Aquaculture Research

Cover image for Vol. 47 Issue 9

Edited By: Ronald W. Hardy, Lindsay Ross, Shi-Yen Shiau and Marc Verdegem

Impact Factor: 1.376

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 26/52 (Fisheries)

Online ISSN: 1365-2109

Author Guidelines

Content of Author Guidelines: 1. General 2. Ethical Guidelines 3. Submission of Manuscripts 4. Manuscript Types Accepted 5. Manuscript Format and Structure 6. After Acceptance Relevant Documents: Colour Work Agreement Form Useful Websites: Submission Site, Articles published in Aquaculture Research, Author Services, Blackwell Publishing’s Ethical Guidelines, Guidelines for Figures


Aquaculture Research publishes papers on applied or scientific research relevant to freshwater, brackish, and marine aquaculture. The Journal also includes review articles and short communications.

Please read the instructions below carefully for details on the submission of manuscripts, the Journal's requirements and standards as well as information concerning the procedure after a manuscript has been accepted for publication in Aquaculture Research. Authors are encouraged to visit Wiley Blackwell's Author Services  for further information on the preparation and submission of articles and figures.


Aquaculture Research complies with the United Kingdom’s Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 which regulates any experimental or other scientific procedure applied to a “protected animal” that may have the effect of causing that animal pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm. Currently, the Act defines a “protected animal” as any living vertebrate, other than man, plus all live cephalopods, i.e. all species of octopus, squid, cuttlefish and nautilus, from the point of hatching. For more information see: or contact the Home Office quoting reference CEPH2010/63/EU at .

2.1. Authorship and Acknowledgements
: Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors and that all authors agree to the submission of the manuscript to the Journal. ALL named authors must have made an active contribution to the conception and design and/or analysis and interpretation of the data and/or the drafting of the paper and ALL must have critically reviewed its content and have approved the final version submitted for publication. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship and, except in the case of complex large-scale or multi-centre research, the number of authors should not exceed six.

Aquaculture Research adheres to the definition of authorship set up by The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). According to the ICMJE, authorship criteria should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design of, or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data, 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2 and 3. The Journal prefers papers describing hypothesis-driven research. Descriptive papers are allowed providing that they meet the conditions listed above, particularly if they provide substantial new knowledge which advances the state of knowledge in their topic area. Papers describing research on topics already well described in the literature but differing from previous work because the study was conducted with a different species of fish are allowed, providing they describe novel findings rather than simply confirm well-known phenomena found in other species.

It is a requirement that all authors have been accredited as appropriate upon submission of the manuscript. Contributors who do not qualify as authors should be mentioned under Acknowledgements.

Acknowledgements: Under Acknowledgements please specify contributors to the article other than the authors accredited. Please also include specifications of the source of funding for the study.

2.2. Ethical Approvals
Ethics of investigation: Papers not in agreement with the guidelines of the Helsinki Declaration as revised in 1975 will not be accepted for publication.

2.3 Appeal of Decision
The decision on a paper is final and cannot be appealed.

2.4 Permissions

If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publishers.

The journal to which you are submitting your manuscript employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

2.5 Copyright Assignment
Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the work and its essential substance have not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. The submission of the manuscript by the authors means that the authors automatically agree to assign exclusive license to the publisher if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. The work shall not be published elsewhere in any language without the written consent of the publisher. The articles published in this Journal are protected by copyright, which covers translation rights and the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute all of the articles printed in the Journal. No material published in the Journal may be stored on microfilm or videocassettes, in electronic databases and the like, or reproduced photographically without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Correspondence to the Journal is accepted on the understanding that the contributing author licenses the publisher to publish the letter as part of the Journal or separately from it, in the exercise of any subsidiary rights relating to the Journal and its contents.

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:
CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by certain funders [e.g. The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) or the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)] you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements.

For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

For questions concerning copyright, please visit Wiley Blackwell's Copyright FAQ.

CrossRef: The journal employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.


Manuscripts must be prepared to conform to the Journal’s style and format. Please consult the section Manuscript Format and Structure below for details. Substantial deviation from the Journal’s format will result in return of manuscripts without review. 

Manuscripts should be submitted electronically via the online submission site The use of an online submission and peer review site enables immediate distribution of manuscripts and consequentially speeds up the review process. It also allows authors to track the status of their own manuscripts. Complete instructions for submitting a paper are available online and below. Further assistance can be obtained from the Editorial Office at

3.1. Getting Started
·         Launch your web browser (supported browsers include Internet Explorer 6 or higher, Netscape 7.0, 7.1, or 7.2, Safari 1.2.4, or Firefox 1.0.4) and go to the journal's online Submission Site:

·         Log-in or click the 'Create Account' option if you are a first-time user.

