Journal of Animal Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 83 Issue 6

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Ken Wilson, Tim Coulson, Jean-Michel Gaillard and Ben Sheldon

Impact Factor: 4.726

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 1/152 (Zoology); 21/140 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 1365-2656

Associated Title(s): Functional Ecology, Journal of Applied Ecology, Journal of Ecology, Methods in Ecology and Evolution

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  1. Standard Papers

    1. Different foraging preferences of hummingbirds on artificial and natural flowers reveal mechanisms structuring plant–pollinator interactions

      María A. Maglianesi, Katrin Böhning-Gaese and Matthias Schleuning

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12319

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      Morphological constraints are one important mechanism structuring trophic networks, albeit other factors, such as competition, additionally define interaction niches of consumer species in real–world communities. Experimental and observational approaches are essential for a comprehensive understanding of the causes determining patterns of interactions in plant–pollinator networks.

    2. Density-dependent movement and the consequences of the Allee effect in the model organism Tetrahymena

      Emanuel A. Fronhofer, Tabea Kropf and Florian Altermatt

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12315

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      Movement is a key process influencing ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Importantly, movement may be plastic. The authors analysed the functional relationship between population density and movement using microcosm experiments. The authors show that density-dependent movement exhibits a fundamentally u-shaped relationship in species harbouring an Allee effect.

    3. Age-dependent trait variation: the relative contribution of within-individual change, selective appearance and disappearance in a long-lived seabird

      He Zhang, Oscar Vedder, Peter H. Becker and Sandra Bouwhuis

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12321

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      The authors compare two methods to attribute age-dependent variation in seven phenological and reproductive traits to within-individual change (improvement, senescence, terminal effects) and/or selective (dis)appearance of certain phenotypes among older age classes, in a long-lived seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo). Both methods identify within-individual change as the main process underlying improvement with age in six out of seven traits, but while the decomposition method is ideal for visualising processes underlying population change in performance from one age class to the next, a mixed-modelling method is required to investigate the significance and relative contribution of age-effects.

    4. Untangling human and environmental effects on geographical gradients of mammal species richness: a global and regional evaluation

      Erik Joaquín Torres-Romero and Miguel Á. Olalla-Tárraga

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12313

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      Human impacts coupled with climatic variation drive the geographic variation in mammal richness in the Palearctic, Nearctic and Oriental regions. Using a human accessibility variable the authors show for the first time that the zones most accessible to humans are often those where lower mammal species richness is found.

    5. Climatic conditions cause complex patterns of covariation between demographic traits in a long-lived raptor

      Ivar Herfindal, Martijn van de Pol, Jan T. Nielsen, Bernt-Erik Sæther and Anders P. Møller

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12318

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      This article demonstrates how climate early in life can have long-lasting effects on lifetime fitness of goshawks. Climate also had short-term effects on reproductive performance, and these effects were in the opposite direction compared to the long-term effects. This causes negative co-variations between the immediate and delayed responses to climate.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Adult acclimation to combined temperature and pH stressors significantly enhances reproductive outcomes compared to short-term exposures

      Coleen C. Suckling, Melody S. Clark, Joelle Richard, Simon A. Morley, Michael A. S. Thorne, Elizabeth M. Harper and Lloyd S. Peck

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12316

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      This paper shows that acclimation to altered pH takes up to 8 months in Antarctic sea urchins and also that gonads matured for their full development time (2 years) in altered pH significantly enhances reproductive outcomes compared to short term exposures.

    7. Rat eradication and the resistance and resilience of passerine bird assemblages in the Falkland Islands

      Michael A. Tabak, Sally Poncet, Ken Passfield, Jacob R. Goheen and Carlos Martinez del Rio

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12312

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      Rat eradications are an effective means of restoring passerine bird diversity in the Falkland Islands. However, the recovery in diversity is not accompanied by a recovery in community structure. These results suggest that diversity is resilient, while community structure is not.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Age and sex-selective predation moderate the overall impact of predators

      Sarah R. Hoy, Steve J. Petty, Alexandre Millon, D. Philip Whitfield, Michael Marquiss, Martin Davison and Xavier Lambin

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12310

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      This study revealed superpredation was age and sex-selective and suggests that selective predation of individuals with a low reproductive value may mitigate the overall impact of predators on prey population dynamics. Consequently, accounting for type of selective predation occurring is likely to improve predictions of the overall impact of predation.

