Microbiology and Immunology

Cover image for Vol. 60 Issue 5

Edited By: Shigetada Kawabata, Takaji Wakita and Yasunobu Yoshikai

Impact Factor: 1.242

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 99/119 (Microbiology); 132/148 (Immunology)

Online ISSN: 1348-0421

Author Guidelines

New manuscript type: Letter to the Editor
Disclosure policy has been updated.
Case reports are no longer accepted.


The acceptance criteria for all papers are the quality and originality of the research and its significance to our readership. Except where otherwise stated, manuscripts are  peer reviewed by two anonymous reviewers and the Editor. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editorial Board, who reserves the right to refuse any material for publication.

Manuscripts should be written so that they are intelligible to the professional reader who is not a specialist in the particular field. They should be written in a clear, concise, direct style. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of content, the Editor and the Publisher reserve the right to modify typescripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition and improve communication between author and reader. If extensive alterations are required, the manuscript will be returned to the author for revision.


Manuscripts should be submitted online at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/mai. Authors must supply an email address as all correspondence will be by email. Two files should be supplied: the covering letter and the manuscript (in Word or rich text format (.rtf)). The covering letter should be uploaded as a file not for review.

All articles submitted to the Journal must comply with these instructions. Failure to do so will result in return of the manuscript and possible delay in publication.

• Submissions should be double-spaced.
• All margins should be at least 30 mm.
• All pages should be numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner, beginning with the title page.
• Do not use Enter at the end of lines within a paragraph.
• Turn the hyphenation option off; include only those hyphens that are essential to the meaning.
• Specify any special characters used to represent non-keyboard characters.
• Take care not to use l (ell) for 1 (one), O (capital o) for 0 (zero) or ß (German esszett) for (Greek beta).
• Use a tab, not spaces, to separate data points in tables. If you use a table editor function, ensure that each data point is contained within a unique cell (i.e. do not use carriage returns within cells).

Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name. For submission, low-resolution figures saved as .jpg or .bmp files should be uploaded, for ease of transmission during the review process. Upon acceptance of the article, high-resolution figures (at least 300 d.p.i.) saved as .eps or .tif files should be uploaded. Digital images supplied only as low-resolution files cannot be used.
Further instructions are available at the submission site.

Pre-acceptance English-language editing
Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. Visit our site to learn about the options. All services are paid for and arranged by the author. Please note using the Wiley English Language Editing Service does not guarantee that your paper will be accepted by this journal.

Covering letter
Papers are accepted for publication in the journal on the understanding that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium. This must be stated in the covering letter.
The covering letter must also contain an acknowledgment that all authors have contributed significantly, and that all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript.

If tables or figures have been reproduced from another source, a letter from the copyright holder (usually a publisher), stating authorization to reproduce the material, must be attached to the covering letter.

Author material archive policy
Authors who require the return of any submitted material that is accepted for publication should inform the Editorial Office after acceptance. If no indication is given that author material should be returned, Wiley will dispose of all hardcopy and electronic material two months after publication.


Original Articles.    Original reports of research or papers giving a full account of an investigation can be submitted. Original Articles are preferably limited to seven printed pages or less and should be divided into sections under the subheadings: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements and References, with an accompanying abstract not exceeding 250 words.

Notes.    Short preliminary reports of important findings can be submitted as Notes. A Note is preferably limited to three printed pages or less. A Note should not be divided into individual sections, but should be accompanied by an Abstract not exceeding 100 words.

Reviews and Mini-Reviews. In addition to solicited reviews and mini-reviews (reviews hereafter), Microbiology and Immunology will consider publication of unsolicited reviews on timely subjects. Reviews should have an accompanying abstract not exceeding 250 words. Mini-Reviews are less than 7 pages. These will be subjected to peer review by the editorial board to determine whether the topic is of interest to the readers of Microbiology and Immunology, whether the authors provide a balanced viewpoint and whether the article is clearly presented and timely. The authors are advised to send a brief description of their review articles by email to the Editorial Office to give an account for their topics prior to submission.

