Global Change Biology

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 9

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited by: Steve Long

Impact Factor: 8.502

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2016: 1/53 (Biodiversity Conservation); 5/229 (Environmental Sciences); 6/153 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 1365-2486

Associated Title(s): GCB Bioenergy

  1. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

    1. Proper estimate of residue input as condition for understanding drivers of soil carbon dynamics

      Sonja G. Keel, Juliane Hirte, Samuel Abiven, Chloé Wüst-Galley and Jens Leifeld

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13822

  2. OPINION

    1. A unifying explanation for variation in ozone sensitivity among woody plants

      Zhaozhong Feng, Patrick Büker, Håkan Pleijel, Lisa Emberson, Per Erik Karlsson and Johan Uddling

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13824

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      Variation in leaf mass per unit area (LMA) accounts for a major part of the large and hitherto largely unresolved interspecific variation in ozone sensitivity among woody plant species, such that species with high LMA have lower ozone sensitivity. The interspecific variation in slopes of ozone dose–response relationships was considerably lower when expressed on a leaf mass basis than when expressed on a leaf area basis, and relationships for broadleaf and needle-leaf species converged with the mass-based index.

  3. PRIMARY RESEARCH ARTICLES

    1. Effects of free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) on nitrogen assimilation and growth of winter wheat under nitrate and ammonium fertilization

      Markus Dier, Rieke Meinen, Martin Erbs, Lena Kollhorst, Christin-Kirsty Baillie, David Kaufholdt, Martin Kücke, Hans-Joachim Weigel, Christian Zörb, Robert Hänsch and Remy Manderscheid

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13819

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      FACE (e[CO2]) increased nitrogen acquisition of wheat that was supplied with three nitrate-based fertilization treatments (CAN low, opt, and ex). Ammonium soil injection (CUL opt) did not improve nitrogen acquisition, but showed similar nitrate assimilation as found in plant fertilized with CAN opt. Plants fertilized with urea and nitrification inhibitors (UNI opt) showed less nitrate assimilation under the same soil mineral nitrogen supply as for the CAN opt treatment in 2015, but nitrogen acquisition was not increased by e[CO2].

    2. Risk of genetic maladaptation due to climate change in three major European tree species

      Aline Frank, Glenn T. Howe, Christoph Sperisen, Peter Brang, J. Bradley St. Clair, Dirk R. Schmatz and Caroline Heiri

      Version of Record online: 10 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13802

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      To guide forest management, we investigated potential genetic maladaptation to future climates in Norway spruce, silver fir, and European beech in Switzerland. Based on data from a genecological field test, we project all three species to be adapted to the near-term climates of 2021 to 2050. Considering the climates of 2061 to 2090 (see figure), fir is projected to be still largely adapted (b), whereas spruce and beech are expected to be maladapted in many regions (a, c). Consequently, spruce and beech deserve greater attention when designing management strategies for maintaining healthy Swiss forests.

  4. PRIMARY RESARCH ARTICLES

    1. Increasing temperature cuts back crop yields in Hungary over the last 90 years

      Zsolt Pinke and Gábor L. Lövei

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13808

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      The analysis of 90 year weather and yield data indicated that grain yields in Hungary are increasingly sensitive to climatic factors, esp. to drought. The figure shows the effect of deviations from the mean in precipitation (left), temperature (middle) and drought index (right) on yields of the four major grains in Hungary, during three 30-year periods between 1921 and 2010. Note that the slope of the last period, 1981-2010, is usually steeper than the others, indicating an increasing impact of climate deviations on yields.

  5. PRIMARY RESEARCH ARTICLES

    1. The role of protected areas in land use/land cover change and the carbon cycle in the conterminous United States

      Xiaoliang Lu, Yuyu Zhou, Yaling Liu and Yannick Le Page

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13816

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      Understanding the role of protected areas (PAs) in historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and their impacts on carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. We find PAs acted as a carbon sink and they sequestered >1,500 Tg C during 1700-2005, accounting for around 13% of carbon losses in non-PAs. Our findings call for continuing efforts to enforce PAs and avoid large-scale disturbances that would release large amounts of carbon in PAs.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Marine-terminating glaciers sustain high productivity in Greenland fjords

      Lorenz Meire, John Mortensen, Patrick Meire, Thomas Juul-Pedersen, Mikael K. Sejr, Søren Rysgaard, Rasmus Nygaard, Philippe Huybrechts and Filip J. R. Meysman

      Version of Record online: 4 AUG 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13801