    9. Robust estimates of environmental effects on population vital rates: an integrated capture–recapture model of seasonal brook trout growth, survival and movement in a stream network

      Benjamin H. Letcher, Paul Schueller, Ronald D. Bassar, Keith H. Nislow, Jason A. Coombs, Krzysztof Sakrejda, Michael Morrissey, Douglas B. Sigourney, Andrew R. Whiteley, Matthew J. O'Donnell and Todd L. Dubreuil

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12308

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      Robust estimates of the effects of environmental change on populations are critical to effective management. The authors provide an integrated modeling approach that can take full advantage of detailed, individual-based field data and use the model to identify key pathways of environmental effects.

    10. Size, sex and individual-level behaviour drive intrapopulation variation in cross-ecosystem foraging of a top-predator

      James C. Nifong, Craig A. Layman and Brian R. Silliman

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12306

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      Mobile top and apex predators can provide functional linkages between ecosystems and couple the ecological processes of spatially disparate communities. Thus, understanding what factors influence the degree to which individuals in a population exhibit cross-ecosystem foraging behaviors that provide these linkages is essential. The authors found a high degree of variation in cross-ecosystem foraging by the American alligator, driven by differences between size classes, sexes, and individuals. Given these findings it will be important to include population substructure when investigating the implications of mobile predator driven connectivity for ecosystems.

    11. Do intraspecific or interspecific interactions determine responses to predators feeding on a shared size-structured prey community?

      Hanna ten Brink, Abul Kalam Azad Mazumdar, Joseph Huddart, Lennart Persson and Tom C. Cameron

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12305

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      How predators interact with each other, via their shared impacts of prey populations is a key question to understand what impacts humans have on natural environments as we continue to exploit top predators and large herbivores for food. This study empirically tests a new theory that links the health of animal communities to positive indirect interactions between predators that differ in size or prey preferences. We find no evidence for such positive facilitative interactions and instead find predators that differ in size are more likely to eat each other.

    12. Land-use history alters contemporary insect herbivore community composition and decouples plant–herbivore relationships

      Philip G. Hahn and John L. Orrock

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12311

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      This paper highlights how agricultural land-use legacies can decouple otherwise well-established relationships between plant productivity and herbivore abundance. These results suggest that management efforts should consider the role of historic land use on herbivore assemblages, in addition to plant communities

    13. Field measurements give biased estimates of functional response parameters, but help explain foraging distributions

      Sjoerd Duijns, Ineke E. Knot, Theunis Piersma and Jan A. van Gils

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12309

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      In the experimental setting, female bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica) obeyed both assumptions of the type II functional response. This could not be confirmed in a field-based study, as the levelling off of intake rate at higher food densities was caused by a digestive constraint.

    14. Maternal effects and population regulation: maternal density-induced reproduction suppression impairs offspring capacity in response to immediate environment in root voles Microtus oeconomus

      Jiang-Hui Bian, Shou-Yang Du, Yan Wu, Yi-Fan Cao, Xu-Heng Nie, Hui He and Zhi-Bing You

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12307

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      The authors found that intrinsic state alterations induced by maternal stress impair offspring capacity in response to immediate environment, and these alterations are likely mediated by maternal stress system. The maladaptive reproduction suppression seen in HL group suggests intrinsic population density as one of ecological factors generating delayed density-dependent effects.

    15. Diapause induction and relaxed selection on alternative developmental pathways in a butterfly

      Inger M. Aalberg Haugen and Karl Gotthard

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12291

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      In this paper field and experimental data from five Swedish populations of Pararge aegeria are used to investigate latitudinal variation in voltinism, local adaptation in the diapause switch, and effects of relaxed selection on pathway-specific regulation of life-history traits and sexual dimorphism in larval development.

    16. Hot spots of mutualistic networks

      Luis J. Gilarranz, Malena Sabatino, Marcelo A. Aizen and Jordi Bascompte

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12304

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      In this paper, Gilarranz and colleagues unveil the significant role played by the spatial structure of the landscape in shaping the networks of interactions between species. Their work provides further understanding of the spatial distribution of ecosystem services that help to stabilize ecological communities.

