Child: Care, Health and Development

Cover image for Vol. 42 Issue 6

Edited By: Stuart Logan

Impact Factor: 1.754

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 34/69 (Psychology Developmental); 49/120 (Pediatrics)

Online ISSN: 1365-2214

Author Guidelines

The journal to which you are submitting your manuscript employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

Content of Author Guidelines: 1. General, 2. Ethical Guidelines, 3. Submission of Manuscripts, 4. Manuscript Types Accepted, 5. Manuscript Format and Structure, 6. After Acceptance

Relevant Documents
: Colour Work Agreement Form

Useful Websites
: Submission Site, Articles published in Child: Care, Health and Development, Author Services, Guidelines for Figures, Chinese Scholars Network


Child: Care, Health and Development is an international, peer-reviewed journal which publishes papers dealing with all aspects of the health and development of children and young people. We aim to attract quantitative and qualitative research papers relevant to people from all disciplines working in child health. We welcome studies which examine the effects of social and environmental factors on health and development as well as those dealing with clinical issues, the organization of services and health policy. We particularly encourage the submission of studies related to those who are disadvantaged by physical, developmental, emotional and social problems. The journal also aims to collate important research findings and to provide a forum for discussion of global child health issues.

Please read the instructions below carefully for details on the submission of manuscripts, the journal's requirements and standards as well as information concerning the procedure after a manuscript has been accepted for publication in Child: Care, Health and Development. Authors are encouraged to visit Wiley-Blackwell Author Services for further information on the preparation and submission of articles and figures.


Child: Care, Health and Development adheres to the below ethical guidelines for publication and research.

2.1. Authorship and Acknowledgements

Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors and that all authors agree to the submission of the manuscript to the Journal. ALL named authors must have made an active contribution to the conception and design and/or analysis and interpretation of the data and/or the drafting of the paper and ALL must have critically reviewed its content and have approved the final version submitted for publication. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship.

Child: Care, Health and Development adheres to the definition of authorship set up by The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). According to the ICMJE authorship criteria should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design of, or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data, 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2 and 3. Except in the case of complex large-scale or multi-centre research, the number of authors should not exceed six.

It is a requirement that all authors have been accredited as appropriate upon submission of the manuscript.

Acknowledgements: Under acknowledgements please specify contributors to the article other than the authors accredited.

2.2. Ethical Approvals
Experimental Subjects:
All studies using human or animal subjects should include an explicit statement in the Material and Methods section identifying the review and ethics committee approval for each study, if applicable. Editors reserve the right to reject papers if there is doubt as to whether appropriate procedures have been used.

2.3 Appeal of Decision
The decision on a paper is final and cannot be appealed.

2.4 Permissions
If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publishers.

2.5 License Agreements
If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:


Manuscripts should be submitted electronically via the online submission site The use of an online submission and peer review site enables immediate distribution of manuscripts and consequentially speeds up the review process. It also allows authors to track the status of their own manuscripts. Complete instructions for submitting a paper is available online and below. Further assistance can be obtained from Editorial Assistant Iris Poesse at

A covering letter must be submitted as part of the online submission process, stating on behalf of all the authors that the work has not been published and is not being considered for publication elsewhere.

Important note: All papers will go through a initial sifting process within the editorial board.

3.1. Getting Started
• Launch your web browser (supported browsers include Internet Explorer 6 or higher, Netscape 7.0, 7.1, or 7.2, Safari 1.2.4, or Firefox 1.0.4) and go to the journal's online Submission Site:
• Log-in or click the 'Create Account' option if you are a first-time user.
• If you are creating a new account.
- After clicking on 'Create Account', enter your name and e-mail information and click 'Next'. Your e-mail information is very important.
- Enter your institution and address information as appropriate, and then click 'Next.'
- Enter a user ID and password of your choice (we recommend using your e-mail address as your user ID), and then select your area of expertise. Click 'Finish'.
• If you have an account, but have forgotten your log in details, go to Password Help on the journals online submission system and enter your e-mail address. The system will send you an automatic user ID and a new temporary password.
• Log-in and select 'Author Centre.'

