Grass and Forage Science

Cover image for Vol. 69 Issue 3

Edited By: Hugh Dove and Alan Hopkins

Impact Factor: 1.932

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 19/78 (Agronomy)

Online ISSN: 1365-2494

Author Guidelines

Author Guidelines

Content of Author Guidelines: 1. General, 2. Ethical Guidelines, 3. Submission of Manuscripts, 4. Manuscript Types Accepted, 5. Manuscript Format and Structure, 6. After Acceptance. 

Relevant Document: Colour Work Agreement Form

Useful Websites: Submission Site, Articles published in Grass and Forage Science, Author Services, Wiley Blackwell’s Ethical Guidelines, Guidelines for Figures


Grass and Forage Science publishes the results of research and development in all aspects of grass and forage production, management and utilization, reviews of the state of knowledge on relevant topics and book reviews. Authors are also invited to submit papers on non-agricultural aspects of grassland management such as recreational and amenity use and the environmental implications of all grassland systems. The Journal considers papers from all climatic zones. Originality is required in papers submitted for publication but this does not preclude the publication of material of a developmental nature.

Grass and Forage Science is covered by Wiley Blackwell’s Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors’ final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

Please read the instructions below carefully for details on the submission of manuscripts, the journal's requirements and standards as well as information concerning the procedure after a manuscript has been accepted for publication in Grass and Forage Science. Authors are encouraged to visit Wiley Blackwell's Author Services for further information on the preparation and submission of articles and figures.

Note to NIH Grantees
Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance.  This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication.  For further information, see


Grass and Forage Science adheres to the below ethical guidelines for publication and research. 

2.1. Authorship and Acknowledgements

Authorship: Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors and that all authors agree to the submission of the manuscript to the Journal. ALL named authors must have made an active contribution to the conception and design and/or analysis and interpretation of the data and/or the drafting of the paper and ALL must have critically reviewed its content and have approved the final version submitted for publication. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship and, except in the case of complex large-scale or multi-centre research, the number of authors should not exceed six.

It is a requirement that all authors have been accredited as appropriate upon submission of the manuscript. Contributors who do not qualify as authors should be mentioned under Acknowledgements.

Acknowledgements: Under Acknowledgements please specify contributors to the article other than the authors accredited. Please also include specifications of the source of funding for the study. Suppliers of materials should be named and their location (town, state/county, country) included.

2.2. Ethical Approvals 

All studies using animals should include an explicit statement in the Material and Methods section identifying the review and ethics committee approval for each study, if applicable.

If appropriate, experiments should be carried out in accordance with the Guidelines laid down by the National Institute of Health (NIH) in the USA regarding the care and use of animals for experimental procedures or with the European Communities Council Directive of 24 November 1986 (86/609/EEC) and in accordance with local laws and regulations. The Editor reserves the right to reject papers if there is doubt as to whether appropriate procedures have been used.

2.3 Source of Funding

Authors are required to specify the source of funding for their research when submitting a paper. As of 1st March 2008, this information will be a requirement for all manuscripts submitted to the Journal and will be published in the Acknowledgements.. Suppliers of materials should be named and their location (town, state/county, country) included.

2.4 Appeal of Decision

Authors who wish to appeal the decision on their submitted paper may do so by e-mailing the Editor with a detailed explanation for why they find reasons to appeal the decision.

2.5 Permissions

If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publishers.

2.6 Copyright Transfer Agreement.

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) or the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with your Funder requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:


Manuscripts should be submitted electronically via the online submission site The use of an online submission and peer review site enables immediate distribution of manuscripts and consequentially speeds up the review process. It also allows authors to track the status of their own manuscripts. Complete instructions for submitting a paper are available online and below. Further assistance can be obtained from

3.1. Getting Started

• Launch your web browser (supported browsers include Internet Explorer 6 or higher, Netscape 7.0, 7.1, or 7.2, Safari 1.2.4, or Firefox 1.0.4) and go to the journal's online Submission Site:
• Log-in or click the 'Create Account' option if you are a first-time user.
• If you are creating a new account.
   - After clicking on 'Create Account', enter your name and e-mail information and click 'Next'. Your e-mail information is very important.
   - Enter your institution and address information as appropriate, and then click 'Next.'
   - Enter a user ID and password of your choice (we recommend using your e-mail address as your user ID), and then select your area of expertise. Click 'Finish'.
• If you have an account, but have forgotten your log in details, go to Password Help on the journals online submission system and enter your e-mail address. The system will send you an automatic user ID and a new temporary password.
•  Log-in and select 'Author Center'.

