Conservation Biology

Cover image for Vol. 31 Issue 1

Edited By: Mark A. Burgman

Impact Factor: 4.267

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 6/48 (Biodiversity Conservation); 23/149 (Ecology); 25/225 (Environmental Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1523-1739

Author Guidelines

Instructions for Authors

Conservation Biology welcomes submissions that address the science and practice of conserving Earth's biological diversity. Papers published in Conservation Biology emphasize issues germane to any of Earth's ecosystems or geographic regions and that apply diverse approaches to analyses and problem solving. Manuscripts with relevance to conservation that transcend the particular ecosystem, species, or situation described are prioritized for publication.

Before you submit your manuscript read the Style Guide for Authors.

Word count includes all text from the first word of the Abstract through the last word in Literature Cited. It does not include legends for tables and figures or the body of tables. Manuscripts that substantially exceed the word limits specified below will not be sent for review.

Article Categories and Word Limits

We encourage authors who are uncertain whether their manuscript is appropriate for Conservation Biology to send a title and abstract to the editor in chief for preliminary evaluation.

-Contributed Papers (3000-6000 words): research papers on original theoretical, empirical, or synthetic research in the natural or social sciences.
-Research Note (3000 words): similar to Contributed Papers, but results and inferences may be more focused or preliminary.
-Review (7500 words): comprehensive reviews of topics generally well developed in the literature that provide a thorough synthesis of findings or illuminate trends and have relevance at both global and local levels.
-Essay (6000 words): essays on novel issues in the natural or social sciences that are important to conservation science and practice; are grounded in evidence from the literature or policy or legal documents; typically are relevant beyond a single case study; and propose ways to address the issue at stake based on evidence. We encourage well-reasoned and supported submissions that debate alternative perspectives, challenge accepted paradigms, or advance new approaches in conservation science.
-Conservation Practice and Policy (5000 words): papers on applications of conservation science to specific goals for management, policy, or education that report findings important to decision making, planning, and implementation of conservation and provide opportunities for learning. They can include discussions of setbacks, failures, and unintended consequences.
-Conservation Methods (up to 6000 words): papers on a novel conservation-science method.
-Comment (2000 words): papers that respond to material previously published in Conservation Biology.
-Diversity (2000 words): short opinion pieces on conservation concepts, methods, or applications or on current and immediate regional or global conservation problems.
-Letter (1000 words): communications regarding topics of immediate interest to readers, including observations on controversial subjects or papers previously published in Conservation Biology.
-Book Reviews are by invitation only. All books for possible review should be sent directly to Gabor Lövei (

Submission Requirements
Submit manuscripts online at If you do not have adequate internet access for online submission via ScholarOne Manuscripts, please contact Frith Jarrad ( or +61 3 8344 5579).

Conservation Biology uses double-blind peer review. In the

submitted manuscript,
supporting information (online appendices), and
file names

there should be no content, except for self-citations, through which authors or their institutions could be identified. If data, for example, are being made available through a data-storage service, make sure you cannot be identified from these files. FigShare allows authors to remain anonymous.

***Submit a separate manuscript cover page with specified information (see "Cover Page" below). Do not include cover-page information anywhere in the manuscript itself.***

The cover page is not visible to reviewers.

You are required to provide the names of 6 potential reviewers. These reviewers must not have close professional or personal relationships with any of the authors. The identity of reviewers is kept confidential unless reviewers choose to waive confidentiality.

The submission process includes a checklist implemented to promote study reproducibility and data transparency such that another researcher with relevant expertise could replicate the study (see the checklist in ScholarOne for more information).

Transparency, Openness, and Reproducibility Checklist

All authors are required to complete a 15-point checklist aimed at promoting study reproducibility and data transparency. You may wish to review the Transparency, Openness, and Reproducibility Checklist before you start the submission process. It is available under the Instructions and Forms tab in ScholarOne.

Files to Upload

Your manuscript must be in Word format. Upload a separate cover page (see “Cover Page” below and “Manuscript Requirements” above). You may place figures at the end of the manuscript or go through the step in the submission process to upload figures separately. At submission, no particular file format for figures is required. Tables must be in the manuscript, follow Literature Cited, and precede figure legends. Name each file based on its general content, and do not use author initials or names (e.g., Manuscript, Fig1, AppendixS1). Use the figure number in names of figure files (e.g., Fig 1).

