Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Cover image for Vol. 45 Issue 6

Edited By: R. E. Pounder, J. M. Rhodes, C. W. Howden, P. C. Hayes, A. C. Ford, G. M. Dusheiko, A. L. Hart, P. R. Gibson, A. N. Ananthakrishnan and S. A. Harrison, G. L-H. Wong

Impact Factor: 6.32

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 9/79 (Gastroenterology & Hepatology); 12/255 (Pharmacology & Pharmacy)

Online ISSN: 1365-2036

Author Guidelines

These Author Guidelines were last updated on 14th October 2016.

Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (AP&T) is an international journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. The journal accepts original papers and systematic reviews concerned with clinical gastroenterology, hepatology and endoscopy. AP&T is particularly interested in therapies and diagnostics, including all aspects of translation from bench to bedside: identification of novel therapeutic targets, epidemiology, clinical trials, drug safety and meta-analyses. Descriptions of adverse effects (but not case reports) and pharmacoepidemiological and toxicological aspects will also be considered. AP&T publishes only studies performed in human subjects.

Letters to the Editor and Invited Editorials are restricted to the discussion of papers already published in the journal (preferably within the last 18 – 24 months), with a maximum of 500 words, one table or figure and up to ten references.

AP&T recommends authors to consider submission of their case reports to the open access journal Clinical Case Reports; for more information please go to

What constitutes a Systematic Review / Review Article / Meta-analysis?

A systematic review is a review of published literature addressing a specific research question. It should include an exhaustive search of the literature to date. The search strategy used should be reported within the paper. The authors should define eligibility criteria for included studies a priori, and describe these. There should be evidence of independent judging of study eligibility, performed by at least two authors, with the degree of agreement between authors described. Data extraction from individual studies should also be performed in duplicate, and there should be evidence that any differences in data extraction were discussed between authors, and resolved. The reporting of systematic reviews should adhere to the PRISMA statement – (for further information please see section below under ETHICS). Further guidance is also available from the Cochrane organisation’s “Reviewer’s Handbook”.

A review article should still report the search strategy for the selection of relevant literature, but the approach may be less rigorous than described above, and the article might also reflect the personal experience and opinions of the Authors.

A meta-analysis is a statistical approach to combining data from individual studies identified in a systematic review that address a single research question. Whilst it is perfectly acceptable to perform a systematic review without a meta-analysis, a meta-analysis should never be conducted without first performing a systematic review of the published literature. Again, the reporting of meta-analyses should adhere to the PRISMA statement (for further information please see section below under ETHICS). Further guidance is also available from the Cochrane organisation’s “Reviewer’s Handbook”.

Manuscript Submissions

Please see details of authorship criteria (under ‘ETHICS’, below).

Authors should submit manuscripts including figures to the AP&T manuscript submission website. Please read and apply the loading instructions given at this site, noting that all information entered during the submission process related to the manuscript should also be included, and be identical to the final submitted version of the manuscript – please see full details under “Presentation of Manuscripts”. The corresponding author must complete all the mandatory fields in the submission website, but preliminary data can be stored if additional information needs to be obtained – for example, the e-mail addresses of all the named authors [who will all be informed of the submission process]. Should authors encounter difficulties they may contact the Wiley support desk in the USA (Tel.:+1 434 817 2040 x167; or click on the red 'Get Help Now' button on any screen page of the submission website).

Authors can keep track of a manuscript, once submitted, by logging on periodically to ScholarOne Manuscripts, where its current status will be displayed in the Author Centre.

Papers must be submitted exclusively to the Journal, and are accepted on the understanding that they have not been, and will not be, published elsewhere. The submission process requires a full declaration of personal interests of all authors, and funding interests; these details should also be included in the text of the manuscript (see below).

Please note that the journal employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to the journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published work (please see below).

Copyright Transfer Agreement

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs.

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

  • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Licence OAA
  • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs Licence OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit the Wiley Open Access Copyright & License page.

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY licence supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit Wiley Online Library Funder Agreements.

For RCUK and Wellcome Trust authors, click on the link below to preview the terms and conditions of this license: Creative Commons Attribution Licence OAA. To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit the Wiley Open Access Copyright & License page.

The Editors retain the usual right to modify the style and length of a contribution (major changes being agreed with the corresponding author) and to decide the time of publication.

