Advanced Optical Materials

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  1. Correction

    1. Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials

      Lanju Liang, Meiqing Qi, Jing Yang, Xiaopeng Shen, Jiquan Zhai, Weizong Xu, Biaobing Jin, Weiwei Liu, Yijun Feng, Caihong Zhang, Hai Lu, Hou-Tong Chen, Lin Kang, Weiwei Xu, Jian Chen, Tie Jun Cui, Peiheng Wu and Shenggang Liu

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500381

      This article corrects:
  2. Communications

    1. Photothermal Superheating of Water with Ion-Implanted Silicon Nanowires

      Paden B. Roder, Sandeep Manandhar, Bennett E. Smith, Xuezhe Zhou, Vaithiyalingam S. Shutthanandan and Peter J. Pauzauskie

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500143

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      Elucidating the temperatures of particles trapped in laser tweezers is of great importance and impacts studies and applications in various areas of science and engineering. A unique method is demonstrated for extracting the local temperature of trapped ion-implanted silicon nanowires undergoing hot Brownian motion in superheated water, and their efficacy as agents for photothermal cancer therapy is investigated.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Bifunctional Nano Lycurgus Cup Array Plasmonic Sensor for Colorimetric Sensing and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

      Te-Wei Chang, Xinhao Wang, Austin Hsiao, Zhida Xu, Guohong Lin, Manas Ranjan Gartia, Xiangrong Liu and Gang Logan Liu

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500092

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      A bifunctional nano Lycurgus cup array (nanoLCA) plasmonic sensor is demon­strated. NanoLCA contains a hybrid configuration of periodic quasi-3D nanostructure and dense sidewall metal nanoparticles, which enable to perform high-sensitivity colorimetric sensing and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) at the same device. The SERS enhancement under the solution-based environment is the highest among all the reported extraordinary transmission devices.

    2. Waveguide-Plasmon Polariton Enhanced Photochemistry

      Charlene Ng, Svetlana Dligatch, Hiroshi Amekura, Timothy J. Davis and Daniel E. Gómez

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500157

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      The strong coupling of localized plasmon resonances on Al nanowires and waveguide modes in thin films of TiO2 leads to intense, narrow-band absorption of light, which is shown to result in increased hot-electron injection from the metallic nanowires into the supporting semiconductor. This effect in turn increases the reaction rates of model redox chemical systems.

  4. Reviews

    1. Uncooled Carbon Nanotube Photodetectors

      Xiaowei He, François Léonard and Junichiro Kono

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500237

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      Carbon nanotubes possess unique optoelectronic properties for applications in photodetectors. This material may provide some day new modalities for optical detection that can be harnessed through a detailed understanding of their photodetection mechanisms.

  5. Communications

    1. Polarized Phosphorescence of Isotropic and Metal-Based Clustomesogens Dispersed into Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystalline Films

      Simon M. Wood, Marianne Prévôt, Maria Amela-Cortes, Stéphane Cordier, Steve J. Elston, Yann Molard and Stephen M. Morris

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500257

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      Active devices combining a light source, color generation, and polarization control are of interest for applications from displays to quantum cryptography. In this paper, results on the photoluminescence properties of transition metal clustomesogens that are dispersed in chiral liquid crystal materials are presented to demonstrate their potential as next-generation polarized light sources.

    2. Printed Smart Photovoltaic Window Integrated with an Energy-Saving Thermochromic Layer

      Fei Guo, Shi Chen, Zhang Chen, Hongjie Luo, Yanfeng Gao, Thomas Przybilla, Erdmann Spiecker, Andres Osvet, Karen Forberich and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500314

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      A smart photovoltaic window is designed and constructed by solution-processing a layer of thermochromic VO2 nanoparticles on top of a semitransparent organic solar cell. The prepared smart window not only produces electricity using the visible part of the solar spectrum but also saves energy via intelligently modulating the amount of NIR radiation passing through the device in response to ambient temperature.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Black Phosphorus–Polymer Composites for Pulsed Lasers

      Haoran Mu, Shenghuang Lin, Zhongchi Wang, Si Xiao, Pengfei Li, Yao Chen, Han Zhang, Haifeng Bao, Shu Ping Lau, Chunxu Pan, Dianyuan Fan and Qiaoliang Bao

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500336

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      Black phosphorus (BP) is a promising material for telecommunications due to its direct bandgap and strong resonant absorption in the NIR. To avoid the oxidization and degradation, BP is encapsulated with a polymer matrix which is optically transparent in the spectral range of interest. BP shows fast carrier dynamics and the BP–polymer composite has a high modulation depth, making it an efficient saturable absorber to generate highly stable and high-energy Q-switched pulses in fiber lasers.

