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Early Career Series
As part of an initiative to support up and coming researchers whose focus is on multidisciplinary science centered on chemistry, ChemPlusChem has established the Early Career Series. The corresponding authors were nominated by ChemPlusChem board members and are considered to be key figures who will shape the future of interdisciplinary research in the chemical sciences. Invitees whose papers are judged by referees to be highly important or very important will be selected to give an interview intended to highlight their research career. Articles and interviews will be published in the next available issue of ChemPlusChem. Meanwhile all such articles are collated in this virtual issue for easy access.
Nadav Amdursky*, Pintu K. Kundu, Johannes Ahrens, Dan Huppert, Rafal Klajn*
Turn me on: A photoswitchable spiropyran was stabilized in aqueous environments in the presence of a variety of proteins, including human serum albumin, insulin fibrils, lysozyme, and glucose oxidase. Depending on the protein, the spiropyran exhibited different physicochemical properties (see figure).
ChemPlusChem 2016, 81, No. 1, 44–48 [Communication]
Vaclav Havel, Vladimir Sindelar*
All goes in: A bambusuril macrocycle includes anions of different sizes inside its cavity forming stable supramolecular complexes in chloroform. Isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR measurements revealed the size-selectivity of the macrocycle and also its ability to act as a sensor for detection and quantification mixtures of inorganic anions.
ChemPlusChem 2015, 80, No. 11, 1601–1606 [Full Paper]
Shuai Wang, Jose A. Cuesta-Seijo, Alexander Striebeck, Dominique Lafont, Monica M. Palcic, Sébastien Vidal*
Moving targets: Nucleotide diphosphate sugar analogues were synthesized through a combination of glycosylation, amide bond formation and azide–alkyne “click” chemistry. High micromolar inhibitors were obtained with a selection of five galactosyltransferases. The structures and inhibitory patterns of the analogues demonstrate the flexibility of the enzymes which complicates the rational design of glycosyltransferase inhibitors.
ChemPlusChem 2015, 80, No. 10, 1525–1532 [Full Paper]
Nickel-Containing Keggin-Type Polyoxometalates as Hydrogen Evolution Catalysts: Photochemical Structure–Activity Relationships
Kim von Allmen, René Moré, Rafael Müller, Joaquín Soriano-López, Anthony Linden, Greta R. Patzke*
Nickel for your POMs: A series of Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POMs; [Ni(OH2)XW11O39]n− (X=P, Si, Ge) were tested for catalytic activity in visible-light-driven hydrogen evolution without co-catalysts. The photocatalytic activity of the nickel POMs can be tuned through heteroatom X. The highest turnover number among the series was found for the germanium-containing POM (see figure).
ChemPlusChem 2015, 80, No. 9, 1389–1398 [Full Paper]
Kyung Seob Song, Ali Coskun*
Crucial interlayer spacing: Porous graphene networks incorporating benzimidazole linkages can be prepared without a catalyst through the condensation reaction between ester-functionalized graphene sheets and organic aromatic amine linkers (see figure). The resulting materials display remarkable physicochemical stability and high affinity towards CO2 and H2 gas.
ChemPlusChem 2015, 80, No. 7, 1127–1132 [Full Paper]
Marcus Fehse, Edgar Ventosa*
Pushing the envelope: The monoclinic TiO2 bronze phase, often referred to as TiO2(B), holds great promise for applications in Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. Strategies for further improvement may result in high-energy-density materials suitable for application in full electric vehicles.
ChemPlusChem 2015, 80, No. 5, 785–795 [Minireview]
Chung S. Wong, Sascha Hoogendoorn, Gijs A. van der Marel, Herman S. Overkleeft*, Jeroen D. C. Codée*
Manno, manno! Fluorescent glycoconjugates composed of a peptide epoxysuccinate coupled via a BODIPY dye to oligomannosides (see figure) show mannose-receptor-dependent uptake and ensuing cathepsin inhibition in live dendritic cells. The size of the mannose oligosaccharides proved to influence the amount of inhibition.