3.2. Submitting Your Manuscript

• After you have logged in, click the 'Submit a Manuscript' link in the menu bar.
• Enter data and answer questions as appropriate. You may copy and paste directly from your manuscript and you may upload your pre-prepared covering letter.
• Click the 'Next' button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen.
• You are required to upload your files.
   - Click on the 'Browse' button and locate the file on your computer.
   - Select the designation of each file in the drop-down menu next to the Browse button.
   - When you have selected all files you wish to upload, click the 'Upload Files' button.
• Review your submission (in HTML and PDF format) before sending to the Journal. Click the 'Submit' button when you are finished reviewing.

3.3. Manuscript Files Accepted

Manuscripts should be uploaded as Word (.doc) or Rich Text Format (.rft) files (not write-protected) plus separate figure files. GIF, JPEG, PICT or Bitmap files are acceptable for submission, but only high-resolution TIF or EPS files are suitable for printing. The files will be automatically converted to HTML and PDF on upload and will be used for the review process. The text file must contain the entire manuscript including title page, abstract, text, references, tables, and figure legends, but no embedded figures. Figure tags should be included in the file. Manuscripts should be formatted as described in the Author Guidelines below.

3.4. Suspension of Submission Mid-way in the Submission Process

You may suspend a submission at any phase before clicking the 'Submit' button and save it to submit later. The manuscript can then be located under 'Unsubmitted Manuscripts' and you can click on 'Continue Submission' to continue your submission when you choose to.

3.5. E-mail Confirmation of Submission

After submission you will receive an e-mail to confirm receipt of your manuscript. If you do not receive the confirmation e-mail after 24 hours, please check your e-mail address carefully in the system. If the e-mail address is correct please contact your IT department. The error may be caused by spam filtering software on your e-mail server. Also, the e-mails should be received if the IT department adds our e-mail server ( to their whitelist.

3.6. Manuscript Status

You can access ScholarOne Manuscripts (formerly known as Manuscript Central) any time to check your 'Author Center' for the status of your manuscript. The Journal will inform you by e-mail once a decision has been made.

3.7. Submission of Revised Manuscripts

Revised manuscripts must be submitted within 30 days of authors being notified of the need to revise their paper. Locate your manuscript under 'Manuscripts with Decisions' and click on 'Submit a Revision' to submit your revised manuscript.


Original Articles: Full papers or Research Notes may be submitted. Research Notes should not normally exceed 1500 words or their equivalent in length.

Review Articles: Review articles are welcomed. They should be of an equivalent length to full papers.

Book reviews: Short book reviews of less than 1000 words are commissioned by the Deputy Editor.


Note: Authors submitting papers to Grass and Forage Science are strongly urged to read An international terminology for grazing lands and grazing animals by the Forage and Grazing Terminology Committee. The article should be used as a guide to the correct use of terminology in grazing studies, and can be accessed for free here.

5.1. Format

Language: The language of publication is English. Authors for whom English is a second language must have their manuscript professionally edited by an English speaking person before submission to make sure the English is of high quality. It is preferred that manuscripts are professionally edited. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

Abbreviations, Symbols and Nomenclature: All numerical data must be presented in System International (SI) units. The 24-hour clock should be used for time. Abbreviations should be used for all units and numerical values should be given in figures except where the number begins a sentence. If a number does not refer to a unit of measurement, it should be spelled out if it is ten or less. Abbreviations may be used for other physical quantities (e.g. DM for dry matter) provided that they are given in full when first mentioned in the paper and are followed by the abbreviation in brackets, e.g. dry matter (DM). Particular attention should paid to the composition of fertilizers: the
abbreviations N, P, P2O5, K and K2O may be used without definition at the first occurrence, but P should not be used to indicate phosphate (P2O5) nor K to indicate potash (P2O). Proportions, rather than percentages, should be used except where there is a scientific convention to use percentages, e.g. cover and germination rate.

5.2. Structure

All manuscripts submitted to Grass and Forage Science should include: Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and methods, Results and Discussion.

Title Page: The title page should give the title of the article, the names and initials of each author, the department and institution to which the work should be attributed and the name, address, and the e-mail address of the author for correspondence. The author should also provide up to six keywords to aid indexing.

Abstract: should be a brief (not exceeding 200 words) and comprehensive summary of the contents of the manuscript.