    2. Light Amplification in an Organic Solid-State Film with the Aid of Triplet-to-Singlet Upconversion

      Hajime Nakanotani, Taro Furukawa and Chihaya Adachi

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500236

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      Light amplification in an organic film with the aid of triplet-to-singlet upconversion is demonstrated. Although the utilization of triplet energy for the light amplification processes in a conventional organic laser system is impractical, this study demonstrates that triplet excitons can be used to contribute to the singlet population for light amplification by employing a “triplet harvester.”

    3. Electroinduced Diffraction Gratings in Cholesteric Polymer with Phototunable Helix Pitch

      Alexander Ryabchun, Alexey Bobrovsky, Joachim Stumpe and Valery Shibaev

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500293

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      Controllable diffraction gratings are fabricated in polymer cholesteric mixture with a phototunable helix pitch by applying an electric field to the planar-aligned cholesteric layer. The grating parameters such as efficiency, period, and grating vector are shown to be controlled by UV light exposure or electric field application. 1D (linear) and 2D (square) electroinduced cholesteric gratings are successfully created.

    4. Printable Dielectric Mirrors with Easily Adjustable and Well-Defined Reflection Maxima for Semitransparent Organic Solar Cells

      Carina Bronnbauer, Julian Hornich, Nicola Gasparini, Fei Guo, Benjamin Hartmeier, Norman A. Luechinger, Christoph Pflaum, Christoph J. Brabec and Karen Forberich

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500216

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      Light trapping approaches such as dielectric mirrors (DMs) are one promising method to design highly efficient semitransparent thin-film photovoltaics. Inorganic nanoparticle-based inks enable the fabrication of fully solution processed and large-area printable DMs with an accurately adjustable main peak of reflection. The short circuit current of a device could be enhanced by up to 24%.

    5. Electric and Magnetic Response in Dielectric Dark States for Low Loss Subwavelength Optical Meta Atoms

      Aditya Jain, Parikshit Moitra, Thomas Koschny, Jason Valentine and Costas M. Soukoulis

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500222

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      Artificially created dielectric metasurfaces exhibiting electric or magnetic response are realized by using radiating dielectric resonators. However, this approach renders the meta-atoms marginally subwavelength at optical frequencies due to the absence of high-index dielectric materials. In this article, silicon metasurfaces exhibiting electric and magnetic response are designed, using dark states in dielectrics, which results in a low-loss and subwavelength meta-atom.

  7. Communications

    1. Stimulus-Responsive Thin-Film Photonic Crystals from Rapid Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers for Photopatterning

      Yeo-Wan Chiang, Jhih-Jyun Chang, Chung-Yi Chou, Cheng-Sian Wu, En-Li Lin and Edwin L. Thomas

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500177

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      Rapid self-assembly (≈15 min) of parallel-aligned lamella-forming block-copolymer photonic-crystal thin films is carried out through the manipulation of solvent evaporation. A well-defined photopatterned thin-film photonic crystal can exhibit either a lower redshift reflectivity or unresponsiveness toward the external stimulus by control of its exposure time to UV irradiation.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials

      Lanju Liang, Meiqing Qi, Jing Yang, Xiaopeng Shen, Jiquan Zhai, Weizong Xu, Biaobing Jin, Weiwei Liu, Yijun Feng, Caihong Zhang, Hai Lu, Hou-Tong Chen, Lin Kang, Weiwei Xu, Jian Chen, Tie Jun Cui, Peiheng Wu and Shenggang Liu

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500206

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      The manipulation of terahertz (THz) waves is implemented by 1-bit THz coding metamaterials. The reflection and scattering wave can be controlled by varying the coding sequence. Using this methodology, a wideband and polarization-independent THz thin-film metamaterial with extremely low specular reflection and scattering waves is demonstrated successfully. This metamaterial is also flexible and conformal to the curved surface, which offers widespread applications.