Peer review

The journal operates a single-blind peer-review process using a body of over 5,500 expert peer reviewers; papers are normally reviewed by two or more reviewers plus one or more Editors. Invited Editorials and Letters to the Editors about past papers in AP&T are not usually subject to peer review, but are always shared with the authors of the original paper prior to publication, with a right to reply. All substantive papers - original articles, reviews (commissioned and non-commissioned), meta-analyses and systematic reviews, and randomised clinical trials, including those published under our open access programme OnlineOpen – undergo the same vigorous and consistent peer review process. A triage system is in place, and the editorial team reserves the right to immediately reject papers outside the scope of the journal.

SuperFast papers

We offer a separate fast appraisal and publication service for manuscripts. A submission fee of US$1,500 (plus VAT in the UK), guarantees full peer review within 6 working days, but it does not guarantee acceptance. Once a manuscript is accepted in its final form, it will be published as an EarlyView paper (edited, typeset and as corrected final proofs) within 20 to 28 days, and in a full issue of the journal about one month later; full details below. This service will not slow the standard prompt service provided by the journal.

Authors planning to submit a SuperFast paper are encouraged to contact Roy Pounder in the Editorial Office in advance of submission, so that peer review can be planned in advance. An invoice will be issued by Wiley for the submission fee on receipt of an initial request to use our “Superfast” process – please provide full details to whom this invoice should be sent (including an email address and/or fax number).

Presentation of Manuscripts

The manuscript should be typed (with a wide margin) and double-spaced. Authors should retain one copy of all material, as the Editors cannot accept responsibility for loss of, or damage to, a manuscript.

A title page should contain the authors' names, appointments and place of work at the relevant time, plus the full contact details of the corresponding author including their current E-mail address. A full and a short running title should be given, together with a small number of keywords for indexing purposes. Note that it is the journal style for AP&T to include a prefix in the title for some article types: 'Review article:...', 'Systematic review:...', 'Meta-analysis:...', 'Randomised clinical trial:...'.

The text should start with a structured Summary, not exceeding 250 words, organised into sections using all of the following headings Background, Aim, Methods, Results, Conclusions. (Please note: where applicable, the results should include quantitative data rather than just stating 'p' values.)

The paper should then proceed conventionally: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. Only three levels of headings should be used. Pages should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, but tables, footnotes, figure legends (including magnifications), acknowledgements and declaration of interests must be submitted on separate sheets.

Review Articles and Systematic Reviews also require a structured summary using all of the following headings: Background, Aim, Methods (e.g. search terms used), Results (e.g. where applicable include quantitative data rather than just stating 'p' values, plus avoid vague statements e.g. '...will be discussed') and Conclusions.

Length of Articles

AP&T does not have an exact word count for any article, as all articles vary, but the introduction, methods, results, discussion and references should be approximately 12-20 pages of double-spaced A4 (with approximately 300 words per page – font size 12). Please insert the total word count (excluding abstract/summary) on the front page of your submitted article.

AP&T will consider all figures, tables and references which are relevant to the submitted manuscript but additional relevant text, tables, figures and references can also be submitted as Supporting Information – i.e. if the article is accepted for publication, you cite the Supporting Information within the text of the main article, and the additional text/tables/figures/references are then published online only – not in the actual published article – please see the section below on Supporting Information.

Acronyms or abbreviations

The use of new, or rarely used, acronyms (an abbreviation formed from the initial letters of other words and pronounced as a word, for example GERD or NAFLD) or simple abbreviations much decrease the readability of any article. Please keep the number of acronyms or abbreviations used within your manuscript to an absolute minimum to ensure your article is easy to read and understand.

Improving your article's ranking in Search Engines

Some simple things can improve your article's ranking in Search Engines and guidelines on this can be found here. Please review your title and abstract in the light of these suggestions, to improve your paper prior to submission.


Figure legends should be included in the main text of the manuscript and not form part of the figures. For production purposes, it is best if you can supply figures in TIFF format; however, it is also possible to use Illustrator or Photoshop software saved in the format ‘.eps’ or ‘.tif’. If you are unable to provide these specified formats, please provide the figures in as many different file formats as possible.

The figure resolution/specification for various types of original figures, at their final size, should be as follows:

  • Line art - Minimum 600 dpi
  • Halftone (i.e. both B/W and Colour photographs) - Minimum 300 dpi
  • Line and tone (line art and halftone combined) - Minimum 600 dpi

For line figures, the lines should be solid, the text in a standard font and not blurred, and the overall image should be sharp and clear. Avoid using tints if possible; if they are essential to the understanding of the figure, try to make them coarse. As a guide, if the electronic files are viewed at 400% on the computer screen and they look blurred or pixellated in any way then they will NOT be of sufficient quality for printing. For further information on file formats, please see the instructions on our website.

