Freshwater Biology

Cover image for Vol. 61 Issue 3

Edited By: David Dudgeon

Impact Factor: 2.738

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 13/103 (Marine & Freshwater Biology)

Online ISSN: 1365-2427

Author Guidelines

Table of Contents



All manuscripts should be submitted through the Freshwater Biology – ScholarOne Manuscripts (S1M) web site:

The corresponding author will need to create an account (top left hand corner) the first time he/she accesses the site, and will be asked to provide full contact details. Freshwater Biology – S1M will then create a user name and password which should be retained for future access to the site. Once the author is logged into the system, the Main Menu will be displayed. Clicking on the Author Centre will bring up instructions for uploading the manuscript and associated files. However, all diagrams, tables and figures must be uploaded as separate files. As part of the submission process, any uploaded files will then be converted into journal specific PDF and HTML versions (with covering page) which you will be required to open and check before submitting. After submission, you will receive an acknowledgment within a few minutes. All subsequent correspondence regarding the manuscript will be handled by e-mail.

If the author is absolutely unable to submit the manuscript through Freshwater Biology – S1M, he/she should contact the Editorial Office by e-mail:

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Freshwater Biology publishes two-three themed issues yearly. Visit the Special Issues page for more information. Only papers for those Special Issues that have been agreed with the Special Issues Editor (Professor Dave Strayer) should be submitted via Freshwater Biology – S1M. Guest Editors should consult the Guidelines for Guest Editors of Special Issues

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Freshwater Biology – S1M will require Authors to confirm the following (see the declaration form):

(i) that the work as submitted has not been published or accepted for publication, nor is being considered for publication elsewhere, either in whole or substantial part.
(ii) that the work conforms to the legal requirements of the country in which it was carried out, including those relating to conservation and welfare, and to the journal’s policy on these matters (refer to the declaration form).
(iii) that all authors and relevant institutions have read the submitted version of the manuscript and approve its submission.
(iv) that all persons entitled to authorship have been so included.

Manuscripts must be in English and spelling should conform to the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Editors reserve the right to modify manuscripts that do not conform to scientific, technical, stylistic or grammatical standards, and minor alterations of this nature will normally be seen by authors only at the proof stage.

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A single file should be prepared containing the title page, summary, text, acknowledgments, references and tables (see guidelines below). Additional files may be created for each figure. Microsoft Office 2007/2010 file formats (i.e. .docx, .xlsx etc.) are acceptable on S1M.
• Please leave the right-hand margin unjustified
• Turn the hyphenation option off
• Use tabs, not spaces to separate data in tables

(a) Title page. This should include the title, list of authors names, institute or laboratory of origin, name, postal address and email address of the author to whom proofs should be sent, an abbreviated title for use as a running head line and five keywords, which should be relevant for literature searching and each normally comprising not more than two words.

(b) Summary. All papers should include a summary, in short numbered paragraphs, limited to about 3% of the length of the text, and in any case to not more than 500 words. This should provide a concise statement of the scope of the work and its principal findings and be fully intelligible without reference to the main text.

(c) Introduction. This should contain a clear statement of the reason for doing the work, outlining essential background information but should not include either the results or conclusions.

(d) Methods. This should be concise but provide sufficient details to allow the work to be repeated. Product and manufacturer names: Where specific named materials/products are mentioned or named equipment used (including software packages), these should be identified by their manufacturer, followed by the manufacturer’s location (e.g. town, state, country), or a source reference should be given if a standard or replicated procedure is being followed.

(e) Results. This should not include material appropriate to the Discussion.

(f) Discussion. This should highlight the significance of the results and place them in the context of other work.

(g) Acknowledgments.

(h) References.

(i) Tables.

(j) Figure legends.

(k) Illustrations. The original drawings should not be sent until the Editor requests them.

Please see section ‘Tables, Figures and Illustrations’ for further information on electronic submission of artwork.

There are no formal limits to the length of papers, but page space in the journal is tight, and most papers (except review articles) should be no longer than 9,000 words in total (text plus references, excepting Figs and Tables).

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Full names with uncommon abbreviations must be given with the first mention; new abbreviations should be coined only for unwieldy names and should not be used at all unless the names occur frequently. In the title and summary unusual abbreviations should be identified, in the introduction and discussion they should be used sparingly. SI units are preferred. Contributors should consult the Royal Society pamphlet Quantities, Units and Symbols (1975) and the IBP pamphlet Quantities Units and Symbols for IBP Synthesis (1975).