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      Marine productivity is very differently regulated in fjords influenced by land-terminating or marine-terminating glaciers. Fjords with marine-terminating glaciers sustain a much higher productivity due to nutrient upwelling by rising subsurface meltwater. Glacier retreat hence can have large impact on marine productivity and fisheries in the fjords around Greenland.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Sea-ice loss boosts visual search: fish foraging and changing pelagic interactions in polar oceans

      Tom J. Langbehn and Øystein Varpe

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13797

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      We explore how climate-driven sea-ice decline restructures visual search, and thereby predator–prey interactions and distribution of pelagic fish, in a future Arctic Ocean. Less sea ice means increased light, which results in a nonlinear change of visual predation performance. We find that earlier melt dates and longer ice-free periods during summer month benefit visual predators, but also that sea-ice independent light constraints on visual foraging remain during the polar night, likely to act as a zoogeographical filter limiting northward range shifts.

    4. Protected areas offer refuge from invasive species spreading under climate change

      Belinda Gallardo, David C. Aldridge, Pablo González-Moreno, Jan Pergl, Manuel Pizarro, Petr Pyšek, Wilfried Thuiller, Christopher Yesson and Montserrat Vilà

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13798

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      Protected areas are championed as refugia for native biodiversity and habitats, but we do not know how effective they are in shielding native taxa from biological invasions under projected climate change.

      Here, we found that only a quarter of Europe's marine and terrestrial areas protected over the last 100 years have been colonized by 100 of the worst terrestrial, freshwater, and marine invaders, with long-established areas showing the lowest richness of invaders (A).

      This situation may change in the future, as models anticipate a shift in species distribution toward the north and east of Europe in response to climate change (B).

    5. Deep peat warming increases surface methane and carbon dioxide emissions in a black spruce-dominated ombrotrophic bog

      Allison L. Gill, Marc-André Giasson, Rieka Yu and Adrien C. Finzi

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13806

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      Belowground warming increased both CO2 and CH4 emission, but CH4 production was more sensitive to warming which decreased the CO2:CH4 of the respired C. Although the total quantity of C emitted from the bog as CH4 is small, CH4 represents >50% of seasonal C emissions in the highest warming treatments when adjusted for CO2 equivalents. These results suggest that high-latitude warming may increase the contribution of CH4 to total ecosystem C losses and make peatlands a positive feedback to additional warming.

    6. A casualty of climate change? Loss of freshwater forest islands on Florida's Gulf Coast

      Amy K. Langston, David A. Kaplan and Francis E. Putz

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13805

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      Through long-term field observations, we investigated the replacement of coastal freshwater forest islands by salt-tolerant vegetation in response to sea level rise. We found that in forest islands subjected to infrequent tidal flooding during a 22-year period, live trees and an under story composed of forest vegetation persisted, though tree regeneration and species richness declined. In moderately flooding islands, tidal flooding increased 43%–117%; few live, nonregenerating trees remained by 2014, and under stories became dominated by halophytic shrubs. In frequently flooded islands, tidal flooding increased 22%–33%, and freshwater forest was completely replaced by herbaceous salt marsh. Our study demonstrates how climate change-driven community reassembly is altering the unique coastal landscape of Florida.

    7. Multidate, multisensor remote sensing reveals high density of carbon-rich mountain peatlands in the páramo of Ecuador

      John A. Hribljan, Esteban Suarez, Laura Bourgeau-Chavez, Sarah Endres, Erik A. Lilleskov, Segundo Chimbolema, Craig Wayson, Eleanor Serocki and Rodney A. Chimner

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13807

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      Tropical mountain peatlands contain extensive peat soils that have yet to be mapped or included in global carbon estimates. Our map displayed a high coverage of peatlands containing large belowground soil carbon storage within the Ecuadorian Andes. These mapping approaches provide an essential methodological improvement applicable to mountain peatlands across the globe, facilitating mapping efforts in support of effective policy and sustainable management, including national and global carbon accounting and C management efforts.

    8. Experimentally increased nutrient availability at the permafrost thaw front selectively enhances biomass production of deep-rooting subarctic peatland species

      Frida Keuper, Ellen Dorrepaal, Peter M. van Bodegom, Richard van Logtestijn, Gemma Venhuizen, Jurgen van Hal and Rien Aerts

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13804

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      Deep-rooting species respond positively to enhanced nutrient supply at the permafrost thaw-front. This overlooked formerly frozen additional nitrogen source may allow increased biomass production and may counteract part of the increased carbon losses from thawing permafrost.

