British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

Cover image for Vol. 77 Issue 5

Edited By: J.M. Ritter (Editor-in-Chief), A. Cohen (European Editor), Y.K. Loke (European Editor), A. Somogyi (Australasian Editor), D. Flockhart (American Editor), and A. Ferro (Reviews Editor)

Impact Factor: 3.578

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 53/261 (Pharmacology & Pharmacy)

Online ISSN: 1365-2125

Associated Title(s): British Journal of Pharmacology



Author Guidelines


British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (BJCP)

Instructions to Authors
Last updated April 2013

Scope of the Journal
Papers will be considered for publication if they are relevant to any aspect of drug action in humans.

The Journal publishes papers of various kinds including Original Research Articles, Methods in Clinical Pharmacology, Reviews (including Systematic Reviews), Commentaries, Opinion, Meeting Reports and Letters to the Editors. Original research articles are grouped under headings including Clinical trials, Drugs in pregnancy and lactation, Drug interactions, Drug metabolism, Drug safety, Human Toxicology, Paediatric clinical pharmacology, Pharmacodynamics (PD), Pharmacoeconomics, Pharmacoepidemiology, Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacokinetics (PK), PK-PD relationships, Therapeutics, Translational Research. Authors are invited to suggest which heading they feel their manuscript would best fit, and may suggest additional headings if they so wish.

For a description of the roles and responsibilities of authors and contributors see http://www.icmje.org/ethical_1author.html. Investigations of human subjects will usually be expected to have been conducted in accordance with good clinical practice which defines investigator responsibilities including among others qualifications, resources, providing medical care to trial participants, communication with the research ethics committee, protocol, informed consent, data integrity and reporting (http://ichgcp.net/4-investigator). Where this is the case we would expect the principal investigator to be an author.

Authors who plan to submit an article may contact the Editorial Office at BJCPedoffice@wiley.com in advance for advice on the suitability of the article proposed.

Effective with the 2013 volume, this journal will be published in an online-only format. Issues of this title will be published online only and will not be printed but authors will still be able to order offprints of their own articles.

Once you have read the Submission Guidelines below, please go to ScholarOne Manuscripts (http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/bcp) to submit your manuscript.

You will need to submit three documents: a. manuscript; b. covering letter that includes specific statements; c. competing interests statement formatted as per our guidelines. If your paper is accepted you will subsequently be required to submit d. a copyright transfer agreement form signed by the corresponding author.

a. Preparing and submitting a manuscript

A recent issue of the Journal is a good guide to style. Manuscript documents should be typed in double spacing and should be page numbered. A separate title page should be included (see below). The author to whom all correspondence will be sent during the submission phase (the submitting author) need not be the same as the corresponding author listed on the final paper.

Please submit your manuscript online at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/bcp. Submissions can be uploaded as a Word document or as Rich Text Format (rtf) files, plus separate figure files (gif, jpg, bmp, tif, pic) and table files (doc or xls). Pdf and ppt files are not accepted.

The main text file must contain the title page, summary, text, references, and figure legends.

Manuscripts in rtf format should not contain word processor styles (for example bold, italics, justification).

For more information about the online submission system, please read the detailed instructions at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/bcp Author Centre or email the Editorial Assistant at BJCPedoffice@wiley.com.

Authors may find the following resource useful http://www.cmrojournal.com/ipi/ih/MPIP-author-toolkit.jsp.

b. Covering letter

Please include in your covering letter:

Statements regarding the originality of the work and agreement of all authors to its publication

Papers will not be approved for review unless accompanied by a statement, in the covering letter, that they have not been, and will not be published, in whole, or in part, in any other journal, and that all the authors have agreed to the contents of the manuscript in its submitted form. If authors have a problem in contacting a co-author for approval, the reason for this should be explained in the letter and may subsequently be discussed via email with the relevant Senior Editor.

If there is any overlap between a submitted manuscript of an original paper and a paper that is being submitted elsewhere, the submitting author should draw this to the attention of the Editors in the submission covering letter and enclose a copy of the relevant submitted paper(s).

If there is any overlap with a paper that has already been published elsewhere (including online publication), including use of the same subjects or repetition of any data, that paper must be referred to and cited in full.

If your manuscript refers to unpublished data (see section below “References to data on file”), you should obtain (and provide the Editorial Office with a copy) written permission to mention a responsible individual (e.g. “Prof X...contact address a.x@kcl.ac.uk) or should identify a department in a company that can be contacted, with a contact address.