  9. Communications

    1. The Tunable White-Light and Multicolor Emission in An Electrodeposited Thin Film of Mixed Lanthanide Coordination Polymers

      Huiping Liu, Tianshu Chu, Zilong Rao, Shuoyu Wang, Yangyi Yang and Wing-Tak Wong

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500203

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      A white-light-emitting lanthanide coordination polymer thin film is fabricated for the first time by electrodeposition based on a novel hexanuclear lanthanide cluster, in which, Tb3+ generates green emission and enhances the Eu3+-centered red emission through energy transfer process; the ligand generates blue emission. Notably, white-light emission with CIE coordinates of (0.33, 0.34) is obtained by balancing Tb3+/Eu3+ ratio and excitation wavelength.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Gate Tuning of High-Performance InSe-Based Photodetectors Using Graphene Electrodes

      Wengang Luo, Yufei Cao, Pingan Hu, Kaiming Cai, Qi Feng, Faguang Yan, Tengfei Yan, Xinhui Zhang and Kaiyou Wang

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500190

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      By using graphene as the transparent electrodes to modify the difference of the work function between the electrodes and the InSe, the response time of an InSe-based photo­detector can be down to 120 μs. It can also be tuned by the back-gate voltage from 310 μs down to 100 μs. Simultaneously, the photoresponsivity can reach as high as 60 A W−1.

  11. Communications

    1. Anisotropic Light Transport in White Beetle Scales

      Lorenzo Cortese, Lorenzo Pattelli, Francesco Utel, Silvia Vignolini, Matteo Burresi and Diederik S. Wiersma

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500173

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      The extremely brilliant whiteness shown by the Cyphochilus beetle is generated by multiple scattering of light inside the ultrathin scales that cover its body, whose interior is characterized by an anisotropic nanostructured network of chitin filaments. It is demonstrated that the structural anisotropy of the network is crucial in order to achieve high broadband reflectance from such a thin, low-refractive-index system.

    2. A Flexible Nanocrystal Photovoltaic Ultraviolet Photodetector on a Plant Membrane

      Jingda Wu and Lih Y. Lin

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500198

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      A flexible UV photodetector is created with a reed membrane as the interspacing layer embedded with ZnO nanocrystals. The membrane's porous nature facilitates the adhesion of active materials and light scattering, and improves device performance. A sandwich structure with a vertical Schottky junction is applied to increase the device's response speed, achieving a sub-second response time, as well as a maximum external quantum efficiency of over 3%. The device also shows a slight performance increase under bending.

  12. Full Papers

    1. Suppression of Photonic Bandgap Reflection by Localized Surface Plasmons in Self-Assembled Plasmonic–Photonic Crystals

      Ti-Li Lin, Jiun-Hong Lin, Jun-Ting Guo and Hung-Chih Kan

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500168

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      Ag nanocaps self-assembled on a SiO2 nanosphere opal suppress the well-known reflection peak associated with the photonic bandgap of the opal, leading to an inverted reflection spectrum compared to that of the bare opal. This occurs for opals with a range of lattice constants.

    2. A Helical Metamaterial for Broadband Circular Polarization Conversion

      Johannes Kaschke, Leonard Blume, Lin Wu, Michael Thiel, Klaus Bade, Zhenyu Yang and Martin Wegener

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500194

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      Metallic helical metamaterials give rise to broadband and scalable chiro-optical effects orders of magnitude higher than found in nature. A novel helical metamaterial design exhibiting broadband circular polarization conversion is investigated. An intuitive model is presented to explain the principle of operation. Furthermore, a new fabrication method employing diffraction-unlimited direct laser writing is introduced.

  13. Communications

    1. A Large-Scale Flexible Plasmonic Nanorod Array with Multifunction of Strong Photoluminescence Emission and Radiation Enhancement

      Jiahua Li, Zhiqiang Wei, Jiuliang Xu, Zhang-Kai Zhou, Delin Kong, Jingfeng Liu, Jiaming Liu, Xiaoyu Duan, Jiancai Xue, Jing Wang and Xuehua Wang

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500160

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      A composite film of gold nanorods and PDMS acts both as an active and passive flexible plasmonic device. Apart from its excellent flexibility, this novel plasmonic nanostructure also exhibits strong multi­photon avalanche photoluminescence, as well as an admirable performance in accelerating the radiation of quantum dots. This multifunctionality makes this film a unique nanomaterial for the construction of future flexible devices.

    2. Thermochromic Latent-Pigment-Based Time–Temperature Indicators for Perishable Goods

      Daniela Galliani, Luca Mascheroni, Mauro Sassi, Riccardo Turrisi, Roberto Lorenzi, Alberto Scaccabarozzi, Natalie Stingelin and Luca Beverina

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500073

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      The development of cheap and reliable time–temperature indicators (TTIs) can greatly improve customer satisfaction with respect to the correct handling and storage of perishable goods. A series of new irreversible thermochromic squaraine dyes enables the preparation of simple TTIs whose time–temperature regime can be controlled by selection of the appropriate molecule/substrate combinations.