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The complete scientific name (genus and species) should be cited for every organism when first mentioned. Subsequent to its first appearance in the text, the generic name may be abbreviated to an initial except where intervening references to other genera would cause confusion. Common names of organisms, if used, must be accompanied by the correct scientific name on first mention. These common names should be in lower case, unless they are named after a geographical location or a person (i.e. unless they contain a proper noun): for example, Canada goose and Romer's frog, but brown trout and snapping turtle. Scientific (i.e. Latin) names should be italicized.

Naming authorities need not be given, except in cases where the species identity is a focus of the scientific content (for instance where identity is being established, or is controversial or in question). In such cases naming authorities should be given only on first mention and should not be given in the title or summary. Tables are often useful in collating specific names and, if used in this way, should be referred to early in the text.

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References in articles - We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting.
EndNote reference styles can be searched for here:
Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:

In the text, references should be made by giving the author's name with the year of publication, with one or both in parentheses. Thus, ‘Smith (2002) found that...’ OR ‘Fish were found mainly in deep water (Smith, 2002)’. The same style is used for two-author papers. When reference is made to a work by three authors, all names should be given when cited for the first time and thereafter using only the first name and adding "et al.". For four or more authors, the first name followed by "et al." should be used on all occasions. If several papers by the same author(s) and from the same year are cited -- a, b, c, etc., should be put after the year of publication. In the reference list, provide all authors for papers with six and fewer authors. For papers with more than six authors, list the first six authors followed by "et al.". References should be listed in alphabetical order at the end of the paper in the following standard form:

Avise J.C. (1994a) Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution. Chapman & Hall, New York.
Avise J.C. (1994b) Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution. PhD Thesis, Chapman University, New York.
Cornut J. E., Elger A., Lambrigot D., Marmonier P. M. & Chauvet E. (2010) Early stages of leaf decomposition are mediated by aquatic fungi in the hyporheic zone of woodland streams. Freshwater Biology, 55, 2541-2556.
Simon C. (1991) Molecular systematics at the species boundary. In: Molecular Techniques in Taxonomy (Eds G.M. Hewwitt, A.W.B. Johnston & J.P.W. Young), pp. 33–71. NATO ASI Series, Vol. 57. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Simon C. (1992) Molecular systematics. In: Proceedings of First International Symposium on Molecular Techniques in Taxonomy (Ed. J.C. Avise), pp. 23–34. Denton, Texas, 4–6 November 1992. Springer, Berlin.

Titles of journals should not be abbreviated. Unpublished material, except for PhD theses, should not be included among the references, but should be cited as 'X. Xxxxx, unpubl. data' in the text.

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Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals with a fully informative caption as a heading. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Electronic tables should be provided in an editable format (.rtf or .doc). All illustrations (including photographs) are classified as figures and should be numbered consecutively.

Authors should submit artwork electronically. Photographs should be saved at 300 d.p.i. in TIF format, or in JPG format with low compression. Line figures should preferably be submitted in vector graphics format, and either embedded as such in a Word document or saved in PDF or EPS format. If this is not possible, they should be saved separately as pixel-based graphics at 600 d.p.i. (at the required print size) and saved in TIF (not JPG) format, or embedded as such in a Word document. Combination figures (e.g. with photographic and line/text content) should be prepared as for line figures. For help in preparing your figures please go to our Electronic Artwork Information page here.

In the full-text online edition of the journal, figure legends may be truncated in abbreviated links to the full screen version. Therefore the first 100 characters of any legend should inform the reader of key aspects of the figure.

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Authors can elect to have colour illustrations in only the online version of their published manuscript, while having them reproduced in black-and-white in the printed version, free of charge. In this case, (a) both a colour version and a black-and-white version of the figure should be uploaded, and (b) the figure legend should not refer to colour as it will be used for both print and online versions.

If authors elect to have colour figures published in the printed journal, it is the policy of Freshwater Biology for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour artwork. The cost of colour printing is 150 GBP for the first figure and 50 GBP for each subsequent figure.

Following acceptance, a signed copy of the completed Colour Work Agreement Form must be sent to Customer Services before colour work can be processed. This form is required only for figures to be processed in colour in print and can be downloaded as a PDF here. If you are unable to download the form, please contact the Production Editor at and you will be emailed or faxed a form.

