Advanced Optical Materials

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  1. Full Papers

    1. Toroidal versus Fano Resonances in High Q planar THz Metamaterials

      Manoj Gupta and Ranjan Singh

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600553

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      Mirrored Fano resonators in a planar metasurface results in an excitation of toroidal resonance that possesses higher quality factor and figure of merit values compared to Fano resonance. The toroidal coupling in Fano resonators gives rise to tightly confined loops of oscillating magnetic fields that curl around the fictitious arrow of a toroidal dipole vector in 3D space.

  2. Communications

    1. Near-IR-Sensitive Upconverting Nanostructured Photonic Cellulose Films

      Thanh-Dinh Nguyen, Wadood Y. Hamad and Mark J. MacLachlan

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600514

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      Upconverting cellulose nanocomposites are presented. Helicoidal co-assembly of cellulose nanocrystals with polyvinylalcohol-stabilized NaYF4:Yb,Er hexagonal nanorods yields flexible upconverting chiral photonic films that exhibit distinct optical upconversion with near-IR light and circularly polarized reflection in the visible spectrum.

  3. Full Papers

    1. Hybrid Perovskite Thin Films as Highly Efficient Luminescent Solar Concentrators

      Katerina Nikolaidou, Som Sarang, Christine Hoffman, Benaz Mendewala, Hidetaka Ishihara, Jennifer Q. Lu, Boaz Ilan, Vincent Tung and Sayantani Ghosh

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600634

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      Hybrid perovskites have proven to be a highly viable candidate for luminescent solar concentrators, achieving an optical efficiency of 29%. Unlike solar cell performance, the perovskite concentrators do not degrade rapidly, even under ambient conditions. Device performance, film morphology, and optical homogeneity show strong dependence on thin film components, signaling a large phase space remains to be investigated.

    2. Twist Angle and Rotation Freedom Effects on Luminescent Donor–Acceptor Materials: Crystal Structures, Photophysical Properties, and OLED Application

      Jianxia Jiang, Dehua Hu, Muddasir Hanif, Xianglong Li, Shijian Su, Zengqi Xie, Linlin Liu, Shitong Zhang, Bing Yang and Yuguang Ma

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600608

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      The twist angle and freedom of rotation differences on the photophysical properties of donor–acceptor materials are systematically investigated by elegant molecular design. From the experimental and theoretical analysis, how these differences affect their photophysical properties is explained. A highly efficient deep-red emission organic light-emitting diode (OLED) based on these materials is also obtained with a maximum external quantum efficiency of 3.87% and Lmax = 12 000 cd m−2.

  4. Communications

    1. (Al,Ga)Ox Microwire Ensembles on Si Exhibiting Luminescence over the Entire Visible Wavelength Range

      Fumitaro Ishikawa, Pierre Corfdir, Uwe Jahn and Oliver Brandt

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600695

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      The broad visible light emission observed for GaAs/(Al,Ga)Ox core/shell microwires (μ-wires) arises from recombination at F centers in the (Al,Ga)Ox shells. These μ-wires are promising structures for obtaining white-light emission on a Si platform. To realize efficient white-light emitters, it is essential to prevent the transfer of carriers to the GaAs core and the shell surface.

    2. A Microscale Perovskite as Single Component Broadband Phosphor for Downconversion White-Light-Emitting Devices

      Zhao Yuan, Chenkun Zhou, Joshua Messier, Yu Tian, Yu Shu, Jamie Wang, Yan Xin and Biwu Ma

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600667

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      A microscale corrugated halide perovskite with broadband emission is prepared by a facile one-pot synthsis at room temperature. A UV-pumped white-light-emitting diode with CIE coordinates of (0.30, 0.42) is fabricated by using this microscale perovskite as a single component downconversion phosphor.

    3. Magnetic Manipulation of Spontaneous Emission from Inorganic CsPbBr3 Perovskites Nanocrystals

      Mariia V. Pavliuk, Daniel L. A. Fernandes, Ahmed M. El-Zohry, Mohamed Abdellah, Georgian Nedelcu, Maksym V. Kovalenko and Jacinto Sá

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600611

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      Metal halide perovskites have shown great potential for both light-absorbing and light-emitting devices. It is demonstrated that the presence of a low-magnetic field decreases dramatically the photoluminescence of CsPbBr3. This is found to be due to a decrease in charge separated state lifetime. The effect is fully reversible, and can be exploited for simple and remote modulation of the output of light-emitting devices.

    4. Biomimetic Random Lasers with Tunable Spatial and Temporal Coherence

      Neda Ghofraniha, Luca La Volpe, Daniel Van Opdenbosch, Cordt Zollfrank and Claudio Conti

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600649

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      Biologically inspired photonic structures are the key for technological advances and for miniaturized lasers. Here random lasers in dye-doped titania with the disordered structure of paper are proposed. Sharp electromagnetic resonances with unexpected broad spatial extension are reported. The modes interact and compete on wide length scales, enabling to control precisely the device performance by acting on the pumping.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Programmed Emission Transformations: Negative-to-Positive Patterning Using the Decay-to-Recovery Behavior of Quantum Dots

      Sidney T. Malak, Marcus J. Smith, Young Jun Yoon, Chun Hao Lin, Jaehan Jung, Zhiqun Lin and Vladimir V. Tsukruk

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600509

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      The unique decay-to-recovery behavior of quantum dot emission allows for the fabrication of a variety of photopattern types including negative and positive, as well as negative-to-positive contrast switching.

  6. Communications

    1. High-Performance Photodetectors Based on Effective Exciton Dissociation in Protein-Adsorbed Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Nanohybrids

      Youpin Gong, Qingfeng Liu, Maogang Gong, Ti Wang, Guanggen Zeng, Wai-Lun Chan and Judy Wu

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600478

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      Biomolecule cytochrome c adsorbed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes can form interface heterojunctions for high-efficiency exciton dissociation, photoelectron transfer and transport, in which electrons are transported along the chain of cytochrome c. The extraordinary external quantum efficiency of up to 38.2% obtained in the nanotube/cytochrome c infrared detectors illustrates that these photonic nanohybrids are promising for room temperature quantum optoelectronics.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Scaling the Artificial Polariton Bandgap at Infrared Frequencies Using Indium Tin Oxide Nanorod Arrays

      Xiangfan Chen, Peijun Guo, Cheng He, Biqin Dong, Leonidas E. Ocola, Richard D. Schaller, Robert P. H. Chang and Cheng Sun

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600439

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      Scaling of artificial plasmon–polariton bandgaps to infrared frequencies by exploiting the strong coupling of electromagnetic waves with induced electric dipoles in 2D indium tin oxide nanorod arrays is reported. A theoretical model is developed to understand the underlying principle of the observed plasmon–polariton bandgaps. The experimental results confirm that the bandgaps can be manipulated through controlling the near-field interactions among neighboring nanorods.

  8. Communications

    1. Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers

      Xiaoyu Ji, Ryan L. Page, Subhasis Chaudhuri, Wenjun Liu, Shih-Ying Yu, Suzanne E. Mohney, John V. Badding and Venkatraman Gopalan

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600592

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      Synthesis and fabrication of high-quality, small-core single-crystal germanium fibers that are photosensitive at the near-infrared and have low optical losses ≈1 dB cm−1 at 2 μm are reported. These fibers have potential applications in fiber-based spectroscopic imaging, nonlinear optical devices, and photodetection at the telecommunication wavelengths.

