Cover image for Vol. 30 Issue 3

Edited By: Dennis Stevenson

Impact Factor: 5.043

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 8/47 (Evolutionary Biology)

Online ISSN: 1096-0031

Author Guidelines

The Willi Hennig Society publishes Cladistics, The International Journal of the Willi Hennig Society. Cladistics publishes both conceptual and empirical papers on systematics, including applications of cladistics to other fields, and encourages debate and other useful dialogue about systematic methods. It has wide scope and publishes papers in zoology, botany, microbiology, morphology, genomics, paleontology, ontogeny, biogeography, ecology, and systematic philosophy.

Manuscripts should be submitted through ScholarOne Manuscripts® Manuscripts are considered on the understanding that their contents have not appeared or will not appear elsewhere in substantially the same or abbreviated form.

Types of Papers Published in Cladistics

Five types of paper are published in the journal Cladistics: Review articles, Regular articles, Forum papers, Letters to the editor, and Book reviews. Review articles should provide a general overview of a topic important to systematics; the literature coverage need not be exhaustive, but should be sufficient to be instructive to a new audience. Regular articles generally report original research in the field of systematics. This research may concern general philosophy and methodology, empirical studies of a particular taxonomic group, or applications of cladistics to diverse problems ranging from biogeography to conservation biology or linguistics. Forum papers usually have as their focus a consideration of work already published in Cladistics or in other journals. These papers may be critiques, responses to critiques, clarifications, or the drawing of broader implications from some other previously published work. Authors are encouraged to be concise and direct in their Forum papers as these usually comprise fewer pages than Regular articles. Letters to the editor are much shorter notes concerning an issue of general importance to the field and are intended to have a shorter turn-around. Book reviews are usually solicited by the Book Review Editor.

Submission of Manuscripts (updated February, 2014)

Cladistics accepts submission of manuscripts online at This enables the quickest possible review and allows online manuscript tracking. Manuscript submission online can be in Word document (.doc) or Rich Text Format (.rtf). Each of these file formats will be automatically converted to PDF for reviewing. Figures can be embedded in the native word processor file or may be uploaded separately in one of the following formats: GIF (.gif), JPEG (.jpg), TIFF (.tif), EPS (.eps). Figures uploaded separately in these file formats will be automatically converted to small jpegs for reviewing. Other file formats may be uploaded, but these will not be converted to an easily opened format and Editors and Referees will require the necessary software to view these files.

Full upload instructions and support are available online from the submission site via the 'Get Help Now' button. You can also email for online submission support. Please note that you should submit your covering letter or comments to the Editor-in-Chief, when prompted online.

All queries should be directed to the Editorial Office

Online production tracking is now available for your article through Wiley’s Author Services.
Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production so they don’t need to contact the production editor to check on progress. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Conflict of Interest disclosure

Cladistics requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, that might be perceived as influencing an author's objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include but are not limited to patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker's fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal.

If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and to collectively list in the cover letter to the Editor, in the manuscript (under the Acknowledgment section), and in the online submission system ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.

Formatting of Manuscripts

Papers should be submitted in English and should be as concise as possible, compatible with clarity and completeness. With multiple authors, one author must accept responsibility for all correspondence (the 'corresponding author').

Papers should conform to the following layout:

(1) Title page.

This should include title, authors, institutions, and a short running title. The title should be concise but informative and, where appropriate, should include mention of a higher taxon. A subtitle may be included, but papers in numbered series are not accepted. Names of new taxa should not be included in titles.

(2) Abstract.

All Review articles, Regular articles or Forum papers must have an abstract. The abstract must be submitted on a separate page. The abstract is of great importance as it may be produced elsewhere, and is all that many see of the published work. It should be 100-200 words long for Regular articles and may be shorter for Forum papers. It should be in the form that is intelligible if published alone in conjunction with the title. It should not include references.

(3) Table of contents.

A list of first, second and third order headings should be provided on a separate sheet. This is not published but is used to assist publication.

(4) Subject matter.