Figure and table legends must be able to stand alone in the text and thus full descriptive legends for all figures and tables should be supplied.

Colour artwork

It is the policy of AP&T that all colour images are published at the journal's expense. All clinical and endoscopic pictures must be published in colour. For all other images, if colour enhances your submission and improves its readability, please supply the appropriate figure(s) in colour. Please choose colours carefully and use pastel shades to ensure a high standard of presentation. The editors reserve the right to add colour where it will improve the article.

Units and Abbreviations

All measurements should be in SI units with the exception of haemoglobin (g/dL) and blood pressure (mmHg). Original observations recorded in other units should be stated, together with the appropriate conversion factors. Standard abbreviations, without punctuation, are used. Units, Symbols and Abbreviations (1988) published by the Royal Society of Medicine, and SI: The International System of Units (1982) from HMSO both provide useful guides. Abbreviations, used sparingly, should follow the first full spelling, in parentheses.

Dosing intervals: If possible spell out the intervals in full, such as twice a day, or three times a day. Otherwise use consistently either the European style of b.d., t.d.s. or q.d.s. etc., or the American style b.i.d., t.i.d., or q.i.d. etc.


Methods should be referenced. Two-tailed significance tests should be used unless explicitly stated. Controls should be described as completely as experimental subjects. Measures of location should be accompanied by measures of variability (e.g. mean and confidence intervals) as well as conventional probability values. Clinical trial reports should include the power of the study design.


Use the Vancouver system. References should be numbered in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text, and should be identified in the text, tables and legends by Arabic numbers in superscript. The first three authors and 'et al.' should be used if there are more than six authors. The form of references adopted by the US National Library of Medicine and used in Index Medicus applies. References must be verified by the authors against the original documents.

We recommend the use of a tool such as Reference Manager for reference management and formatting.

Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here.

Drug Names

Generic names should, in general, be used. If an author so desires, brand names may be inserted in parentheses. Drug names are spelled out according to the European pharmacopoeia, but the American spelling should be used after the first use of a drug name.

Supporting Information

Supporting Information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supporting Information include additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. Supporting Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format. For further information on recommended file types and requirements for submission, please visit Wiley Author Services.


The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a web site. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from this site. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following the Adobe website.

This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Hard copy proofs will be posted if no e-mail address is available. Excessive changes made by the author in the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately.

Early View Articles

All edited articles (except for Letters) will appear 20-25 days after acceptance in the Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Early View section of the Wiley Online Library. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors’ final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

Online Open

OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see Wiley's OnlineOpen page.

Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website.

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

Co-publication of Cochrane Reviews

AP&T encourages the submission of published Cochrane reviews and we are currently seeking a Co-Publication Agreement with The Cochrane Collaboration for such published reviews. Please visit "Publication of versions of Cochrane reviews in print journals" for guidelines for publishing in AP&T. Such submissions should not be a straight duplication of the original published Cochrane review and will usually be substantially shorter and focus on the more important clinical aspects of the review. They will also be subject to our usual peer review process and must cite the original publication.

Author Services

Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit Wiley Author Services for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.


Free access to the final PDF offprint or your article will be available via author services only. You will not receive a PDF directly from the typesetter but, you will be sent details about how to purchase printed offprints. Therefore, please sign up for author services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers. Paper offprints may be ordered at prices quoted on the order form which accompanies the proofs, provided that the form is returned with the proofs. The cost will be higher if the order arrives too late for the main print run.

Paper offprints are normally dispatched within three weeks of publication of the issue in which the paper appears. Please contact the publishers if offprints do not arrive, but please note that offprints are sent by surface mail, so overseas orders may take up to six weeks to arrive. Electronic offprints are sent to the first author at his/her first email address on the title page of the paper, unless advised otherwise. For this reason, please ensure that the name, address and email address of the corresponding author are clearly indicated on the manuscript title page if he/she is not the first author of the paper.

Funding Body Deposit Requirements of Accepted Papers

Please read our frequently asked questions on this topic which can be found in our Author Services website.

Pre-acceptance English Language Editing Service

Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited to improve the English before submission or during the review process.

English language editing will:

  • – Improve grammar, spelling, and punctuation;
  • – Improve clarity and resolve any ambiguity caused by poor phrasing;
  • – Improve word choice and ensure that the tone of the language is appropriate for an academic journal.