·         If you are creating a new account.
- After clicking on 'Create Account', enter your name and e-mail information and click 'Next'. Your e-mail information is very important.
- Enter your institution and address information as appropriate, and then click 'Next.'
- Enter a user ID and password of your choice (we recommend using your e-mail address as your user ID), and then select your area of expertise. Click 'Finish'.

·         If you have an account, but have forgotten your log in details, go to Password Help on the journals online submission systi and enter your e-mail address. The system will send you an automatic user ID and a new temporary password. 

·          Log-in and select 'Author Center'.

3.2. Submitting Your Manuscript

·         After you have logged in, click the 'Submit a Manuscript' link in the menu bar.

·         Enter data and answer questions as appropriate. You may copy and paste directly from your manuscript and you may upload your pre-prepared covering letter.

·         Click the 'Next' button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen.

·         You are required to upload your files.
- Click on the 'Browse' button and locate the file on your computer.
- Select the designation of each file in the drop-down menu next to the Browse button.
- When you have selected all files you wish to upload, click the 'Upload Files' button.

·         Review your submission (in HTML and PDF format) before sending to the Journal. Click the 'Submit' button when you are finished reviewing.

3.3. Manuscript Files Accepted
Manuscripts should be uploaded as Word (.doc) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) files (not write-protected) plus separate figure files. GIF, JPEG, PICT or Bitmap files are acceptable for submission, but only high-resolution TIF or EPS files are suitable for printing. The files will be automatically converted to HTML and PDF on upload and will be used for the review process. The text file must contain the entire manuscript including title page, abstract, text, references, tables, and figure legends, but no embedded figures. Figure tags should be included in the file. Manuscripts should be formatted as described in the Author Guidelines below.

3.4. Blinded Review
All manuscripts submitted to Aquaculture Research will be reviewed by two or three experts in the field. Aquaculture Research uses single-blinded review. The names of the reviewers will thus not be disclosed to the author submitting a paper.

3.5. Suggest a Reviewer
Aquaculture Research attempts to keep the review process as short as possible to enable rapid publication of new scientific data. In order to facilitate this process, please suggest the names and current e-mail addresses of four potential international reviewers who are active in the subject area. It is permissable to choose reviewers known to the authors, but avoid choosing reviewers based solely upon professional relationships. International stature is an important quality for reviewers recommended by authors. Avoid recommending reviewers that are likely to have professional responsibilities that will make it difficult to obtain a review in the required time.

3.6. Suspension of Submission Mid-way in the Submission Process

You may suspend a submission at any phase before clicking the 'Submit' button and save it to submit later. The manuscript can then be located under 'Unsubmitted Manuscripts' and you can click on 'Continue Submission' to continue your submission when you choose to.

3.7. E-mail Confirmation of Submission

After submission you will receive an e-mail to confirm receipt of your manuscript. If you do not receive the confirmation e-mail after 24 hours, please check your e-mail address carefully in the system. If the e-mail address is correct please contact your IT department. The error may be caused by spam filtering software on your e-mail server. Also, the e-mails should be received if the IT department adds our e-mail server ( to their whitelist.

3.8. Manuscript Status
You can access Manuscript Central any time to check your 'Author Center' for the status of your manuscript. The Journal will inform you by e-mail once a decision has been made.

3.9. Submission of Revised Manuscripts
Revised manuscripts must be uploaded within 3 months of authors being notified of conditional acceptance pending satisfactory revision. Locate your manuscript under 'Manuscripts with Decisions' and click on 'Submit a Revision' to submit your revised manuscript. Please remember to delete any old files uploaded when you upload your revised manuscript.


Original Articles: Generally original articles are based upon hypothesis-driven research describing a single study or several related studies constituting a single project. Descriptive studies are allowed providing that they include novel information and/or scholarly insight that contributes to advancement of the state of information on a given scientific topic.

Review Articles: Review articles are welcome and should contain not only an up-to-date review of scientific literature but also substantial scholarly interpretation of extant published literature. Compilations of scientific literature without interpretation leading to new insights or recommendations for new research directions will be returned to the author without review.

