British Journal of Dermatology

Cover image for Vol. 172 Issue 2

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Editor: Alex Anstey, Newport, UK

Impact Factor: 4.1

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 7/61 (Dermatology)

Online ISSN: 1365-2133

Associated Title(s): Clinical and Experimental Dermatology

VIEW

  1. 1 - 94
  1. Clinical and Laboratory Investigations

    1. Alteration in regulatory T cells and programmed cell death 1-expressing regulatory T cells in active generalized vitiligo and their clinical correlation

      M.K. Tembhre, A.S. Parihar, V.K. Sharma, A. Sharma, P. Chattopadhyay and S. Gupta

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13511

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Generalized vitiligo (GV) is an autoimmune depigmentation disease.
      • Deregulation in immune regulatory components has been proposed in its pathogenesis.

      What does this study add?

      • Deficiency in regulatory T cells (Tregs), altered expression of Treg-associated parameters and increased percentage of programmed cell death 1-positive Tregs in active GV were the main findings of the study.
      • Clinical correlation was also established. Major defects in immune regulatory components were identified during the first episode of disease attack.
  2. Review Articles

    1. The genetics of pyoderma gangrenosum and implications for treatment: a systematic review

      E.M. DeFilippis, S.R. Feldman and W.W. Huang

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13493

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare neutrophilic dermatosis characterized by painful skin ulcerations for which treatment can be challenging.

      What does this study add?

      • This study reviews over 823 cases of PG and its associated gene mutations and syndromes.
      • The various treatments of PG, depending on the underlying disease association, are discussed.
  3. Paediatric Dermatology

    1. Human herpesvirus 6 involvement in paediatric drug hypersensitivity syndrome

      J. Ahluwalia, K. Abuabara, M.J. Perman and A.C. Yan

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13512

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Human herpesvirus (HHV)6 has been associated with a more severe form of drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) in the general adult population.
      • Administration of systemic corticosteroids is the mainstay treatment of DHS.

      What does this study add?

      • This study investigated a retrospective series to evaluate the factor of HHV6 positivity on DHS progression in paediatric patients.
      • Systemic corticosteroid treatment was associated with a trend towards a shorter hospital stay and fewer febrile days.
      • Systemic corticosteroids significantly reduced the number of days until cessation of progression in patients with DHS.
  4. Dermatological Surgery and Lasers

    1. Novel methods for generating fractional epidermal micrografts

      M. Purschke, F.A. Asrani, S.A. Sabir, W.A. Farinelli and R.R. Anderson

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13468

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Current treatments for vitiligo and chronic wounds are often not very effective and unsatisfying for patients.
      • Conventional epidermal blister grafting is one treatment option for chronic vitiligo, but is time consuming, limited to small areas and requires surgical skill.

      What does this study add?

      • Novel fractional epidermal micrografting is a promising alternative treatment for vitiligo and chronic wounds with fewer side-effects to donor and receptor sites and has the advantage of treating larger lesions.
  5. Clinical and Laboratory Investigations

    1. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin induction by skin irritation is independent of tumour necrosis factor-α, but supported by interleukin-1

      V. Kumari, M. Babina, T. Hazzan and M. Worm

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13465

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is closely associated with allergic diseases of the skin and respiratory tract, where it is mainly produced by epithelial and some mesenchymal cells.
      • TSLP skews T helper type 2 immune responses by targeting multiple immune cells, including dendritic cells.
      • Further up in the hierarchical system, several mediators regulate TSLP expression. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α occupies a prominent position among these mediators when applied exogenously; however, the in vivo relevance of TNF-α is barely defined.

      What does this study add?

      • TSLP is rapidly induced upon physicochemical irritation in murine skin in vivo and enters the circulatory system.
      • Endogenous TNF-α is not involved in skin TSLP production under a multitude of conditions in murine skin, and this seems to apply to an even greater extent in human skin.
      • Interleukin-1 partially mediates this irritation-induced TSLP expression. This effect is more prominent in human skin, which displays significant differences in TSLP regulation compared with murine skin.
  6. Epidemiology and Health Services Research

    1. Occlusive gloves and skin conditions: is there a problem? Results of a cross-sectional study in a semiconductor company

      W. Weistenhöfer, M. Wacker, F. Bernet, W. Uter and H. Drexler

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13481

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Prolonged glove occlusion is considered to be a risk factor for developing hand eczema similar to wet work.
      • Scientific evidence that it is as damaging as wet work is hitherto largely lacking.

      What does this study add?

      • This study involved a large sample of clean-room workers not exposed to additional hazardous substances.
      • Prolonged wearing of occlusive gloves during whole working days does not affect the skin negatively.
  7. Case Reports

    1. Progressive hyperpigmentation in a Taiwanese child due to an inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism (cblJ)

      T. Takeichi, C.-K. Hsu, H.-S. Yang, H.-Y. Chen, T.-W. Wong, W.-L. Tsai, S.-C. Chao, J.Y.-Y. Lee, M. Akiyama, M.A. Simpson and J.A. McGrath

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13413

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Inherited defects affecting vitamin B12 (cobalamin, cbl) metabolism can result in various haematological and neurological abnormalities, as well as occasional changes in the skin.
      • Nine different metabolic defects in the intracellular processing of cbl have been reported, which led to isolated methylmalonic aciduria and/or isolated homocystinuria.
      • The most recently described disease subtype is cblJ, resulting from mutations in ABCD4; three individuals with ABCD4 mutations have been described.

      What does this study add?

      • We identified a homozygous missense mutation in ABCD4 in a 12-year-old girl with progressive hyperpigmentation.
      • ABCD4 mutations can lead to skin hyperpigmentation in the absence of any neurological abnormalities, thus ABCD4 is a further candidate gene for familial progressive hyperpigmentation.
      • Treatment with oral cbl can reduce the hyperpigmentation that results from ABCD4 mutations over several months.
  8. Photobiology

    1. Genotype–phenotype correlation of xeroderma pigmentosum in a Chinese Han population

      Z. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Guo, C. Ni, J. Liang, R. Cheng, M. Li and Z. Yao

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13429

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by extreme sensitivity to sunlight, freckle-like pigmentation and a greatly increased incidence of skin cancers.
      • XP has been found in all continents, in all races. However, genetic mutation detection and genotype–phenotype analyses of XP are rarely reported in the Chinese Han population.

