You have full text access to this Open Access content

Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology

Articles are published under the terms of the Creative Commons License as stated in the final article.

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 9

Editor-in-Chief: Jack Kessler, MD

Online ISSN: 2328-9503

Author Guidelines


The Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology (ACTN) publishes articles of broad interest with potential for high impact in understanding the mechanisms and treatment of diseases of the human nervous system.  All areas of clinical and basic neuroscience, including new technologies, cellular and molecular neurobiology, population sciences, and studies of behavior, addiction, and psychiatric diseases are of interest to the journal. ACTN is particularly interested in clinical trials and other large-scale studies that inform the practice of medicine. Trials reporting negative data will be considered. The scope of ACTN also includes topics of particular significance in neurologic education as well as other topics of interest to the clinical neuroscience community. In addition to manuscripts from established investigators, ACTN will welcome scholarly work, points-of-view, and case studies from residents, fellows and medical students.    

Editorial Policies 

Authors are required to submit manuscripts through our online submission website. If for any reason you are unable to do so, please contact the Managing Editor to discuss possible alternate arrangements.  

Submissions must not be under consideration by any other journal or published previously (apart from abstracts).  

All submissions are thoroughly vetted by Editors prior to peer review. ACTN is committed to providing a timely decision for every submission we receive. To accomplish this, we strictly enforce time limits for peer review and for editorial consideration. If authors require a decision within a restricted time frame (because of a competing paper from another group or similar problem, but NOT to meet a grant or promotion deadline), please contact the Editor-in Chief, John Kessler, at     

To ensure that your communications for all other matters are properly routed to the appropriate Editors, correspondence regarding your submission must be directed to Emily Hammond, Managing Editor at Do not contact the Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editors, or members of the Editorial Board.  

ACTN requires that authors follow the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) "Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals."

A conflict of interest disclosure form must be completed by each author, and must accompany each submission.  ACTN complies with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations regarding conflicts of interest.  Relevant information and a copy of the necessary information can be obtained at:

Experimental studies of human subjects require that the protocol has received prior approval by the appropriate institutional review board, and that informed consent was obtained from each subject. This approval must be noted in the Methods.

Animal experimentation must receive institutional approval and be conducted in accordance with the United States Public Health Service's Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and this approval must be stated in the Methods.  

Submissions from outside the United States must include evidence that human and animal research complies with the standards enforced in the country of origin. We do not require documentation of either human subjects or animal protocol approval at the time a paper is submitted, but reserve the right to do so for any paper that is considered for publication.  

Following publication authors will be required to make available any new nucleic acid constructs, recombinant organisms, antibodies, or other unique reagents and to make their data available to other investigators for the purpose of verifying and replicating results. The Editors strongly encourage authors to make their data available to other investigators for other purposes, e.g., to deposit microarray data in a public repository, such as GEO or ArrayExpress.   

Clinical trial reports must be written in accordance with the CONSORT reporting guidelines.  

Although ACTN does not advocate one particular registry, clinical trials must be registered in a database that meets the requirements set forth by the ICMJE: (1) The registry must be publicly accessible. (2) It must be open to all registrants and managed by a not-for-profit group. (3) The registry must have a mechanism to guarantee accuracy and validity of the information submitted. (4) The registry must adhere to the ICMJE mandates described at their website: Additional information can be found at:

Editorial Office Contact Information:

Emily Hammond

Manuscript Submission Information  

Submit your manuscripts online at where you and your coauthors may view the status of your manuscript as it progresses through the review process.  Notification of the disposition of each manuscript will be sent by e-mail to the submitting author on the day of decision.  The timeframe from submission to first decision ranges from one day to six weeks.   

Cover letter

A cover letter should specify: (1) type of submission (Research Article, Brief Communication, etc.); (2) the corresponding author complete with a mailing address, telephone and fax numbers, and an e-mail address; (3) a statement by the author certifying that all coauthors have seen and agree with the contents of the manuscript; (4) certify that the submission (aside from an abstract) is not under review at any other publication. If you have other articles in-press or under review with another journal, please e-mail these other manuscripts to the Managing Editor (Emily Hammond) after your manuscript has been submitted.   

Credits and Permissions

Upon acceptance, we will require (1) notice of informed consent; (2) releases to publish photographs of recognizable persons; and (3) written permission to use non-original material (including quotations exceeding 100 words or any table / figure) from both author and publisher of the original material.  No article will be published without all required permissions.  Credit the source in a text or table footnote, or in a legend.  