  14. Full Papers

    1. Terahertz Broadband Low-Reflection Metasurface by Controlling Phase Distributions

      Di Sha Dong, Jing Yang, Qiang Cheng, Jie Zhao, Li Hua Gao, Shao Jie Ma, Shuo Liu, Hai Bin Chen, Qiong He, Wei Wei Liu, Zheyu Fang, Lei Zhou and Tie Jun Cui

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500156

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      A single-layer terahertz metasurface is proposed to produce ultralow reflections across a broad-frequency spectrum and wide incidence angles by controlling the reflection phases of subwavelength structures.

  15. Correction

    1. Single-Molecule Characterization of Near-Infrared-Emitting Silver Nanoclusters

      Emma N. Hooley, Valentina Paolucci, Zhiyu Liao, Miguel R. Carro Temboury and Tom Vosch

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500249

      This article corrects:
  16. Communications

    1. A Simple Approach to Biological Single-Cell Lasers Via Intracellular Dyes

      Sedat Nizamoglu, Kyung-Bok Lee, Malte C. Gather, Ki Su Kim, Mijeong Jeon, Seonghoon Kim, Matjaž Humar and Seok-Hyun Yun

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500144

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      Biological cell lasers based on biocompatible fluorescent molecular probes are demonstrated. Instead of time-consuming genetically encoded gain, the new approach yields a fast and simple method to obtain lasing from single cells. This method also facilitates lasing of adherent mammalian cells.

    2. Ultrahigh Color-Stable, Solution-Processed, White OLEDs Using a Dendritic Binary Host and Long-Wavelength Dopants with Different Charge Trapping Depths

      Shumeng Wang, Baohua Zhang, Xingdong Wang, Junqiao Ding, Zhiyuan Xie and Lixiang Wang

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500175

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      Solution-processed white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) simultaneously possessing ultrahigh color stability (ΔCIE (0.008, 0.008) from 50 to 17 200 cd m−2) and high power efficiency (41.8 lm W−1) are realized, using a dendritic binary host H2/OXD-7 and selecting long-wavelength phosphors with suitable trap depths and doping concentration, to restrain charge trapping.

  17. Full Papers

    1. Dispersible Plasmonic Doped Metal Oxide Nanocrystal Sensors that Optically Track Redox Reactions in Aqueous Media with Single-Electron Sensitivity

      Rueben J. Mendelsberg, Patrick M. McBride, Jennifer T. Duong, Mark J. Bailey, Anna Llordes, Delia J. Milliron and Brett A. Helms

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500208

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      Plasmonic doped metal oxide nanocrystals reversibly exchange electrons with redox-active small molecules, biomacromolecules, and live bacteria. These multi-electron exchanges modulate their free carrier concentration, dramatically changing their plasmonic optical properties in the NIR. Modeling their plasmonic absorption signatures allows quantitative analysis of redox events in the system with single-electron sensitivity.

    2. Electroluminescence Efficiency Enhancement in Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes by Embedding a Silver Nanoisland Layer

      Xuyong Yang, Pedro Ludwig Hernandez-Martinez, Cuong Dang, Evren Mutlugun, Kang Zhang, Hilmi Volkan Demir and Xiao Wei Sun

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500172

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      A quantum dot light-emitting diode (QLED) with substantially enhanced electroluminescence is demonstrated by embedding a thin layer of Ag nanoislands into a hole transport layer. A maximum external quantum efficiency of 7.1% is the highest efficiency value reported for green QLEDs with a similar structure, which corresponds to a 46% efficiency enhancement compared with the reference device.

  18. Communications

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Longitudinal Multifoci Metalens for Circularly Polarized Light

      Xianzhong Chen, Ming Chen, Muhammad Qasim Mehmood, Dandan Wen, Fuyong Yue, Cheng-Wei Qiu and Shuang Zhang

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500110

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      The focusing performance of a 40 nm-thick metasurface lens is experimentally demonstrated. The longitudinal multifoci flat metasurface lens is illuminated with a linearly polarized light (|LP>) beam at normal incidence. Three focal planes with circular polarization states (|L> and |R>) are observed. The theoretical intensity profile of the light behind the metalens in the yz plane agrees well with theoretical predictions.