      What does this study add?

      • We identified 13 novel mutations and extended the spectrum of genetic mutation in a Chinese Han population.
      • In our cohort of patients with XP-C (XPC), XP-G (ERCC5), XP-A (XPA) and XP-V (POLH), patients with XP-G have no neurological symptoms, those with XP-A and XP-V have a high incidence of malignancy.
      • Lack of stringent protection against exposure to sunlight, late diagnosis and long duration of disease play an important role in XP in the Chinese Han population.
  9. Case Reports

    1. Dacryocystitis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis: a case report of a successful clinical and serological outcome with low-dose potassium iodide treatment and oculoplastic surgery

      P. Marques de Macedo, D.C.N. Sztajnbok, Z.P. Camargo, A.M. Rodrigues, L.M. Lopes-Bezerra, A.R. Bernardes-Engemann and R. Orofino-Costa

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13378

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Sporotrichosis is a worldwide granulomatous disease caused by several Sporothrix spp., commonly acquired by local trauma with contaminated organic material or via contact with diseased animals, especially cats.
      • Usual clinical forms are cutaneous/lymphocutaneous and first-line treatment is oral itraconazole.

      What does this study add?

      • Special forms of sporotrichosis have been described mainly in zoonotic epidemics ongoing in South and Southeast Brazil and it could be related to differences in frequencies among Sporothrix spp. as well as types of transmissions involving sapronosis or zoonosis.
      • Therefore, molecular identification may be helpful to guide treatment and for epidemiological purposes. In addition, serology may support clinical decisions.
      • Combined treatment can avoid functional sequelae.
  10. Correspondence

    1. Disseminated atrophic sarcoidosis with elastophagocytosis and elastic tissue loss

      W. Fancher, M. Braniecki, G. Guzman, J. Groth and A. Krunic

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13401

  11. Dermatological Surgery and Lasers

    1. A national study on adherence to a basal cell carcinoma guideline; development of a tool to assess guideline adherence

      R.J. Borgonjen, J.J.E. van Everdingen, C.A.F.M. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, P.C.M. van de Kerkhof and Ph.I. Spuls

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13351

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Implementation of a dermatological clinical practice guideline is a complex process.
      • Not all recommendations in a guideline are adhered to.

      What does this study add?

      • Possible implementation barriers when applying a basal cell carcinoma guideline.
      • A method to receive structured feedback from daily dermatological practice.
  12. Correspondence

    1. Three-dimensional high-definition optical coherence tomography image acquisition procedure for basal cell carcinoma

      M. Boone, M. Suppa, M. Miyamoto, A. Marneffe, G.B.E. Jemec, G. Pellacani and V. Del Marmol

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13474

  13. Cutaneous Biology

    1. The hand eczema proteome: imbalance of epidermal barrier proteins

      S. Molin, J. Merl, K.A. Dietrich, M. Regauer, M. Flaig, V. Letulé, T. Saucke, T. Herzinger, T. Ruzicka and S.M. Hauck

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13418

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Chronic hand eczema (CHE) is a common skin disease with a high socioeconomic impact.
      • While some light has been shed on genetic factors that predispose individuals to the disease, little is known about its actual pathogenesis.
      • Several recent findings indicate that CHE develops as a consequence of an impaired epidermal barrier.

      What does this study add?

      • We aimed to carry out a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the differential protein expression in CHE using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry.
      • We performed liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analyses and label-free quantification to analyse the proteomic profile of palmar skin from patients with hand eczema and healthy volunteers.
      • To our knowledge, this is the first study to employ this approach. The results of our study demonstrate that skin-barrier dysfunction plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of CHE.
  14. Correspondence

    1. Dermoscopy margin delineation in radiotherapy planning for superficial or nodular basal cell carcinoma

      R. Ballester Sánchez, O. Pons Llanas, J. Pérez Calatayud and R. Botella Estrada

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13402

  15. Cutaneous Allergy

    1. Cross-elicitation responses to 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine under hair dye use conditions in p-phenylenediamine-allergic individuals

      B. Blömeke, L.M. Pot, P.-J. Coenraads, J. Hennen, M. Kock and C. Goebel

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13412

      What's already known about this topic?

      • 2-Methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD) is a new p-phenylenediamine (PPD) derivative with reduced skin-sensitization properties.

      What does this study add?

      • Exposure to a hair dye test product containing ME-PPD on the forearm for 30 min indicated a response in nine of 30 (30%) PPD-allergic individuals, while 70% were negative.
      • This response rate is significantly lower than we previously reported for PPD under simulated hair dye use conditions (84%).
  16. Paediatric Dermatology

    1. Henoch–Schönlein purpura and systemic disease in children: retrospective study of clinical findings, histopathology and direct immunofluorescence in 34 paediatric patients

      E.F. Johnson, J.S. Lehman, D.A. Wetter, C.M. Lohse and M.M. Tollefson

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13472

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP) is commonly associated with systemic involvement.

      What does this study add?

      • Lesions above the waist and clinically evident oedema are associated with gastrointestinal involvement.
      • Renal involvement is associated with perivascular C3 on direct immunofluorescence and with microscopic dermal oedema.
      • Clinical and microscopic findings may help predict systemic involvement in HSP in children.
  17. Review Articles

    1. Pseudofolliculitis cutis: a vexing disorder of hair growth

      T.J. Jasterzbski and R.A. Schwartz

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13427

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Pseudofolliculitis cutis (PFC) is a chronic inflammatory condition triggered by ingrown hair, commonly found in the beard region of men of sub-Saharan African lineage.

      What does this study add?

      • A combination of curly hair and a keratin 75 polymorphism may increase the risk for developing PFC.
      • An evaluation of PFC treatment is provided to enhance efficacy, safety and adherence.
  18. Cutaneous Biology

    1. Altered manifestations of skin disease at sites affected by neurological deficit

      E. Azimi, E.A. Lerner and S.B. Elmariah

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13352

      What's already known about this topic?