    2. Angle Robust Reflection/Transmission Plasmonic Filters Using Ultrathin Metal Patch Array

      Chenying Yang, Weidong Shen, Jing Zhou, Xu Fang, Ding Zhao, Xing Zhang, Chengang Ji, Bo Fang, Yueguang Zhang, Xu Liu and L. Jay Guo

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600397

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      Angle robust reflection/transmission plasmonic filters using ultrathin metal patch array are proposed to achieve angle insensitive color filtering for a broad range of incidence angles up to 60°. This property is attributed to the localized surface plasmonic resonance of each metal patch. Further, an array with as few as two periods is sufficient to demonstrate the color filtering effect.

    3. Observation of Ultrafast Exciton–Exciton Annihilation in CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots

      Ke Wei, Xin Zheng, Xiangai Cheng, Chao Shen and Tian Jiang

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600352

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      Excited-state dynamics of CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) are studied through femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy measurements. The band-edge recombination is dominated by a single exciton process at low excitation density (<0.1 exciton QD−1). While a density-dependent quadratic decay is found in early probe decay at high excitation density (>0.25 exciton QD−1), which is attributed to exciton–exciton annihilation. Moreover, ultrafast biexcitons and slow trap-state excitons are also found with resonant energy slightly below the band edge.

  9. Reviews

    1. Emerging Progress of Inkjet Technology in Printing Optical Materials

      Lei Wu, Zhichao Dong, Fengyu Li, Haihua Zhou and Yanlin Song

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600466

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      Inkjet printing is a noncontact, additive patterning technique, which is able to directly distribute a predetermined amount of various functional materials with high efficiency. This article summarizes recent advances in inkjet printing techniques, including inkjet printing fundamentals including printing apparatus, printing inks, and substrates with detailed descriptions concerning device optimization, and advances in optical devices fabricated by inkjet printing.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Tandem Architecture of Perovskite and Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Created by Solution Processes for Solar Cells

      Minoh Lee, Se Jin Park, Yun Jeong Hwang, Yongseok Jun and Byoung Koun Min

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600373

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      A four-terminal tandem solar cell architecture is constructed by perovskite/Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGS). Our tandem solar cell is entirely solution-based, except for the fluorine-doped tin oxide layer in the perovskite and Mo layer in the CIGS solar cells, and exhibits a total power conversion efficiency of more than 10%, comprising 8.34% from the semitransparent perovskite and 2.48% from the CIGS solar cells.

    2. 3D Printed Hollow-Core Terahertz Optical Waveguides with Hyperuniform Disordered Dielectric Reflectors

      Tian Ma, Hichem Guerboukha, Martin Girard, Andrew D. Squires, Roger A. Lewis and Maksim Skorobogatiy

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600171

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      Hollow core waveguides featuring hyperuniform disordered reflectors are proposed for applications in the terahertz range. The proposed waveguides are fabricated using a 3D MultiJet printer and characterized by a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system. The proposed waveguides exhibit sizable photonic bandgaps (20%) whose positions and widths can easily be tuned by varying reflector geometrical parameters.

  11. Communications

    1. Spectrally Selective Mid-Infrared Thermal Emission from Molybdenum Plasmonic Metamaterial Operated up to 1000 °C

      Takahiro Yokoyama, Thang Duy Dao, Kai Chen, Satoshi Ishii, Ramu Pasupathi Sugavaneshwar, Masahiro Kitajima and Tadaaki Nagao

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600455

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      Plasmonic metamaterials are used for the fabrication of spectrally selective narrow-band mid-infrared thermal emitters operating at high temperatures. Using refractory materials, molybdenum and aluminum oxide in this case, high temperature operation has been demonstrated in vacuum up to 1000 °C. Colloidal mask etching is adopted to realize large-scale and cost-effective fabrication.

  12. Full Papers

    1. Electron Injection of Phosphorus Doped g-C3N4 Quantum Dots: Controllable Photoluminescence Emission Wavelength in the Whole Visible Light Range with High Quantum Yield

      Jiang Wu, Siwei Yang, Jipeng Li, Yucheng Yang, Gang Wang, Xiuming Bu, Peng He, Jing Sun, Junhe Yang, Yuan Deng, Guqiao Ding and Xiaoming Xie

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600570

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      Effective band gap control of g-C3N3 quantum dots (QDs) is verified via P-doping for the first time. The strong electronic injection process of lattice doped P decreased the band gap of g-C3N4 QDs observably. The emission wavelength of P-g-C3N4 QDs can be tuned in the whole visible light range (385–762 nm) by changing the doping concentration. Due to the direct band gap of P-g-C3N4 QDs, the quantum yield is higher than 0.90. An application of these P-g-C3N4 QDs in both in vitro and in vivo fluorescent bioimaging is also shown.

  13. Communications

    1. Near-Field Optical Properties of Fully Alloyed Noble Metal Nanoparticles

      Chen Gong, Mariama Rebello Sousa Dias, Garrett C. Wessler, Joshua A. Taillon, Lourdes G. Salamanca-Riba and Marina S. Leite

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600568

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      The near-field optical response of metal alloyed nanostructures obtained via a physical deposition method is presented. Dewetting of metallic thin films is implemented to produce fully alloyed AgxAu1−x nanoparticles and show how the chemical composition affects their optical response. These results demonstrate the potential for realizing alloyed nanostructures with engineered optical properties for applications ranging from nanophoto­nics to sensing.

    2. Enhanced Optical Modulation Depth of Terahertz Waves by Self-Assembled Monolayer of Plasmonic Gold Nanoparticles

      Tianlong Wen, Dainan Zhang, Qiye Wen, Yulong Liao, Chong Zhang, Jiayang Li, Wei Tian, Yuanpeng Li, Huaiwu Zhang, Yuanxun Li, Qinghui Yang and Zhiyong Zhong

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600248

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      Ultra-large-area self-assembled mono­layers of gold nanoparticles are coated on the intrinsic silicon to boost the generation of electron–hole pairs upon laser illumination. As a result, larger optical modulation depth of terahertz wave can be obtained by the monolayer coated silicon in comparison with the bare silicon.

  14. Full Papers

    1. Highly Stable Eu(III) and Tb(III) Complexes Based on Triarylborane-Functionalized Cyclen Derivatives as Visual Temperature Probes and White-Light Emitters

      Suning Wang, Tian-Ze Wu, Hee-Jun Park, Tai Peng, Li-Xia Cao, Soren K. Mellerup, Guo-Qiang Yang, Nan Wang and Jin-Bao Peng

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600408

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      Highly stable Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes based on triarylborane-functionalized cyclen ligands have been achieved, which display distinct and contrasting temperature-dependent emission. The binary composites of the new Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes produce bright white-light emission and are highly effective as sensitive and visual temperature probes over a wide temperature range.

    2. Topo-Chemical Tailoring of Tellurium Quantum Dot Precipitation from Supercooled Polyphosphates for Broadband Optical Amplification

      Linling Tan, Shiliang Kang, Zhiwen Pan, Yanfei Zhang, Yuanzheng Yue, Shanhui Xu, Mingying Peng and Lothar Wondraczek

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600516

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      A topo-chemical approach is presented for tailoring tellurium quantum dot precipitation and superbroad photoemission from polyphosphate laser glasses. To control Ten precipitate size, the parameters network crosslinking, and chemical acidity are used. This enables specific optical response, in particular, in the infrared.