ChemPlusChem 2015, 80, No. 6, 928–937 [Full Paper]
Chemically Modified Diatoms Biosilica for Bone Cell Growth with Combined Drug-Delivery and Antioxidant Properties
Stefania R. Cicco, Danilo Vona, Elvira De Giglio, Stefania Cometa, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte, Fabio Palumbo, Roberta Ragni, Gianluca M. Farinola*
Them bones gonna rise again: Covalent functionalization of nanostructured silica shells from diatoms with TEMPO radical endows biosilica with both drug-delivery properties and antioxidant activity. The resulting functional biosilica is demonstrated to be a suitable substrate for bone cell growth.
ChemPlusChem 2015, 80, No. 7, 1104–1112 [Full Paper]
Organoruthenium and Osmium Anticancer Complexes Bearing a Maleimide Functional Group: Reactivity to Cysteine, Stability, and Cytotoxicity
Sally Moon, Muhammad Hanif*, Mario Kubanik, Hannah Holtkamp, Tilo Söhnel, Stephen M. F. Jamieson, Christian G. Hartinger*
Right on target: Functionalization of anticancer-active metal complexes with a maleimide moiety is aimed to facilitate the selective reaction with human serum albumin to exploit passive targeting of tumors through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect (see figure).
ChemPlusChem 2015, 80, No. 1, 231–236 [Full Paper]
Zheng Zhao, Zhongli Wang, Xu Zhang, Simin Gao, Xiaodi Yang*, Zhiming Duan, Xike Gao*
Designer molecules: A new class of carbazolo[2,1-a]carbazole diimides (1) has been designed (see figure). The synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, absorption spectra, and electrochemical properties of 1 as well as the charge transport properties and density functional calculations were investigated.
ChemPlusChem 2015, 80, No. 1, 57–61 [Communication]
β-Ionic Conjugated Chlorin-Type Photosensitizers Based on Porpholactone: Synthesis, Photophysical Properties, and Photodynamic Activity
Xian-Sheng Ke, Juan Tang, Juan-Juan Chen, Zheng-Yang Zhou, Jun-Long Zhang*
It's terminal: Six tetrapentafluorophenylporpholactol zinc(II) complexes with β-hydrophilic chains terminated by glucosyl (neutral, ZnL1), sulfonic (anionic, ZnL2), zwitterionic (ZnL3), and quaternary ammonium groups (cationic, ZnL4–6) were synthesized and characterized (see figure). The relationship of β-ionic conjugates, cellular uptake, and intracellular photodynamic therapy activity was demonstrated and the mechanism of photoinduced cell death was studied.
ChemPlusChem 2015, 80, No. 1, 237–252 [Full Paper]
Maksym V. Opanasenko*, Erica Montanari, Mariya V. Shamzhy
Excellent textural properties: Organic–inorganic materials functionalized with amino groups have been synthesized by using a two-dimensional zeolitic precursor, IPC-1P. The obtained hybrids possess excellent textural properties and catalytic activity in the Knoevenagel condensation of benzaldehyde with malononitrile relative to those of nonfunctionalized or grafted materials (see figure).
ChemPlusChem 2015, 80, No. 3, 599–605 [Full Paper]
Svenja Kochius, Yan Ni, Selin Kara, Serena Gargiulo, Jens Schrader, Dirk Holtmann*, Frank Hollmann*
Let the sunshine in: Simple illumination with visible light can significantly accelerate the activity of laccase mediator systems (LMSs). Illumination can have a dramatic effect on LMS-mediated regeneration of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)+) cofactors (see scheme).
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 11, 1554–1557 [Communication]
Towards Rational Modulation of In-Plane Molecular Arrangements in Metal–Organic Framework Nanosheets
Rie Makiura*, Ryo Usui, Yuta Sakai, Akihiro Nomoto, Akiya Ogawa, Osami Sakata, Akihiko Fujiwara
Nanosheets at the interface: Modulation of the in-plane molecular arrangement in highly crystalline metal–organic framework (MOF) nanosheets assembled by two-dimensional interfacial reactions of porphyrins and metal linkers at the air/liquid interface was demonstrated (see picture).