      • The manifestation of inflammatory skin disease is altered and typically diminished following nerve damage.

      What does this study add?

      • We suggest that sensory neurons are necessary contributors to inflammatory skin disease and that neural blockade may serve as a primary or adjunctive approach to the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases.
  19. Correspondence

    1. IgA antiepidermal transglutaminase antibodies in dermatitis herpetiformis: a significant but not complete response to a gluten-free diet treatment

      T. Reunala, T.T. Salmi, K. Hervonen, K. Laurila, H. Kautiainen, P. Collin and K. Kaukinen

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13387

    2. Skipped exon in COL7A1 determines the clinical phenotypes of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

      E. Toyonaga, W. Nishie, M. Komine, S. Murata, S. Shinkuma, K. Natsuga, H. Nakamura, M. Ohtsuki and H. Shimizu

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13386

  20. Photobiology

    1. Cutaneous leishmaniasis responds to daylight-activated photodynamic therapy: proof of concept for a novel self-administered therapeutic modality

      C.D. Enk, A. Nasereddin, R. Alper, M. Dan-Goor, C.L. Jaffe and H.C. Wulf

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13490

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective for cutaneous leishmaniasis, but requires special equipment.
      • Daylight-activated PDT abolishes the need for artificial light sources and has proven effective for the treatment of actinic keratoses.

      What does this study add?

      • Daylight-activated PDT is effective against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by both Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica.
      • Daylight-activated PDT is a self-administered regimen that can be performed without professional assistance.
  21. Research Letters

    1. Outcome of treatment with azathioprine in severe atopic dermatitis: a 5-year retrospective study of adult outpatients

      S.F. Thomsen, T. Karlsmark, K.K.B. Clemmensen, C. Graversgaard, K.S. Ibler, G.B.E. Jemec and T. Agner

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13495

  22. Correspondence

    1. Treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa with intralesional photodynamic therapy using a laser diode attached to an optical cable: a promising new approach

      L.M. Valladares-Narganes, M.A. Rodríguez-Prieto, M.D. Blanco-Suárez, C. Rodriguez-Lage and I. García-Doval

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13385

    2. A novel locus for primary focal hyperhidrosis mapped on chromosome 2q31.1

      J. Chen, M. Lin, X. Chen, Z. Cao, Z. Tan, W. Xiong, Y. Tu and J. Yang

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13383

    3. Response of livedoid vasculopathy to rivaroxaban

      D.S. Winchester, L.A. Drage and M.D.P. Davis

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13428

  23. Clinical and Laboratory Investigations

    1. Lack of activity of betulin-based Oleogel-S10 in the treatment of actinic keratoses: a randomized, multicentre, placebo-controlled double-blind phase II trial

      A. Pflugfelder, E. Andonov, B. Weide, T. Dirschka, C. Schempp, E. Stockfleth, A. Stratigos, S. Krüger-Krasagakis, J. Bauer, C. Garbe and T.K. Eigentler

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13342

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Previous single open-label trials have shown activity for Oleogel-S10 in actinic keratoses, with a clearance of > 75% of the lesions in 79% and 86% of patients.

      What does this study add?

      • In this multicentre randomized double-blind trial Oleogel-S10 was highly tolerable but could not demonstrate superiority over placebo treatment.
  24. Correspondence

    1. Two Spanish cases of atypical melanosis of the foot, an early stage of acral lentiginous melanoma in situ

      D. Menis, L. Maroñas-Jiménez, J. Rodríguez-Peralto, R. Martin-Llamas and F. Vanaclocha-Sebastián

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13485

  25. Epidemiology and Health Services Research

    1. Identification of a new disease cluster of pemphigus vulgaris with autoimmune thyroid disease, rheumatoid arthritis and type I diabetes

      A. Parameswaran, K. Attwood, R. Sato, K. Seiffert-Sinha and A.A. Sinha

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13433

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and their relatives are more likely to develop concomitant autoimmune diseases.
      • PV has been associated with a large number of autoimmune diseases in the literature.
      • There is no consensus as to whether PV forms specific disease clusters with other autoimmune diseases.

      What does this study add?

      • The prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes is significantly increased in patients with PV.
      • Cluster analysis of comorbid autoimmune diseases within patients with PV and family members reveals that PV forms a distinct cluster with AITD, RA and type 1 diabetes.
      • Awareness of these disease associations may identify individuals at risk and may inform the search for common risk genes.
    2. Use of health care services by patients with psoriasis: a population-based study

      L.-T. Kao, K.-H. Wang, H.-C. Lin, H.-C. Li, S. Yang and S.-D. Chung

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13442

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Although there are reports in the literature on the economic burden of psoriasis, few studies have compared differences in health care services use between patients with psoriasis and those without it.
      • Only one study has previously reported that patients with psoriasis incur greater health care costs than a general group of patients.

      What does this study add?

      • With regard to both dermatology and nondermatology services, patients with psoriasis had significantly more outpatient visits, and greater outpatient and total costs than those without it.
      • The total cost for all health services was about 1·4-fold greater for patients with psoriasis than those without it.
  26. Paediatric Dermatology

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic factors associated with naevus count and dermoscopic patterns: preliminary results from the Study of Nevi in Children (SONIC)

      I. Orlow, J.M. Satagopan, M. Berwick, H.L. Enriquez, K.A.M. White, K. Cheung, S.W. Dusza, S.A. Oliveria, M.A. Marchetti, A. Scope, A.A. Marghoob and A.C. Halpern

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13467

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Total-body naevus counts and dysplastic naevi are important risk factors for melanoma.
      • Naevi with distinct dermoscopic patterns differ in size, anatomical and age distribution, and host pigmentation characteristics.

      What does this study add?