    3. Triazolobenzothiadiazole-Based Copolymers for Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes: Pure Near-Infrared Emission via Optimized Energy and Charge Transfer

      Petri Murto, Alessandro Minotto, Andrea Zampetti, Xiaofeng Xu, Mats R. Andersson, Franco Cacialli and Ergang Wang

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600483

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      Near-infrared (NIR) polymer light-emitting diodes are fabricated from a series of conjugated copolymers. Triazolobenzothiadiazole is used as a low band gap NIR fluorophore, which is copolymerized in small quantities into a high band gap host polymer backbone. Pure NIR emission is obtained by optimizing both charge and energy transfer to the low-gap sites.

    4. Electrically Pumped Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Au/ZnO Microwire Schottky Junction

      Sunayna B. Bashar, Chunxia Wu, Mohammad Suja, Hao Tian, Wenhao Shi and Jianlin Liu

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600513

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      An electrically pumped whispering gallery mode laser diode based on Au–ZnO microwire Schottky junction is demonstrated. Typical Schottky behavior is achieved from this laser device and a moderate quality factor is reported. Exciton recombination is believed to be the mechanism of lasing generation. The new laser device structure provides an alternative approach toward semiconductor micro/nanolasers.

  15. Communications

    1. Frequency-Dependent Dual-Functional Coding Metasurfaces at Terahertz Frequencies

      Shuo Liu, Lei Zhang, Quan Long Yang, Quan Xu, Yan Yang, Ahsan Noor, Qian Zhang, Shahid Iqbal, Xiang Wan, Zhen Tian, Wen Xuan Tang, Qiang Cheng, Jia Guang Han, Wei Li Zhang and Tie Jun Cui

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600471

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      A frequency-dependent dual-functional coding metasurface is proposed at terahertz frequencies using two layers of metamaterial structures, each of which is responsible for the independent control of reflection phases at two distinct frequencies. The zero interference between the functionalities at the lower and higher frequencies are promising for possible applications in multicolor holography for color displays or a frequency beam splitter.

    2. Experimental Demonstration of Total Absorption over 99% in the Near Infrared for Monolayer-Graphene-Based Subwavelength Structures

      Chu-Cai Guo, Zhi-Hong Zhu, Xiao-Dong Yuan, Wei-Min Ye, Ken Liu, Jian-Fa Zhang, Wei Xu and Shi-Qiao Qin

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600481

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      Monolayer graphene coupled with subwavelength gratings on top of a gold mirror are experimentally demonstrated with a total absorption of over 99% at a wavelength around 1.5 μm with full-width half maximum (FWHM) about 20 nm. The experimental results confirm convincingly the theoretical prediction of complete optical absorption for monolayer-graphene-based structures in the near-infrared range.

  16. Full Papers

    1. Improving the Performance of a CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite Microrod Laser through Hybridization with Few-Layered Graphene

      Chen Zhang, Kaiyang Wang, Ningbo Yi, Yisheng Gao, Maoxia Zhu, Wenzhao Sun, Shuai Liu, Ke Xu, Shumin Xiao and Qinghai Song

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600209

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      By transferring a CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite microrod onto a graphene slice, the output intensity of the microrod is significantly enhanced and the threshold is reduced. The improvements are attributed to the electron acceptor property of graphene. As the electrons are attracted by graphene, the electrons and holes are separated in different regions and the Auger recombination at high pumping power can be dramatically reduced.

  17. Communications

    1. Self-Assembled Magnetic Control Lever Embedded in Photonic Liquid Crystalline Microcapsule

      Yosuke Iwai, Yoshiaki Uchida and Norikazu Nishiyama

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600372

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      The behavior of water/oil/water double emulsion droplets with a cholesteric liquid crystalline middle phase (photonic microcapsules, PMCs) with magnetic nanoparticles (m-PMCs) in a uniform magnetic field is demonstrated. The needle-like aggregate of magnetic nanoparticles forms along the disclination line by the elastic interaction between particles and liquid crystalline director field. The m-PMC reorients in a uniform magnetic field.

    2. Biocompatible and Sustainable Optical Strain Sensors for Large-Area Applications

      Gen Kamita, Bruno Frka-Petesic, Antoine Allard, Marielle Dargaud, Katie King, Ahu Gumrah Dumanli and Silvia Vignolini

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600451

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      By a simple two-step procedure, large photonic strain sensors using a biocompatible cellulose derivative are fabricated. Transient color shifts of the sensors are explained by a theoretical model that consideres the deformation of cholesteric domains, which is in agreement with the experimental results. The extremely simple fabrication method is suitable for both miniaturization and large-sale manufacture, taking advantage of inexpensive and sustainable materials.

  18. Reviews

    1. Ultrafast Photophysics of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

      Giancarlo Soavi, Francesco Scotognella, Guglielmo Lanzani and Giulio Cerullo

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600361

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      The interest for carbon nanotubes stands at the edge between fundamental physics in quantum confined systems and advanced technology. This review summarizes more than two decades of intense research on their ultrafast photophysical properties, the most advanced spectroscopic techniques used for their optical characterization, and possible applications in the fields of photo­nics, optoelectronics and photovoltaics.

  19. Full Papers

    1. Simplified Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a Mixed Fluorescent Blue Emitting Layer for Exciton Managing and Lifetime Improving

      Yuan Liu, Feng Liang, Lin-Song Cui, Xiao-Bo Shi, Zhao-Kui Wang and Liang-Sheng Liao

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600410

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      A promising device structure for efficient and long-lived noninterlayer hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) is demonstrated. Two self-host blue emission materials (N,N′-di-1-naphthalenyl-N,N′-diphenyl-[1,1′:4′,1″:4″,1′″-quaterphenyl]-4,4′″-diamine) and (bis-[2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-pyridine]beryllium) are mixed to form a bipolar mixed fluorescent blue-emitting layer for exiton managing, reducing the efficiency roll-off, improving color stability, and extending the lifetime more than four times of the hybrid WOLEDs.

    2. Two-Photon Excitation Temperature Nanosensors Based on a Conjugated Fluorescent Polymer Doped with a Europium Probe

      Xu-dong Wang, Robert J. Meier, Michael Schäferling, Sebastian Bange, John M. Lupton, Michaela Sperber, Joachim Wegener, Vladimir Ondrus, Uwe Beifuss, Ulrich Henne, Christian Klein and Otto S. Wolfbeis

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600601

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      A two-photon excitable temperature nanosensor is presented. Nanodots prepared from a semiconducting polymer (SCP) and a temperature-sensitive luminescent Eu(III) complex are shown to be viable materials for sensing temperature under photoexcitation at >700 nm. The SCE acts as an antenna to capture two-photon energy which then is transferred to the emitting Eu(III) complex. Both ratiometric and lifetime fluorometry can be applied.

  20. Communications

    1. Powerful and Tunable THz Emitters Based on the Fe/Pt Magnetic Heterostructure

      Dewang Yang, Jianhui Liang, Chao Zhou, Lu Sun, Ronger Zheng, Shengnian Luo, Yizheng Wu and Jingbo Qi

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600270

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      Heterostructures composed of ferromagnetic metal and nonmagnetic metal with strong spin-orbit coupling are shown to be powerful broadband THz emitters, whose field strength can be maximized by optimizing the thickness of both ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic films, and the heterostructure layers. Furthermore, the THz spectrum and its intensity are tunable by the magnetic field orientation applied on the patterned magnetic Fe/Pt heterostructures.