The Colour Work Agreement Form must be returned ONLY by post to the Publisher’s office.

Publisher’s office:
Customer Services (OPI)
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, European Distribution Centre
New Era Estate
Oldlands Way
Bognor Regis
West Sussex
PO22 9NQ

For queries pertaining to colour figure charges, please contact the Production Editor.

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Supporting Information can be published as web materials on the Freshwater Biology web site at the Editor's discretion. Note that if material is integral to the article it should be published as part of the article and not as Supporting Information. Supporting Information must be important, ancillary information that is relevant to the parent article but which does not or cannot appear in the printed edition of the journal. Supporting Information may include raw data in tables, more detailed versions of tables containing information of use to specialists but not necessary to understand the article, long species lists, detailed site information and distribution maps, descriptions of complex models, worked examples of complex statistical procedures, etc. Where there is Supporting Information, the printed paper will carry a brief title succinctly describing the contents of each item (e.g. Fig. S1, S2; Table S1 etc). It should not normally exceed 50 words. Such brief titles should be listed together after the references section of the main paper. A full, self explanatory title, with further details and definitions, should then accompany the Supporting Information file itself, and will appear in the online version of the paper only. In preparing the main text, Supporting Information should be cited just as other Figs and Tables. On first mention, please cite as, for instance "...(see Appendix S1 in Supporting Information). Subsequent references to further items of Supporting Information can the be cited as, for instance, "...(see Table S1).

In order to provide long term access to Supporting Information, such material must be mounted on the Freshwater Biology web site rather than on authors' sites. The Supporting Information will be accessible by hot links from the on-line version of Freshwater Biology. Authors should note that Supporting Information is merely 'linked' to the article but will not be organised into any easily searched database; nor will it be subject to copy-editing. Authors are responsible for the preparation of Supporting Information, which should be supplied in a format that will be most accessible by readers. It is published as supplied by the author and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format. For more information, please see our guidelines at Authors are encouraged to place all species distribution records in a publicly accessible database, such as the national Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) nodes ( or data centres endorsed by GBIF, including BioFresh (

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Researchers must have proper regard for conservation and animal welfare considerations. Attention is drawn to the 'Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research' published in each January issue of the journal Animal Behaviour since 1991. Any possible adverse consequences of the work for populations or individual organisms must be weighed against the possible gains in knowledge and its practical applications. Authors are required to sign a declaration that their work conforms to the legal requirements of the country in which it was carried out (refer to the declaration form), but editors may seek advice from referees on ethical matters and the final decision will rest with the editors.

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Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible if you have not yet done so.

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Freshwater Biology is covered by Wiley Blackwell’s Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors’ final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article. More information about DOIs can be found at:

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The corresponding author will receive an email alert containing a link to a web site. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from this site. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following web site:

This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof.

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The final PDF offprint of the online published article will be provided free of charge to the corresponding author, and will be available via Wiley Blackwell Author Services only. Please register for free access by visiting and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers. The PDF offprint may be distributed subject to the Publisher's terms and conditions. Paper offprints of the printed published article may be purchased if ordered via the method stipulated on the instructions that will accompany the proofs. Printed offprints are posted to the correspondence address given for the paper unless a different address is specified when ordered. Note that it is not uncommon for printed offprints to take up to eight weeks to arrive after publication of the journal.

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Online production tracking is now available for your article through Wiley Blackwell’s Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit this page for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

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If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement:
(a) If the OnlineOpen option is not selected, the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs at CTA Terms and Conditions

(b) If the OnlineOpen option is selected, the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
• Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements, please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services.

For more information regarding Creative Commons License, please visit Copyright & License hosted on Wiley Open Access.

For authors funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) or the Austrian Science Fund (FWF):
If you choose OnlineOpen, you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license, supporting you in complying your Funder requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy, please visit: and view this video.

Authors who did not select OnlineOpen when they originally accessed the copyright form via Author Services but who subsequently wish to make their articles open access should see the section OnlineOpen. Similarly, authors who wish to switch to the OnlineOpen selection after their article is published online as Early View should see the section OnlineOpen.

Note to NIH Grantees
Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance.  This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication.  For further information, see

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With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive.

For the full list of terms and conditions, see Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at:

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

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