Principal Investigator

For ALL papers describing investigations of human subjects (e.g. Research Papers) please indicate which of the authors was the Principal Investigator. (If the Principal Investigator is not an author of the paper, please explain why not.)

Reviewers

Authors are asked to facilitate the review process by providing, as part of the electronic submission process via ScholarOne, the names and email addresses of two suitable reviewers, on the understanding that the Editors are not bound by any such nomination.

c. Competing interests

Authors should provide a statement of any competing interests (or affirm that there are no competing interests) within the submitted manuscript. We will not reject a paper simply because of a competing interest, but we will publish a statement of declared interests, or declarations that there are no interests, in every manuscript.

All authors must download and complete a copy of the unified disclosure form of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (available at http://www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf). They must keep a copy of the form and send a copy to the corresponding author. Instead of submitting the form to the journal we require the corresponding author (or guarantor) to include a statement in manuscript body containing all interests declared on all authors’ forms and a statement affirming that no declarations were made for each case were there was nothing to declare. The corresponding author must keep the original forms and make them available on request.

The statement should follow the format used by the British Medical Journal (BMJ):

"All authors have completed the Unified Competing Interest form at http://www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf (available on request from the corresponding author) and declare: no support from any organisation for the submitted work OR [author initials] had support from [name of organisation] for the submitted work; no financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous 3 years OR [author initials] [had specified relationship] with [name of organisation] in the previous 3 years; no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work OR [initials of relevant authors] [had specified relationships or activities of this type]"

d. Copyright

A completed Copyright Transfer Agreement form is required once articles have been accepted. Please see the additional information listed in the Copyright Information section below.

Using copyrighted material
It is the author’s responsibility to obtain permission to use copyrighted material, including print and electronic forms, in a paper, and to acknowledge the source of the material.

English language
Papers must be written in clear, concise UK English. Avoid jargon and neologisms. Regrettably, the Journal is unable to undertake major corrections to language, which is the responsibility of the author.

Authors whose first language is not English are advised to have their papers checked before submission, as manuscripts may have to be rejected if they are not written in clear English, whatever their scientific merit.

For more information on pre-acceptance English-language editing, please visit http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/english_language.asp.

Note that Japanese fonts must not be used in the creation of files; the standard Adobe Acrobat program is not compatible with these fonts.

Original Research Articles
Original research papers should generally be divided into the following sections: Title Page (including PI Statement), Structured Summary, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References, Tables, Legends to Figures, and Figures. In addition authors should provide material for 2 boxes, placing this after the Structured Summary:

What is already known about this subject:

- in up to three short bullet point sentences (not more than 50 words in total) summarize the state of scientific knowledge on this subject before you did your study and say why this study needed to be done,

What this study adds:

- in up to three short bullet point sentences (not more than 50 words in total) give a simple answer to the questions “What do we now know as a result of this study that we did not know before?” and “What take-home-message do you want to impart to the readers?”

These two statements should be succinct, accurate and specific.

All Research Papers require a list of author contributions.

Papers should be concise and consideration should be given to using online publication of supplemental tables or other material (see http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/suppmat.asp for more information about our Supporting Information service).

Review articles
Review articles on a wide range of topics appear regularly in the Journal. Articles may be unsolicited, or may be commissioned by the Reviews Editor. Either kind may be single papers or, by prior agreement with the Editor, part of a themed series. Contributors are welcome to submit single review articles directly (systematic reviews are especially welcome), and may wish to discuss their proposal in advance. Most reviews should be between 2500 and 3000 words, should be fully referenced, and if judged potentially suitable will undergo peer review. Each review should include a summary but not the boxes (“what is known”/ “what this adds”) that are required only for original research articles. They will be subject to the other requirements of an original research paper.

From time to time the Journal will publish themed issues, including review articles and related original research papers. Authors who want to suggest a theme for a special issue should contact the Editor-in-Chief.

Systematic reviews
The Journal will publish systematic reviews. The manuscript should provide a concise account of the methods used, and concentrate on highlighting key aspects of interest and relevance to clinical pharmacologists, under the following headings: Structured Summary, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion.

· Introduction This should mention the background (e.g. relevant clinical and pharmacological issues) and describe the scope and aim of the review. What was the reason for the review? The strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature should be briefly described, earlier reviews identified and the need for the present paper explained.