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 9, 1352–1360 [Full Paper]
Jelena Stojadinović, Anastasiya Dushina, Rafael Trócoli, Fabio La Mantia*
Opening the window: Gelation of 2 M Li2SO4 with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and agar results in the augmentation of the electrochemical stability window ΔE (see figure) relative to that of the liquid electrolyte, and in the reduction of the electrolyte ionic conductivity.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 10, 1507–1511 [Full Paper]
Oxygen Permeation Improvement under CO2-Rich Environments through Catalytic Activation of Hierarchically Structured Perovskite Membranes
Cyril Gaudillere, Julio Garcia-Fayos, José M. Serra*
Surface modification: Oxygen permeation through a highly porous La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ (LSCF) freeze-cast asymmetric membrane is strongly enhanced through catalytic surface functionalization. Under CO2-free operation, the beneficial effect of the catalyst is mostly observed in the low-temperature region, in which gas exchange is a limiting step and the porous LSCF coating increases the number of active sites available (see figure).
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 12, 1720–1725 [Full Paper]
Molly L. Croteau, Xin Su, Dean E. Wilcox*, Ivan Aprahamian*
So many options! The interaction between a hydrazone-based switch and a Lewis acid can lead to coordination, followed by redistribution of metal and ligand, and isomerization. Based on isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and UV/Vis titration data, the nature of the Lewis acid and its counterion determine which, if any, of these processes takes place (see picture).
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 8, 1214–1224 [Full Paper]
Enhanced Penetration of Silver Nanocomposite Assemblies into Dentine Using Iontophoresis: Toward the Treatment of Dental Caries
Donald R. Schwass*, Carla J. Meledandri*
A silver bullet? A simple but effective electrophoretic method has been developed for the enhanced delivery and retention of antibacterial silver nanoparticle-based materials to dentine tubules (see figure). This innovative approach may lead to more successful management of tooth decay, without the corresponding staining effects caused through the use of silver compounds.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 12, 1671–1675 [Communication]
Diels–Alder Reaction of o-Carboryne with Fulvenes: Synthesis of Carboranonorbornadienes and Their Transformations
Jie Zhang , Zaozao Qiu*, Peng-Fei Xu*, Zuowei Xie
First class: A Diels–Alder reaction of o-carboryne with 6,6′-diarylfulvenes gave a series of carboranonorbornadienes, which serves as a convenient method for the preparation of a new class of multifunctionalized o-carborane derivatives (see scheme).
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 7, 1044–1052 [Full Paper]
Zhe Sun, Bin Zheng, Pan Hu, Kuo-Wei Huang, Jishan Wu*
Twisted zethrene! Highly twisted 1,2:8,9-dibenzozethrenes are synthesized and isolated in crystalline form (see figure). They are found to have a small biradical character with a small energy gap, showing NIR emission and amphoteric redox behavior.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 11, 1549–1553 [Communication]
Chain Length Effect of the Multidentate Block Copolymer Strategy to Stabilize Ultrasmall Fe3O4 Nanoparticles
Nicky Chan, Puzhen Li, Jung Kwon Oh*
On the starting blocks: A multidentate block copolymer strategy has been used to stabilize ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles exhibiting excellent colloidal stability under biologically relevant conditions. The materials provide effective T1-weighted contrast enhancement for magnetic resonance imaging (see figure).