Conflict of interest

ACTN is compliant with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations regarding conflict of interest disclosures. All authors are required to report the following information with each submission: (1) Financial associations with commercial entities that provided financial support for the work reported in the submitted manuscript. The time frame for this disclosure covers the duration of the work itself, from conception and planning to the present. (2) Financial associations with commercial entities that could be viewed as having an interest in the general area of the submitted manuscript. All sources of revenue relevant to the submitted work that accrued either directly to you or to your institution on your behalf should be disclosed. The time frame for this disclosure covers the 36 months prior to submission of the manuscript. (3) Financial associations involving spouses or children under 18 years of age. (4) Non-financial associations that may be perceived as relevant to the submitted manuscript, including personal, professional, political, institutional, religious, or other associations that may be perceived as relevant. This information will be acknowledged at publication.  Rejection of a manuscript or retraction may occur if undisclosed financial interests are found after publication. The required form can be downloaded here:  

Preparation of Manuscripts


The first page of every submission should contain all of the following information: (1) title and running head; (2) all authors’ names, degrees and affiliations; (3) corresponding author’s contact information; (4) number of characters in the title and running head; (5) number of words in the abstract, and the body of the manuscript (not including abstract or references, figure legends, etc.); (6) number of figures, color figures, and tables.  (Gathering this information ahead of submission will greatly facilitate the online submission process.)  


Titles should be short, specific, and clear. They should not exceed 80 characters (including spaces). Do not use abbreviations in the title.  

Running head:

Please provide a running head title for your submission.  Do not exceed 50 characters.   


Individuals should only be listed as authors if they have participated in both the conception or design of the study, and in the data analysis or editing. All authors must explicitly approve the final draft of the paper before it is submitted. Purely technical contributions are not sufficient for authorship, but instead should be included in the acknowledgements. A paragraph should be included at the end of the manuscript, indicating the contribution of each author to the study.

All author names should include first name, middle initial (if provided), last name, and degrees.  Associate authors with institutional affiliations using superscript numbers.  Affiliations are specific to the department level: two authors at one institution but in different departments have separate listings; two authors in the same department will have one affiliation. Statements of equal authorship contribution will be included. At least one person’s name must precede a group-attributed authorship (e.g. “Tom Jones for the Meningitis Study Group”).  


The second page should contain the Abstract. Research Article abstracts must be limited to 250 words.  Please note that all Research Article abstracts must be submitted in the following structure:  Objective, Methods, Results, Interpretation.  

Abstracts for Brief Communications should be limited to 100 words.  Please do not include Research Article subheadings in your Brief Communication abstract. Do not use abbreviations or references in your abstract.  

Research Articles:

The editors recommend that Research Articles be limited to 3,000 words (not including the abstract, references, figure legends, etc.) with roughly 40 references.  

Brief Communications:

Brief Communications should be approximately 1,500 words, with 20 references or fewer, and no more than a total of three tables or illustrations. A study of a single patient (case study) should be in the Brief Communication format.

Advances in Neurological Education:

The Research Article format should be used. 

Letters to the Editor and Replies:

If possible, letters should be limited to 400 words. Letters may include one table or figure, if essential, and should contain five or fewer references. Only letters addressing previously published articles will be considered.  Research Articles masquerading as letters will be rejected.  

Review articles:

The editors recommend that Reviews be limited to 1,000-3,500 words with up to 80 references.  


Editorials should be less than 1,000 words, and will be solicited by the Editors.  

Point of View: 

A timely “Point of View”, or other special communications, will also be considered. If possible, this submission type should be limited to 3,500 words with 80 references and no Abstract.

Sections appear in the following order:

Abstract, Introduction, Methods (or “Patients and Methods” or “Subjects and Methods” or “Materials and Methods”), Results, Discussion, Appendix, Acknowledgement, and References. This should be followed by Figure Legends, and then any Tables.  

The main body of all manuscripts, and all tables included with your submissions must be provided in Microsoft Word .DOC format.   

Always spell out abbreviations at first mention, and place the acronym or abbreviation in parentheses immediately after.  


Please place your acknowledgement immediately before the References.  Information concerning sources of financial support and funding should be placed in the Acknowledgement section.  


Type references double-spaced throughout.  

List up to four authors; if more than four, list three and "et al". Arrange in order of citation, and cite all references by number in the text, superscript and without brackets. Please check all references for errors of citation or attribution.  

Unpublished data, which include articles submitted, but not in press, and personal communications must be given in parentheses in the text, not as references.  