The paper should be divided into sections under short headings. Except for systematic hierarchies, the hierarchy of headings should not exceed three. The relevant Codes of Nomenclature must be strictly followed. Use SI units and the appropriate symbols (e.g. mm, not millimetre; µm, not micron; Myr for million years). Avoid elaborate data matrices, species lists and character lists within the text but include them as Appendices. Keep footnotes and cross references to a minimum. Abbreviations of non-standard terms should follow, in parentheses, their first full usage..


Cladistics requests the deposition of data matrices and other material electronically for publication on the Willi Hennig Society Journal web site. Please submit these data as e-mail attachments to the Associate Editor Mark Siddall ( after receiving the tracking number for your manuscript from the Editor. These data will be made available to the referees but not to the community at large until such time as the paper is accepted. If the paper is not found to be acceptable for publication, the data and associated files will be removed from the directory structure and destroyed. Referees are reminded of their responsibilities to keep all such data confidential and that failure to do so constitutes a serious violation of trust and scientific propriety.

Morphological data

  • Character descriptions, character argumentation and material examined must be submitted for deposition on the web site as plain text, HTML or PDF formats.

  • Images for character and state descriptions, images must be submitted as JPEG/JPG or GIF format at 72 dpi and with dimensions no greater than 6' x 6' (and preferably smaller). They must be clearly named and numbered (e.g., MES001.JPG) and an associated figure legend must be included.
  • Taxon by character data matrices may be submitted as text files only and in any of the following formats: plain text (do not tab delimit; include names of characters and states after the matrix); WinClada (which is the same as Hennig86 or Nona/Piwe but includes character and state information); fully annotated Nexus including character and state information.

Molecular data

Matrices DNA or RNA data may be submitted as: a plain text alignment (do not tab-delimit); WinClada/Hennig86 format which presumes 0/1/2/3(/4) are A/C/G/T(/-) respectively; Nona dread format; Xac format; Nexus format.

Scientific Names
Use scientific names as defined by the relevant organisation for each organism, e.g. plant viruses, latest ICTV nomenclature. Full scientific names must be given when organisms are first mentioned, with the generic name being subsequently abbreviated to the initial.

All gene names and loci should be in italic; proteins should be upright.

Optional Supplementary Documentation

  • If there are additional figures beyond those to be included in the printed portion of the paper that add to the scope and depth of understanding issues or data in the submission, they may also be submitted in accordance with the guidelines above.
  • Executable binary applications may be submitted if they are to be made freely available to the community.

(5) References.

Authors should use the system illustrated below. Only full articles which have been published or are in press may be included in the reference list. In the text, unpublished or submitted studies should be referred to as such (e.g. J.M. Smith, unpublished), or as a personal communication. It is the authors responsibility to obtain permission from colleagues to include their work as a personal communication.

References should be cited in the text by author and date, e.g. Hennig (1966). Joint authors should be referred to by et al. if there are more than two, e.g. Farris et al. (1970). More than one paper from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters a, b, c, etc., placed after the year of publication. Listings of references in the text should be chronological, e.g. (Hennig, 1966; Farris et al., 1970). At the end of the paper, references should be listed alphabetically according to the first named author. The full titles of papers, chapters and books should be given, the abbreviated names of journals, with the first and last page numbers.

Citations in the text should read thus: (Nelson and Platnick, 1981; Nixon, 1999)..., Farris (1983) ..., Brundin (1966) said ..., Hennig (1966, p. 31) .... Note that names of joint authors are connected by 'and' in both text and literature cited.

The References section should follow these guidelines.

For a journal article:
Kluge, A. G., Farris, J. S. 1969. Quantitative phyletics and the evolution of anurans. Syst. Zool. 18, 1–32.

For a chapter in a book or volume:
Farris, J. S. 1981. Distance data in phylogenetic analysis. In: Funk, V.A., Brooks, D.R., (Eds.), Advances in Cladistics I. NY Botanical Garden, New York, pp. 3–23.

For a book in its entirety:
Edwards, A.W.F. 1972. Likelihood. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

The reference need not be cited when author and date are given only as the authority for a taxonomic name. References should be listed alphabetically with journal titles abbreviated according to the World List of Scientific Periodicals and its supplements. For books, give the title, name of publisher, place of publication, page numbers and indication of edition if not the first.

Give foreign language references in ordinary English alphabetic form but copy accents in French, German, Spanish, etc. For the Cyrillic alphabet use British Standard 2979 (1958). If only a published translation has been consulted, cite the translation, not the original.