Optimizing Your Abstract for Search Engines

Many students and researchers looking for information online will use search engines such as Google, Yahoo or similar. By optimizing your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. We have compiled these guidelines to enable you to maximize the web-friendliness of the most public part of your article.

Main Text of Original Research Article

Introduction: The Introduction of the paper should explain briefly the reasons for conducting the investigation and its nature: a full review of the literature is not necessary.

Material and Methods: The Materials and methods section of the paper should describe the experimental details so that the study could be repeated. 

Results: Experimental results should be presented in either tabular or diagrammatic form but not in both forms.

Discussion: The Discussion of the results should conclude with a clear statement of their importance and application. 

Acknowledgements: This must include a statement of the sources of funding used for the work.

5.3. References

References should be made in the text by giving the author’s name with the year of publication in round brackets. When reference is made to work by more than two authors, only the first author’s name should be given followed by et al. If several papers by the same first or by first authors with the same surname and publishes in the same year are cited, the year of publication should be suffixed by the letters a, b, c etc. All sources quoted in the text should be listed alphabetically by the author’s surname in a list of References at the end of the paper. Each reference should be arranged in the appropriate standard form as follows:

HUMPHREYS L. R. (1977) The evolving science of grassland improvement. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

MOWAT D. J. and CLAWSON S. (1996) Oviposition and hatching of the clover weevil Sitona lepidus Gyll. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Grass and Forage Science, 51, 418–423.

WILKINS R. J. (1996) Environmental constraints to grassland systems. In: Parente G., Frame J. and Orsi S. (eds) Grassland and Land Use Systems. Proceedings of the 16th General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation, Grado, Italy, 1996, pp. 695–703.

Titles of periodical should be given in full but issue numbers within volumes are not required unless each issue is paginated separately.

The editor and publisher recommend that citation of online published papers and other material should be done via a DOI (digital object identifier), which all reputable online published material should have - see for more information. If an author cites anything which does not have a DOI they run the risk of the cited material not being traceable.

We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting.

EndNote reference styles can be searched for here:

Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:

5.4. Tables, Figures and Figure Legends

Tables: should only be used to clarify important points.  Tables must, as far as possible, be self-explanatory.  The tables should be on a separate page and numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals.

Figures: All graphs, drawings and photographs are considered figures and should be numbered in sequence with Arabic numerals.  If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned.  It is the author’s responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publisher.

Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication

Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (line art) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented programmes. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size (see below). Please submit the data for figures in black and white or submit a Colour Work Agreement Form (see Colour Charges below). EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible).

For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: line art:  >600 dpi; halftones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi.

Further information can be obtained at Wiley Blackwell's guidelines for figures:

Check your electronic artwork before submitting it:

Permissions: If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publisher.

Colour Charges: It is the policy of Grass and Forage Science for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour artwork. Therefore, please note that if there is colour artwork in your manuscript when it is accepted for publication, Wiley Blackwell require you to complete and return a Colour Work Agreement Form  before your paper can be published. The form can be downloaded from the link at the top of the page. If you are unable to download the form, please contact the Production Editor at

Please post or courier all pages of your completed form to:

Customer Services (OPI)
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, European Distribution Centre
New Era Estate
Oldlands Way
Bognor Regis
West Sussex
PO22 9NQ

Figure Legends: Each figure should have a legend which makes the material comprehensible without reference to the text and all legends should be typed together on a separate sheet and numbered correspondingly.  


6.1 Proof Corrections

The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a website.  A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author.  The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from this site. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following website: 

This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Hard copy proofs will be posted if no e-mail address is available; in your absence, please arrange for a colleague to access your e-mail to retrieve the proofs.

Proofs must be returned to the Editor within three days of receipt. Excessive changes made by the author in the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately. Other than in exceptional circumstances, all illustrations are retained by the publisher. Please note that the author is responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.

6.2 Author Services

Online production tracking is available for your article through Wiley Blackwell's Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more. For more substantial information on the services provided for authors, please see Wiley Blackwell's Author Services.

6.3 OnlineOpen

OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive.

For the full list of terms and conditions, see

Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website.

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

6.4 Author Material Archive Policy

Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley

Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible.

6.5 Offprints and Extra Copies

Authors can retrieve the final PDF proof of their article via Author Services. Details on Author Services can be found here;

Additional paper offprints may be ordered online. Please click on the following link, fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields.If you have queries about offprints please e-mail