    2. Label-Free Glucose Sensing Using Chip-Scale Mid-Infrared Integrated Photonics

      Pao Tai Lin, Hao-Yu Greg Lin, Zhaohong Han, Tiening Jin, Rachel Millender, Lionel C. Kimerling and Anu Agarwal

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600440

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      A chip-scale and label-free glucose sensor is developed by utilizing mid-IR silicon nitride waveguides. For a dry glucose covered waveguide, strong intensity attenuation is found at λ > 2.73 μm due to the O[BOND]H stretches absorption. Using this characteristic spectrum, a glucose detection limit less than 0.5 ng is experimentally demonstrated.

  21. Full Papers

    1. Accessing the High-Q Dark Plasmonic Fano Resonances in Superconductor Metasurfaces

      Yogesh Kumar Srivastava, Manukumara Manjappa, Harish N. S. Krishnamoorthy and Ranjan Singh

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600354

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      Ultrasharp Fano resonances are demonstrated in asymmetric split ring resonator arrays using a high-temperature superconductor. Ultrahigh-Q dark Fano resonances are observed at extremely low structural asymmetry regime which is inaccessible by identical high conductivity metallic structures. Significant line narrowing of superconducting Fano resonance is observed at low and high asymmetry in comparison to metal at terahertz frequencies.

    2. Enhancement of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Solar Cells Using Europium Complex as Photon Downshifter

      Anatolie Gavriluta, Thomas Fix, Aline Nonat, Myriam Paire, Abdelilah Slaoui, Loïc J. Charbonnière and Jean-François Guillemoles

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600395

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      Strong improvement of external quantum efficiency (EQE) in UV region of copper indium gallium selenide solar cells is obtained using a ternary europium (III) complex as downshifting material. Common encapsulation films doped with the Eu(III) complex are able to increase the EQE up to 56% and the short-circuit current by 0.55 mA cm−2 in UV region.

  22. Communications

    1. Strong Quantum Confinement Effect in the Optical Properties of Ultrathin α-In2Se3

      Jorge Quereda, Robert Biele, Gabino Rubio-Bollinger, Nicolás Agraït, Roberto D'Agosta and Andres Castellanos-Gomez

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600365

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      The effect of quantum confinement in the optical absorption spectra of atomically thin α-In2Se3 crystals is studied, observing a huge thickness-dependent shift in the optical band gap of exfoliated α-In2Se3 flakes. The band gap variation reported here is among the largest found in semiconductor crystals and spans a region of the near-UV spectrum uncovered by other 2D semiconductors.

  23. Full Papers

    1. Cellulose-Based Solid Fluorescent Materials

      Weiguo Tian, Jinming Zhang, Jian Yu, Jin Wu, Haq Nawaz, Jun Zhang, Jiasong He and Fosong Wang

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600500

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      A simple, effective, and general strategy is developed to fabricate solid-state fluorescent materials from luminogens with aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ). Furthermore, the abundance in raw materials (both cellulose and ACQ luminogens) gives added impetus to the applications in practice.

    2. Orange-Red-Light-Emitting Field-Effect Transistors Based on Phosphorescent Pt(II) Complexes with Area Emission

      Robert Wawrzinek, Khalid Muhieddine, Mujeeb Ullah, Peter B. Koszo, Paul E. Shaw, Arnaud Grosjean, Fatemeh Maasoumi, Dani M. Stoltzfus, Jack K. Clegg, Paul L. Burn, Ebinazar B. Namdas and Shih-Chun Lo

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600460

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      Solution processed light-emitting field-effect transistors based on square planar Pt(II) complexes allow for high dopant concentrations and show aggregate emission with excellent optoelectronic properties (up to 855 cd m−2 and 0.1% external quantum efficiency), and high electron mobility (1.3 cm2 V−1 s−1) and ON/OFF ratio (4 × 106).

  24. Communications

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Fast High-Responsivity Few-Layer MoTe2 Photodetectors

      Tobias J. Octon, V. Karthik Nagareddy, Saverio Russo, Monica F. Craciun and C. David Wright

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600290

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      The transition metal dichalcogenide MoTe2 is fabricated into few-layer field-effect transistors that show hole conduction with a mobility of 2.04 V cm−2 s−1. Four-layer MoTe2 devices have a high photoresponsivity of 6 A W−1 and a response time, at around 160 μs, over 100 times faster than previously reported, making them a strong candidate for high speed and high sensitivity photodetection.

    2. Efficient Broadband Upconversion of Near-Infrared Light in Dye-Sensitized Core/Shell Nanocrystals

      Guanying Chen, Wei Shao, Rashid R. Valiev, Tymish Y. Ohulchanskyy, Guang S. He, Hans Ågren and Paras N. Prasad

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600556

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      Efficient broadband upconversion of near-infrared light is realized through multidimensional energy cascaded upconversion in dye-sensitized core/shell nanocrystals. The upconversion energy conversion efficiency reaches as high as 16.4%.

  25. Full Papers

    1. Controlled and Stabilized Light–Matter Interaction in Graphene: Plasmonic Film with Large-Scale 10-nm Lithography

      Yaowu Hu, Prashant Kumar, Yi Xuan, Biwei Deng, Minghao Qi and Gary J. Cheng

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600201

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      Large-scale graphene–plasmonics nano­engineered hybrid structures with the capability to generate large optical field enhancement are nanoimprinted from physical-vapor-deposited thin films on flexible substrates. In this structure, anisotropic light–matter interactions are demonstrated with tunable field enhancement, hot-electron transfer at the graphene–metal interface, and optical reflectance. This hybrid structure also has excellent stability in reactive and elevated-temperature environments.

    2. Stacked-Disk Nanotower Arrays for Use as Omniphobic Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates

      Tae Yoon Jeon, Ju Hyeon Kim, Sung-Gyu Park, Jung-Dae Kwon, Dong-Ho Kim and Shin-Hyun Kim

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600388

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      An omniphobic surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate is designed using an array of silver-coated nanotowers with wavy side walls. The reentrant geometry on the side walls renders the surface omniphobic, and metal nanogaps provide a strong localized surface plasmon resonance effect. Molecules dissolved in either water or organic solvents can be concentrated on the substrate by drying, which significantly enhances the Raman intensity.

    3. Independent Tailoring of Super-Radiant and Sub-Radiant Modes in High-Q Plasmonic Fano Resonant Metasurfaces

      Govind Dayal, Xin Yu Chin, Cesare Soci and Ranjan Singh

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600417

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      Independent tuning of super-radiant and sub-radiant modes of a Fano resonance at near infrared frequencies is experimentally and numerically demonstrated. It is shown that the spectral position and line-width of both the super-radiant and sub-radiant plasmonic modes of a Fano resonance can be independently controlled through the variation of metal film thickness at the skin-depth scale and polarization of the incident light.

  26. Communications

    1. Light-Driven Soft Robot Mimics Caterpillar Locomotion in Natural Scale

      Mikołaj Rogóż, Hao Zeng, Chen Xuan, Diederik Sybolt Wiersma and Piotr Wasylczyk

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600503

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      Soft robots that can be remotely powered and controlled and mimic locomotion of living species open new perspectives in science and engineering. A natural-scale monolithic caterpillar robot based on an optomechanical liquid crystalline elastomer with patterned molecular alignment is reported. The robot demonstrates different gaits and is capable of performing various tasks in complex environments.

    2. Angle-Insensitive and CMOS-Compatible Subwavelength Color Printing

      Kyu-Tae Lee, Ji-Yun Jang, Sang Jin Park, Chengang Ji, Sung-Mo Yang, L. Jay Guo and Hui Joon Park

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600287

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      Photonic nanostructures for a wide-angle and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible structural color printing scheme exploiting strong resonance effects in ultrathin subwavelength semiconductor gratings are demonstrated. The proposed structures create distinctive colors with great homogeneity and high color saturation, easily tuned by varying a width of the subwavelength gratings, thereby enabling individual color pixels to be patterned via one-step process.