    17. The consequences of co-infections for parasite transmission in the mosquito Aedes aegypti

      Alison B. Duncan, Philip Agnew, Valérie Noel and Yannis Michalakis

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12302

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      This paper investigates the effect of the abiotic food environment on parasite transmission in co-infections comprising two different microsporidian parasites in the mosquito host Aedes aegypti. The authors show that both parasites suffer reduced transmission in co-infections compared to corresponding single infections, but one parasite considerably more than the other. The impact of low food availability further reduced transmission, but did not modify the effect of co-infection.

    18. Linking niche theory to ecological impacts of successful invaders: insights from resource fluctuation-specialist herbivore interactions

      Cindy Gidoin, Lionel Roques and Thomas Boivin

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12303

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      The authors use long-term field observations combined with mechanistic-statistical modelling to assess how fluctuation-dependent and fluctuation-independent mechanisms govern the long-term impacts of biological invasions. They demonstrate that species differences can have a greater influence on interspecific competition outcomes than a fluctuating resource within animal communities.

    19. Drivers of parasite sharing among Neotropical freshwater fishes

      Mariana P. Braga, Emanuel Razzolini and Walter A. Boeger

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12298

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      In this study, the factors that influence broad patterns of parasite sharing were investigated, including phylogenetic relationships, environmental preferences, biological traits and the geographic distribution of host species. The importance of evolutionary history on ecological associations is highlighted, with implications for emerging infectious diseases, biological invasions and biotic responses to climate change.

    20. Moving on with foraging theory: incorporating movement decisions into the functional response of a gregarious shorebird

      Jan A. van Gils, Matthijs van der Geest, Brecht De Meulenaer, Hanneke Gillis, Theunis Piersma and Eelke O. Folmer

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12301

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      The authors integrate aspects of movement ecology with consumer-resource theory by developing a multi-state functional response model, which is applied to free-ranging molluscivore shorebirds. Explicitly adding movement behavior to functional response models helps to better understand foraging distributions and foraging processes such as area-restricted search and cryptic interference.

    21. Trans-generational parasite protection associated with paternal diet

      Eleanore D. Sternberg, Jacobus C. de Roode and Mark D. Hunter

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12289

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      The authors assessed parentally derived parasite protection in a monarch butterfly-protozoan parasite system where resistance is influenced by secondary chemicals in the larval food plant. It was found that offspring were more resistant to infection if their fathers were reared on medicinal milkweed plants, suggesting paternal transfer of environmentally derived resistance.

    22. Ant–caterpillar antagonism at the community level: interhabitat variation of tritrophic interactions in a neotropical savanna

      Sebastián F. Sendoya and Paulo S. Oliveira

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12286

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      Ants are major predators of insect herbivores in tropical habitats. In the Brazilian savanna, negative effects by predatory ants on herbivores (caterpillars) are detectable at the community level, affecting patterns of host plant use by lepidopteran communities. The study highlights the importance of a tritrophic perspective in this ant-rich environment.

    23. Phylogenetic diversity and co-evolutionary signals among trophic levels change across a habitat edge

      Guadalupe Peralta, Carol M. Frost, Raphael K. Didham, Arvind Varsani and Jason M. Tylianakis

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12296

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      This study provides the first empirical evidence that phylogenetic diversity responds differently across a habitat edge gradient depending on the trophic level considered, and that the signal of coevolution between higher trophic levels (measured as phylogenetic congruence among interacting species) can also be affected by a change in land use.

    24. Density-dependent habitat selection of spawning Chinook salmon: broad-scale evidence and implications

      Matthew R. Falcy

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12297

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      Taking 26 years of data the author of this study uses novel applications of modelling techniques to assess mechanisms of habitat selection by spawning Chinook salmon. These techniques have important uses in the emerging field of eco-evolutionary dynamics.

    25. Latitudinal and photic effects on diel foraging and predation risk in freshwater pelagic ecosystems

      Adam G. Hansen and David A. Beauchamp

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12295

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      This study asks: how does natural variation in photic conditions shape the foraging-risk environment for visually feeding planktivores and piscivores in freshwater pelagic ecosystems? Authors show that diel-seasonal foraging and predation risk in these ecosystems changes considerably with latitude, turbidity and cloud cover. These changes alter the structure of pelagic predator–prey interactions, and in turn, the broader role of pelagic consumers in habitat coupling in lakes.