3.2. Submitting Your Manuscript
• After you have logged in, click the submission link in the menu bar.
• Enter data and answer questions as appropriate. You may copy and paste directly from your manuscript and you may upload your pre-prepared covering letter.
• Click the 'Next' button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen.
• You are required to upload your files.
- Click on the 'Browse' button and locate the file on your computer.
- Select the designation of each file in the drop-down menu next to the 'Browse' button.
- When you have selected all files you wish to upload, click the 'Upload Files' button.
• Review your submission (in HTML and PDF format) before sending it to the Journal. Click the 'Submit' button when you are finished reviewing.

3.3. Manuscript Files Accepted
Manuscripts should be uploaded as Word (.doc) or Rich Text Format (.rft) files (not write-protected) plus separate figure files. It is recommended that, where possible, line figures be embedded into a single Microsoft Word document. For halftone figures, only high-resolution TIF or EPS files are suitable for printing. The text file must contain the entire manuscript including Abstract (structured abstracts, not more than 300 words, including background, methods, results and conclusions are preferred); Introduction; Methods; Results; Discussion; Acknowledgements; References; Tables; Figure legends, but no embedded figures. Manuscripts should be formatted as described in the Author Guidelines below.

3.4. Peer Review Process
Manuscripts submitted to Child: Care, Health and Development are subject to initial  scrutiny by the SIFT committee which consists of members of the Editorial Board. Where the SIFT Committee believe it unlikely that the paper will be acceptable for publication either for methodological reasons or because it does not fall within areas likely to be of central interest to our readers the paper will not be sent for formal peer review. The authors will be notified of this decision.

Manuscripts passing this initial scrutiny are reviewed by experts in the field, using a system of double-blinded review. The names of the reviewers will thus not be disclosed to the author submitting a paper and the name(s) of the author(s) will not be disclosed to the reviewers.

To allow double blinded review, please submit (upload) your main manuscript and title page as separate files.

Please upload:
• Your manuscript without title page under the file designation 'main document'
• Figure files under the file designation 'figures'
• The title page, Acknowledgements and Conflict of Interest Statement where applicable, should be uploaded under the file designation 'title page'

All documents uploaded under the file designation 'title page' will not be viewable in the HTML and PDF format you are asked to review in the end of the submission process. The files viewable in the HTML and PDF format are the files available to the reviewer in the review process.

3.5. Suggest a Reviewer

Child: Care, Health and Development attempts to keep the review process as short as possible to enable rapid publication of new scientific data. In order to facilitate this process, please suggest the names and current email addresses of 2 potential international reviewers whom you consider capable of reviewing your manuscript. In addition to your choice the journal editor will choose one or two reviewers as well.

3.6. Suspension of Submission Mid-way in the Submission Process
You may suspend a submission at any phase before clicking the 'Submit' button and save it to submit later. The manuscript can then be located under 'Unsubmitted Manuscripts' and you can click on 'Continue Submission' to continue your submission when you choose to.

3.7. E-mail Confirmation of Submission

After submission you will receive an e-mail to confirm receipt of your manuscript. If you do not receive the confirmation e-mail after 24 hours, please check your e-mail address carefully in the system. If the e-mail address is correct please contact your IT department. The error may be caused by some sort of spam filtering on your e-mail server. Also, the e-mails should be received if the IT department adds our e-mail server ( to their whitelist.

3.8. Manuscript Status

You can access ScholarOne Manuscripts (formerly known as Manuscript Central) any time to check your 'Author Centre' for the status of your manuscript. The Journal will inform you by e-mail once a decision has been made.