· Methods Study selection (search strategy, type of intervention/exposure, types of studies included, types of outcomes, types of participants); data extraction and synthesis (statistical techniques and use of a quality assessment tool, if any).

· Results The key characteristics of the included studies and the main outcome measures; discuss variation within and between studies.

· Discussion Compare the findings to existing knowledge; outline the limitations of the review.

· Conclusion Summarize the key findings and the implications for clinical pharmacology and/or practical drug therapy.

Letters to the Editors
Comments on previously published papers, items of topical interest, and brief original communications will be considered under this heading. The length, including references, should not exceed 800 words, plus one figure or table. The letter should NOT be divided into sections.

Case reports (to be submitted as Letters to the Editors)
The Journal generally does not publish case reports as full papers but will do so as letters to the Editor. As for other letters the length, including references, should not exceed 800 words, plus one figure or table. Such case reports (for example adverse drug reactions or interactions) should include some novel aspect of drug action in man (for example a new adverse reaction or one that gives insight into a mechanism or method of management). Such reports may include single cases or short case series. Notes and guidelines on the format for publishing such reports, including a structured summary, will be found at http://www.bmj.com/content/suppl/2003/06/19/326.7403.1346.DC1.

Terminology
Stereoisomers
When a drug can exist as stereoisomers or diastereomers (for example geometrical isomers), the form of compound studied must be designated as follows in the methods section.

In the case of racemates the prefix rac- should precede the drug name (for example rac-propranolol).

When possible the absolute configuration of enantiomers should be indicated (for example (S)-warfarin).

Similarly, geometrical isomerism should be indicated by the prefixes Z/E or cis/trans. When appropriate, the interpretation of data obtained using mixtures of isomers should take account of stereochemical aspects.

Drug names
Prescribed drugs should be designated by an International Non-proprietary Name (recommended, rINN, or proposed, pINN). If such a name is not available, a drug should be designated by its British Approved Name (BAN; for example hyoscyamine) or its chemical name (for example glyceryl trinitrate).

When a mixture of drugs has a combination BAN (for example co-trimoxazole, co-fluampicil), that should be used.

For brevity, a company's code name may be used, but in that case the full chemical name or a figure showing the structure of the drug should be given in the introduction or a reference provided that gives this information.

Some mediators with well established common names (e.g. prostacyclin) are also prescribed as licensed preparations with an rINN (e.g. epoprostenol). In such cases the rINN should be used in the context of therapeutic use. Sometimes English and American usage varies, as with adrenaline / epinephrine and noradrenaline / norepinephrine. “Adrenaline / noradrenaline” relate clearly to terms such as “noradrenergic”, “adrenergic” and “adrenal gland” but we will accept the term preferred by authors.

Units
SI units (mass or molar units) should be used. If other units are used, a conversion factor should be included in the Methods section.

Symbols
A set of standard symbols in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can be found here.

Structure
Title page
The title page should include:

· the title giving an informative and accurate indication of the content of the paper. It should be no longer than 150 characters, including spaces;

· the names, positions, and addresses of the authors;

· the name and e-mail address of the submitting author and the corresponding author, if different;

· a running head of no more than 75 characters, including spaces;

· keywords (these are used to identify potential referees and as indexing terms);

· the word count, excluding the title page, summary, references, tables, and figures;

· the numbers of tables and figures.

In order to ensure correct citation of your article on PubMed, should your article be accepted for publication, please include spaces in-between author's initials on the title page of your manuscript, e.g. A E Smith. If author's initials do not appear on the title page of your manuscript according to these guidelines they may appear incorrectly on PubMed until your article has been typeset and published in an issue.

Summary
The text must be preceded by a structured summary, including the following headings:

· Aim(s)

· Methods

· Results (some numerical data, including confidence intervals on differences, when appropriate, must be included)

· Conclusions

The summary should be a maximum of 250 words; abstracting services truncate summaries that are longer. It should be couched in terms that will be understood by most readers of the Journal.

Analytical methods
Authors should include details of the precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of an analytical method used to measure drugs, metabolites or biomarkers or refer to other publications in which the information is given.

· Precision is a measure of random error, usually expressed as the coefficient of variation.

· Accuracy is a measure of systematic error, also called bias; it can be expressed as the percentage difference between the result for a test sample and the reference value for that compound.

· Sensitivity or lower limit of quantification.

· Specificity is the extent to which the method does not detect compounds other than those intended.