      • We have identified associations between genetic variants and the number of naevi in early age.
      • We have identified associations between host genetics and the dermoscopic pattern of naevi, supporting the hypothesis that naevi distinguished by their dermoscopic pattern represent distinct biological subsets.
  27. Epidemiology and Health Services Research

    1. Personal history of gallstones and risk of incident psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis in U.S. women

      L.X. Tong, S. Wu, T. Li, A.A. Qureshi, E.L. Giovannucci and E. Cho

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13463

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Psoriasis, a debilitating chronic disease, may share some common risk factors, and thus aetiological pathways, with gallstones.
      • To date, the association between gallstones and psoriasis has not been investigated.

      What does this study add?

      • A history of cholecystectomy-confirmed gallstones was associated with a higher relative risk of developing both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA).
      • A history of gallstones was associated with increased risk of developing concomitant PsA, especially in patients with a body mass index < 30 kg m−2.
  28. Therapeutics

    1. Superiority of ivermectin 1% cream over metronidazole 0·75% cream in treating inflammatory lesions of rosacea: a randomized, investigator-blinded trial

      A. Taieb, J.P. Ortonne, T. Ruzicka, J. Roszkiewicz, J. Berth-Jones, P. Briantais, J. Jacovella and on behalf of the Ivermectin Phase III study group

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13408

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Few therapeutic alternatives currently exist in treating papulopustular rosacea (PPR).

      What does this study add?

      • Ivermectin 1% cream (IVM 1%) once daily was significantly superior to metronidazole 0·75% cream (MTZ 0.75%) twice-daily, in reducing inflammatory lesion counts, as early as week 3 and through 4 months of treatment.
      • IVM 1% cream can be considered an effective anti-inflammatory treatment for PPR.
  29. Epidemiology and Health Services Research

    1. Clinical and histological features of head and neck melanoma: a population-based study in France

      F. Dabouz, C. Barbe, C. Lesage, A. Le Clainche, G. Arnoult, E.  Hibon, P. Bernard and F. Grange

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13489

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Head and neck melanomas (HNMs) are frequent, occur in elderly people and have a poor prognosis.
      • Population-based data on HNMs remain limited, and few studies have included a comprehensive comparison with melanomas at other sites (MOS).

      What does this study add?

      • In this population-based French study, HNMs differed from MOS by age of occurrence, histological type and a higher proportion of in situ cases, contrasting with a higher proportion of thick tumours.
      • HNMs located in the peripheral and central areas of the head and neck had different clinical and histological features.
      • Different patterns of sun exposure could explain these differences. Specific prevention messages targeting HNMs should be developed.
  30. Review Articles

    1. Psoriasis treatment and management – a systematic review of full economic evaluations

      M.P. Hamilton, D. Ntais, C.E.M. Griffiths, L.M. Davies and on behalf of the Identification and Management of Psoriasis-Associated ComorbidiTy (IMPACT) Team

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13486

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Current medication can provide effective control of psoriasis symptoms.
      • The cost of treatment can be high, but may be cost-effective.

      What does this study add?

      • A comprehensive summary and critique of full economic evaluations of psoriasis treatment and management published between January 1998 and April 2014.
      • Identification of key methodological issues and reasons why estimates of cost-effectiveness are uncertain.
      • Research recommendations to inform practice and policy for the integrated care of people with psoriasis.
  31. Systematic Reviews

    1. Evidence-based topical treatments for tinea cruris and tinea corporis: a summary of a Cochrane systematic review

      E.J. van Zuuren, Z. Fedorowicz and M. El-Gohary

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13441

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Tinea cruris and tinea corporis are common fungal infections of the skin.
      • A range of treatment options is available but it is unclear which is the most effective.

      What does this study add?

      • All included treatments appeared to be effective but most comparisons, except for terbinafine and naftifine, were only evaluated in single studies.
      • Owing to limitations in study design and reporting, the quality of the evidence was graded low to very low.
  32. Systematic Review

    1. Paediatric mastocytosis: a systematic review of 1747 cases

      C. Méni, J. Bruneau, S. Georgin-Lavialle, L. Le Saché de Peufeilhoux, G. Damaj, S. Hadj-Rabia, S. Fraitag, P. Dubreuil, O. Hermine and C. Bodemer

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13567

      What's already known about this topic?

      • The clinical and genetic features and outcomes of mastocytosis differ for the adult and paediatric forms.
      • Since paediatric mastocytosis was linked to mutations in c-Kit in 2010, it has been considered a clonal disease.
      • In 1963, Caplan reported that spontaneous regression occurs in the majority of cases of paediatric mastocytosis, and no predictive factors have been identified.

      What does this study add?

      • This extensive review points out that the outcome in some paediatric cases is fatal, that KIT mutations are rarely studied and that predictive factors are still unknown.
      • We suggest that long-term follow-up of children is necessary and that prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the prognostic value of sequencing KIT.
  33. Epidemiology and Health Services Research

    1. Disease recurrence in localized scleroderma: a retrospective analysis of 344 patients with paediatric- or adult-onset disease

      J.S. Mertens, M.M.B. Seyger, W. Kievit, E.P.A.H. Hoppenreijs, T.L.Th.A. Jansen, P.C.M. van de Kerkhof, T.R.D. Radstake and E.M.G.J. de Jong

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13514

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Localized scleroderma is characterized by a phase of disease activity followed by remission. However, disease recurrences occur.

      What does this study add?

      • Recurrences occur in almost one-quarter of patients and are more frequent in the linear localized scleroderma of the limbs subtype, independent of age at disease onset.
      • Awareness of high recurrence rates may help treating physicians to recognize reactivation of the disease, leading to a decreased delay in treatment reinitiation.
  34. Research Letters

    1. Photodynamic therapy efficiently controls dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum in a murine model

      L.M. Baltazar, S.M.C. Werneck, H.C.S. Carneiro, L.F. Gouveia, T.P. de Paula, R.M.D. Byrro, A.S. Cunha Júnior, B.M. Soares, M.V.L. Ferreira, D.G. Souza, M. Pinotti, P.S. Cisalpino and D.A. Santos

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13494

  35. Dermatological Surgery and Lasers

    1. Growth of periocular basal cell carcinomas

      E. Tan, F.P.Y. Lin, L.H.N. Sheck, P.J. Salmon and S.G.J. Ng

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13470

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) have traditionally been regarded as slow-growing tumours.
      • Few studies have prospectively and methodologically assessed the growth of BCCs.