3.9. Submission of Revised Manuscripts

Revised manuscripts must be uploaded within 3 months of authors being notified of the decision. In exceptional cases a longer period may be agreed with the editor. Locate your manuscript under 'Manuscripts with Decisions' and click on 'Submit a Revision' to submit your revised manuscript. Please remember to delete any old files uploaded when you upload your revised manuscript. Please also remember to upload your manuscript document separate from your title page.


Original Articles: Articles reporting original scientific data based quantitative or qualitative research are particularly welcomed. Articles should begin with a structured abstract and should ideally be between 2,000 and 3,000 words in length excluding tables and references. In the case of complex qualitative research reports, the editors may be prepared to extend the word limit to 5000 words.

Review Papers
: The journal welcomes syntheses of research in the form of systematic reviews. The word limit may be extended, in some circumstances, to 5000 words. Reviews are structured in the same way as original research (see above). The journal will occasionally publish narrative reviews where it is felt that these will be of particular interest to the readers and will be important in encouraging debate.

Case Reports: The journal will very occasionally publish case reports but only where these are believed by the editors to hold important generalisable lessons for the clinical or scientific community. We would expect such reports to begin with a very brief narrative abstract. The main text (1500 words maximum) should include a brief description of the case followed by a short discussion section explaining the implications of the case for clinical practice or research. Normal processes of peer review apply.

Short Communications: The journal will occasionally publish short communications. Typically these will report the results of relatively simple studies with straightforward analyses and results. The format may be flexible in discussion with the editors but will normally consist of an extremely brief abstract followed by a main text containing not more than 1500 words and not more than 2 tables or illustrations. Normal processes of peer review apply.

Letters to the Editor: We encourage letters to the editor, either in response to published articles or where authors wish to raise important areas for discussion amongst the readership. The decisions on whether or not to publish will normally be taken within the editorial board and are based on whether it is felt that the letter opens or continues an important area for scientific debate.

Editorials: From time to time the editors will commission editorials, often to accompany specific papers or groups of papers. The format for these editorials is individually negotiated. Authors may choose to submit an editorial in the form of a brief (1200 words maximum) discussion with not more than 15 references on any subject.

All submissions, including those commissioned by the editors are subject to external peer review.

Special Issues: From time to time the Editor will commission a special issue of the Journal which will take the form of a number of papers devoted to a particular theme.


5.1. Format
Units and spellings:
Système International (SI) units should be used, as given in Units, Symbols and Abbreviations (4th edition, 1988), published by the Royal Society of Medicine Services Ltd, 1 Wimpole Street, London W1M 8AE, UK. Spelling should conform to that used in The Concise Oxford Dictionary, published by Oxford University Press.

Language: The language of publication is English. If English is not your first language, then you will find it helpful to enlist the help of a native English speaker to edit the piece, to correct grammar and ensure that idioms are correct. This too makes it easier for the reviewers to give full justice to your work. Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

Chinese Scholars Network is a resource for scholars, academics, and researchers in China who would like to publish their work in English language journals.

5.2. Structure
The following checklist should be used to check the manuscript before submission. Articles are accepted for publication at the discretion of the Editor. A manuscript reporting original research should ideally be between 2000 and 3000 words. In the case of complex qualitative research reports, or systematic reviews, the editors may in some circumstances be prepared to extend the word limit to 5000 words. The manuscript should consist of the sections listed below.

Title Page: The title page should give both a descriptive title and short title. The title should be concise and give a brief indication of what is in the paper. Authors are required to detail in full: qualifications, current job title, institution and full contact details. Also a word count for the article and keywords should be given on the title page.

To allow double-blinded review, please submit (upload) your main manuscript and title page as separate files as explained in section 3.4.

Abstract: Structured abstracts, not more than 300 words, including background, methods, results and conclusions are preferred

Optimizing Your Abstract for Search Engines
Many students and researchers looking for information online will use search engines such as Google, Yahoo or similar. By optimizing your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. We have compiled these guidelines to enable you to maximize the web-friendliness of the most public part of your article.