    26. Spatial patterns of extra-pair paternity: beyond paternity gains and losses

      Lotte Schlicht, Mihai Valcu and Bart Kempenaers

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12293

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      This paper presents a novel approach for analysing behaviours that arise from interactions of two individuals, for example extra-pair behaviour. It takes into account the spatial setting of the involved individuals and both individuals’ characteristics and neighbourhoods. The paper demonstrates this using a case study on extra-pair paternity in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    27. Assembly patterns of mixed-species avian flocks in the Andes

      Gabriel J. Colorado and Amanda D. Rodewald

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12300

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      This paper makes a novel contribution by applying principles of community assembly, in particular assembly rules, to study patterns of aggregation in social systems in birds (namely mixed-species bird flocks). By evaluating several assembly models, findings suggest that deterministic factors associated to competitive interactions are important contributors to mixed-species flock assemblages.

    28. Season-specific and guild-specific effects of anthropogenic landscape modification on metacommunity structure of tropical bats

      Laura M. Cisneros, Matthew E. Fagan and Michael R. Willig

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12299

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      This study is the first to evaluate multiple metacommunity structures (meso-scale structure) in human-modified landscapes. This approach revealed that bat metacommunities were likely structured by differential resource use or interspecific relationships. Furthermore, the interaction between landscape characteristics and seasonal variation in resources resulted in season-specific and guild-specific distributional patterns

    29. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population

      E. Keith Bowers, Charles F. Thompson and Scott K. Sakaluk

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12294

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      Sex-specific sibling rivalry and sensitivity to the quality of the rearing environment favours sex-ratio adjustment by parents. At the same time, however, increased sensitivity of males to these environmental conditions reduces the fitness returns from highly male-biased broods and, thus, the extent of sex-ratio adjustment in wild populations.

    30. Hidden semi-Markov models reveal multiphasic movement of the endangered Florida panther

      Madelon van de Kerk, David P. Onorato, Marc A. Criffield, Benjamin M. Bolker, Ben C. Augustine, Scott A. McKinley and Madan K. Oli

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12290

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      By applying hidden semi-Markov models and the Viterbi algorithm to long-term GPS telemetry data, authors show that differences in movement patterns of male and female Florida panthers are caused by sex-specific differences in diurnal patterns of state occupancy and sex-specific differences in state-specific movement parameters, whereas the differences between females with and without dependent kittens were caused solely by variation in state occupancy. Photo credit: Tim Donovan, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.

    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Predicting invasive species impacts: a community module functional response approach reveals context dependencies

      Rachel A. Paterson, Jaimie T. A. Dick, Daniel W. Pritchard, Marilyn Ennis, Melanie J. Hatcher and Alison M. Dunn

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12292

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      In this study the authors integrated functional responses within a four-species community module approach (higher-order predator; focal native or invasive predators; parasites of focal predators; native prey) to reflect patterns of field impact and reveal context dependencies of parasitism and higher-order predators.

    32. Elements of regional beetle faunas: faunal variation and compositional breakpoints along climate, land cover and geographical gradients

      Jani Heino and Janne Alahuhta

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12287

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      Many biogeographical and macroecological studies neglect developments in the statistical methods of community ecology, examining basically the same questions, i.e., how assemblages are structured and which patterns they show. The novelty of our paper lies in the application of community ecology methods to understand large-scale faunal patterns of beetles.

    33. Changes in host–parasitoid food web structure with elevation

      Sarah C. Maunsell, Roger L. Kitching, Chris J. Burwell and Rebecca J. Morris

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12285

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      This is the first study to show elevational changes in quantitative host-parasitoid food web structure, indicating that the way in which species interact is altered by the changes in environmental conditions along elevational gradients. These findings have important implications for predicting how insect communities may respond to climate change.

    34. Phantom alternatives influence food preferences in the eastern honeybee Apis cerana

      Ken Tan, Shihao Dong, Xiwen Liu, Weiweng Chen, Yuchong Wang, Benjamin P. Oldroyd and Tanya Latty

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12288

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      Our paper demonstrates that bees which encounter ‘sold-out’ feeders are more likely to select alternative feeders which have similar characteristics to the sold-out alternative. This is the first demonstration of the ‘phantom alternative’ effect in an insect.