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 9, 1342–1351 [Full Paper]
Janjira Panchompoo, Mengchen Ge, Chuan Zhao, May Lim, Leigh Aldous*
Spill-less droplets: An aqueous ferrofluid based upon poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride)-coated maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) iron oxide nanoparticles can be used on disposable screen-printed electrodes to create simple membrane-less and spill-less gas sensors (see figure). Apparent electrocatalysis towards the oxygen reduction reaction is observed owing to the polymer; an applied magnetic field strength both immobilises the electrolyte and enhances the oxygen reduction current.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 10, 1498–1506 [Full Paper]
Back Cover: B12-TiO2 Hybrid Catalyst for Light-Driven Hydrogen Production and Hydrogenation of CC Multiple Bonds (ChemPlusChem 9/2014)
Hisashi Shimakoshi*, Yoshio Hisaeda*
The back cover picture shows a schematic image of the hybrid catalyst composed of titanium oxide and metal complex derived from naturally occurring B12 (cobalamin). This hybrid catalyst shows catalysis for hydrogen evolution and alkene reduction under UV irradiation under mild conditions of room temperature, ordinary pressure, and with water or alcohol as solvent. In their Communication on page 1250, Hisashi Shimakoshi and Yoshio Hisaeda show the synergistic effect of the naturally occurring cobalamin derivative and inorganic TiO2 in unique catalysis of the metal complex–semiconductor hybrid system.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 9, 1368–1368 [Cover Picture]
B12-TiO2 Hybrid Catalyst for Light-Driven Hydrogen Production and Hydrogenation of CC Multiple Bonds
Hisashi Shimakoshi*, Yoshio Hisaeda*
Hybrid catalyst: TiO2 modified with the B12 complex (cobyrinic acid), B12-TiO2, mediates hydrogen evolution under UV irradiation (see figure). B12-TiO2 also efficiently catalyzes the hydrogenation of a variety of alkenes under mild conditions (room temperature, ordinary pressure, and water or alcohol solvent), and the turnover number of the B12 complex is a maximum of 100 per hour.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 9, 1250–1253 [Communication]
Marc Widdrat, Monika Kumari, Éva Tompa, Mihály Pósfai, Ann M. Hirt, Damien Faivre*
Keep it cool: The alteration of magnetite nanoparticles has been studied as a function of their storage conditions. Lower oxidation was measured if the particles were kept in a freezer. In this case, the magnetic properties are altered only to a minor extent (see figure).
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 8, 1225–1233 [Full Paper]
Cis-Glyco-Fused Benzopyran Derivatives as Hit Compounds for the Development of Therapeutic and Diagnostic Tools against Neurodegenerative Diseases
Silvia Merlo, Erika Sironi, Laura Colombo, Francisco Cardona, Alessandra M. Martorana, Mario Salmona, Barbara La Ferla, Cristina Airoldi*
Hit list: The interaction of a small library of cis-glyco-fused benzopyran compounds with prion protein (PrP) oligomers (see figure) and their inhibition of the PrP aggregation process that leads to amyloid fibril formation have been investigated. The in vitro staining of PrP fibrils is achieved with a fluorescently labeled benzopyran derivative able to cross a model of the blood–brain barrier.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 6, 835–843 [Full Paper]
Ross McLellan, Maria A. Palacios, Euan K. Brechin*, Scott J. Dalgarno*
In the wings: A bis-phenolate with calixarene character influences the orientation of Jahn–Teller axes (shown by arrows in the figure) in a tetranuclear MnIII cluster. Structural changes and prevailing magnetic properties are presented.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 5, 667–670 [Communication]
Alla Synytska*, M. Sc.Alina Kirillova, Lucio Isa*
Two-faced: Janus microparticles are a promising alternative to molecular surfactants for emulsion stabilisation. The synthesis of diverse Janus microparticles (figure, top) with a defined Janus ratio is reported and their position in situ at a water/oil interface using freeze-fracture, shadow-casting cryo-SEM is measured (figure, bottom).