Main Text
Generally, all papers should be divided into the following sections and appear in this order: Abstract (structured abstracts, not more than 300 words, including background, methods, results and conclusions are preferred); Introduction; Methods; Results; Discussion; Acknowledgements (these should be brief and must include references to sources of financial and logistical support); References; Tables; Figures.

Key Messages
From 2007 onwards a key messages box should be provided with each manuscript. This should include up to 5 messages on key points of practice, policy or research. This also applies to articles solicited for themed issues.

5.3. References
References cited in the text should list the authors names followed by the date of their publication, unless there are three or more authors when only the first author's name is quoted followed by et al. References listed at the end of the paper should include all authors' names and initials, and should be listed in alphabetical order with the title of the article or book, and the title of the Journal given in full as shown:

Havermans, T. & Eiser, C. (1994) Siblings of a child with cancer. Child: care, health and development, 20, 309-322.

Cart, P. (1984) Observation. In: The Research Process in Nursing (ed. D.F.S. Cormack), pp. XX-XX. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.

Work that has not been accepted for publication and personal communications should not appear in the reference list, but may be referred to in the text (e.g. 'A. Author, unpubl. observ.' or 'B. Author, pers. comm.'). It is the authors' responsibility to obtain permission from colleagues to include their work as a personal communication. A letter of permission should accompany the manuscript.

The editor and publisher recommend that citation of online published papers and other material should be done via a DOI (digital object identifier), which all reputable online published material should have - see for more information. If an author cites anything which does not have a DOI they run the risk of the cited material not being traceable.

We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting. EndNote reference styles can be searched for here:

Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:

5.4. Tables, Figures and Figure Legends
Figures and Tables:
Always include a citation in the text for each figure and table. Artwork should be submitted online in electronic form. Detailed information on our digital illustration standards is available below. Any abbreviations used in figures and tables should be defined in a footnote.

Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication: Print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (line art) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size (see below). Please submit the data for figures in black and white or submit a Colour Work Agreement Form (see Colour Charges below). EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible).

For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: line art:  >600 dpi; halftones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi.

Further information can be obtained at Wiley-Blackwell's guidelines for figures:

Check your electronic artwork before submitting it:

Permissions: If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publisher.

Colour Charges: It is the policy of Child: Care, Health and Development for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour artwork. Therefore, please note that if there is colour artwork in your manuscript when it is accepted for publication, Wiley-Blackwell requires you to complete and return a Colour Work Agreement Form before your paper can be published. Any article received by Wiley-Blackwell with colour work will not be published until the form has been returned. If you are unable to access the internet, or are unable to download the form, please contact the Production Editor (


Upon acceptance of a paper for publication, the manuscript will be forwarded to the Production Editor who is responsible for the production of the journal.

6.1 Proof Corrections

The corresponding author will receive an email alert containing a link to a web site. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from this site.

Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following web site: This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof.Hard copy proofs will be posted if no e-mail address is available; in your absence, please arrange for a colleague to access your e-mail to retrieve the proofs.
Proofs must be returned to the Production Editor within three days of receipt. Only typographical errors can be corrected at this stage. Major alterations to the text cannot be accepted.

6.2 Early View (Publication Prior to Print)
Child: Care, Health and Development is covered by Wiley-Blackwell Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

6.3 Author Services
Online production tracking is available for your article through Wiley-Blackwell's Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

For more substantial information on the services provided for authors, please see Wiley-Blackwell Author Services

6.4 Author Material Archive Policy

Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley-Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible.

6.5 Offprints and Extra Copies

A PDF offprint of the online published article will be provided free of charge to the corresponding author, and may be distributed subject to the Publisher's terms and conditions. Additional paper offprints may be ordered online. Please click on the following link, fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields Offprint Cosprinters.If you have queries about offprints please email

6.6 Note to NIH Grantees
Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see