  27. Full Papers

    1. 20-mm-Large Single-Crystalline Formamidinium-Perovskite Wafer for Mass Production of Integrated Photodetectors

      Yucheng Liu, Jiankun Sun, Zhou Yang, Dong Yang, Xiaodong Ren, Hua Xu, Zupei Yang and Shengzhong (Frank) Liu

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600327

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      Large formamidinium-perovskite FAPbI3 single-crystals are prepared using an inverse-temperature reactive crystallization method. The large crystals are sliced into wafers to fabricate a large array of photodetectors. It is found that the wafer-based photodetector shows a much superior performance than that made of microcrystalline thin films.

    2. Tunable Graphene Metasurfaces with Gradient Features by Self-Assembly-Based Moiré Nanosphere Lithography

      Zilong Wu, Wei Li, Maruthi Nagavalli Yogeesh, Seungyong Jung, Alvin Lynghi Lee, Kyle McNicholas, Andrew Briggs, Seth R. Bank, Mikhail A. Belkin, Deji Akinwande and Yuebing Zheng

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600242

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      A new type of graphene metasurfaces with moiré patterns is developed using cost-effective and scalable moiré nanosphere lithography. The large gradient in feature shape and size of graphene nanostructures leads to ultrathin electromagnetic metasurfaces with multiband responses that are tunable from midinfrared to terahertz regime, which can find applications in biosensing, authentication, and defense.

  28. Communications

    1. Highly Sensitive Organic Photodetectors with Tunable Spectral Response under Bi-Directional Bias

      Jianli Miao, Fujun Zhang, Yuze Lin, Wenbin Wang, Mile Gao, Lingliang Li, Jian Zhang and Xiaowei Zhan

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600387

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      Photomultiplication (PM) type organic photodetectors (OPDs) are presented that can work well under forward and reverse bias and exhibit tunable spectral response under bi-directional bias. The working mechanism of the PM type OPDs is attributed to the interfacial trap-assisted hole tunneling injection from external circuit under light illumination. Photogenerated electron distribution in active layers is calculated based on transfer matrix method.

  29. Reviews

    1. Atomic-Layered MoS2 as a Tunable Optical Platform

      Chengbing Qin, Yan Gao, Zhixing Qiao, Liantuan Xiao and Suotang Jia

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600323

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      Atomic-layered MoS2 offers significant advantages for advanced optical materials and next-generation electronic devices, which requires controlling its electronic and optical properties. This review highlights recent, state-of-the-art research in tuning the optical properties of atomic-layered MoS2. Physical routes and proposed mechanisms, especially switching among quasiparticles, are discussed.

  30. Full Papers

    1. Porous Gold Nanowires: Plasmonic Response and Surface-Enhanced Infrared Absorption

      Ina Schubert, Christian Huck, Philipp Kröber, Frank Neubrech, Annemarie Pucci, Maria Eugenia Toimil-Molares, Christina Trautmann and Jochen Vogt

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600430

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      Infrared spectroscopy is performed on smooth and porous gold nanowires and compared to finite-difference time-domain simulations. It is demonstrated that porosity influences clearly the plasmonic characteristics of nanowires due to different average electron densities and electron scattering. Furthermore, both types of wires reveal similar efficiency for surface-enhanced infrared absorption which is explained by near-field simulations.

    2. Two-Component Orderly Molecular Hybrids of Diphenylanthracene: Modulation of Solid-State Aggregation toward Tunable Photophysical Properties and Highly Enhanced Electrochemiluminescence

      Guoling Fan and Dongpeng Yan

      Version of Record online: 4 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600310

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      The formation of molecular cocrystals of diphenylanthracene (DPA) can largely modify photophysical properties (quantum yield, two-photon emission, polarized fluorescence, and 1D/2D optical waveguide) and enhance the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) properties relative to the pristine DPA, due to alternation of molecular aggregation and improved intermolecular electron transfer. The photofunctional cocrystals and ECL devices can serve as temperature and nitrate sensors.

  31. Communications

    1. Nonabsorbing Acceptor-Based Planar Heterojunction for Color-Selective and High-Detectivity Polymer Photodiodes

      Seongwon Yoon, Jaeun Ha, Jangwhan Cho and Dae Sung Chung

      Version of Record online: 4 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600484

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      A strategy for highly color-selective polymeric photodiodes is reported. The nonabsorbing acceptor enables the color-selective polymeric donor to fully reflect its absorption spectrum in the final quantum efficiency spectrum. The optimized planar heterojunction device structure leads to low dark current down to 1.3 nA cm−2 as well as high detectivity up to 1.15 × 1012 cm Hz0.5 W-1.

  32. Full Papers

    1. Enhancing the Angular Sensitivity of Plasmonic Sensors Using Hyperbolic Metamaterials

      Kandammathe Valiyaveedu Sreekanth, Yunus Alapan, Mohamed ElKabbash, Amy M. Wen, Efe Ilker, Michael Hinczewski, Umut A. Gurkan, Nicole F. Steinmetz and Giuseppe Strangi

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600448

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      A grating-coupled hyperbolic metamaterial-based plasmonic platform is proposed for enhancing the angular sensitivity of plasmonic sensors, which can provide extraordinary angular sensitivities from visible to near infrared wavelengths. This device has the ability to detect extremely small refractive index changes by exciting the high-k modes associated with hyperbolic metamaterial, which is suitable for the development of next-generation biosensors.

    2. Plasmonically Induced Potential in Metal–Semiconductor Composites

      Shiva Shahin, Palash Gangopadhyay and Robert A. Norwood

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600428

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      Conductive atomic force microscopy and electrostatic force microscopy are used to show local changes in current and potential distribution around plasmonic metal nanoparticles upon photoexcitation. Within optical, electrical, and thermal regimes, different effects are introduced that are of importance in describing the observed changes in current and potential densities.

    3. Structural Engineering of Nano-Grain Boundaries for Low-Voltage UV-Photodetectors with Gigantic Photo- to Dark-Current Ratios

      Noushin Nasiri, Renheng Bo, Hongjun Chen, Thomas P. White, Lan Fu and Antonio Tricoli

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600273

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      The effect of the grain boundary morphology on the optical and photodetection mechanism of ultraporous ZnO nanoparticle networks UV-photodetectors is investigated. Optimal devices feature an ultralow dark current of 22 pA and a high photocurrent of 205 μA at a low light density of 86 μW cm−2 and a bias of 1 V, and a gigantic photo- to dark-current ratio of 9.3 × 106.

  33. Communications

    1. High-Performance Light-Emitting Memories: Multifunctional Devices for Unveiling Information by Optical and Electrical Detection

      Yi-Rou Liou, Golam Haider, Shu-Yi Cai, Chia-Lin Wu, Tai-Yuan Lin and Yang-Fang Chen

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600298

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      A novel bistable light-emitting memory device is demonstrated not only to read the encoded signal electrically, but to enable signal communication by optical detection; this facilitates the capability for a parallel reading process and raises the transmission rate of the signal dramatically. The ON/OFF ratio can be extremely large, based on optical detection with low applied bias.