Short Communications: These should differ from full papers on the basis of scope or completeness, rather than quality of research. They may report significant new data arising from problems with narrow, well defined limits, or important findings that warrant rapid publication before broader studies are complete. Their text should neither exceed 1500 words (approximately six pages of typescript) nor be divided up into conventional sections. An abstract will be required on submission, but this is for informing potential reviewers and will not be part of the Short Communication. When submitting Short Communications, authors should make it clear that their work is to be treated as such.


5.1. Format
All sections of the typescript should be on one side of A4 paper, double-spaced and with 30mm margins. A font size of 12pt should be used. Line numbering should be included, with numbering to continue from the first line to the end of the text (reference list).  Line numbers should be continuous throughout the manuscript and NOT start over on each page. 

Articles are accepted for publication only at the discretion of the Editors. Authors will be notified when a decision on their paper is reached.

Language: The language of publication is English. Authors for whom English is a second language must have their manuscript professionally edited by an English speaking person before submission to make sure the English is of high quality. It is preferred that manuscripts are professionally edited. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at Japanese authors can also find a list of local English improvement services at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication. Manuscripts in which poor English makes it difficult or impossible to review will be returned to authors without review.

Units and spelling: Systeme International (SI) units should be used. The salinity of sea water should be given as gL-1. Use the form gmL-1 not g/ml. Avoid the use of g per 100 g, for example in food composition, use g kg-1. If other units are used, these should be defined on first appearance in terms of SI units, e.g. mmHg. Spelling should conform to that used in the Concise Oxford Dictionary published by Oxford University Press. Abbreviations of chemical and other names should be defined when first mentioned in the text unless they are commonly used and internationally known and accepted.

Scientific Names and Statistics: Complete scientific names, including the authority with correct taxonomic disposition, should be given when organisms are first mentioned in the text and in tables, figures and key words together with authorities in brackets, e.g. 'rainbow trout, Oncoryhnchus mykiss (Walbaum)' but 'Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L.' without brackets. For further information see American Fisheries Society Special Publication No. 20, A List of Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States and Canada.

Carry out and describe all appropriate statistical analyses.

5.2. Structure
A manuscript (original article) should consist of the following sections:

Title page:

This should include:
- the full title of the paper
- the full names of all the authors
- the name(s) and address(es) of the institution(s) at which the work was carried out (the present address of the authors, if different from the above, should appear in a footnote)
- the name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the author to whom all correspondence and proofs should be sent
- a suggested running title of not more than 50 characters, including spaces
- four to six keywords for indexing purposes

Main text:

Generally, all papers should be divided into the following sections and appear in the order: (1) Abstract or Summary, not exceeding 150-250 words, (2) Introduction, (3) Materials and Methods, (4) Results, (5) Discussion, (6) Acknowledgments, (7) References, (8) Figure legends, (9) Tables, (10) Figures.

The Results and Discussion sections may be combined and may contain subheadings. The Materials and Methods section should be sufficiently detailed to enable the experiments to be reproduced. Trade names should be capitalized and the manufacturer's name and location (town, state/county, country) included.

All pages must be numbered consecutively from the title page, and include the acknowledgments, references and figure legends, which should be submitted on separate sheets following the main text. The preferred position of tables and figures in the text should be indicated in the left-hand margin.

Optimizing Your Abstract for Search Engines

Many students and researchers looking for information online will use search engines such as Google, Yahoo or similar. By optimizing your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. We have compiled these guidelines to enable you to maximize the web-friendliness of the most public part of your article.

5.3. References (Harvard style)

References should be cited in the text by author and date, e.g. Lie & Hire (1990). Joint authors should be referred to in full at the first mention and thereafter by et al. if there are more than two, e.g. Lie et al. (1990).

More than one paper from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters a, b, c, etc. placed after the year of publication. Listings of references in the text should be chronological. At the end of the paper, references should be listed alphabetically according to the first named author. The full titles of papers, chapters and books should be given, with the first and last page numbers. For example:

Chapman D.W. (1971) Production. In: Methods of the Assessment of Fish Production in Freshwater (ed. by W.S. Ricker), pp. 199-214. Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd, Oxford.

Utting, S.D. (1986) A preliminary study on growth of Crassostrea gigas larvae and spat in relation to dietary protein. Aquaculture 56, 123-128.

Authors are responsible for the accuracy of their references. References should only be cited as 'in press' if they have been accepted for publication. Manuscripts in preparation, unpublished reports and reports not readily available should not be cited. Personal communications should be cited as such in the text.

It is the authors' responsibility to obtain permission from colleagues to include their work as a personal communication. A letter of permission should accompany the manuscript.