Editing services can be found at Wiley Editing Services. Japanese authors can also find a list of local English improvement services here. All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.


You can contact our Supplements team via the 'Contact' link on the left-hand side of your screen. Our team will be able to provide advice and quotations for supplements. Details on the preparation and submissions of supplement articles can be found here.


AP&T's ethics policy is based on Wiley's Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics: A Publisher's Perspective.

Human studies

An ethics committee should have approved human studies, but in questionable matters the Editors reserve the right to reject papers.

Financial Support

Sources of financial support during the last two years must be acknowledged.  Please read the following statements, adding those sections which are relevant at the end of your submitted manuscript under a heading 'Statement of Interests'.

  1. Authors' declaration of personal interests:
    1. [Name of individual] has served as a speaker, a consultant and an advisory board member for [names of organisations], and has received research funding from [names of organisation].
    2. [Name of individual] is an employee of [name of organisation].
    3. [Name of individual] owns stocks and shares in [name of organisation].
    4. [Name of individual] owns patent [patent identification and brief description].
  2. Declaration of funding interests:
    1. This study was funded [in part or in full] by [insert name of funding organisation], grant number [insert grant or other identification number].
    2. The [writing or preparation] of this paper was funded in part by [insert name of funding organisation].*
    3. Initial data analyses were undertaken by [name of individuals if not listed as authors] who are employees of [name company] and received funding from [insert name of funding organisation].
    4. Writing support was provided by [insert name of individual(s)] of [name company] and funded by [insert name of funding organisation].*

*See below, ‘Role of professional medical writers in peer-reviewed publications’.

Randomised Clinical Trials

Please note: All randomised clinical trials must be registered with a clinical trials registry, or a statement provided in the paper to explain the omission.

When submitting a randomised clinical trial paper ('clinical trial' being defined as 'any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes'), please provide details of the registry and the registration number in the Methods section of your paper, close to your statement about Ethical issues, plus quoting the registration number at the end of the final line of the Conclusions in your Summary.

CONSORT Statement

A copy of the CONSORT Statement must also be completed, and should be pasted onto the end of your full manuscript. Authors must ensure all the CONSORT descriptors have been fully addressed within their submitted paper - just ticking the box is not enough! Templates of the CONSORT 2010 checklist are available to download in MS Word and PDF format, and additional information can be found at

Reporting Clinical Trials Conducted by Pharmaceutical Companies

Please ensure that clinical trials sponsored by pharmaceutical companies follow the guidelines on Good Publication Practice. These guidelines aim to ensure that such trials are published in a responsible and ethical manner. The guidelines cover companies’ responsibility to endeavour to publish results of all studies, companies’ relations with investigators, measures to prevent redundant or premature publication, methods to improve trial identification, and the role of professional medical writers.

STAndards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies

If you are reporting a study that has assessed one or more diagnostic test you must complete the STARD Statement, and paste it onto the end of your full manuscript. Click here to download the checklist as a Word document, and additional information can be found at

STROBE Statement (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology)

If you are reporting an observational cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional study you must complete the relevant STROBE Checklist, and paste it onto the end of your full manuscript. Click on this link to download the relevant checklist as a Word document. Additional information can be found on the STROBE website.

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology: The MOOSE Checklist

If you are submitting a Systematic Review or Meta-analysis you must complete either a PRISMA Checklist and flowchart for a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and other evaluation studies, or a MOOSE Checklist for a meta-analysis of observational studies. This checklist should be pasted onto the end of your full manuscript.


Authors must fulfil the following criteria:

  • – He/she must have made a substantial contribution to research design, or the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data;
  • – He/she must have drafted the paper or revising it critically;
  • – He/she must have given approval of the submitted and final versions.

A section entitled 'Authorship Statement' must be completed for every manuscript and must identify the following:

  • Guarantor of article: The name of the author who is acting as the submission's guarantor (i.e. the person who takes responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, from inception to published article).
  • Specific author contributions: An author may list more than one contribution, and more than one author may have contributed to the same element of the work (e.g. 'A performed the research, A and C collected and analysed the data, E designed the research study and wrote the paper, and G contributed to the design of the study).
  • A statement indicating that ALL authors approved the final version of the article, including the authorship list. (Please note: This information needs to be included both during the submission and also within the Acknowledgements of the submitted manuscript).