Statistical methods

In the Methods section statistical methods should be described clearly, with references when appropriate. Editors and referees will be particularly concerned that any study described had sufficient statistical power for its purpose; when appropriate, the power of the study and its calculation should be described in the Methods section.

In the Results section 95% confidence intervals of differences should be cited where relevant for important endpoints. This is particularly important when equivalence is being claimed (i.e. for non-significant comparisons). The Editors may utilize specialist statistical referees for manuscript review where necessary.

Tables
Tables should generally not have more than 85 characters to a line (counting spaces between columns as 4 characters) and certainly not more than 110 characters to a line, unless absolutely unavoidable. Each table should be typed on a separate page and be in an editable format (doc or xls).

Figures and use of colour
Please provide high quality figures suitable for the journal’s production processes. Use of colour (free to authors) is encouraged when it improves the clarity of the message conveyed.

To enhance the presentation of their articles, authors are encouraged to use colours in complementary pairs (example): a primary pair that is close to the colour of the journal and existing tables (example); a secondary pair for use when there are multiple figures side by side, or purely for variety within a paper (example); and a third pair to particularly highlight a figure, possibly in the conclusion/results part of a paper (example). With certain figures when it is helpful to strongly differentiate between sets of results, the first colour of each pair should initially be used (example), with the corresponding extra colours introduced as necessary. As blocks, the suggested colours all work together and should be clear to those readers who are colour-blind (example). Although white backgrounds are generally advisable, if necessary a suggested background colour that works both with the overall look of the journal, and the proposed colour palette is illustrated (example).

Digital files should be prepared in accordance with the instructions that will be found at http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/illustration.asp. The eps format (illustrations, graphs, annotated artwork; minimum resolution 800 dpi) and tif format (micrographs, photographs; minimum resolutions 300 dpi) are recommended, although in some cases other formats can be used.

References

· References should be cited using the Vancouver style (see examples below; for detailed instructions see http://www.icmje.org).

· References in the manuscript text should appear as numbers in square brackets.

· The reference list should show the references in numerical and not alphabetical order, and should include the names of all the authors, the full title of the article, the title of the publication (abbreviated as in Medline or PubMed), the year, the volume number, and the first and last page numbers.

· References to books should include the names of the editors, the edition number, when appropriate, and the place of origin and the name of the publisher.

· The accuracy of the references is the responsibility of the author. Referencing should be thorough but not excessive. Older literature that has been well reviewed can be referred to indirectly by citing the review(s).

For example:
1. Johnson TN, Rostami-Hodjegan A, Tucker GT. A comparison of methods to predict drug clearance in neonates, infants and children. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 57: 677-8.
2. Metters J (editor). Independent Steering Committee Report of an Independent Review of Access to the Yellow Card Scheme. London: The Stationery Office, 2004.
3. Hoffman BB, Lefkowitz RJ. Beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists. In: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Eighth Edition, eds Gilman AG, Rail TW, Nies AS, New York: Pergamon Press, 1990: 229-43.

References to data on file
Any assertions within a submitted manuscript which are backed up by reference to unpublished data should be clearly noted as such in the body of the manuscript and should give a clear direction to the reader as to how they might request this data: e.g. ‘ACME34178 is not metabolised by CYP3A4 (unpublished data on file, ACME Drug Co. Ltd., Didcot, UK)’, ‘Drug Z is known to partition extensively into erythrocytes (personal communication from Prof. X, University of Y)’

If making such a reference to unpublished data the author should obtain (and provide the Editorial Office with a copy) written permission to mention an individual (Prof X) or should identify a department in a company that can be contacted with an address (Department of Drug Metabolism, ACME Drug Co, drugmet@acme.com) and the permission should come from the head of that department or their designate.

Acknowledgements
All support, financial or otherwise, for any work described should be acknowledged, with the exception of support from employing institutions identifiable from the title page. Authors are reminded that if they want to acknowledge the assistance of an individual, it is courteous to ask the individual’s permission to do so.

Ethical Considerations
The ethical aspects of all studies involving human subjects will be particularly noted when assessing manuscripts. The methods section should include a statement that the study was approved by an identifiable ethics committee or similar body and that the subjects consented to the study after full explanation of what was involved; it should indicate whether or not consent was obtained in writing. Details should be given in the methods section of the approval of the study protocol by an ethics committee or similar body and the approval number or identification code should be provided. The ethics committee that approved the protocol should be described in sufficient detail to allow the committee to be identified.

