Cover image for Vol. 149 Issue 3

Edited By: Danny Altmann

Impact Factor: 4.078

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 44/150 (Immunology)

Online ISSN: 1365-2567

Author Guidelines

Immunology publishes papers describing original work in all areas of immunology including cellular and molecular immunology, immunochemistry, immunogenetics, imaging, mathematical modelling, allergy, transplantation immunology, cancer immunology and clinical immunology. Immunology also publishes review articles on subjects of topical interest to immunologists. While many of the reviews published are commissioned by the editors, Immunology welcomes unsolicited reviews. The journal does not in general publish papers of a primarily methodological nature.

Immunology publishes monthly online and print issues and articles are available online in accepted format within a few days of acceptance. All articles accepted for publication will appear in both versions. Review articles are free to access from point of publication. Original articles are deposited to PubMed Central upon acceptance and are made publicly available 12 months after publication. Authors can make their articles open access upon publication through OnlineOpen, the service offered by Wiley to authors whose funding agency requires deposit of an article in an archive, or who wish their article to be made available to non-subscribers. There are no page charges levied for articles published in Immunology, however authors are required to pay for the use of colour in figures in print (see below).

Editorial Office Contact Details:

Immunology Editorial Office
The British Society for Immunology
34 Red Lion Square
United Kingdom

Tel.: +44 (0)20 3019 5901
Fax: +44 (0)20 3019 5902

Manuscripts Submission
Immunology uses an online manuscript submission and peer-review system. Usage of this system is obligatory and the journal does not accept submissions via post or email.
Submission is considered on the conditions that papers are previously unpublished, and are not offered simultaneously elsewhere; that all authors have read and approved the content, and all authors have also declared all competing interests; and that the work complies with Ethical Policies of the Journal, and has been conducted under internationally accepted ethical standards after relevant ethical review including the ARRIVE guidelines for animal research and COPE guidelines for publication ethics.
Authors should prepare their manuscript and figures in the format detailed below. Please ensure that your article confirms to our forms and style guidelines as incorrectly formatted manuscripts will be returned to authors.

Once your manuscript has been prepared and you are ready to submit online, please go to and follow the step-by-step instructions provided. If you require any help during the submission process please use the online help facility within ScholarOne. All submissions will be converted to PDF format during the upload process. The submission system automatically generates one PDF file which contains all parts of the manuscript, which will be used for the review process.
When submitting your manuscript you must specify at least two preferred reviewers. These should be experts within the field of manuscript submitted, however, collaborators or colleagues from your institute should not be proposed.

Manuscripts should be submitted in English; American or British spelling can be used provided that one spelling style is used consistently. The manuscript should be formatted in double spacing with 30 mm margins all round and in a general font such as Times Roman/New Roman, Arial or Helvetica throughout. When adding symbols, e.g. Greek characters, the degree symbol etc., you should use the Symbol font. Alternatively, you may wish to write out any unusual characters/symbols out in full.

The first page of the manuscript should contain: the title of the paper; a short title; full names of the authors and the name of their respective institutes; name and full postal address of the author to whom all correspondence is to be sent; 3-5 key words; a list of all abbreviations used; and any additional details relating to joint authorships.

Generally, original papers should be divided into the following parts and in the order indicated:

(1) Summary: not exceeding 250 words.
(2) Introduction: describing the reasons for the current investigation and a brief summary of the existing literature.
(3) Materials and Methods: sufficient information must be included to permit repetition of experimental work. For specialist equipment and materials the manufacturer (and if possible their location) should be stated.
(4) Results: these should be given concisely; the use of tables and figures to illustrate the same results will only rarely be allowed
(5) Discussion: the presentation of results should be separated from a discussion of their significance; this section should not repeat results
(6) Acknowledgements: this section should include details of author contributions (e.g X performed the experiments, Y designed the study, X & Y wrote the paper) and financial support.
(7) Conflict of Interest: all financial and commercial conflicts of interest should be disclosed. If there are none, this should be stated.
(8) References: Should be in the Immunology format as detailed below.

Review articles should be between 3500 -4500 words long and include up to 100 references. The inclusion of Figures and Tables is encouraged, with an upper limit of four of each. A brief outline of the scope of the review should be emailed to for consideration by the Editorial Office before submission.

Fast Track
Brief papers covering topics of immediate interest can be submitted as Fast track papers. A letter to the Editors should accompany the manuscript stating why rapid publication is requested. Such papers should contain no more than 2000 words, three figures and tables in total, and no more than 30 references should be cited. A decision on rapid communications will usually be given within three weeks of submission and accepted manuscripts will be fast-tracked during production.