      What does this study add?

      • BCCs in the periorbital region grow rapidly, at a rate of 11·2 mm2 monthly or 0·76 mm in diameter per month.
      • Most tumours grew in spite of an incisional or shave biopsy performed at the first appointment.
      • Factors that were related to a faster growth were large initial tumour size, male sex and a recurrent tumour. This growth could result in increased morbidity.
  36. Research Letters

    1. A U.K. multicentre audit of the assessment and management of psoriasis in children

      M.L. Lam, E. Burden-Teh, S.M. Taibjee, A. Taylor, S. Webster, S. Dolman, C. Jury, D. Caruana, S. Darne, A. Carmichael, S. Natarajan, T. McPherson, A. Moore, R. Katugampola, M. Kalavala, D. Al-Ismail, L. Richards, V. Jones, S. Batul Syed, M. Glover, J. Hughes, E. Anderson, B. Hughes, P. Babakinejad and R. Murphy

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13471

  37. Research letters

    1. Arguments for neuropathic pain in sensitive skin

      C. Saint-Martory, V. Sibaud, J. Theunis, V. Mengeaud, C. Lauzé, A.-M. Schmitt and L. Misery

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13466

  38. Review Articles

    1. Stretch marks during pregnancy: a review of topical prevention

      K. Korgavkar and F. Wang

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13426

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Striae gravidarum (SG), or stretch marks developing during pregnancy, can be disfiguring, causing emotional and psychological distress.
      • Studies specifically addressing the prevention of SG during pregnancy are sparse.

      What does this study add?

      • We review topical modalities that have been used specifically for preventing SG during pregnancy.
      • We conclude that reliable methods for preventing SG are scarce, and that topical modalities generally lack strong evidence from rigorous, well-designed trials with ample numbers of subjects.
  39. Correspondence

  40. Epidemiology and Health Services Research

    1. Relevance of congenital melanocytic naevi in vitiligo

      N. van Geel, L. Van Poucke, B. Van de Maele and R. Speeckaert

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13444

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Some case reports concerning the concomitant presence of congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN), halo naevi and vitiligo have been published. However, their possible link has never been investigated in a large patient population.

      What does this study add?

      • This study provides evidence that CMN may influence the age of onset of vitiligo and trigger the development of halo naevi in patients with vitiligo.
  41. Research Letters

    1. Does biological therapy affect interferon-γ release assay response? A long-term follow-up of patients with psoriasis using QuantiFERON-TB

      G. Lombardi, V. Tengattini, P. Dal Monte, A. Denicolò, M.L. Bacchi Reggiani, A. Patrizi, M.P. Landini and F. Bardazzi

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13475

    2. Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma in children: a detailed clinicopathological description of 11 multifocal cases with a high frequency of haemophagocytic syndrome

      I. Oschlies, I. Simonitsch-Klupp, J. Maldyk, D. Konovalov, D. Abramov, N. Myakova, J. Lisfeld, A. Attarbaschi, U. Kontny, W. Woessmann and W. Klapper

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13440

  42. Therapeutics

    1. A multicentre randomized trial of the treatment of patients with pemphigus vulgaris with infliximab and prednisone compared with prednisone alone

      R.P. Hall III, J. Fairley, D. Woodley, V.P. Werth, D. Hannah, R.D. Streilein, J. McKillip, J. Okawa, M. Rose, L.L. Keyes-Elstein, A. Pinckney, A. Overington, J. Wedgwood, L. Ding and B. Welch

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13350

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Tumour necrosis factor-α has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris (PV).
      • Case reports have shown infliximab (IFX) to be beneficial in the treatment of PV.

      What does this study add?

      • Treatment with IFX and prednisone was not significantly better than prednisone alone in treating patients with active PV.
      • IFX therapy is associated with decreased autoantibodies and change in peripheral B-cell phenotypes.
  43. Clinical and Laboratory Investigations

    1. Identification of loci associated with late-onset psoriasis using dense genotyping of immune-related regions

      H.L. Hébert, J. Bowes, Rh.Ll. Smith, E. Flynn, R. Parslew, A. Alsharqi, N.J. McHugh, J.N.W.N. Barker, C.E.M. Griffiths, A. Barton and R.B. Warren

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13340

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Chronic plaque psoriasis can be dichotomized into early-onset (onset < 40 years) and late-onset (onset ≥ 40 years) subtypes.
      • Genetic studies have so far focused on early-onset psoriasis, identifying 36 loci in white populations.
      • Late-onset psoriasis has generally been neglected in genetic studies.

      What does this study add?

      • This is the first genome-wide study to date of a late-onset psoriasis cohort.
      • There is a novel association at IL1R1, which is specific for late-onset psoriasis.
      • There is significant association of eight loci previously identified in early-onset psoriasis, demonstrating overlap between early- and late-onset psoriasis.
  44. Correspondence

  45. Epidemiology and Health Services Research

    1. Trends in cutaneous malignant melanoma in Sweden 1997–2011: thinner tumours and improved survival among men

      J. Lyth, H. Eriksson, J. Hansson, C. Ingvar, M. Jansson, J. Lapins, E. Månsson-Brahme, P. Naredi, U. Stierner, G. Ullenhag, J. Carstensen and C. Lindholm

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13483

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Patient survival and the proportion of thin cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been rising over time in most Western countries, although the corresponding rate of improvement of survival appears to have declined in Sweden at the end of the last millennium.

      What does this study add?

      • Swedish nationwide time trends of tumour thickness in CMM have been analysed for the first time.
      • A shift over time towards thinner CMMs for men was accompanied by a 19% improved 5-year CMM-specific survival.
      • Corresponding changes were not observed for women, although a superior 5-year CMM-specific survival still exists compared with that of men, motivating a continued need for improved secondary preventive actions for men.
  46. Dermatological Surgery and Lasers

    1. Postoperative radiation therapy for extramammary Paget's disease

      M. Hata, I. Koike, H. Wada, E. Miyagi, T. Kasuya, H. Kaizu, Y. Mukai and T. Inoue

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13357

      What's already known about this topic?