(6) Tables.

Keep Tables as simple as possible and avoid vertical rules. Type legends to Tables in numerical order on a separate sheet.

(7) Illustrations.

These may either be computer-assisted drawings, output from programs, ink drawings or half-tone illustrations from black and white photographs. Use one consecutive set of Arabic numbers for all figures (do not separate 'Plates' from 'Text figures' but treat all as 'Figures').
Electronic files with line-art (including cladograms) should be submitted as vector art (e.g., Illustrator, EPS, or PDF). If these are provided in pixilated form they must be at least 300 dpi, anti-aliased text and lines, and RGB (not CMYK, not indexed color) and as a JPEG or TIFF file. Grayscale or color art should be at least at least 300 dpi, and RGB (not CMYK, not indexed color) and as a JPEG or TIFF file. Full details of submission of manuscripts and artwork is available at
Lines must be clean and heavy enough to stand reduction; drawings should be no more than twice the journal page size. Explanations should, as far as possible, be placed in the legend; the drawing itself should contain a minimum of lettering.
Photographs are best submitted in their final size and a scale line should be included to indicate magnification.
Type legends for figures in numerical order on a separate sheet.
Authors wishing to reproduce figures from other published works must themselves obtain permission and before the paper is submitted for consideration.

It is the policy of Cladistics for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour artwork. Therefore, please note that if there is colour artwork in your manuscript when it is accepted for publication, Wiley require you to complete and return a colour work agreement form before your paper can be published. This form can be downloaded as a PDF* from the internet. The web address can be downloaded here.

If you are unable to access the internet, or are unable to download the form, please contact The Editorial office at:

Cladistics Editorial Office
Ian J. Kitching
Managing Editor
Department of Entomology
The Natural History Museum
Cromwell Road
London SW7 5BD
Tel.: +44 (0)20 7942 5608
Fax: +44 (0)20 7942 5229

And they will be able to email or FAX a form to you.

Once completed, please return it to the address provided on the form.

Any other production queries can be sent to

Reidin Vaughan
Journal Production
9600 Garsington Road
Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK
T: +44 1865 476494
F: +44 1865 471485

Any article received by Wiley Blackwell with colour work will not be published until the form has been returned.

* To read PDF files, you must have Acrobat Reader installed on your computer. If you do not have this program, this is available as a free download from the following web address:

(8) Proofs.

Revised manuscripts must be submitted in the final, fully corrected form.

Make certain that all references in the text agree with those in 'REFERENCES', that spelling is consistent throughout, and that all figures and other details have been double-checked. Page-proofs only are supplied, by electronic mail as a PDF file, and authors may be charged for alterations if they are numerous. In the case of multiple authors, proofs are normally only supplied to the one author responsible for correspondence. Authors should normally mark up corrections on the PDF of the proofs using the guidelines provided therewith. ~Any queries can be directed via email to the Production Editor at Wiley. If corrections are minimal, the author may supply a list via e-mail to the Production Editor, copied to the Managing Editor.

(9) Copyright

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant selfarchiving policy please visit:

(10) Cover Photographs

Photographs of high quality suitable for the cover of Cladistics are welcomed. It is preferred, but not essential, that these should be related to submitted papers. Initially, low-resolution images should be sent to the Managing Editor, accompanied by a brief description, which will be reproduced on the inside front cover of the journal. If selected as cover art, then high-resolution versions of the images (preferably TIFF format) should be submitted to the Managing Editor, via email (up to 12Mb). If the copyright owner of the images is also an author of an accepted manuscript, then the Copyright Assignment Form completed for the manuscript will also cover the images. If copyright of the images is held by a third party, then it is the authors’ responsibility to ensure that said third party completes a separate Copyright Assignment Form for the images and submit it at the same time as the high quality images.

Additional Material (such as multimedia adjuncts, large date sets, extra colour illustrations, bibliographies, or any other material for which insufficient space in Cladistics is available) may be published via the Journals web site at

NEW: Online production tracking is now available for your article through Wiley’s Author Services

Author Services enables authors to track their article – once it has been accepted – through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit the Author Services webpage for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Note to NIH Grantees
Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see