References should be numbered sequentially in the order in which they appear and denoted in the text through numbers i.e. in Vancouver format. Material that is “in press” should be included in the reference list stating the journal in which it is to appear. However work denoted as “unpublished observations” or “to be published” should not appear in the reference list. In references the full title of the paper should be given along with the first and last page numbers. The journal name should be abbreviated according to the system adopted by Index Medicus.

The responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic references rests entirely with the author.

CD nomenclature is to be used for all cell differentiation antigens, with or without alternative names which give information about the molecules function. Complement receptors should be named CR1 etc., followed by the correct CD terminology in parentheses: CR1 (CD35); CR2 (CD21); CR3 (CDllb, CD18); CR4 (CDllc, CD18).

Using proprietary names of treatments or interventions in manuscripts
Only generic names of treatments or interventions should be used in article titles unless it is absolutely necessary for the proprietary name(s) to be used. Generic names should also be used as standard throughout the abstract and main text; however, at first mention in both the abstract and main text of an article the proprietary name along with its relevant trademark and manufacturer’s information (and location) can be included in parentheses after the generic name.

Best practice in science publishing is that you use the generic name of a treatment or intervention when possible. If there is something specific about that treatment that means a proprietary name needs to be used throughout a manuscript (i.e. you are comparing two different preparations of the same generic treatment) then proprietary names can be used throughout.

Units and Abbreviations
The journal recognizes the adoption of the Système International d'Unitès (SI Units) proposed in Units, Symbols and Abbreviations (1972). Other abbreviations should be used only for unwieldy names and only when they occur frequently. Where such non-standard abbreviations are used, a glossary should be provided.

Figures and Illustrations
Figures should be numbered in order of appearance in the text with Arabic numerals. Each figure must be accompanied by a separate legend, which should allow readers to understand the data without referring to the main body of the text. Figure legends should be gathered as a separate section of the manuscript after the references. If a figure has already been published elsewhere, permission (and any costs associated) to reproduce it in Immunology MUST be obtained by the authors.
Figures should be provided as separate images files that are clearly labelled with the figure number. It is preferred if figures are supplied in TIFF or PPT format. However, formats such as '.eps' or '.tif' are acceptable. If you are unable to provide these specified formats, please provide the figures in as many different file formats as possible. The figure resolution/specification for various types of original figures, at their final size, should be as follows:

Line art - Minimum 600 dpi
Halftone (i.e. both B/W and Colour photographs) - Minimum 300 dpi
Line and tone (line art and halftone combined) - Minimum 600 dpi

For more information on file formats, please refer to:

Figures containing colour artwork will be published online in colour, however if the authors wish their figures to appear in colour in the print addition they are expected to bear the cost of colour printing. Details of the cost of colour printing can be found in the Colour Work Agreement Form. If your article contains colour figures you are required to complete the Colour Work Agreement Form, even if you do not wish your figures to appear in colour in the print version. Articles containing colour figures will not proceed to production unless this form is received.

Free colour reproduction if a figure from your article is chosen for the front cover image!
The cover image of Immunology changes every month and is generally taken from images published in the journal, although interesting colour figures which relate to a published article will also be considered. If your image is selected, the colour charges associated with figures in your manuscript will be waived.

Tables with suitable captions and numbered with Arabic numerals should be on individual pages (one table per page) at the end of the text. Tables should be provided in an editable formate i.e in Word or Excel and not as graphic files pasted into Word. Units should appear in parentheses in the column headings but not in the body of the table. Footnotes to tables should be marked with a),b),c) and typed on the same page as the table.

Supplementary Figures
Immunology limits the number of figures in each article to 10. Additional figures or figures of a purely supplemental nature are published online only as a single document titled Supplementary figures which accompanies the article. Supplementary figures should be prepared as figures for the main body of the article.

Graphical Abstract
Immunology can include a graphical abstract that summarizes the key finding of a given article or represents the scope of that paper. This involves the display of an image of your choice and a caption. On submission, authors will be asked to select a suitable figure from the main article to be used as the graphical abstract. They will also be asked to provide a summary of their article in no more than 100 words to accompany the image.

Revised manuscripts
Revised manuscripts should be returned via ScholarOne as follows: a text file in which all alterations are clearly marked and visible on screen. A clean (non-highlighted) version with figures uploaded as separate files should also be supplied for use by production. Revised manuscripts should also be accompanied with a point-by-point letter summarising your responses to the reviewers’ comments. We advise that you include in full the original comments of the referees in your reply.