      • The standard treatment of extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is surgery, but the incidence of local recurrence is high.

      What does this study add?

      • Postoperative radiation therapy is safe and effective in establishing local control of EMPD.
      • These results suggest that radiation therapy is a promising adjuvant therapy to prevent local recurrence after surgery in patients with EMPD.
  47. Case Reports

    1. Three difficult cases: the challenge of autoimmunity, immunodeficiency and recurrent infections in patients with Good syndrome

      S.J. Arnold, T. Hodgson, S.A. Misbah, S.Y. Patel, S.M. Cooper and V.A. Venning

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13293

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Good syndrome (GS) is a rare, adult-acquired primary combined immunodeficiency syndrome arising in the context of thymoma.
      • Patients with GS frequently develop recurrent sinopulmonary infections and are at high risk of autoimmune manifestations, including lichen planus.

      What does this study add?

      • This study highlights the complex interplay of immunodeficiency, autoimmunity and infection seen in patients with GS, and demonstrates the ongoing management challenge of this rare condition.
  48. Correspondence

    1. Subluminescence photodynamic therapy of recalcitrant foot warts

      S. Vogel, T. Ruzicka and C. Berking

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13338

    2. Pharmacological treatments in pregnant women with psoriasis in the U.S.A.

      H.C. Lin, J.N. Hunnicutt, F.A. Moustafa, A.L. Rohr, K.E. Huang, R. Balkrishnan and S.R. Feldman

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13306

  49. Systematic Reviews

    1. Limited exposure to ambient ultraviolet radiation and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: a systematic review

      S.A. Rice, M. Carpenter, A. Fityan, L.M. Vearncombe, M. Ardern-Jones, A.A. Jackson, C. Cooper, J. Baird and E. Healy

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13575

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Hypovitaminosis D is common worldwide; adequate vitamin D levels are associated with improved health outcomes.
      • Vitamin D can be obtained from the diet or through oral supplementation, or synthesized in human skin following exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR).
      • Many authorities advocate that UVR exposure is essential for adequate vitamin D levels; however, UVR exposure can lead to skin cancer development, resulting in approximately 13 million skin cancers worldwide per annum.

      What does this study add?

      • This study demonstrates that many healthy adults in different populations across the world can maintain adequate serum vitamin D levels despite negligible UVR exposure for several months of the year.
      • Public health campaigns promoting a high vitamin D diet or supplements to healthy adults could positively impact the burden to the individual and the health service of inadequate vitamin D levels and could avoid the negative sequelae of UVR exposure.
  50. Case Reports

    1. MMP13 can be a useful differentiating marker between squamous cell carcinoma and benign hyperkeratotic lesions in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

      H. Hata, R. Abe, A. Suto, E. Homma, Y. Fujita, S. Aoyagi and H. Shimizu

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13302

      What's already known about this topic?

      • In recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), differentiation between squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and benign hyperkeratotic scar lesions is often difficult, both clinically and histologically.
      • A diagnostic marker for SCC in such patients is urgently required.

      What does this study add?

      • We have found that the zinc-dependent matrix metallopeptidase MMP13 is strongly positive in SCC but negative in benign hyperkeratotic lesions of the same patient with RDEB.
      • We propose MMP13 as a marker for differentiating between hyperkeratotic lesions and SCC in patients with RDEB.
  51. Photobiology

    1. Digital ultraviolet therapy: a novel therapeutic approach for the targeted treatment of psoriasis vulgaris

      T. Werfel, F. Holiangu, K.-H. Niemann, O. Schmerling, F. Lüllau, A. Zedler, H.-D. Sträter and M. Niebuhr

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13464

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Psoralen–ultraviolet A is effective in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris, but has long-term carcinogenic risks, especially for squamous cell carcinoma.

      What does this study add?

      • The digital phototherapy device skintrek allows digital ultraviolet therapy of diseased skin while simultaneously sparing the healthy adjacent skin.
      • Therefore skintrek potentially reduces the carcinogenic risk, reduces premature skin ageing and avoids tanning of healthy surrounding skin.
  52. Review Articles

    1. T helper cell 2 immune skewing in pregnancy/early life: chemical exposure and the development of atopic disease and allergy

      J.P. McFadden, J.P. Thyssen, D.A. Basketter, P. Puangpet and I. Kimber

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13497

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Over the last 50 years there has been an epidemic of atopic disease and associated allergy, the environmental causes of which have not been established.

      What does this study add?

      • The physiological T helper (Th) 2 cell skewing of pregnancy and early life, and how accentuation of this Th2 skewing is associated with development of atopic disease and allergy is reviewed and highlighted.
      • We postulate that certain types of exposures to chemicals can accentuate this Th2 skewing.
      • We postulate an alternative explanation, which is independent of the hygiene hypothesis, for the inverse association between birth order and atopic allergy.
  53. Correspondence

  54. Dermatological Surgery and Lasers

    1. Prospective comparison treatment of 595-nm pulsed-dye lasers for virgin port-wine stain

      W. Yu, G. Ma, Y. Qiu, H. Chen, Y. Jin, X. Yang, L. Chang, T. Wang, X. Hu, W. Li and X. Lin

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13356

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Pulsed-dye laser (PDL) was one of the first widespread treatments for port-wine stain (PWS). Significant advances in the technique of PDL and its efficacy and safety for treating PWS have been demonstrated in previous studies.
      • Vbeam® and Cynergy® are both 595-nm PDL systems that have been widely used to treat PWS lesions. No prior study has compared the efficacy of the two pieces of equipment.

      What does this study add?

      • This is the first prospective side-by-side comparison study of 595-nm PDL devices.
      • Our results suggest that Vbeam may have higher efficacy in the treatment of PWS than Cynergy. Despite using supposedly equivalent fluences in 595-nm PDLs, equivalent clinical results cannot be guaranteed.
  55. Correspondence

  56. Review Articles

    1. Onychomadesis: literature review

      J. Hardin and R.M. Haber

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13339

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Onychomadesis is characterized by separation of the nail plate from the matrix with persistent attachment to the nail bed and often but not always, eventual shedding. Onychomadesis has been associated with infection, autoimmune disease, critical illness, and medications.