  6. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

    1. A narrower gap of grazing intensity. Reply to Fetzel et al., 2017. Seasonality constrains to livestock grazing intensity

      Jorge Gonzalo Nicola Irisarri, Sebastián Aguiar, Martin Oesterheld, Justin D. Derner and Rodolfo A. Golluscio

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13800

  7. Response to Editor

    1. Response to Editor to the comment by Delarue (2016) to our paper entitled ‘Persistent high temperature and low precipitation reduce peat carbon accumulation’

      Luca Bragazza, Alexandre Buttler, Bjorn J. M. Robroek, Remy Albrecht, Claudio Zaccone, Vincent E. J. Jassey and Constant Signarbieux

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13559

  8. PRIMARY RESEARCH ARTICLES

    1. Global change and the distributional dynamics of migratory bird populations wintering in Central America

      Frank A. La Sorte, Daniel Fink, Peter J. Blancher, Amanda D. Rodewald, Viviana Ruiz-Gutierrez, Kenneth V. Rosenberg, Wesley M. Hochachka, Peter H. Verburg and Steve Kelling

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13794

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      Understanding the implications of global change for highly mobile taxa such as migratory birds requires information on geographic patterns of occurrence across the full annual cycle. We use eBird data to model weekly patterns of abundance and occurrence for 21 forest passerine species that winter in Central America. Our findings indicate that land-use change and climate change are likely to have more significant implications for these species on their wintering grounds. Our findings also suggest that management opportunities currently exist to mitigate the near-term loss of wintering habitats, which may provide longer term benefits as climate change progresses.

    2. Projections of climate-driven changes in tuna vertical habitat based on species-specific differences in blood oxygen affinity

      K. A. S. Mislan, Curtis A. Deutsch, Richard W. Brill, John P. Dunne and Jorge L. Sarmiento

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13799

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      Hypoxia tolerance thresholds for tuna species are projected to be shallower, compressing vertical habitat, in the future. The greatest compression is projected to be in the North Pacific where there are many sympatric tuna species. Compression is also projected for the spawning area of southern bluefin tuna off the coast of Western Australia.

    3. Thermal buffering capacity of the germination phenotype across the environmental envelope of the Cactaceae

      Charlotte E. Seal, Matthew I. Daws, Joel Flores, Pablo Ortega-Baes, Guadalupe Galíndez, Pedro León-Lobos, Ana Sandoval, Aldo Ceroni Stuva, Natali Ramírez Bullón, Patricia Dávila-Aranda, Cesar A. Ordoñez-Salanueva, Laura Yáñez-Espinosa, Tiziana Ulian, Cecilia Amosso, Lino Zubani, Alberto Torres Bilbao and Hugh W. Pritchard

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13796

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      Predictions of germination performance were made by comparing the optimum germination temperature (To) with current and projected climate change scenarios (+1.0°C and +3.7°C); a negative impact on germination rate is predicted when the environmental temperature exceeds To (a). The time required to achieve 50% germination under the different scenarios was also calculated (b). Under the +3.7°C scenario, 24 species will have an efficiency gain in germination demonstrating sufficient thermal buffering to cope with global temperature change.

    4. The heat is on: Genetic adaptation to urbanization mediated by thermal tolerance and body size

      Kristien I. Brans, Mieke Jansen, Joost Vanoverbeke, Nedim Tüzün, Robby Stoks and Luc De Meester

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13784

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Urbanization causes habitat warming. The impact of “urban heat islands” on evolutionary processes in organisms is, however, rarely studied. A common garden experiment at two rearing temperatures (20°C and 24°C) revealed substantial evidence for thermal adaptation and adaptive plasticity in Daphnia in response to urbanization and rearing temperature. Urban Daphnia and animals reared at 24°C have a higher CTMAX and mature at a smaller size. While urban Daphnia are smaller, this only in part contributed to the evolutionary increase in CTMAX. The observed higher haemoglobin levels in urban animals did not induce a higher CTMAX. We additionally report substantial genetic variation for CTMAX within both rural and urban populations, facilitating responses to warming. Given that urban areas currently experience temperature increases expected to occur over the next 100 years due to climate change, these results, the first to be presented for aquatic organisms, provide the evidence that Daphnia are well equipped to cope with current and future anthropogenic warming.

    5. Recent climatic drying leads to age-independent growth reductions of white spruce stands in western Canada

      Edward H. Hogg, Michael Michaelian, Trisha I. Hook and Michael E. Undershultz

      Version of Record online: 17 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13795

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Annual change in (a) average increment of aboveground tree biomass and (b) the climate moisture index during 1960–2015 for 40 white spruce stands sampled in 2015 across northern and west-central Alberta. Average values are also shown for the youngest and oldest stands within each of 10 study areas. Vertical lines denote drought years having negative average values of the climate moisture index for these 10 study areas.

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