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 5, 656–661 [Communication]
Hai-Jing Zhong, Ka-Ho Leung, Li-Juan Liu, Lihua Lu, Daniel Shiu-Hin Chan, Chung-Hang Leung*, Dik-Lung Ma*
Limiting activity: The first metal-based inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity has been found. The cyclometalated rhodium(III) complex 1 (see scheme) inhibits mTOR activity in cell-free and cell-based systems. The size and hydrophobicity of the N N donor ligand and the nature of the metal center are determinants for mTOR inhibitory activity. The inhibitory effect of 1 is also dependent on FK506-binding protein 12.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 4, 508–511 [Communication]
Yongjun Gao, Jiaguang Zhang, Xi Chen, Ding Ma, Ning Yan*
Low mass, high conversion: Nitrogen-containing graphene-based carbon material has been used to establish a metal-free catalytic system for the oxidation of α-O-4 and β-O-4 types of lignin model compounds in the presence of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (see figure). In the oxidative depolymerization of organosolv lignin, a significant portion of liquefied, low-molecular-mass product is produced.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 6, 825–834 [Full Paper]
Photocatalytic Carboxylation of Organic Substrates with Carbon Dioxide at Zinc Sulfide with Deposited Ruthenium Nanoparticles
Tomasz Baran, Angela Dibenedetto, Michele Aresta, Krzysztof Kruczała, Wojciech Macyk*
Dropping acid: Zinc sulfide with deposited ruthenium(0) nanoparticles photocatalyzes the carboxylation of acetylacetone with carbon dioxide as a substrate (see picture). The reaction proceeds through coupling of photogenerated R. and CO2.− radicals.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 5, 708–715 [Full Paper]
Endre Horváth, Lucie Grebikova, Plinio Maroni, Tamás Szabó, Arnaud Magrez, László Forró, Istvan Szilagyi*
Dispersion stabilization: Charging and aggregation in aqueous dispersions of positive titanate nanowires can be tuned through the addition of the oppositely charged poly(styrene sulfonate) polyelectrolyte thanks to its strong affinity for the titanate surface. Accordingly, the system is stable at low polyelectrolyte doses, unstable with rapid aggregation of the nanowires near the charge neutralization point, and stable again at high polyelectrolyte coverages, as shown in the picture.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 4, 592–600 [Full Paper]
Anticancer Activity of Half-Sandwich RhIII and IrIII Metalla-Prisms Containing Lipophilic Side Chains
Gajendra Gupta, Jerald Mahesh Kumar, Amine Garci, Nandini Rangaraj, Narayana Nagesh*, Bruno Therrien*
CHARGE! Two hexacationic pentamethylcyclopentadienyl rhodium(III) and iridium(III) metalla-prisms have been synthesized and their antiproliferative activity has been evaluated in vitro in human cancer cell lines. The positively charged metalla-prisms appear to target mitochondria (see figure), and preclinical studies suggest that the rhodium derivative could be a potential antitumor drug.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 4, 610–618 [Full Paper]
Characterisation of Complex Electrode Processes using Simultaneous Impedance Spectroscopy and Electrochemical Nanogravimetric Measurements
Balázs B. Berkes, Minghua Huang, John B. Henry, Malte Kokoschka, Aliaksandr S. Bandarenka*
Two is better than one: A technique that simultaneously combines electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and nanogravimetric measurements through using an electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (EQCN) is described. This combination gives in one relatively simple experiment more detailed information than is available from conventional electrochemical techniques (see figure). Methodology and illustrative examples of application are presented in this Minireview.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 3, 348–358 [Minireview]
Water-Soluble Pillararene-Functionalized Graphene Oxide for In Vitro Raman and Fluorescence Dual-Mode Imaging
Huacheng Zhang, Xing Ma, Kim Truc Nguyen, Yongfei Zeng, Shuhui Tai, Yanli Zhao*
Paving the way: The successful preparation of biocompatible hybrids by integrating graphene oxide with amphiphilic pillararenes for in vitro Raman and fluorescence dual-mode bioimaging has been carried out (see scheme), thereby paving the way for utilizing these materials in combined cancer diagnostics.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 3, 462–469 [Full Paper]
Synergic Exfoliation of Graphene with Organic Molecules and Inorganic Ions for the Electrochemical Production of Flexible Electrodes