      What does this study add?

      • To our knowledge a literature review of all associations with onychomadesis has not been completed previously.
  57. Correspondence

    1. Darier disease can be complicated by generalized cutaneous candidiasis: a case report

      L. Weiler, N. Poulalhon, S. Debarbieux and L. Thomas

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13360

    2. Acute systemic sarcoidosis complicating ustekinumab therapy for chronic plaque psoriasis

      J. B. Powell, P. Matthews, R. Rattehalli, F. Woodhead, P. Perkins, G. Powell, W. Szczecinska and J. E. Gach

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13365

    3. Improved psoriasis with weight loss: the role of behavioural factors

      L.F. Sandoval, A. Pierce, S.A. Davis and S.R. Feldman

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13345

  58. Review Articles

    1. Perioperative management of and recommendations for antithrombotic medications in dermatological surgery

      I. Palamaras and K. Semkova

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13362

      What's already known about this topic?

      • The number of patients on antithrombotic medications undergoing cutaneous surgery is steadily increasing.
      • There are no strict guidelines on perioperative management of these agents and the data on bleeding complications is contradictory.

      What does this study add?

      • This study provides an up-to-date comprehensive approach to the management of antithrombotic medications in patients undergoing cutaneous surgery.
      • The available data on warfarin, aspirin and clopidogrel is sufficient to recommend that these medications be continued throughout cutaneous surgical procedures.
      • The risk of bleeding complications in patients on antithrombotic medications can be minimized by meticulous surgical techniques, elaborate haemostasis, pressure dressings and close postoperative follow-up.
  59. Correspondence

  60. Research Letters

  61. Correspondence

  62. Case Reports

    1. Somatic mosaicism for the COL7A1 mutation p.Gly2034Arg in the unaffected mother of a patient with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa

      P.C. van den Akker, A.M.G. Pasmooij, R. Meijer, H. Scheffer and M.F. Jonkman

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13336

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Somatic mosaicism reported in epidermolysis bullosa (EB) mainly concerns revertant mosaicism.
      • Forward somatic mosaicism in EB has only been demonstrated for a KRT5 mutation in EB simplex. Parental germline mosaicism was reported for a LAMB3 mutation in Herlitz junctional EB and a dominant COL7A1 mutation in dystrophic EB (DEB).
      • Forward somatic mosaicism exceeding the germ cells has not been reported in DEB.

      What does this study add?

      • We report on forward somatic mosaicism for the COL7A1 mutation p.Gly2034Arg in the unaffected mother of a patient with DDEB pruriginosa.
      • This highlights that forward mosaicism occurs in DEB, which has important implications for genetic counselling in sporadic cases.
      • Our results narrow down the amount of mutant pro-α1(VII) procollagen that is tolerated by the skin to ≥ 10–25% (i.e. 20–50% mutant keratinocytes).
    2. Self-injection of dermal filler: an underdiagnosed entity?

      N. Raoof and S.M. Salvi

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13327

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Dermal fillers are increasingly used for facial rejuvenation.
      • The use of dermal fillers is currently unregulated.

      What does this study add?

      • Some dermal fillers are easily available on the internet and accessible to patients, with videos available online demonstrating their use.
      • Awareness needs to be raised, with improved legislation, against self-injection of dermal fillers and its complications.
  63. Correspondence

    1. Two cases of severe hidradenitis suppurativa with failure of anakinra therapy

      D. Menis, L. Maroñas-Jiménez, A.M. Delgado-Marquez, C. Postigo-Llorente and F. Vanaclocha-Sebastián

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13292

  64. Clinical and Laboratory Investigations

    1. CD271 is expressed in melanomas with more aggressive behaviour, with correlation of characteristic morphology by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy

      F. Beretti, P. Manni, C. Longo, G. Argenziano, F. Farnetani, A.M. Cesinaro, A.M. Witkowski, A. De Pol and G. Pellacani

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13301

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Human malignant melanoma contains morphologically heterogeneous populations of cells and expresses different markers of stemness.
      • Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) represents a new imaging tool for more accurate melanoma detection, which enables the in vivo visualization of cell morphology.

      What does this study add?

      • Melanomas with atypical cells organized in large dermal nests, recognized by RCM, correlate to CD271 positivity and high potential for malignancy.
      • This is probably due to the presence of a cell type intrinsically predisposed to invasion.
  65. Dermatological Surgery and Lasers

    1. The role of the 595-nm pulsed dye laser in treating superficial basal cell carcinoma: outcome of a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial

      S. Karsai, H. Friedl, H. Buhck, M. Jünger and M. Podda

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13266

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Pulsed dye lasers (PDLs) are increasingly used for treating basal cell carcinomas (BCCs).
      • However, so far there have been no sufficiently powered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the literature analysing the efficacy and safety of these devices.

      What does this study add?

      • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first RCT that analyses the 595-nm PDL in the treatment of superficial BCC at uncritical anatomical sites (trunk and extremities) with a follow-up of 6 months.
  66. Correspondence

  67. Dermatopathology

    1. The stars within the melanocytic garden: unusual variants of Spitz naevi

      E. Moscarella, S. Al Jalbout, S. Piana, G. Argenziano, A. Lallas, C. Longo, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof and I. Zalaudek

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13347

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Spitz naevi may present a wide spectrum of morphologies.
      • Clinical and dermoscopic features of unusual variants of Spitz naevi have been reported only rarely.

      What does this study add?

      • We describe clinical, dermoscopic and histopathological features of uncommon morphological variants of Spitz naevi, in order to raise awareness among clinicians about their peculiar patterns of presentation.
  68. Correspondence

  69. Cutaneous Biology

    1. Intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells could effectively promote vascularization and skin regeneration in mechanically stretched skin

      S.B. Zhou, C.A. Chiang, K. Liu and Q.F. Li

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13251

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Skin expansion can provide clinical reconstruction with regenerated skin but the outcome is strictly limited by the skin's instinctive regenerative capacity.
      • Recent reports have indicated that intradermal injection of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to expanded skin regeneration.
      • Few studies have addressed the influence of intravenous MSC transplantation on skin regeneration induced by mechanical stretch.