    2. Physically Transient Distributed Feedback Laser Using Optically Activated Silk Bio-Ink

      Hyunho Jung, Kyungtaek Min, Heonsu Jeon and Sunghwan Kim

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600369

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      Optically activated silk bio-ink is used to realize a physically transient distributed feedback laser. By water-washing and recoating, a fresh single-use laser can be easily obtained. Along with reliable lasing, a chemosensing application to detect a toxic acid vapor is presented.

  34. Full Papers

    1. Bottom-Up Synthesis of MeSx Nanodots for Optoelectronic Device Applications

      Quyet Van Le, Thang Phan Nguyen, Minjoon Park, Woonbae Sohn, Ho Won Jang and Soo Young Kim

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600333

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      WSx and MoSx nanodots are synthesized from (NH4)2WS4 and (NH4)2MoS4 precursors using a solvothermal method, and applied to organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as hole injection layers (HILs). The stabilities of the OPV and OLEDs in air can be prolonged by using ultraviolet/ozone-treated WSx or MoSx nanodots as HILs.

    2. Efficient Radiative Pumping of Polaritons in a Strongly Coupled Microcavity by a Fluorescent Molecular Dye

      Richard T. Grant, Paolo Michetti, Andrew J. Musser, Pascal Gregoire, Tersilla Virgili, Eleonora Vella, Marco Cavazzini, Kyriacos Georgiou, Francesco Galeotti, Caspar Clark, Jenny Clark, Carlos Silva and David G. Lidzey

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600337

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      The energetic distribution of polariton states is explored in a series of strongly coupled microcavities containing the fluorescent molecular dye BODIPY-Br. It is shown that distribution of polariton states along the lower polariton branch is dependent on the distribution of states within the weakly coupled reservoir, and is primarily populated by direct radiative pumping from excimer-like states.

  35. Communications

    1. Highly Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Low Efficiency Roll-Off Based on Iridium Complexes Containing Pinene Sterically Hindered Spacer

      Yong-Hui Zhou, Qiu-Lei Xu, Hua-Bo Han, Yue Zhao, You-Xuan Zheng, Liang Zhou, Jing-Lin Zuo and Hongjie Zhang

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600315

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      Two iridium complexes with chiral pinene sterically hindered substituents are applied in organic light-emitting diodes. Highly efficient devices show a maximum luminance of 135 676 cd m−2, a maximum current efficiency of 103.50 cd A−1, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 28.0%, and a maximum power efficiency of 88.29 lm W−1 with a slight efficiency roll-off.

    2. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots: A Comparison Study Using Z-Scan Technique

      Wen-Gao Lu, Cheng Chen, Dengbao Han, Linhua Yao, Junbo Han, Haizheng Zhong and Yongtian Wang

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600322

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      The comparison between organic–inorganic CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots and all inorganic halide perovskite CsPbBr3 quantum dots allows to understand the structural difference and corresponding optical properties. Using Z-scan measurements, it is revealed that colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 exhibits enhanced two-photon absorption properties compared to those of CsPbBr3 quantum dots due to their structural difference.

  36. Full Papers

    1. Dynamic Manipulation of Optical Anisotropy of Suspended Poly-3-hexylthiophene Nanofibers

      Gleb S. Lobov, Yichen Zhao, Aleksandrs Marinins, Min Yan, Jiantong Li, Abhilash Sugunan, Lars Thylén, Lech Wosinski, Mikael Östling, Muhammet S. Toprak and Sergei Popov

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600226

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      Poly-3-hexylthiophene nanofibers perform strong optical anisotropy, which in combination with their ability to be aligned by external electric field, provides a basis for dynamic manipulation of birefringence. Dynamic reversible modulation of birefringence or absorption through switchable reorientation of nanofibers can be implemented in a novel photonic device as an alternative to liquid crystal-based techniques.

  37. Communications

    1. Photovoltage Enhancement in Twisted-Bilayer Graphene Using Surface Plasmon Resonance

      Wei Xin, Xu-Dong Chen, Zhi-Bo Liu, Wen-Shuai Jiang, Xiao-Guang Gao, Xiao-Qiang Jiang, Yongsheng Chen and Jian-Guo Tian

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600278

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      Enhanced photovoltages in twisted-bilayer graphene are obtained by adjusting twist angle and surface plasmon resonance. Results show that our metal–graphene–metal photodetector has incident-angle-dependent and polarization-dependent properties. The photovoltage intensities are related to the number of graphene layers and the twist angle. Twisted-bilayer graphene at the optimal incidence angle has an ≈700% enhanced photovoltage.

    2. Ultrathin Capacitive Metasurfaces for Strong Electric Response

      Kyoung-Ho Kim, Gwang-Hun Jung, Seo-Joo Lee, Hong-Gyu Park and Q-Han Park

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600146

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      Ultrathin capacitive metasurfaces, comprising nonresonant metal strips or patches, are shown to cause exceptionally large phase discontinuity of incoming light. The strong electric response in metasurfaces leading to phase discontinuity is demonstrated experimentally and characterized using effective medium theory. Without needing resonant optical scatterers, these metasurfaces enable deep subwavelength planar photonics.

    3. Nanoassembly of Polydisperse Photonic Crystals Based on Binary and Ternary Polymer Opal Alloys

      Qibin Zhao, Chris E. Finlayson, Christian G. Schaefer, Peter Spahn, Markus Gallei, Lars Herrmann, Andrei V. Petukhov and Jeremy J. Baumberg

      Version of Record online: 18 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600328

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      Ordered binary and ternary photonic crystals, composed of different sized polymer-composite spheres with diameter ratios up to 120%, are generated using bending-induced oscillatory shearing. This viscoelastic system creates polydisperse equilibrium structures, producing mixed opaline colored films with greatly reduced requirements for particle monodispersity, and very different sphere size ratios compared to other methods of nanoassembly.

  38. Full Papers

    1. Materials Pushing the Application Limits of Wire Grid Polarizers further into the Deep Ultraviolet Spectral Range

      Thomas Siefke, Stefanie Kroker, Kristin Pfeiffer, Oliver Puffky, Kay Dietrich, Daniel Franta, Ivan Ohlídal, Adriana Szeghalmi, Ernst-Bernhard Kley and Andreas Tünnermann

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600250

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      The application ranges of several materials for the realization of nano-optical wire grid polarizers (WGPs) are discussed. The study shows that high performance WGPs require materials with large absolute values of their complex permittivities and extinction coefficients. Based on these results a titanium dioxide WGP was fabricated with an unprecedented extinction ratio of 384 at a wavelength of 193 nm.

    2. Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime

      Yuancheng Fan, Nian-Hai Shen, Fuli Zhang, Zeyong Wei, Hongqiang Li, Qian Zhao, Quanhong Fu, Peng Zhang, Thomas Koschny and Costas M. Soukoulis

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600303

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      A monolayer graphene is investigated in a hybrid system with metamaterial for achieving an electrically controllable Goos–Hänchen effect in the terahertz regime. It is found that the Goos–Hänchen shift can be substantially modified by changing the doping level of graphene. In addition, the frequency and polarization dependent responses also suggest efficient manipulation on terahertz beams.

  39. Communications

    1. Water-Resistant Perovskite Polygonal Microdisks Laser in Flexible Photonics Devices

      Haihua Zhang, Qing Liao, Xuedong Wang, Jiannian Yao and Hongbing Fu

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600335

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      Three kinds of polygonal 2D single-crystalline microdisk (MD) laser resonators of MAPbBr3 in square, hexagonal, and octagonal shapes are controllably prepared using a facile one-step solution self-assembly method by regulating the growth kinetics. Furthermore, polygonal MDs are embedded in water-resistant polymer thin-film with high flexibility and transmission as flexible photonic devices.