    2. High Responsivity, Broadband, and Fast Graphene/Silicon Photodetector in Photoconductor Mode

      Zefeng Chen, Zhenzhou Cheng, Jiaqi Wang, Xi Wan, Chester Shu, Hon Ki Tsang, Ho Pui Ho and Jian-Bin Xu

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500127

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      A fast-response photodetector is developed, which is highly photoresponsive and works over a broadband. It is fabricated using a combination of chemical vapor deposition graphene and silicon, together with the utilization of a lateral photoconductor operating mode. The photodetector exhibits high responsivities of ≈1.0 × 104 and ≈0.23 A W−1 in the visible (632 nm) and infrared regions (1550 nm), respectively. The response time is both below 3 μs in both spectral regions.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Rotatable Diffraction Gratings Based on Cholesteric Liquid Crystals with Phototunable Helix Pitch

      Alexander Ryabchun, Alexey Bobrovsky, Joachim Stumpe and Valery Shibaev

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500159

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      Rotatable diffraction gratings based on hybrid (homeotropic – planar) aligned layers of cholesteric LC with phototunable helix pitch are elaborated. The clockwise and counterclockwise continuous rotation of the obtained gratings can be achieved by switching between UV and visible light, correspondingly. The creation of a variety of complex-organized structures by local light exposure of the cholesteric gratings is demonstrated.

    2. Chemical Alkaline Etching of Silicon Mie Particles

      Julien Proust, Frédéric Bedu, Stéphane Chenot, Ibrahima Soumahoro, Igor Ozerov, Bruno Gallas, Redha Abdeddaim and Nicolas Bonod

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500146

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      Silicon Mie resonators are obtained by combining electron beam lithography with wet chemical etching. This chemical etching is studied with two different alkaline solutions and it is proven to lead to Mie resonators with very sharp edges.

    3. In Situ Synthesis of Graphene with Telecommunication Lasers for Nonlinear Optical Devices

      Pulak C. Debnath, Jaehyun Park, Austin M. Scott, Junsu Lee, Ju Han Lee and Yong-Won Song

      Article first published online: 4 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500104

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      Graphene is synthesized directly onto optical fiber end facets in ambient conditions via irradiation with a continuous wave laser operating at conventional telecommunication band. A nickel layer deposited onto the optical fiber acts both as catalyst and carbon host for the interfacial growth of graphene. The entire fiber–graphene device is used as passive mode-locker in a fiber laser ring cavity to generate ultrashort laser pulses.

    4. Curvature-Driven, One-Step Assembly of Reconfigurable Smectic Liquid Crystal “Compound Eye” Lenses

      Francesca Serra, Mohamed A. Gharbi, Yimin Luo, Iris B. Liu, Nathan D. Bade, Randall D. Kamien, Shu Yang and Kathleen J. Stebe

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500153

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      A self-assembly of microlenses on a curved interface can be obtained by pinning smectic liquid crystals around a micropillar with appropriate boundary conditions. This hierarchical structure of microlenses, with variable focal lengths from a few micrometers to a few tens of micrometers, is similar to an insect's compound eye; the lenses are reconfigurable with temperature and sensitive to light polarization.

    5. Demonstration of a 3D Radar-Like SERS Sensor Micro- and Nanofabricated on an Optical Fiber

      Zhenwei Xie, Shengfei Feng, Peijie Wang, Lisheng Zhang, Xin Ren, Lin Cui, Tianrui Zhai, Jie Chen, Yonglu Wang, Xinke Wang, Wenfeng Sun, Jiasheng Ye, Peng Han, Peter J. Klar and Yan Zhang

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500041

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      Realization of the concept of “lab on fiber” based on 3D micro and nano architectures is achieved. A 3D radar-like surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor on an optical fiber is designed and created, which consists of a microparabolic mirror and a SERS body with its surface being metallized located at the focal point of the mirror.

    6. Plasmon–Phonon Interactions in Topological Insulator Microrings

      Marta Autore, Fausto D'Apuzzo, Alessandra Di Gaspare, Valeria Giliberti, Odeta Limaj, Pascale Roy, Matthew Brahlek, Nikesh Koirala, Seongshik Oh, Francisco Javier García de Abajo and Stefano Lupi

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201400513

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      Topological insulator Bi2Se3 microring arrays are investigated by means of terahertz spectroscopy. Both bonding and antibonding plasmon modes are observed in the spectra, together with a strong plasmon–phonon hybridization around 2 THz. An analytical theory is developed, which accurately describes the observed features. This work opens the road for the investigation and design of topological insulators-based plasmonic devices.