ORCID Identifier
Before submission consider procuring an ORCID identifier that uniquely identifies you and links you with your professional activities. Entering your ORCID number upon submission is voluntary. For more information go to

Manuscript Specifications
The Conservation Biology
Style Guide for Authors contains detailed information on how to format a manuscript for Conservation Biology.

-Language: English (We strongly recommend authors whose first language is not English ask a colleague who is a native English speaker to proofread the manuscript before submission.)
-Spacing: double-space all text
-Line numbering: number all lines (except in figures and tables)
-Footnotes: do not use footnotes
-Organization: Use introduction, methods, results, and discussion (IMRAD) format. Do not combine results and discussion sections.
-Title: Do not use a hanging title (those with a colon or dash), a title that is a complete sentence, a headline-like title, an interrogative title, or a title that references colloquialisms or popular culture (see Style Guide for Authors for more information).
-Units of measure: metric only
-Page numbering: number all pages
-Spelling: U.S. rather than British

Cover Page
Submit your cover page as a separate document. It should not be part of the manuscript itself. The cover page must include the title of the paper; a running head (short title of 40 or fewer characters); a list of 5-8 keywords (do not repeat words in the title); word count (all text from the first word of the Abstract through the last word of the Literature Cited but not including table or figure legends or the body of tables); authors' complete mailing addresses (including street addresses and postal codes) at the time the work was conducted and present addresses if different; name and complete address (including email) of the person to whom correspondence should be sent; and text of your acknowledgments section.

Include the abstract before the introduction as part of the main document. Above the abstract provide the title of the paper. Manuscripts in all categories except Comments, Diversity, and Letters must contain an abstract that does not exceed 300 words. The abstract should state concisely the aims, methods, principal results, and major inferences of the work (i.e., it should be a miniversion of the paper). Do not include incomplete or uninformative descriptions (e.g., "A new method of analysis is described." or “We discuss how our approach could provide more sustainable management of forest systems.”). Do not state conclusions that are not supported by evidence reported in the abstract. Do not provide a Spanish translation of the abstract.

Human and Animal Subjects
When reporting on studies that involve human participants or animal subjects, supply a statement in methods that specifies the ethical guidelines with which you complied. Include permit numbers, if applicable.

Use the following format for literature citations in the text: (Buckley & Buckley 2000b; Pacey 2004). Arrange strings of citations in chronological order (oldest first). Do not cite work that has not been published as either unpublished or data not shown. A submitted manuscript is not published. Examples of citations and information on how to handle unpublished materials are provided in the Style Guide for Authors.

Tables and Figures
Include no more than 1 supporting element (i.e., table or figure) for every 4 pages of text (from the Abstract through Literature Cited). If a table or figure has only a few data points, incorporate the data into the text.


Tables must be double-spaced, without vertical rules, and must not duplicate material in the text or figures. Table legends should be one sentence. Additional explanations should be placed in footnotes. Tables should not contain color, gray-scale shading, or other graphical elements.


Figure legends must be double-spaced and grouped together on a separate page immediately following the tables. Figures must be of sufficient quality and resolution to remain clear at 60% reduction. Before publication, you will be required to supply figures in tif, eps, or pdf format. Text boxes are not allowed.

For guidance on best practices in graphic design, refer to the following link used with permission from Oryx - The International Journal of Conservation and Fauna & Flora International:

Online Supporting Information

Online appendices are allowed. They can be in any format. They should be named, cited, and described in text as specified in the Style Guide for Authors. These materials are not copyedited or proofread.


After provisional acceptance, your paper will be edited and sent back to you for a response. When you submit your response to editing, you may upload a translation of the manuscript as an online appendix (i.e., supporting information). The translation should match the version of the manuscript you submitted in response to editing (all track changes accepted). List the translation in the Supporting Information paragraph (see Style Guide for Authors).

Required Permission
If you have a figure or table in your manuscript that was published previously, after provisional acceptance you must obtain permission from the copyright holder to reprint it and supply the notice of permission as an additional file.

Review Process

If the editor in chief determines the manuscript topic is appropriate for the journal and meets standards of content and presentation, then a regional editor examines the submission and decides to recommend rejection, nominate reviewers, or assign the manuscript to a handling editor with expertise in the manuscript’s topic. If the handling editor deems the manuscript is of sufficient quality and novelty, she or he will request reviews. Once reviews have been received, the handling editor or regional editor summarizes reviewer points, provides an assessment, and makes a recommendation (acceptance, revise, or reject) to the editor in chief. Revisions are usually sent for assessment to the regional or handling editor, who may then initiates another round of review.