  40. Full Papers

    1. Solution-Processed Double-Layer Electron-Transport Layer for Conventional Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

      Manping Jia, Xinjun Xu, Jinghong Peng, Jianfeng Zhang, Chuang Yao and Lidong Li

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600244

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      Polyethyleneimine-doped lithium acetylacetonate is used as a hybrid interfacial layer in conventional organic light-emitting diodes, cooperating with trans-polyisoprene-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles to improve electron injection and transport as well as suppress triplet exciton quenching of the light-emitting polymer. Proper modification and doping can prevent aggregation of the zinc oxide nanoparticles and remarkably lowers the roughness of the ZnO film.

    2. Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low-Scattering Metasurfaces

      Jie Zhao, Qiang Cheng, Xin Ke Wang, Min Jie Yuan, Xiao Zhou, Xiao Jian Fu, Mei Qing Qi, Shuo Liu, Hai Bin Chen, Yan Zhang and Tie Jun Cui

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600202

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      A new strategy to realize the low-scattering metasurfaces with desired bandwidths is proposed. The whole metasurface is divided into several rectangular sections with unequal sizes, which are randomly occupied by three kinds of elements with different reflection phases. The diffuse reflection feature of the device can be attributed to the destructive interferences of these elements with the change of operating frequency. Excellent scattering-suppression features are observed in the predefined frequency bands.

    3. Supercontinuum Generation in Naturally Occurring Glass Sponges Spicules

      Hermann Ehrlich, Manuel Maldonado, Andrew R. Parker, Yuri N. Kulchin, Jörg Schilling, Benjamin Köhler, Ulrich Skrzypczak, Paul Simon, Henry M. Reiswig, Mikhail V. Tsurkan, Eike Brunner, Sergey S. Voznesenskiy, Alexander V. Bezverbny, Sergey S. Golik, Ivan G. Nagorny, Denis V. Vyalikh, Anna A. Makarova, Serguei L. Molodtsov, Kurt Kummer, Michael Mertig, Christiane Erler, Denis V. Kurek, Vasilii V. Bazhenov, Filipe Natalio, Alexander E. Kovalev, Stanislav N. Gorb, Allison L. Stelling, Johannes Heitmann, René Born, Dirk C. Meyer and Konstantin R. Tabachnick

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600454

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      The anchoring spicules of Sericolophus hawaiicus represent a unique biocomposite containing biosilica within specifically structured nanolamellar chitin. The generation of supercontinuum in these naturally occurring fibers is demonstrated for the first time. In contrast to in range between 1000 and 2000 °C artificially synthetized fibers with supercontinuum properties, glass sponges produce siliceous spicules with similar features at temperatures around 4 °C.

    4. Helicity-Dependent Photovoltaic Effect in Bi2Se3 Under Normal Incident Light

      Jean Besbas, Karan Banerjee, Jaesung Son, Yi Wang, Yang Wu, Matthew Brahlek, Nikesh Koirala, Jisoo Moon, Seongshik Oh and Hyunsoo Yang

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600301

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      Shining light on a material results in the appearance of a photocurrent, which does not generally depend on the polarization of the incident light. Circularly polarized light, applied obliquely to a Bi2Se3 thin film, has the property to generate such a helicity-dependent photocurrent, called the circular photogalvanic effect. Our results show that electrostatic potential gradient in TIs can locally break the rotational symmetry of a Bi2Se3 thin film, allowing a helicity-dependent photocurrent to occur even with normal incident light. Hence, engineering Bi2Se3–metal or p–n junctions would allow the control of optically generated spin currents.

    5. Plasticity Promoted Band Structure Engineering Achieved by Arrayed Indentation on GaAs Wafers

      Dongfang Zhao, Xiaoyu Lin, Ran Jia, Naikun Gao and Duo Liu

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600381

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      An arrayed indentation pattern is created on GaAs wafers, which supports photochemical cultivation of Ag nanoplates and exhibits strong white light photoluminescence emission that can be perceived by the naked eye. A water droplet on the patterned GaAs shows a colorful diffraction pattern. This plasticity mediated principle opens a new avenue for the design and fabrication of novel semiconductor/metal structures with exotic properties.

  41. Communications

    1. Scalable and Formable Tellurite-Based Transparent Ceramics for Near Infrared Applications

      Anthony Bertrand, Julie Carreaud, Sébastien Chenu, Mathieu Allix, Emmanuel Véron, Jean-René Duclère, Yann Launay, Tomokatsu Hayakawa, Cécile Genevois, François Brisset, Fabrice Célarié, Philippe Thomas and Gaëlle Delaizir

      Version of Record online: 6 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600230

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      Innovative transparent tellurite polycrystalline ceramics are demonstrated to be simply elaborated by full and congruent crystallization of the 75TeO2–12.5Bi2O3–12.5Nb2O5 parent glass. The low temperature tellurite glass elaboration and its stability both enable the preparation of scalable tailor-shaped ceramics with high refractive index, transmission in the near infrared range up to 5.5 μm, and promising mechanical/thermal properties.

  42. Full Papers

    1. Color-Selective 2.5D Holograms on Large-Area Flexible Substrates for Sensing and Multilevel Security

      Ali K. Yetisen, Haider Butt, Tatsiana Mikulchyk, Rajib Ahmed, Yunuen Montelongo, Matjaž Humar, Nan Jiang, Suzanne Martin, Izabela Naydenova and Seok Hyun Yun

      Version of Record online: 5 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600162

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      2.5 dimensional (2.5D) nanostepped holograms are produced over large flexible substrates using nanoimprinting. The 2.5D structures exhibit coloration due to Bragg diffraction that is tuned in the visible spectrum at a wide angular range. Applications are demonstrated in sensing, security labels, QR codes, and signatures.

    2. Electrically Reconfigurable Metasurfaces Using Heterojunction Resonators

      Prasad P. Iyer, Mihir Pendharkar and Jon A. Schuller

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600297

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      An electrically reconfigurable metasurface made of low-loss InSb/In0.8Al0.2Sb Mie resonators is theoretically demonstrated. The mid-infrared reflection phase is tuned by 300° with less than 1 dB of loss through free carrier refraction. Combined electromagnetic and device simulations demonstrate efficient beam steering between ±72° by applying a voltage gradient across the metasurface.

    3. Manipulations of Dual Beams with Dual Polarizations by Full-Tensor Metasurfaces

      Xiang Wan, Tian Yi Chen, Qian Zhang, Jia Yuan Yin, Zui Tao, Lei Zhang, Xiao Qing Chen, Yun Bo Li and Tie Jun Cui

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600111

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      An inhomogeneous tensor metasurface is proposed to manipulate the radiations of two independent beams with different polarizations. The direct holographic method is used to modulate the surface impedance matrix on the tensor metasurface. The aperture of the metasurface consists of two parts, and each part is independently modulated to generate a desired beam with specific direction and polarization state.

    4. Photoinduced Schottky Barrier Lowering in 2D Monolayer WS2 Photodetectors

      Ye Fan, Yingqiu Zhou, Xiaochen Wang, Haijie Tan, Youmin Rong and Jamie H. Warner

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600221

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      Lateral geometry photodetectors utilizing chemical vapor deposition grown mono­layer WS2 with Au electrodes are fabricated in order to study the details behind their operating mechanisms. It is shown that the high gain is associated with lowering of the Schottky barrier due to filling of trap states between the metal contact and WS2, enabling increases in thermionic emission over the barrier.