  20. Communications

    1. Polarization Control in Terahertz Metasurfaces with the Lowest Order Rotational Symmetry

      Longqing Cong, Ningning Xu, Weili Zhang and Ranjan Singh

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500100

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      A planar metamolecule with twofold rotational symmetry that shows giant cross polarization transmission leads to strong optical activity and behaves as a perfect circular polarizer. Such planar meta­surfaces would be used to design active polarization control devices and high efficiency wave deflector by carefully engineering the phase discontinuities for real applications in optical and terahertz technologies.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Enhanced Light Extraction from Mechanically Flexible, Nanostructured Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Plasmonic Nanomesh Electrodes

      Sung-Min Lee, Yunil Cho, Dong-Young Kim, Joon-Sik Chae and Kyung Cheol Choi

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500103

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      Characteristics of light extraction from nanostructured organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) incorporating plasmonic metal nanomesh anodes are investigated for achieving high-performance, flexible OLEDs. A highly efficient OLED is available when an off-optimal metal nanomesh electrode for high transmittance is used as an anode because the surface plasmon loss is singnificantly reduced at a nanomesh period inconsistent with its optimal period.

    2. Hybrid Graphene–Perovskite Phototransistors with Ultrahigh Responsivity and Gain

      Yusheng Wang, Yupeng Zhang, Yao Lu, Weidong Xu, Haoran Mu, Caiyun Chen, Hong Qiao, Jingchao Song, Shaojuan Li, Baoquan Sun, Yi-Bing Cheng and Qiaoliang Bao

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500150

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      A photoconductive gain of109 electrons per photon and a responsivity of ≈6.0 × 105 A W−1 are demonstrated in a hybrid photodetector that consists of monolayer graphene covered with a thin layer of dispersive organolead halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbBr2I) islands with sizes up to micrometers. The s-scanning near-field optical microscopy and photo­current mapping results provide real-space evidence for the charge transfer and photogating effect.

    3. High-Performance Organic Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancement and Reliable Reproducibility Enabled by Collective Plasmonic Effects

      Xuanhua Li, Xingang Ren, Fengxian Xie, Yongxing Zhang, Tingting Xu, Bingqing Wei and Wallace C. H. Choy

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500107

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      A significant enhancement of organic solar cell (OSC) performance from a power conversion efficiency (PCE) = 7.7% up to a maximum of 9.62% is reported, which is one of the highest efficiencies for plasmonic OSCs reported thus far for a single junction OSC. Importantly, the as-proposed device shows an excellent reproducibility of these devices, which is more applicable for the practical application.

  22. Communications

    1. Controlling Emitting Dipole Orientation with Methyl Substituents on Main Ligand of Iridium Complexes for Highly Efficient Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

      Kwon-Hyeon Kim, Jae-Yeol Ma, Chang-Ki Moon, Jeong-Hwan Lee, Jang Yeol Baek, Yun-Hi Kim and Jang-Joo Kim

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500141

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      Orientation of emission dipoles of heteroleptic iridium complexes in an emitting layer is controlled toward the horizontal direction by substituting the hydrogen atoms of the cyclometalated ligand by methyl groups and demonstrates an organic light-emitting diode with an unprecedentedly high external quantum efficiency of 34.1% and power efficiency of 157.6 lm W−1 using a new green emitter.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Squeezing Bulk Plasmon Polaritons through Hyperbolic Metamaterials for Large Area Deep Subwavelength Interference Lithography

      Gaofeng Liang, Changtao Wang, Zeyu Zhao, Yanqin Wang, Na Yao, Ping Gao, Yunfei Luo, Guohan Gao, Qing Zhao and Xiangang Luo

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201400596

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      Hyperbolic metamaterials composed of metal–dielectric films are explored to squeeze out bulk plasmon polaritons (BPPs) and produce large area, uniform, deep subwavelength interference patterns with half pitch 45 nm (≈λ/8). The method employs BPP excitation gratings with large feature sizes, which could be fabricated by conventional laser interference lithography, promising a way for cost-effective, parallel, and large area nanofabrication.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Single-Molecule Characterization of Near-Infrared-Emitting Silver Nanoclusters

      Emma N. Hooley, Valentina Paolucci, Zhiyu Liao, Miguel R. Carro Temboury and Tom Vosch

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500048

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      Near-infrared-emitting silver nanoclusters stabilized in DNA are characterized using single-molecule spectroscopy, revealing complex and dynamic photophysics, with single clusters showing changes to their properties over time. The dynamical change in the photophysical properties suggests an intrinsic flexibility in the photophysical properties.