Role of professional medical writers in peer-reviewed publications

Please ensure that you follow the guidelines by the European Medical Writers Association on the role of medical writers. The guidelines emphasise the importance of respecting widely recognised authorship criteria, and in particular of ensuring that all people listed as named authors have full control of the content of papers. The role of professional medical writers must be transparent. Please name any professional medical writer among the list of contributors to any article for Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (not only original research papers), and specify in the acknowledgements and statement of competing interests for the article who paid the writer. Writers and authors must have access to relevant data while writing papers. Medical writers have professional responsibilities to ensure that the papers they write are scientifically valid and are written in accordance with generally accepted ethical standards.


Very rarely, the Editors may have cause to suspect serious research misconduct, based on comments received or his/her own review of a paper.  In this case, the article in question will be held in abeyance until this matter is resolved. The Editors will contact authors and any appropriate third party to ascertain whether the grounds for investigation are justified. If serious research misconduct is discovered, the Editors will contact the authors’ institutions after rejecting the paper.

Despite vigorous peer-review, it is possible that a paper that is fraudulent in some manner may be published. If this is discovered, it will immediately be retracted and appropriate steps will be taken to notify readers of the journal, and the authors’ institution. Retractions will include the word ‘Retraction’ in the title, so that they are identified as such on indexing systems, for example, PubMed.

In any case of serious research misconduct, all authors of such an article may be banned from future publication in Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Plagiarism and falsification

The Journal may scrutinise all papers for evidence of plagiarism and falsified data using specialised software. Plagiarism can comprise the following:

  • – multiple submission (i.e. to several journals at the same time);
  • – redundant publication (i.e. when the same data are published repeatedly, especially when articles contain an unacceptable degree of overlap but some original data, or in the case of the first time data are published (followed by subsequent redundant publications);
  • – self-plagiarism;
  • – reviewer misconduct (e.g. a reviewer making use of material obtained during review);
  • – changes to authorship after publication due to discovery of guest or ghost authors;
  • – deliberate omission of funding or competing interest information.

Manipulation of images

The Journal follows the guidelines and procedures established by the Council of Science Editors for digital imaging data. Please note the following in particular:

  • – Images cannot be modified to change the overall appearance or appearance of any specific feature;
  • – Adjustments of brightness and contrast or colour balance are acceptable but must be applied to the entire image;
  • – Features cannot be obscured and any rearrangements must be explicitly indicated by the insertion of dividing lines;
  • – Images will be examined for any indication of improper modifications. The final acceptance of all manuscripts is contingent on any concerns raised in our review of the figures being resolved.

Responding to institutions and research integrity bodies

Where the US Office of Research Integrity (ORI), and other research integrity bodies, request that the Journal publishes a correction or retraction resulting from scientific misconduct cases, the Editors will consider this request carefully. If the retraction is accepted by the Editor, the usual procedure for Retractions will be followed (see above).


The Journal has a duty to publish corrections when errors could affect the interpretation of data or information, whatever the cause of the error (i.e. arising from author or publisher errors). It is important to set the scientific record straight. The term ‘Corrigendum’ will be used when the error is made by the author and ‘Erratum’ will be used when the error is made by the Publisher.

The title of the Corrigendum/Erratum will include the words 'Erratum' or 'Corrigendum'. They are published on a numbered page (print and electronic) and are listed in the Journal's table of contents. They will cite the original article and be linked to it, so that indexing and abstracting services are able to identify and link to both the erratum and the original paper.


Decisions on manuscripts or on ethical misconduct are regarded as final; however, we recognise the right of an individual to challenge our decisions and seek an appeal. For appeals on manuscripts or on ethical grounds, please contact Professor Roy Pounder, Professor Jon Rhodes or Professor Colin Howden in the first instance, who will be given full access to the submitted materials and all correspondence. They will conduct an inquiry independent of the original peer-review process. If an author is not satisfied with the decision from an appeal, two senior Reviewers will review the case independently and render a final binding decision..


Editors or Editorial Board members are never involved in editorial decisions about their own work.

Journal editors, Editorial Board members and other editorial staff (including peer reviewers) withdraw from discussions about submissions where any circumstances might prevent him/her offering unbiased editorial decisions.

When making editorial decisions about peer reviewed articles where an editor is an author or is acknowledged as a contributor, affected editors or staff members exclude themselves and are not involved in the publication decision. When editors are presented with papers where their own interests may impair their ability to make an unbiased editorial decision, he/she deputises decisions about the paper to a suitably qualified individual.

Editors disclose their competing interests twice yearly.

Guidelines for Cover Submissions

If you would like to send suggestions for artwork related to your manuscript to be considered to appear on the cover of the journal, please follow these general guidelines.

Author Guidelines