Letter to the Editor
Letters may be submitted to the Editor on any topic of discussion; clinical observations as well as letters commenting on papers published in recent issues. Letter to the Editor are not subjected to peer-review. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editors.  Submissions maybe edited for length, grammatical correctness, and journal style. Authors will be asked to approve editorial changes that alter the substance or tone of a letter or response. The authors of the original work will be invited to respond, and both the original letter and the authors' response may be published together. Letters that offer perspective on content already published in the Journal can use an arbitrary title, but a Response from authors must cite the title of the first letter: e.g. Response to [title of Letter]. This ensures that readers can track the line of discussion.  Letters must be written in accordance with the following instruction: up to 500 words; no abstract; maximum of four references; maximum of one figure/table (multi panel figures allowed)

Case reports are no longer accepted.


At the time of submission, authors must include a disclosure statement in the body of the manuscript. The statement will describe all of the authors' financial arrangements they have with a company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript or with a company making a competing product. This information should be provided under the heading titled 'Disclosure,' which should appear after the 'Acknowledgements' section and before the 'References' section. The absence of any interest to disclose must also be stated.


Authors must state that the protocol for the research project has been approved by a suitably constituted Ethics Committee of the institution within which the work was undertaken and that it conforms to the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki (as revised in Fortaleza, Brazil, October 2013), available at: http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/.

All investigations on human subjects must include a statement that the subject gave informed consent. Patient anonymity should be preserved. Photographs need to be cropped sufficiently to prevent human subjects being recognized (or an eye bar should be used).
Any experiments involving animals must be demonstrated to be ethically acceptable and where relevant conform to national guidelines for animal usage in research.


Manuscripts should follow the style of the Vancouver agreement detailed in the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ revised ‘Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication’, as presented at http://www.ICMJE.org/.

The Journal uses US spelling and authors should therefore follow the latest edition of the Merriam–Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary.

All measurements must be given in SI or SI-derived units. Abbreviations for measurable units should be as follows (without period): cm, mm, μm, nm, A, ml, μl, g, μg, ng, pg, C (degree, Celsius), hr, mm, sec, nM, nM, rpm, Hz, cpm, Ci. mCi, pCi, nCi, pCi, R, log (base 10), ln (base e), etc., but liter(s).

Genus names, drugs, or any other abbreviations should be spelled out in full when first used in the text and in the Abstract, the main text, tables and figures, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses, unless they are in common usage (e.g. DNA) hereafter use the abbreviation only. Title should not include any abbreviations. A list of the abbreviations arranged in alphabetical order must be provided separately. If an abbreviation is used in the body of figure or table only, it must be defined in the figure legend or table footnotes.

For units, refer to the section which instructs specifically under STYLE OF MANUSCRIPT.

Trade names.   
Drugs should be referred to by their generic names. If proprietary drugs have been used in the study, refer to these by their generic name, mentioning the proprietary name, and the name and location of the manufacturer, in parentheses.

Micro-organism nomenclature.   
The names of the organism and binary names must conform with international rules of nomenclature.

The spelling of bacterial names should follow the amended edition of the Approved List of Bacterial Names published at American Society for Microbiology, 1990 and validation lists published in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (formerly the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology). Non-valid names must be enclosed in quotation marks.

Current approved bacterial names can be confirmed at the world wide web site of the List of the Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature (http://www.bacterio.cict.fr) or Bacterial Nomenclature Up-to-Date (http://www.dsmz.de/bactnoml bactname.htm). Descriptions of new taxon should not be submitted unless a specimen (normally a live culture) has been deposited in at least two or more public culture collections from two or more countries and it is designated as a type strain in the paper.

Names used for viruses should be those approved by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) and published in Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses: Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (M.H.V. van Regenmortel et al., ed., Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 2000). Vernacular names may be used after viruses are first identified.

Registration of DNA sequences.   
A new DNA sequence(s) described in the article appearing in this journal is requested to be registered in DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ), National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan. A format for this registration is sent from DDBJ directly to the author after the publication.


Manuscripts should be presented in the following order: (i) title page, (ii) abstract and key words, (iii) text, (iv) acknowledgments, (v) disclosure, (vi) references, (vii) appendices, (viii) figure legends, (ix) tables (each table complete with title and footnotes), (x) figures and (xi) list of abbreviations. Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.

Title page
The title page should contain (i) the title of the paper, (ii) the full names of the authors and (iii) the complete mailing addresses of the institutions at which the work was carried out together with (iv) the email address, facsimile and telephone numbers of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript should be sent. The present address of any author, if different from that where the work was carried out, should be supplied in a footnote.

The title should be short, informative and contain the major key words. Do not use abbreviations in the title. A short running title (less than 40 characters) should also be provided.

The subject section and specified field must also be included on the title page (see Table 1 for information on these).