    5. Brightness and Photostability of Emerging Red and Near-IR Fluorescent Nanomaterials for Bioimaging

      Philipp Reineck, Adam Francis, Antony Orth, Desmond Wai Mo Lau, Reece David Valmont Nixon-Luke, Ishan Das Rastogi, Wan Aizuddin Wan Razali, Nicole Maree Cordina, Lindsay Marie Parker, Varun Kumaraswamy Annayya Sreenivasan, Louise Jennifer Brown and Brant Cameron Gibson

      Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600212

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      Organic fluorophores show high fluorescence brightness and poor photostability. Diamond and ruby nanoparticles are extremely photostable, but are not as bright as organic fluorophores or semiconductor quantum dots. While most fluorescent materials investigated in this study photobleach within seconds or a few minutes, diamond and ruby nano­particles can be imaged indefinitely in biological systems.

  43. Communications

    1. Multidimensional SERS Barcodes on Flexible Patterned Plasmonic Metafilm for Anticounterfeiting Applications

      Dongyang Li, Longhua Tang, Jingjing Wang, Xiangjiang Liu and Yibin Ying

      Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600247

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      A multidimensional surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) barcode is developed on patterned flexible plasmonic metafilm. The facile adjustment of barcodes in conjunction with the choices of Raman probes gives rise to an unlimited coding capacity and a high security level of our SERS barcoding system. Together with the excellent mechanical robustness and stability of the obtained metafilm, it is highly promising for next-generation advanced security solution.

  44. Full Papers

    1. Tailoring Optoelectronic Properties of Phenanthroline-Based Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters through Isomer Engineering

      Kailong Wu, Tao Zhang, Lisi Zhan, Cheng Zhong, Shaolong Gong, Zheng-Hong Lu and Chuluo Yang

      Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600304

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      Optoelectronic properties of phenan­throline-based thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters are finely tailored by simple isomer engineering. The meta-linking isomer possesses a small small singlet–triplet energy splitting, a high photoluminescence quantum yield, and a short delayed lifetime. A green fluorescent organic light-emitting diode employing a meta-linking isomer as emitter accomplishes a peak external quantum efficiency of 18.9% and a slow efficiency roll-off characteristic at high luminance.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Properties of a Thermotropic Nematic Liquid Crystal Doped with Graphene Oxide

      Shakhawan Al-Zangana, Maria Iliut, Michael Turner, Aravind Vijayaraghavan and Ingo Dierking

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600351

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      Graphene oxide (GO) self-organization in an anisotropic medium such as nematic liquid crystal is demonstrated using dielectric and electrooptical study. The effect of the GO flakes on the threshold voltage and elastic constant depends largely on the size of the GO flakes, the smaller the GO flakes the larger is the effect. The combination of two modern functional materials, liquid crystals and graphene oxide, can be used for many applications.

  45. Communications

    1. Active Control of Plasmon–Exciton Coupling in MoS2–Ag Hybrid Nanostructures

      Shuai Zu, Bowen Li, Yongji Gong, Ziwei Li, Pulickel M. Ajayan and Zheyu Fang

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600188

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      Optically-controllable plasmon–exciton coupling is achieved in MoS2–Ag hybrid nanostructures, facilitated by a photoexcited exciton-induced modulation of MoS2 dielectric function. The white light spectra of surface plasmon resonances are gradually red-shifted by increasing incident laser power. This spectroscopic tunability can be controlled by the near-field coupling strength and polarization state of light. It can also be selectively applied to control plasmonic dark modes.

    2. III–V Semiconductor Nanoresonators—A New Strategy for Passive, Active, and Nonlinear All-Dielectric Metamaterials

      Sheng Liu, Gordon A. Keeler, John L. Reno, Michael B. Sinclair and Igal Brener

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600240

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      2D and multilayer dielectric metamaterials made from III–V semiconductors are demonstrated using a monolithic fabrication process. The resulting structures could be used to recompress chirped femtosecond optical pulses and in a variety of other optical applications requiring low loss. These III–V all-dielectric metamaterials could enable novel active applications such as efficient nonlinear frequency converters, light emitters, detectors, and modulators.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effectively Transparent Front Contacts for Optoelectronic Devices

      Rebecca Saive, Aleca M. Borsuk, Hal S. Emmer, Colton R. Bukowsky, John V. Lloyd, Sisir Yalamanchili and Harry A. Atwater

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600252

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      Effectively transparent front contacts for optoelectronic devices achieve a measured transparency of up to 99.9% and a measured sheet resistance of 4.8 Ω sq−1. The 3D microscale triangular cross-section grid fingers redirect incoming photons efficiently to the active semiconductor area and can replace standard grid fingers as well as transparent conductive oxide layers in optoelectronic devices.

  46. Full Papers

    1. Quaternary Iodide K(Ca,Sr)I3:Eu2+ Single-Crystal Scintillators for Radiation Detection: Crystal Structure, Electronic Structure, and Optical and Scintillation Properties

      Yuntao Wu, Qi Li, Bryan C. Chakoumakos, Mariya Zhuravleva, Adam C. Lindsey, Jesse Ashby Johnson II, Luis Stand, Merry Koschan and Charles L. Melcher

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600239

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      High-performance quaternary iodide KCa0.8Sr0.2I3:Eu2+ scintillators are developed by using a mixing crystal strategy for radiation detection applications. The theoretical and experimental studies provide physical insights into the relationship between the material composition and its electronic structure. Such an achievement will open a new horizon for designing modern scintillation materials.

    2. 3D Holographic Photonic Crystals Containing Embedded Functional Features

      Runyu Zhang, Hailong Ning, Neil A. Krueger, Daniel Bacon-Brown and Paul V. Braun

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600158

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      Transfer printing is combined with holographic lithography to produce 3D photonic crystals containing defined defects. As the graphic shows, functional defects of a diverse set of materials are embedded within photonic crystals. This approach offers the possibility of strong emission modification and other applications either as fabricated or following conversion to high refractive index contrast systems.

  47. Communications

    1. Flower Power: Exploiting Plants' Epidermal Structures for Enhanced Light Harvesting in Thin-Film Solar Cells

      Ruben Hünig, Adrian Mertens, Moritz Stephan, Alexander Schulz, Benjamin Richter, Michael Hetterich, Michael Powalla, Uli Lemmer, Alexander Colsmann and Guillaume Gomard

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600046

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      Light-harvesting micro-/nanohierarchical structures replicated from plants' epidermal cells are exploited for photovoltaic applications. Their broadband and omnidirectional antireflection properties, together with their light-trapping capability, are analyzed experimentally. Power conversion efficiency gains are reported after integrating those replicas onto optimized state-of-the-art organic solar cells. The proposed approach can be applied to different plant species and photovoltaic technologies.

  48. Full Papers

    1. You have free access to this content
      Upconversion Nanocrystal-Doped Glass: A New Paradigm for Photonic Materials

      Jiangbo Zhao, Xianlin Zheng, Erik P. Schartner, Paul Ionescu, Run Zhang, Tich-Lam Nguyen, Dayong Jin and Heike Ebendorff-Heidepriem

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600296

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      A new versatile method of integrating upconversion nanocrystals into a glassy matrix is presented, which opens up exciting possibilities for new hybrid glass materials and multifunctional fiber devices with tailored nanoscale properties and high transparency. The method can be generalized to other nanocrystals with photonic, electronic, and magnetic properties of interest to leverage the performance and functions of the hybrid glass and fiber.

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