  24. Communications

    1. Reversible Luminescence Switching of an Organic Solid: Controllable On–Off Persistent Room Temperature Phosphorescence and Stimulated Multiple Fluorescence Conversion

      Chenyu Li, Xi Tang, Liuqing Zhang, Cuihong Li, Zhengping Liu, Zhishan Bo, Yong Qiang Dong, Yong-Hui Tian, Yuping Dong and Ben Zhong Tang

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500115

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      On–off-switchable, persistent, room-temperature phosphorescence (373 ms) is realized in organic solids based on bis(4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)methanone. The reversible on–off RTP switching can be controlled by repeatedly chloroform fuming and heating (or grinding). Multi­ple-color fluorescence is also feasible, and they reversibly convert to each other under the stimuli of heating, shearing, and fuming with varied solvents.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Performance and Quality Characterization of the Reference MNA Nonlinear Optical Molecular Crystal by Pockels Electrooptic Confocal Microscopy

      Bassam Hajj, Stephane Melanson, Jean Desforges, Serge Gauvin, Dominique Chauvat and Joseph Zyss

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500059

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      The electrooptical response at micrometer resolution of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline thin films is studied using electrooptical microscopy. An electrooptical response map shows inhomogeneous regions surrounding regular ones and highlights multiple crystalline orientations. The polarization response provides an unambiguous assignment of the principle dielectric axis. Additionally, electric field sensing is demonstrated using Pockels effect.

  26. Communications

    1. Thermally Tunable Metallodielectric Photonic Crystals from the Self-Assembly of Brush Block Copolymers and Gold Nanoparticles

      Dong-Po Song, Cheng Li, Nicholas S. Colella, Xuemin Lu, Jae-Hwang Lee and James J. Watkins

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500116

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      A robust strategy for the rapid and scalable fabrication of well-ordered metallodielectric 1D photonic crystals through the self-assembly of brush block copolymers and gold nanoparticles is demonstrated. The optical properties of the photonic crystals containing ultrahigh loadings of the gold nanoparticles are thermally tunable through the creation of a network structure of the nanoparticles.

  27. Full Papers

    1. Fast Photoluminescence Switching in the Nematic Phase of Calamitic–Discotic Composites

      P. Lakshmi Madhuri, D. S. Shankar Rao, Channabasaveshwar V. Yelamaggad, Ammathnadu S. Achalkumar and S. Krishna Prasad

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500126

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      A fast photoluminescent switch driven by a dual frequency-addressing protocol is realized in a calamitic–discotic composite leading to two orders of magnitude accelerated dynamics. The local ordering in the nematic structure changes significantly as the discotic content increases. The anisotropic photoluminescence is also observed in samples confined by a hydrogen-bonded network.

  28. Communications

    1. Photonic Microrods Composed of Photoswitchable Molecules: Erasable Heterostructure Waveguides for Tunable Optical Modulation

      Dasari Venkatakrishnarao, Mahamad Ahmad Mohiddon, Naisa Chandrasekhar and Rajadurai Chandrasekar

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500106

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      A solid-state photochemical strategy to create erasable modulators or optical delay lines within photoresponsive organic microrod waveguides is demonstrated. This photoresponsive waveguide propagates visible light without a delay in its molecular open state. In the closed state, the waveguide absorbs visible light energy and converts itself to an open state, thus, during the process, delaying the light propagation time and acting as an intensity modulator.

    2. A Metamaterial Emitter for Highly Efficient Radiative Cooling

      Md Muntasir Hossain, Baohua Jia and Min Gu

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500119

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      A metamaterial thermal emitter for highly efficient radiative cooling is demonstrated. The emitter selectively radiates within the atmospheric transparency window and minimizes absorption of atmospheric radiation outside the transparency window. Exploiting its intriguing radiative properties, the emitter has the ability to deliver a remarkably high cooling power of more than 100 W m−2 and to cool down 12 °C below the ambient temperature.

  29. Full Papers

    1. Random Lasing in Novel Dye-Doped White Paints with Shape Memory

      André Espinha, María Concepción Serrano, Alvaro Blanco and Cefe López

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500128

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      Novel intelligent composites based on shape memory polymers (SMPs) doped with titania particles are reported. The transport of light in these media is diffusive. When additionally doped with organic emitters, optical gain is incorporated so that they can exhibit amplified spontaneous emission. These materials represent an attractive multifunctional option to establish interesting synergies between applications of SMPs and random photonic materials.

