidiurnal, and terdiurnal tides determines MDM
      • Terdiurnal tide in the thermosphere has different sources at different latitudes
    10. Concurrent observations of ultraviolet aurora and energetic electron precipitation with Mars Express

      J.-C. Gérard, L. Soret, L. Libert, R. Lundin, A. Stiepen, A. Radioti and J.-L. Bertaux

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021150

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      Key Points

      • UV aurora and in situ electron precipitation have been simultaneously observed
      • Aurorae are transient events near the open-closed file line boundary
      • The auroral emission may be shifted from the enhanced electron flux
    11. Solar and Heliospheric Physics

      Right-handed circularly polarized dispersive Alfvén wave: Localization and turbulence in solar wind

      R. P. Sharma, Swati Sharma and Nidhi Gaur

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021215

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      Key Points

      • Nonlinear coupling of parallel-propagating DAW and obliquely IAW
      • Effect of finite frequency on localization of wave
      • Turbulent spectra of wave and relevance to the observation
    12. Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere

      A case study of electron precipitation fluxes due to plasmaspheric hiss

      Rachael Hardman, Mark A. Clilverd, Craig J. Rodger, James B. Brundell, Roger Duthie, Robert H. Holzworth, Ian R. Mann, David K. Milling and Eva Macusova

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021429

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      Key Points

      • During a large geomagnetic storm trapped outer radiation belt electrons were enhanced
      • A gradual decay of the trapped fluxes was observed over the following 5–7 days
      • Weak electron precipitation driven by dayside plasmaspheric hiss caused the decay
    13. Dominant modes of variability in large-scale Birkeland currents

      E. D. P. Cousins, Tomoko Matsuo, A. D. Richmond and B. J. Anderson

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020462

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      Key Points

      • Thirty-eight percent of magnetic perturbation variance captured by mean + 3 modes of variability
      • Modes of variability differ between winter and summer hemispheres
      • Modes 1 and 3 are well correlated with interplanetary magnetic field parameters
    14. Numerical simulations of the influence of solar zenith angle on properties of the M1 layer of the Mars ionosphere

      K. Fallows, P. Withers and M. Matta

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020947

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      Key Points

      • Model SZA trends of the M1 layer of the Mars ionosphere
      • Simulated M1 peak electron density follows square root of secant of SZA
      • Simulated M1 peak altitude increases with SZA more quickly than observed
    15. Climatologies of nighttime thermospheric winds and temperatures from Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements: From solar minimum to solar maximum

      Daniel J. Fisher, Jonathan J. Makela, John W. Meriwether, Ricardo A. Buriti, Zouhair Benkhaldoun, Mohamed Kaab and Amine Lagheryeb

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021170

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      Key Points

      • Neutral temperatures show solar cycle dependence, but neutral winds are seasonal
      • Downward neutral winds are seen at dusk and dawn at both low and middle latitudes
      • HWM14 compares well to observed winds but still has discrepancies over Morocco
    16. Very low latitude (L = 1.08) whistlers and correlation with lightning activity

      Sneha A. Gokani, Rajesh Singh, Morris B. Cohen, Sushil Kumar, K. Venkatesham, Ajeet K. Maurya, R. Selvakumaran and J. Lichtenberger

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021058

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      Key Points

      • First correlation study of very low latitude whistlers with lightning activity
      • Diurnal and seasonal variations of various whistler parameters are studied
      • Ducted mode of propagation for low-latitude whistlers is suggested
    17. Plasma density undulations correlated with thermospheric neutral mass density in the daytime low-latitude to midlatitude topside ionosphere

      Jaeheung Park, Hermann Lühr, Michi Nishioka and Young-Sil Kwak

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021525

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      Key Points

      • There are plasma density undulations that correlated well with neutral mass density
      • The relative amplitudes are larger in the winter hemisphere
      • The relative amplitudes depend weakly on solar activity
    18. Classifying onset durations of early VLF events: Scattered field analysis and new insights

      D. A. Kotovsky and R. C. Moore

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021370

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      Key Points

      • VLF scattering
      • Transient luminous events
      • Ionospheric disturbances
    19. Studies of the ionospheric turbulence excited by the fourth gyroharmonic at HAARP

      A. Najmi, G. Milikh, Y. M. Yampolski, A. V. Koloskov, A. A. Sopin, A. Zalizovski, P. Bernhardt, S. Briczinski, C. Siefring, K. Chiang, Y. Morton, S. Taylor, A. Mahmoudian, W. Bristow, M. Ruohoniemi and K. Papadopoulos

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021341

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      Key Points

      • Several independent diagnostic techniques were used to study AIT induced by HAARP near the fourth gyroharmonic
      • HF waves from HAARP were scattered by the AIT into the ionospheric waveguide and detected at the UAS 15.6 mm away
    20. Magnetospheric Physics

      A statistical analysis of Pi2-band waves in the plasma sheet and their relation to magnetospheric drivers

      G. Q. Wang, Y. S. Ge, T. L. Zhang, R. Nakamura, M. Volwerk, W. Baumjohann, A. M. Du and Q. M. Lu

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020753

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      Key Points

      • Plasma sheet Pi2 frequency band waves are mostly associated with BBFs
      • The second main driver of plasma sheet Pi2 waves is substorm current system
      • Plasma instabilities and solar wind changes may occasionally drive Pi2 waves

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