    35. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids

      James R. Bell, Lynda Alderson, Daniela Izera, Tracey Kruger, Sue Parker, Jon Pickup, Chris R. Shortall, Mark S. Taylor, Paul Verrier and Richard Harrington

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12282

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      We examined the migration of 55 species of aphid over the last five decades and showed that flight phenologies were linked to both the North Atlantic Oscillation and accumulated temperatures above 16 °C. We also demonstrated statistically that both spatial location and life history traits had a profound effect on the timing and size of aphid migrations.

    36. Seed perishability determines the caching behaviour of a food-hoarding bird

      Eike Lena Neuschulz, Thomas Mueller, Kurt Bollmann, Felix Gugerli and Katrin Böhning-Gaese

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12283

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      This study is among the first to highlight the importance of seed perishability as a mechanism for non-random caching behaviour and has important implications for the regeneration of animal-dispersed plants.

    37. Forecasting spring from afar? Timing of migration and predictability of phenology along different migration routes of an avian herbivore

      Andrea Kölzsch, Silke Bauer, Rob de Boer, Larry Griffin, David Cabot, Klaus-Michael Exo, Henk P. van der Jeugd and Bart A. Nolet

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12281

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      This article compares spring migration timing of three barnacle geese populations using GPS tracks. The geese were not strictly following, but overtaking the green wave. Predictability of onset of spring differed with presence or absence of ecological barriers, geese arriving at stopovers close to the onset of spring at high predictability.

    38. Predators, energetics and fitness drive neonatal reproductive failure in red squirrels

      Emily K. Studd, Stan Boutin, Andrew G. McAdam, Charles J. Krebs and Murray M. Humphries

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12279

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      This study looks are factors influencing reproductive failure in a free-ranging species over 24 years. Through the inclusion of predator abundance, and energetic and fitness costs and benefits of parental investment, we show that occurrences of reproductive failure represent a tradeoff between costs and benefits.

    39. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Predator-dependent functional response in wolves: from food limitation to surplus killing

      Barbara Zimmermann, Håkan Sand, Petter Wabakken, Olof Liberg and Harry Peter Andreassen

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12280

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      This study on the functional response of wild-living wolves to changes in prey density explores how not only the prey, but also predator density and interference between predators affect kill rates. The novel energetic approach to functional response modelling reveals surplus-killing in small and food limitation in large wolf packs.

    40. Effects of land-use intensity on arthropod species abundance distributions in grasslands

      Nadja K. Simons, Martin M. Gossner, Thomas M. Lewinsohn, Markus Lange, Manfred Türke and Wolfgang W. Weisser

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12278

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      We show that community structure of grassland arthropods shifts under increasing land-use intensity (mostly fertilization), increasing the dominance of already abundant species. We also show that the majority of rare species was only found on a small proportion of grassland plots and in low abundances, restricting recolonization after disturbance events.

    41. Ecological implications of reduced forage quality on growth and survival of sympatric geese

      Samantha E. Richman, James O. Leafloor, William H. Karasov and Scott R. McWilliams

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12270

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      Growth trajectories of Canada and lesser snow goose goslings raised on grass-based diets (protein: 10%, 14%, 18%; fibre: 30%, 45%) revealed size-related differences in growth and survival in response to diminished diet quality. Canada goose goslings were able to slow growth rates and delay reaching adult size in response to low protein in the diet, whereas snow goose goslings maintained high growth rates and were unable to survive on the low-protein diets. These differences in growth strategy indicate a sensitive, but species-specific, response to changes in forage quality and quantity in arctic ecosystems caused by abundance of the geese themselves or by climate change.

  2. Special Feature: Stuck In Motion? Reconnecting Questions And Tools In Movement Ecology

    1. ‘You shall not pass!’: quantifying barrier permeability and proximity avoidance by animals

      Hawthorne L. Beyer, Eliezer Gurarie, Luca Börger, Manuela Panzacchi, Mathieu Basille, Ivar Herfindal, Bram Van Moorter, Subhash R. Lele and Jason Matthiopoulos

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12275

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      Here, the authors develop a framework for simultaneously quantifying the effects of habitat preference, barrier permeability and intrinsic movement ability on space use, based on a time series of telemetry locations. This approach provides insight into the effects of barriers on animal distribution and movement.