Zhen Yuan Xia, Giuliano Giambastiani, Christos Christodoulou, Marco V. Nardi, Norbert Koch, Emanuele Treossi, Vittorio Bellani, Sergio Pezzini, Franco Corticelli, Vittorio Morandi, Alberto Zanelli, Vincenzo Palermo*
Sneak attack! Inorganic ions are used as Trojan horses to favor the intercalation of organic acetonitrile molecules into graphite. These molecules act as nanoscopic foaming agents and decompose with microwave irradiation to generate a pressure surge within graphite to exfoliate it (see picture). The process yields highly soluble, monoatomic, large sheets.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 3, 439–446 [Full Paper]
Effective Surface Functionalization of Carbon Fibers for Fiber/Polymer Composites with Tailor-Made Interfaces
Kota Shiba, Motohiro Tagaya*, Sadaki Samitsu, Satoshi Motozuka
High in fiber: Carbon fibers (CFs), which are widely utilized in fields ranging from fundamental research to industry, can be functionalized by both thin-layer coating and nanoparticle immobilization (see scheme). In this Minireview, these techniques and some practical applications of functionalized CFs, such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), are overviewed after briefly describing the basic properties of CFs.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 2, 197–210 [Minireview]
Kolla Rajasekhar, Nagarjun Narayanaswamy, Piyush Mishra, S. N. Suresh, Ravi Manjithaya, T. Govindaraju*
Simplicity makes the difference: A methodology for the synthesis of small and medium-size hybrid cyclic peptoids from functionalized N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine monomers is described. αN-Alkyl- and αN-acyl substituents enforce differential cyclization to 6- and 12-membered products, respectively. Screening of a cyclic peptoid library identified a potential enhancer of the autophagy process (see figure).
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 1, 25–30 [Communication]
Back Cover: Fluorescent Nanodiamonds with Bioorthogonally Reactive Protein-Resistant Polymeric Coatings (ChemPlusChem 1/2014)
Ivan Rehor, Hana Mackova, Sergey K. Filippov, Jan Kucka, Vladimir Proks, Jitka Slegerova, Stuart Turner, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo, Miroslav Ledvina, Martin Hruby*, Petr Cigler*
The back cover picture shows fluorescent, near-IR-emitting diamond nanoparticles coated with a biocompatible polymer interface. The coating is partially peeled off from the particle to reveal the layered structure. First, an ultrathin silica layer is attached to the diamond core. The copolymer chains formed from N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide and alkyne-containing methacrylamide monomer are grafted from the silica layer. In their Full Paper on page 21, P. Cigler and co-workers show that thanks to their superior colloidal stability, the nanoparticles can be dissolved in an aqueous buffer of high ionic strength. The coating is translucent, and moreover, it is protein-resistant: it protects the particles against nonspecific protein adsorption.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 1, 184–184 [Cover Picture]
Ivan Rehor, Hana Mackova, Sergey K. Filippov, Jan Kucka, Vladimir Proks, Jitka Slegerova, Stuart Turner, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo, Miroslav Ledvina, Martin Hruby*, Petr Cigler*
A shining example: Fluorescent nanodiamonds were coated by a thin layer of methacrylate copolymer enabling high-yield attachment of molecules by click chemistry (see scheme). The particles are protein-resistant and extremely colloidally stable in buffers and biological media. The polymer fully preserves the unique optical properties of the fluorescent nitrogen-vacancy centers that are crucial for bioimaging applications.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 1, 21–24 [Communication]
Surface-Modified TiO2 Photocatalysts Prepared by a Photosynthetic Route: Mechanism, Enhancement, and Limits
Susann Neubert, Ayyappan Ramakrishnan, Jennifer Strunk, Haoyu Shi, Bastian Mei, Lidong Wang, Michal Bledowski, Dmitrii A. Guschin, Max Kauer, Yuemin Wang, Martin Muhler, Radim Beranek*
Shedding light on things: Aromatic molecules like benzene or toluene can be activated by visible light (λ>455 nm) at the surface of TiO2, which leads to the formation of carbonaceous polymeric deposits on TiO2 (see figure). The photosynthesized surface-modified TiO2 shows enhanced photoactivity in the complete mineralization of 4-chlorophenol under visible-light irradiation.
ChemPlusChem 2014, 79, No. 1, 163–170 [Full Paper]