ACTN reference style is identical to the format for the Annals of Neurology and is now in EndNote and Reference Manager, which can be used to format your bibliography. Otherwise, use Index Medicus reference style, giving complete publication data:

Sample journal reference: Ahn S, Riccio A, Ginty DD. Spatial consideration for stimulus-dependent transcription in neurons. Annu Rev Physiol 2000;62:803-823.

Sample book reference: Volpe JJ. Neurology of the newborn. 4th ed. Philadelphis: Saunders, 2001.

Sample reference to electronic content using DOI: Fisher E, Lee J-C, Nakamura K, et al. Gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study. Ann Neurol 2008;DOI:10.1002/ana.21436

Figure Legends:

Type double-spaced on pages separate from the text and figures.  Provide one legend for each figure, and number legends in sequence. For photomicrographs, indicate the stain and use an internal scale marker.  


Please create your illustrations carefully with reference to our graphics guidelines (see following information may help if you are having difficulty in deciding how to get the best out of the tools at your disposal.

1. Check your software options to see if you can ‘save as’ or ‘export’ using one of the robust, industry-standard formats. These are:
• Encapsulated PostScript (EPS)
• Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)
• Portable Network Graphics (PNG)
• Portable Document Format (PDF)

2. As a general rule of thumb, images that contain text and line art (graphs, charts, maps, etc.) will reproduce best if saved as EPS or PDF. If you choose this option, it is important to remember to embed fonts. This ensures that any text reproduces exactly as you intend.

3. Images that contain photographic information are best saved as TIFF or PNG, as this ensures that all data are included in the file. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) should be avoided if possible, as information is lost during compression; however, it is acceptable for purely photographic subjects if the image was generated as a JPEG from the outset (many digital cameras, for example, output only in JPEG format).

4. If you are not sure which format would be the best option, it is always best to default to EPS or PDF as these are more likely to preserve the high-quality characteristics of the original.

5. Please ensure all images are a minimum of 600 dpi.

Figures should be cited in order of appearance.  Please do not repeat figure callouts more than twice in a paragraph.  Place callouts in parentheses: (Fig 1), (Fig 1 and 2), (Fig 1-4), (Fig 1A to C).   

Figure dimensions should be limited to either 8cm across (1 column width for graphs, MRI scans, etc.) or 17cm across (full page width for schematics or flow charts, and figures composed of multiple photomicrographs, etc.).  Single-column width artwork is preferred; please stack figure panels vertically whenever possible.  

Vector-based figures (e.g. figures created in Adobe Illustrator) may be submitted in EPS format.  

Color figures should preferably be submitted in RGB for online publication. 

To ensure consistency between figures and legends, and to preserve conformity and neatness in style, please be sure your figure panels are labeled in uppercase letters (A, B, C, etc.) using a sans serif font (e.g. Helvetica).  The font size should measure 10 points after the figure is reduced to the appropriate dimensions (8cm or 17cm). Any text within a figure (e.g. the axes of a graph) should be 7 points after final reduction.  

To ensure that your digital graphics are suitable for print orders, please visit RapidInspector™ at This free application will help you to inspect and verify appropriateness of your illustrations for commercial printing.  

To create high resolution figures from Microsoft PowerPoint or Excel, you will have to (1) export the figure to a Post Script file (this is done through the print menu and requires Adobe Acrobat Professional); (2) using Adobe Photoshop, open the figure in 300, 600, or 1200 dpi resolution; (3) using the image size tool, adjust the dimensions of the figure to a maximum width of either 8cm or 17cm across; (4) save the file as a TIFF. If there are any issues, you may also send the files to us in their native file formats. 

Please do not include extra text (including keys and headings) in the artwork; spell out keys and headings in the figure legend instead.  

Please reduce negative space as much as possible, removing all excess white space from figures with multiple panels.  

Photographs of recognizable persons should be accompanied by a signed release from the patient or legal guardian authorizing publication. Masking eyes to hide identity is not sufficient.  


Tables should be cited in order of appearance.  Please do not repeat table callouts more than twice in a paragraph.  Place callouts in parentheses: (Table 1), (Tables 1 and 2), (Tables 1-4).  Type tables double-spaced on pages separate from the text, after any figure legends.  Number pages consecutively with text and provide a table number and title for each.  Please hold the length of all tables (unless they are submitted as supplementary material) to one standard-sized manuscript page.  Tables should be numbered in order of citation in the text.  Data in tables should not duplicate material in the text or illustrations.  

Supplementary materials:

Please insert callouts to supplementary material in parenthesis wherever necessary in the body of your text. Please number your supplementary content separately from the essential elements of your paper (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, Supplementary Figure 1, Supplementary Figure 2, Figure 4, etc.).  You may submit supplementary tables, text and figures in Microsoft Word format (supplementary figures may be embedded in a Microsoft Word document).    