The Editor and Publisher recommend that citation of online published papers and other material should be done via a DOI (digital object identifier), which all reputable online published material should have – see for more information. If an author cites anything which does not have a DOI they run the risk of the cited material not being traceable.

We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting.

EndNote reference styles can be searched for here:

Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:

5.4. Tables, Figures and Figure Legends

Tables: Tables should be self-explanatory and include only essential data. Each table must be typewritten on a separate sheet and should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals, e.g. Table 1, and given a short caption. No vertical rules should be used. Units should appear in parentheses in the column headings and not in the body of the table. All abbreviations should be defined in a footnote.

Figures: Illustrations should be referred to in the text as figures using Arabic numbers, e.g. Fig.1, Fig.2 etc. in order of appearance.

Photographs and photomicrographs should be unmounted glossy prints and should not be retouched. Labelling, including scale bars if necessary, should be clearly indicated. Magnifications should be included in the legend.

Line drawings should be on separate sheets of paper; lettering should be on an overlay or photocopy and should be no less than 4 mm high for a 50% reduction. Please note, each figure should have a separate legend; these should be grouped on a separate page at the end of the manuscript. All symbols and abbreviations should be clearly explained.

Avoid using tints if possible; if they are essential to the understanding of the figure, try to make thi coarse.

Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication: Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (line art) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented programmes. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size (see below). Please submit the data for figures in black and white or submit a Colour Work Agreement Form (see Colour Charges below). EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible).

For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: line art:  >600 dpi; halftones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi.

Further information can be obtained at Wiley Blackwell’s guidelines for figures:

Check your electronic artwork before submitting it:

Permissions: If all or parts of previously published tables and figures are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publisher.

Colour Charges: It is the policy of Aquaculture Research for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour artwork. Therefore, please note that if there is colour artwork in your manuscript when it is accepted for publication, Wiley Blackwell require you to complete and return a Colour Work Agreement Form before your paper can be published. Any article received by Wiley Blackwell with colour work will not be published until the form has been returned. If you are unable to access the internet, or are unable to download the form, please contact the Production Editor

Once completed, please return the form (hard copy with original signature) via regular mail to the address below:

Customer Services (OPI)
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, European Distribution Centre
New Era Estate
Oldlands Way
Bognor Regis
West Sussex
PO22 9NQ

Any article received by Wiley Blackwell with colour work will not be published until the form has been returned.

In the event that an author is not able to cover the costs of reproducing colour figures in colour in the printed version of the journal, Aquaculture Research offers authors the opportunity to reproduce colour figures in colour for free in the online version of the article (but they will still appear in black and white in the print version). If an author wishes to take advantage of this free colour-on-the-web service, they should liaise with the Editorial Office to ensure that the appropriate documentation is completed for the Publisher. 

Figure Legends: In the full-text online edition of the Journal, figure legends may be truncated in abbreviated links to the full-screen version. Therefore, the first 100 characters of any legend should inform the reader of key aspects of the figure. 


Upon acceptance of a paper for publication, the manuscript will be forwarded to the Production Editor who is responsible for the production of the journal.

6.1 Proof Corrections
The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a website.  A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author.  The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from this site.

Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following website: . This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Hard copy proofs will be posted if no e-mail address is available; in your absence, please arrange for a colleague to access your e-mail to retrieve the proofs.

Proofs must be returned to the Author Corrections Team within three days of receipt. Please note that if you have registered for production tracking e-mail alerts in Author Services, there will be no e-mail for the proof corrections received stage.  This will not affect e-mails alerts for any later production stages.

As changes to proofs are costly, we ask that you only correct typesetting errors. Please note that the author is responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.

6.2 Early View (Publication Prior to Print)

Aquaculture Research is covered by Wiley Blackwell's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

6.3 Author Services

Online production tracking is available for your article through Wiley Blackwell's Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Please note that corrections received will be acknowledged on receipt, thus authors will not receive alerts at the ‘first proof corrections received’ stage. This does not affect any further alerts to authors from Author Services.

For more substantial information on the services provided for authors, please see Wiley Blackwell's Author Services.

6.4 OnlineOpen
OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see

Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at:

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

6.5 Author Material Archive Policy
Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted one month after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible.

6.6 Offprints and Extra Copies

Free access to the final PDF offprint or your article will be available via author services only. Please therefore sign up for author services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers. If you have queries about offprints, please e-mail

6.7 Note to NIH Grantees
Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see

Last updated: July 2013