Studies using human tissues
The Methods section should contain a statement that the study was approved by an identifiable ethics committee or similar body, and that, when applicable, explicit patient consent was obtained for the use of tissue for research. Local laws (e.g. the Human Tissue Act) should be adhered to. Where potentially relevant (e.g. functional investigations) details of the donors’ drug histories must be provided. Drug history must include any anaesthetic used for the biopsy.

Supporting Information

Supporting Information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supporting Information include additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. Supporting Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format.

For further information on recommended file types and requirements for submission, please visit: http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/suppinfo.asp

Page proofs
Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author and should be returned within 3 days of receipt to the Production Editor. The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a secure web site. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. In the absence of the corresponding author, please arrange for a colleague to access the e-mail to retrieve the proofs.

Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read the proof file and can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following website: http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html. This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order that corrections can be made.

Further instructions will be sent with the proof. In your absence, please arrange for a colleague to access your e-mail to retrieve the proofs.

Corrections should be kept to a minimum. Extensive changes may be charged to the author.

Once proofs have been corrected the paper will be published online in the next available issue. The online version is definitive and there will be no further opportunity for correction. The date of publication of the article is the date of its first appearance online as an Accepted Article.

Author Services
Author Services enables authors to track their article once it has been accepted through the production process to publication online and in print. Submitting authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production, so that they don’t need to contact the production editor to check progress. Visit http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources, including FAQs, tips on article preparation, submission, and more.

Offprints
Free access to the final PDF offprint of your article will be available via author services only. Please therefore sign up for author services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers. Paper offprints can be ordered at prices quoted on the order form that accompanies the proofs, provided that the form is returned with the proofs. The cost is higher if the order arrives too late for the main print run.

Offprints are normally dispatched within 3 weeks of publication of the issue in which the paper appears. Please contact the publishers if offprints do not arrive: however please note that offprints are sent by surface mail, so overseas orders may take up to 6 weeks to arrive. Electronic offprints are sent to the first author at his or her first e-mail address on the title page of the paper, unless advised otherwise; please therefore ensure that the name, address, and e-mail address of the corresponding author are clearly indicated on the manuscript title page if he or she is not the first author of the paper.

Effective with the 2013 volume, this journal will be published in an online-only format. Issues of this title will be published online only and will not be printed but authors will still be able to order offprints of their own articles.

Copyright Information
If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp and visit http://www.wileyopenaccess.com/details/content/12f25db4c87/Copyright--License.html.

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant selfarchiving policy please visit: http://www.wiley.com/go/funderstatement.

For RCUK and Wellcome Trust authors click on the link below to preview the terms and conditions of this license:
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp and visit http://www.wileyopenaccess.com/details/content/12f25db4c87/Copyright--License.html.

OnlineOpen is available to authors who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/onlineopen#OnlineOpen_Terms

Any authors wishing to send their paper Online Open will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at:
https://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/onlineopen_order.asp

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform the Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the Journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

Authors' checklist
Authors should ensure that they have provided the following information, when appropriate:
  1. A cover letter detailing originality of the manuscript and agreement of all authors and also identifying the Principal Investigator who undertook any human studies reported.
  2. A title page including a title of no more than 150 characters, all author names and affiliations, and the corresponding author contact information.
  3. A structured summary of no more than 250 words.
  4. ‘What is known about this subject’ and ‘What this study adds’ statements (up to three bullet point sentences for each).
  5. 95% confidence intervals (CI) on differences between major end points.
  6. Some numerical data in the summary, including 95% CIs, when appropriate.
  7. Details of precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for drug/metabolite assays.
  8. A statement (in Methods) of ethics committee approval and subject consent including the name of the ethics committee and the approval number or identification code.
  9. A statement declaring any competing interests, or declaring that there are no competing interests.
  10. Acknowledgement of financial and other support.
  11. Preprints of relevant unpublished papers.

The BJCP Prize
The British Pharmacological Society will award an annual prize of £1000 for the best paper published in the print version of the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology during a calendar year. Those eligible will be Registrars in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (usually ST3s and above) registered for Higher Medical Training in the UK and the Republic of Ireland and those in comparable training schemes (including PhD schemes) elsewhere. Potentially eligible authors will be contacted by the Editorial Office at the end of each year and invited to complete an application form, giving information about the provenance of the work and the precise role played by the potential award winner. The judges will be the Editors of the Journal, but they may call for expert assistance in making their decision, which will be final.

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