    2. Photonic Spin Hall Effect with Nearly 100% Efficiency

      Weijie Luo, Shiyi Xiao, Qiong He, Shulin Sun and Lei Zhou

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500068

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      Giant photonic spin Hall effect (i.e., spin-polarized photons are laterally deflected in transportation) with nearly 100% efficiency is experimentally demonstrated in the microwave regime, at reflective Pancharatnam–Berry meta-surfaces designed based on a general criterion obtained by rigorous Jones matrix analysis. This finding can stimulate many applications based on high-efficiency manipulations of spin of light.

  30. Communications

    1. Dramatically Enhanced Performance of Flexible Micro-VCSELs via Thermally Engineered Heterogeneous Composite Assemblies

      Dongseok Kang, Sung-Min Lee, Anthony Kwong and Jongseung Yoon

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201400521

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      Thermally engineered flexible composite assemblies of micro-vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are developed for high-performance operation on a flexible substrate. The novel integration pathway enables significant reduction of effective thermal resistance of printed micro-VCSELs on plastics and therefore dramatically enhances performance, comparable to or higher than devices on the source wafer, while preserving critical advantages in mechanically flexible and optically transparent constructions.

  31. Reviews

    1. Electrically Driven Quantum Light Sources

      Alberto Boretti, Lorenzo Rosa, Andrew Mackie and Stefania Castelletto

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500022

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      Compact electrically excited photon sources with quantum properties and their applications are reviewed. Many physical systems can be used to fabricate an electrically driven device. Designs and realizations based on micropillar cavities formed from n- and p-doped GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors with integrated active InGaAs quantum dots, as well as nanowires, are key recent results in the direction to achieve the highest mode confinement in compact systems.

  32. Communications

    1. Manipulating Optical Properties of ZnO/Ga:ZnO Core–Shell Nanorods Via Spatially Tailoring Electronic Bandgap

      Xin Zhao, Yuan Gao, Yue Wang, Hilmi Volkan Demir, Shijie Wang and Handong Sun

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500087

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      Enhancing optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanostructures via surface doping is demonstrated by Ga:ZnO–ZnO core–shell nanorods, which are grown by a genetic two-step method. Low-temperature photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy prove the n + shell significantly suppresses the surface-related recombination by spatially modulating the electronic band structure. The study provides a significant physical insight in designing optoelectronic devices.

    2. Unveiling the Origin of Third Harmonic Generation in Hybrid ITO–Plasmonic Crystals

      Heykel Aouani, Miguel Navarro-Cía, Mohsen Rahmani and Stefan A. Maier

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500112

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      A hybrid plasmonic crystal for reaching a higher nonlinear upconversion rate is proposed and the physical mechanism behind the enhancement is unveiled by demonstrating that the nonlinear signal contains a unique spectral fingerprint regarding its origin. This opens new opportunities for understanding and optimizing nonlinear light–matter interactions in complex nanoscale media.

    3. Multistimuli-responsive White Luminescent Fluids Using Hybrid Lanthanide Metal–Coordinate Complex Probes

      Pangkuan Chen and Niels Holten-Andersen

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201400493

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      Intense white luminescence in aqueous solution is achieved via coordination of mixed lanthanide ions with nonsubstituted 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine. Chromic properties of the lanthanide hybrid molecular solutions are highly responsive to stimuli, such as changes in solvent composition, pH, temperature, anion binding, and mechanical force due to the dynamic Ln(III) coordination bonds.

    4. The Complex Role of Carbon Nitride as a Sensitizer in Photoelectrochemical Cells

      Jingsan Xu, Isaac Herraiz-Cardona, Xiaofei Yang, Sixto Gimenez, Markus Antonietti and Menny Shalom

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500010

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      The role of carbon nitride (C3N4) as an absorber in a photoelectrochemical cell is reported. C3N4-sensitized TiO2 mesoporous film created via an in-situ, vapor-transport growth results in a direct Ti–O–C bonding. The material hybridization shows a unique electronic transition at the interface, leading to strongly enhanced visible-light absorption and photoactivity.

  33. Full Papers

    1. Ba9Lu2Si6O24:Ce3+: An Efficient Green Phosphor with High Thermal and Radiation Stability for Solid-State Lighting

      Yongfu Liu, Jianxin Zhang, Changhua Zhang, Jingtao Xu, Guoqiang Liu, Jun Jiang and Haochuan Jiang

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500078

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      Ba9Lu2Si6O24:Ce3+ crystallizes in a rhombohedral structure, leading to an intense green emission peaking at 490 nm with an internal quantum efficiency (QE) as high as 82% and an excitation band peaking at 400 nm. 94% of the initial QE is retained at 160 °C, exhibiting a higher thermal stability than that of most nitride phosphors.

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