Pre-submission English-language editing
Immunology aims to publish scientific research of the highest standard, and clarity of language is of vital importance in conveying scientific meaning. We therefore recommend that before submission, you ensure that your article is read for clarity and syntax, by a colleague, or native English speaker (if possible).
If you are not a native English speaker, we strongly recommend that you have your manuscript professionally edited before submission. A list of companies that will professionally edit your manuscript for a fee can be found here. Professional editing is not compulsory, but will mean that reviewers are better able to read and assess your manuscript. Use of one of these companies does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication in this journal.

Appeals regarding decisions made by the Editors concerning the suitability of manuscripts for publication should be directed to the Editorial Office.

Accepted Articles
Immunology now uses the Accepted Articles for all articles. Within a short time of acceptance the manuscripts of articles are made publicly available online through the journal website. 'Accepted Articles' have been peer-reviewed and accepted for formal publication, but have not been subject to copyediting, composition or proof correction. The service ensures the earliest possible circulation of research papers after acceptance. Accepted Articles appear in PDF format only and are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI; see, which allows them to be cited and tracked. The DOI remains unique to a given article in perpetuity.

Neither the British Society for Immunology nor Wiley-Blackwell can be held responsible for errors or consequences arising from the use of information contained in Accepted Articles; nor do the views and opinions expressed necessarily reflect those of the British Society for Immunology or Wiley-Blackwell.

Page Proofs and Reprints
Proofs will be sent via email as as a low-resolution PDF file. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Major alterations to the text cannot be accepted at the proof stage without the prior approval of the editorial office.
Free access to the final PDF offprint of your article will be available via author services only. Please therefore sign up for author services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits this service offers. Paper offprints may be ordered at prices quoted on the order form that accompanies proofs, provided that the form is returned with the proofs. Offprints are normally dispatched within three weeks of publication of the issue in which the paper appears.

Early View
Immunology is covered by Wiley’s Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors’ final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

Online Open

Interested in publishing your article in this journal?
Find out about the journal’s open access option with OnlineOpen:
OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in PubMed Central.
Making your article OnlineOpen increases its potential readership and enables you to meet institutional and funder open access mandates where they apply. Authors of OnlineOpen articles may immediately post the final, published PDF of their article on a website, institutional repository or other free public server.
For the full list of terms and conditions, see

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

For RCUK and Wellcome Trust authors click on the link below to preview the terms and conditions of this license:

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

Note to NIH Grantees
Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see

Ethical policies
For full details of our ethical policies please consult: Ethical Policies of the Journal

Microarray databases
Immunology supports the efforts of the Functional Genomics Data Society to standardize the presentation of microarray data, on which further guidance can be found here. In addition, the journal strongly recommends the supplemental microarray data be deposited in a public database such as Gene Expression Omnibus or Array Express or submitted for peer-review with the initial submission of the manuscript.

Data sharing
Immunology supports the efforts to encourage open sharing of publication-related data. Immunology adheres to the beliefs that authors should include in their publications the data, algorithms, or other information that is central or integral to the publication or make it freely and readily accessible; use public repositories for data whenever possible; and make patented material available under a licence for research use. For more information, see the NAP website.

Distribution of reagents
The Editors of Immunology have adopted the policy that any readily renewable resources mentioned in a journal article not already obtainable from commercial sources shall be made available to all qualified investigators in the field. The policy stems from the long-standing scientific principle that authenticity requires reproducibility. Publication in Immunology constitutes a de facto acceptance of this policy. Included are reagents that can be easily provided; specifically, nucleic acid sequences, cDNA and genomic clones, cell lines, and monoclonal antibody clones. Small amounts (sufficient for the replication of any in vitro work reported) of novel protein reagents are also considered easily transferable.

Although the Editors appreciate that many of the reagents mentioned in Immunology are proprietary or unique, neither condition is considered adequate grounds for deviation from this policy. Suitable material transfer agreements can be drawn up between the provider and requester, but if a reasonable request is turned down and submitted to the Editor-in-Chief, the corresponding author will be held accountable. The consequence for noncompliance is simple: the corresponding author will not publish in Immunology for the following three years.

Immunology collaborates with Wiley’s open access journal Immunity, Inflammation and Disease to enable rapid publication of good quality research that we are unable to accept for publication in Immunology. Authors will be offered the option of having the paper, along with any related peer reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Editor of Immunity, Inflammation and Disease. Authors will not need to reformat or rewrite their manuscript at this stage, and publication decisions will be made a short time after the transfer takes place. The Editor of Immunity, Inflammation and Disease will accept submissions that report well-conducted research which reaches the standard acceptable for publication. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease is a Wiley Open Access journal and article publication fees apply. For more information please go to