Online Submission

Please review these instructions carefully and take note of further instruction provided at the top of each screen of the seven-stage submission process. Submit your manuscript and all figures, tables, and supplementary materials exactly as instructed to avoid a delay in processing your manuscript. Log in to our submission site and access your Author Center. If you do not already have an account, please create an account for yourself by clicking on the "Create an Account" button. If you have forgotten your password, enter your email address in the field provided on the login screen and click “go” to have your account information emailed to you.  

To submit a new manuscript, click the indicated link on the main screen.  

To submit a revision, click “Manuscripts with Decisions” and click on the link located to the right of your manuscript title.  Prior to submitting your revision, please review the attachment provided with your most recent decision letter from the Managing Editor.  

1.     Select a Manuscript Type, enter title, running head, and abstract. Enter “none” in the abstract field for letters and other manuscript types that do not require an abstract.  Be sure to respond to all fields marked with a purple “req,” which denotes a required field.  Manuscript submission will fail if any required field is left blank.  Click Next to proceed to step 2.

2.     Please select the most appropriate “domain” for your manuscript.  This is simply used by the Editorial staff to help identify the most appropriate Associate Editor, and has no further bearing on your manuscript.  Enter at least one “keyword” associated with the subject or methods of your submission.  Click Next to proceed to step 3.

3.     Enter all authors' names and contact information.  Click Next to proceed to step 4.

4.     Identify potential reviewers and preferred non-reviewers.  E-mail addresses are essential for this optional step.  You may opt out of recommending preferred or non-preferred reviewers, and there is no guarantee the Editors will follow your recommendation.  Click Next to proceed to step 5.

5.     Paste or attach a Microsoft Word copy of your cover letter.  Enter all manuscript metadata (number of pages, number of words in the body of the text, number of tables, etc.) making sure this information matches the information captured on your coversheet.  Enter any previously assigned Manuscript IDs, if applicable.  Click Next to proceed to step 6.

6.     Your main document, figures, and supplementary material files may be uploaded in batches of five files.  After the first five are uploaded, you will be able to upload five more, and so on.  Please be sure to enter any figure legends, and name your figures as they are named in the text when prompted after uploading your figure files. A separate conflict of interest form is required for each author. The form can be obtained here:    Do not submit any signed copyright transfer forms to the editorial office during the submission process.  Please also remember that offline submissions will only be considered in exceptional circumstances, and must be agreed upon with the Managing Editor in advance of submission.  Click “Next” to proceed to the final step.

7.     The appearance of any red “X” indicates a required field was left blank in the submission process.  The manuscript cannot be submitted until all required information is provided.  Please carefully review your proofs in both HTML and PDF format.  If you notice any problems, please contact the Managing Editor, Emily Hammond. Do not be alarmed if your figures appear small in the HTML proof.  The “Image Spy” link below the figure may be used to zoom in to maximum figure dimensions.  Click the blue “Submit” button to submit your manuscript. At the end of a successful submission, a confirmation screen with your manuscript number will appear and you will receive an E-mail confirming that the manuscript has been received by the Journal.  If this does not happen, please check your submission in your Author Center and/or contact the Managing Editor.  

Publication fees

Publication fees can be found here.


Authors retain the copyright for their manuscript.

Open Access Agreement

If your paper is accepted, the author whom you identify as being the corresponding author for the paper will be presented with the option to sign an open access agreement (on behalf of all co-authors) to make articles available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License (CC-BY-NC-ND). RCUK or Wellcome trust funded authors will be directed to sign the open access agreement under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY) in order to be funder compliant. For more information on the terms and conditions of these licenses please visit:

The open access agreement is administered electronically. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

Proofs and Reprints  

Please return your proofs as quickly as possible. Proofs must be returned within three days of receipt. Late return may cause a delay in publication, or cause an article to publish without the author's review of the typeset copy. Please check text, tables, legends, and references carefully. To expedite publication, page proofs rather than galleys will be sent electronically to the author. A link will be provided with your proofs in the event you would like to order paper reprints of your article. A free PDF of the article will be provided via Author Services (see below).

Any queries on your proof can be directed to:

Glen Salterio

Production Editor, Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology


Author Services

Author Services enables authors to track their article – once it has been accepted – through the production process to publication online. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production, and, when published online access the article for free. Authors may also nominate up to 10 specialists to receive free access as well. The corresponding author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.