Abstract and key words
Original Articles and Notes must have an abstract that states in 250 or 100 (respectively) words or fewer, the purpose, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions of the study. The abstract should not contain references.

For abbreviations, refer to the section Abbreviations under STYLE OF MANUSCRIPT.

Two to four key words (for the purposes of indexing) should be supplied to be shown below the Abstract seciton in alphabetical order.

The Vancouver system of referencing should be used (examples are given below). In the text, references should be cited using Arabic numerals in round parentheses in the order in which they appear. If cited in tables or figure legends, number according to the first identification of the table or figure in the text.

In the reference list, cite the names of all authors. Do not use ibid. or op cit. Reference to unpublished data and personal communications should not appear in the list but should be cited in the text only (e.g. Smith A, 2000, unpublished data). All citations mentioned in the text, tables or figures must be listed in the reference list.

Names of journals should be abbreviated according to the Serial Sources for the Biosis Data Base, available in most libraries or from http://www.biosis.org.

Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references.
We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote for reference management and formatting. EndNote reference styles can be searched for here

Journal article
Vega K.J., Pina I., Krevsky B. (2006) Heart transplantation is associated with an increased risk for pancreatobiliary disease. Ann Intern Med 124: 980–83.

Online article not yet published in an issue
An online article that has not yet been published in an issue (therefore has no volume, issue or page numbers) can be cited by its Digital Object identifier (DOI). The DOI will remain valid and allow an article to be tracked even after its allocation to an issue.
Di Capua, C., Bortolotti, A., Farias, M.E. and Cortez, N., UV-resistant Acinetobacter sp. isolates from Andean wetlands display high catalase activity. FEMS Microbiology Letters, No. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2011.02231.x

Ringsven M.K., Bond D. (2007) Gerontology and Leadership Skills for Nurses, 2nd edn. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers.

Chapter in a Book
Phillips S.J., Whisnant J.P. (2001) Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh J.H., Brenner B.M., eds. Hypertension: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management, 2nd edn. New York: Raven Press, pp. 465–78.

Electronic material
World Health Organization. 10 facts about tuberculosis. 23 March 2009. Available from: http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/tb_facts/en/index.html.

These should be placed at the end of the paper, numbered in Roman numerals and referred to in the text. If written by a person other than the author of the main text, the writer’s name should be included below the title.

Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Number tables consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals. Type tables on a separate page with the legend above. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the table, legend and footnotes must be understandable without reference to the text. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses; all abbreviations must be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, ¶, should be used (in that order) and *, **, *** should be reserved for P-values. Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified in the headings.

For abbreviations, refer to the section Abbreviations under STYLE OF MANUSCRIPT.

All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) are classified as figures. Figures should be cited in consecutive order in the text. Magnifications should be indicated using a scale bar on the illustration. Use lower case figure part labels in multi-part figures: (a), (b), (c), etc.

Line figures should be sharp, black and white graphs or diagrams, drawn professionally or with a computer graphics package. Lettering must be included and should be sized to be no larger than the journal text.

Figure legends   
Type figure legends on a separate page. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.

Equations should be numbered sequentially with Arabic numerals; these should be ranged right in square parentheses. All variables should appear in italics. Use the simplest possible form for all mathematical symbols.

Supporting Information
Supporting Information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supporting Information include additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. Supporting Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format.
For further information on recommended file types and requirements for submission, please visit: http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/suppinfo.asp


Visit the Microbiology and Immunology journal homepage at http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/mim for more information and Author Resources section of Author Services on Wiley Online Library for submission guidelines and digital graphics standards.


Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley’s production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley’s Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

Authors may choose to publish under the terms of the journal’s standard copyright transfer agreement (CTA), or under open access terms made available via Wiley OnlineOpen.

Standard Copyright Transfer Agreement: FAQs about the terms and conditions of the standard CTA in place for the journal, including standard terms regarding archiving of the accepted version of the paper, are available at: Copyright Terms and Conditions FAQs.

OnlineOpen – Wiley’s Open Access Option: OnlineOpen is available to authors of articles who wish to make their article freely available to all on Wiley Online Library under a Creative Commons license. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made open access. Authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on their personal website, and in an institutional repository or other free public server immediately after publication. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

OnlineOpen licenses. Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright in their article and have a choice of publishing under the following Creative Commons License terms: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY NC); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License (CC BY NC ND). To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright Terms and Conditions FAQs.