Appeal Process

An appeal of a publication decision must be made within 3 months of a decision. Address appeals directly to the editor in chief via the email link on the online submission webpage.

Accepted Article Publication
Unedited accepted manuscripts are posted online in Accepted Articles shortly after a paper has been accepted. Manuscript editing and then the production process will follow. When ready, the final typeset version supplants the Accepted Article, and the paper moves into Early View and is later placed in an issue.

Media-Release Process
When an article is posted to Accepted Articles (AA), it is accessible to the media and others. If a media release is to be prepared, inform the senior editor (, immediately after receiving the acceptance email, and AA posting will be postponed. When the release is ready, a posting date will be set by the production editor. The release can go out after midnight on the posting day.

Page and Color-Printing Charges
Conservation Biology is published on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology, a nonprofit organization. Payment of page charges allows the society to support more effectively conservation science, management, policy, and education worldwide. Charges are US$150 per page for those with grant or institutional support for publication costs and $50 per page for those without support who are able to pay at this rate. Page charges will be waived for authors who affirm that they do not have institutional support or other means of paying page charges. If a paper is to be open access, there are no page charges. An author's ability to pay will not influence whether the manuscript is accepted for publication or any aspect of the review process. The fee for printing color figures, US$700 per page, can be waived only if open-access publication (see OnlineOpen below) is selected. We discourage the use of color because in some countries download speeds are slow and gray-scale photocopies of articles are common. Figures may be in color online and in gray-scale in print for no charge. However, reference to color cannot be made in the figure legend or in the text, and elements in the gray-scale version must be distinguishable.

Policy on Duplicate Publication of Research Results

Submission of a manuscript to Conservation Biology implies it has not been published previously and is not being considered for publication elsewhere (see also, Preprint Policy below). At the time of submission, describe in the cover letter any data, figures, or text in the manuscript that have been published or that are in press, submitted, or soon to be submitted elsewhere. If any of the data in the manuscript have been included in other published or unpublished manuscripts, the legend of each table or figure reporting such data must cite those manuscripts. All authors are expected to conform to the Society for Conservation Biology's Code of Ethics, available under the Instructions and Forms tab in ScholarOne .


OnlineOpen (i.e., open access) is available to authors who wish to make their article available for free or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee of US$3000 to ensure the article is made available to nonsubscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library and is deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. The fee for OnlineOpen cannot be reduced or waived. In addition to publication online via Wiley Online Library, authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published pdf of their article on a website, institutional repository, or other free public server immediately on publication. More information on OnlineOpen is available at

In addition to publication online via Wiley Online Library, authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published pdf of their article on a website, institutional repository, or other free public server immediately on publication. More information on OnlineOpen is available at

Copyright Information

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting her or him to log in to Author Services, where, via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS), this person will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected, the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs at CTA Terms and Conditions:

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following: Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA), Creative Commons Attribution License OAA, Creative Commons Attribution Non - Commercial License OAA, or Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License OAA. To preview the terms and conditions of these open-access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services ( and visit -- License.html. If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK), you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC - BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit

Preprint Policy
Conservation Biology does not consider for publication articles that have been published in substantial part or in full in a scientific journal, book, or similar entity. Organizational working papers and manuscripts that appear on the author’s personal website or in an institutional repository, however, are not viewed as prior publication, and such articles can therefore be submitted. The journal will also consider for publication manuscripts that have been posted in a recognized preprint archive (such as arXiv and PeerJ PrePrints), provided that upon acceptance of the article for publication the author is still able to grant the journal an exclusive license to publish the article or agrees to the terms of an OnlineOpen agreement and pays the associated fee. It is the responsibility of authors to inform the journal at the time of submission if and where their article has been posted previously. If the manuscript is accepted for publication in Conservation Biology, authors are required to provide a link to the final manuscript alongside the original preprint version.

Archive Policy
Authors may self-archive the accepted (but not final) version of their paper on their own personal websites, in their company’s or institution’s repository or archives, and in not-for-profit subject-based repositories. Self-archiving cannot occur until 12 months after online publication, regardless of funding source or institution. Self-archived papers should link to Wiley’s standard terms of use for self-archived articles and not use any form of Creative Commons license ( The deposited version must link to the final article on Wiley Online Library. It should not be updated or replaced by the final article.

May 2016