      What does this study add?

      • This study reported that intravenously transplanted MSCs could be recruited to expanded skin areas and engrafted in expanded skin.
      • Migrated MSCs could effectively improve skin vascularization and promote skin regeneration.
  70. Correspondence

  71. Therapeutics

    1. Addition of an oral histamine antagonist to reduce adverse events associated with fumaric acid esters in the treatment of psoriasis: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

      D.M.W. Balak, S. Fallah-Arani, C.M. Venema, H.A.M. Neumann and H.B. Thio

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13277

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Frequently occurring adverse events during treatment with fumaric acid esters (FAEs) include gastrointestinal complaints and flushing.
      • A substantial proportion of patients treated with FAEs have to discontinue treatment due to intolerable adverse events.

      What does this study add?

      • Blocking the histamine-1 receptor with cetirizine does not reduce adverse events from FAEs.
      • Histamine does not seem to play a pivotal role in the generation of gastrointestinal complaints and flushing during FAE treatment.
  72. Correspondence

  73. Dermatological Surgery and Lasers

    1. Topical axitinib suppresses angiogenesis pathways induced by pulsed dye laser

      L. Gao, D.M. Nadora, S. Phan, M. Chernova, V. Sun, S.M.O. Preciado, W. Jia, G. Wang, M.C. Mihm Jr, J.S. Nelson and W. Tan

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13439

      What's already known about this topic?

      • The regeneration of blood vessels in port-wine stain (PWS) after pulsed dye laser treatment is a critical barrier that must be overcome to achieve an adequate therapeutic outcome.
      • Activation of angiogenesis pathways induced by PDL contributes to PWS blood vessel recurrence.

      What does this study add?

      • Topical application of 0·5% axitinib can systematically suppress PDL-induced angiogenesis.
      • We propose a potentially new therapeutic strategy using PDL + axitinib for the clinical management of patients with PWS.
  74. Dermatopathology

    1. iSlide: a ‘big picture’ interactive teledermatopathology e-learning system

      P. Lee, C.-F. Chen, H.-T. Wan, W.-S. Jian, M.-H. Hsu, S. Syed-Abdul, C.-W. Huang, Y.-C. Huang, Y.-T. Lin, T.-J. Chen, Y.-H. Wu and Y.-C. Li

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13274

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Teledermatopathology is the application of telemedicine to dermatopathology.
      • Teledermatopathology is potentially similar to face-to-face interaction in dermatopathology.
      • Through the effective use of health information technology, telemedicine makes it possible for health care to be universally and pervasively accessible to all.

      What does this study add?

      • The iSlide system utilizes digital slides to improve training efficiency and reduces education and training costs in dermatopathology.
      • The iSlide e-learning platform can integrate with social network applications such as Facebook to further enhance interactive discussions.
  75. Cutaneous Biology

    1. Propionibacterium species and follicular keratinocyte activation in acneic and normal skin

      A.C. Jahns, H. Eilers, R. Ganceviciene and O.A. Alexeyev

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13436

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial inflammatory disease.
      • Hyperproliferation of keratinocytes is believed to be a major contributing factor to acne vulgaris.
      • Follicular hyperkeratinization and increased sebum production favour the colonization of Propionibacterium acnes.

      What does this study add?

      • Acne and control samples show a comparable keratinocyte proliferation status.
      • There is no link between bacterial colonization and follicular keratinocyte proliferation.
      • P. acnes and P. granulosum occur as distinct populations within the same follicle.
  76. Epidemiology and Health Services Research

    1. Hypochromic vitiligo: delineation of a new entity

      K. Ezzedine, A. Mahé, N. van Geel, N. Cardot-Leccia, Y. Gauthier, V. Descamps, A. Al Issa, F. Ly, O. Chosidow, A. Taïeb and T. Passeron

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13423

      What's already known about this topic?

      • The classification of vitiligo has important implications.
      • Few observations of vitiligo minor/hypochromic vitiligo, a rare entity affecting mainly individuals with dark skin types, have been reported.

      What does this study add?

      • We herein delineate a new entity that we called ‘hypochromic vitiligo’ through a case series of 24 patients with typical clinical presentation.
  77. Cutaneous Biology

    1. Similar response patterns to topical minoxidil foam 5% in frontal and vertex scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia: a microarray analysis

      P. Mirmirani, M. Consolo, P. Oyetakin-White, E. Baron, P. Leahy and P. Karnik

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13399

      What's already known about this topic?

      • There are regional variations in the scalp hair miniaturization seen in androgenetic alopecia (AGA).
      • Use of topical minoxidil can lead to reversal of miniaturization in the vertex scalp.

      What does this study add?

      • Frontal scalp of patients with AGA is responsive to minoxidil treatment in a manner similar to vertex scalp.
      • The hair-growth properties of minoxidil topical foam may be mediated through increased production of hair keratin-associated proteins and decreased epidermal differentiation complex and inflammatory gene expression.
  78. Photobiology

    1. Photodynamic therapy vs. topical imiquimod for treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma: a subgroup analysis within a noninferiority randomized controlled trial

      M.H. Roozeboom, P.J. Nelemans, K. Mosterd, P.M. Steijlen, A.H.M.M. Arits and N.W.J. Kelleners-Smeets

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13299

      What's already known about this topic?

      • Imiquimod is superior to photodynamic therapy in the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC).
      • There are only a few noncomparative studies on possible patient and tumour characteristics that influence noninvasive treatment response.

      What does this study add?

      • Higher probability of treatment success for imiquimod vs. methylaminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) was found in most subgroups.
      • Imiquimod was superior in females, large tumours and sBCC on the trunk.
      • In patients > 60 years with an sBCC on the lower extremities MAL-PDT was more effective than imiquimod.

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