Funder Open Access and Self-Archiving Compliance: Please click here for more information on Wiley’s compliance with specific Funder Open Access and Self Archiving Policies, and click here for more detailed information specifically about Self-Archiving definitions and policies.


Wiley’s Author Services

Author Services enables authors to track their article throughout the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The corresponding author will receive a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit Author Services (https://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/default.asp) for more details on online production tracking.

Accepted Articles

The journal offers Wiley’s Accepted Articles service for all manuscripts. This service ensures that accepted ‘in press’ manuscripts are published online very soon after acceptance, prior to copy-editing or typesetting. Accepted Articles are published online a few days after final acceptance, appear in PDF format only, are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

The Accepted Articles service has been designed to ensure the earliest possible circulation of research papers after acceptance. Given that copyright licensing is a condition of publication, a completed copyright form is required before a manuscript can be processed as an Accepted Article.


It is essential that corresponding authors supply an email address to which correspondence can be emailed while their article is in production.
Word files of edited articles will be sent for checking via email, and should be returned to the Publisher. It is essential that these files are checked carefully, as the cost of changes made at a later stage may be charged to the author. Full instructions on how to correct and return the file will be attached to the email.

Notification of the URL from where to download a Portable Document Format (PDF) typeset page proof, associated forms and further instructions will be sent by email to the corresponding author. The purpose of the PDF proof is a final check of the layout, and of tables and figures. Alterations other than the essential correction of errors are unacceptable at PDF proof stage. The proof should be checked, and approval to publish the article should be emailed to the Publisher by the date indicated, otherwise, it may be signed off on by the Editor or held over to the next issue.


E-annotation is a natural extension of PDF proofing, with a number of benefits:

• Increased speed of journals publication schedules
• Increased efficiency for authors and journal Production Editors
• Clearer corrections in the annotated files
• More accurate interpretations of corrections by typesetters
• Easy and efficient circulation of annotated proofs via email to Editors and co-authors

E-annotation works as follows: The typesetter uses Acrobat 7 to enable annotation on the proofs. The recipient then needs to ensure that they have Acrobat Reader version 7.0 or above (instructions and link provided with the PDF proof) or Acrobat Professional in order to use the annotation functionality. The annotation toolbar allows proof corrections to be marked Setting Up E-annotation of Proofs 4 of 7 electronically – by crossing out, replacing or inserting text, and even inserting an attachment (such as a new abstract or figure). The corrected proofs are then sent to the person who collates them and, after checking, they are then returned to the typesetter.

This system reduces the time taken for authors to send proofs in the post, and results in more legible proofs for the typesetters, avoiding problems of text being cut off (as can happen when faxing) or illegible handwriting.


A free PDF offprint will be supplied to the corresponding author. A minimum of 50 additional offprints will be provided upon request, at the author’s expense. These paper offprints may be ordered online. Please visit http://offprint.cosprinters.com/, fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields.

If you have queries about offprints please email offprint@cosprinters.com


Page charges
No page charge is levied as below:
   - Originals Articles of seven pages or less
   - Notes of three pages or less
   - Reviews of seven pages or less

A page charge fee of ¥14,000 is required per printed page for excess pages (eight or more for Original Articles and Reviews and four or more for Notes).  A form requesting payment will be available for download with your PDF proof.


Microbiology and Immunology Editorial Office
155 Cremorne Street
Richmond VIC 3121 Australia
Email: mai@wiley.com;
Tel: 03 3830 1263 (Residents in Japan), +61 3 9274 3129 (Residents outside of Japan)
Fax: +61 3 9274 3341

Table 1.
Subject Sections (Bacteriology, Virology and Immunology) and Specified Fields Listing

Antibacterial agents and chemotherapy
Applied microbiology
Bacterial components
Bacterial ecology
Clinical bacteriology
Intracellular parasitology (Chlamydia, Rickettsia)
Physiology and metabolisms

Animal DNA virus
Animal RNA virus
Bacterial virus
Clinical virology
Plant virus
Vaccines and antiviral agents
Viral immunology
Viral vector

Immunology (Host Defense)

Adhesion and costimulation
Allergy and inflammation
Antigen and superantigen
Autoimmunity and immunodeficiency
Clinical immunology
Cytokines and cytokine receptors
Developmental immunology
Infection immunity
Innate immunity
Macrophages, dendritic cells and leukocytes
MHC and antigen presentation
Tolerance and immune regulation
Transplantation immunity
Tumor immunity