The challenges of the first migration: movement and behaviour of juvenile vs. adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality
Shay Rotics, Michael Kaatz, Yehezkel S. Resheff, Sondra Feldman Turjeman, Damaris Zurell, Nir Sapir, Ute Eggers, Andrea Flack, Wolfgang Fiedler, Florian Jeltsch, Martin Wikelski and Ran Nathan
Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12525
In long-distance migrating birds, juveniles must cope with strenuous and risky journeys shortly after fledging incurring high juvenile mortality. The authors found that juvenile storks had significantly lower flight efficiency, using costly flapping flight more frequently than adults. Furthermore, juveniles with lower flight efficiency exhibited higher mortality rates.