  3. Standard Papers

    1. Movement propensity and ability correlate with ecological specialization in European land snails: comparative analysis of a dispersal syndrome

      Maxime Dahirel, Eric Olivier, Annie Guiller, Marie-Claire Martin, Luc Madec and Armelle Ansart

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12276

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      We showed experimentally, by comparing 20 species, that habitat specialization and low mobility, two traits increasing extinction risk, are correlated in slow-moving land snails, making specialist species doubly vulnerable againt current environmental changes.

    2. How detectable is predation in stage-structured populations? Insights from a simulation-testing analysis

      Kiva L. Oken and Timothy E. Essington

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12274

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      An absence of detectable species interactions from biomass time series may be due to interactive effects of environmental variability and complex food web linkages and life histories that are largely size- and age-structured. However, predation is most detectable for systems where predators act on mortality of sub-mature life stages.

    3. Empirical tests of harvest-induced body-size evolution along a geographic gradient in Australian macropods

      Thomas A. A. Prowse, Rachel A. Correll, Christopher N. Johnson, Gavin J. Prideaux and Barry W. Brook

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12273

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      It is often asserted that commercial harvesting of kangaroos and wallabies could be driving the evolutionary dwarfing of these species. In contrast, we demonstrate evidence of small body size increases in these species over time, consistent with reduced mortality due to a depauperate predator guild and human-improved grassland productivity.

    4. Habitat-based polymorphism is common in stream fishes

      Caroline Senay, Daniel Boisclair and Pedro R. Peres-Neto

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12269

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      The authors test whether fish inhabiting different habitats differ in their morphologies despite stream environmental heterogeneity. No previous study has provided a systematic comparison of fish morphology across the three types of habitats for a large number of species inhabiting the same system.

    5. How topography induces reproductive asynchrony and alters gypsy moth invasion dynamics

      Jonathan A. Walter, Marcia S. Meixler, Thomas Mueller, William F. Fagan, Patrick C. Tobin and Kyle J. Haynes

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12272

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      Mismatches in reproductive timing can limit mating opportunities, reducing population growth, but how this changes over environmental gradients is not well understood. Using field data and a model, the authors show that elevation and elevational variability affect the growth of gypsy moth populations via effects on reproductive timing.

  4. Reviews

    1. You have free access to this content
      Relationship between growth and standard metabolic rate: measurement artefacts and implications for habitat use and life-history adaptation in salmonids

      Jordan Rosenfeld, Travis Van Leeuwen, Jeffrey Richards and David Allen

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12260

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      This manuscript clarifies some of the mechanisms that drive variation in metabolic state among individuals or through ontogeny, and highlights how they relate to variation in capacity for growth, and how they may arise from fundamental ecological tradeoffs that influence anatomical design.

  5. Standard Papers

    1. Individual and species-specific traits explain niche size and functional role in spiders as generalist predators

      Dirk Sanders, Esther Vogel and Eva Knop

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12271

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      Here the authors use a stable isotope analysis to measure the functional role of spiders as important generalist predators and link this role to species traits and individual traits.

    2. Territoriality and home-range dynamics in meerkats, Suricata suricatta: a mechanistic modelling approach

      Andrew W. Bateman, Mark A. Lewis, Gabriella Gall, Marta B. Manser and Tim H. Clutton-Brock

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12267

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      The authors employ mechanistic home-range models to describe meerkat space use. They find a surprising lack of group-size effect in territorial patterns of this highly social species, and they extend existing models to capture dynamical aspects of home-range development and shift.

    3. How Ebola impacts social dynamics in gorillas: a multistate modelling approach

      Céline Genton, Amandine Pierre, Romane Cristescu, Florence Lévréro, Sylvain Gatti, Jean-Sébastien Pierre, Nelly Ménard and Pascaline Le Gouar

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12268

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      The authors provide a general framework for studying social dynamics in disturbed contexts and apply it to the case of a gorilla population affected by Ebola.

    4. Climate and the landscape of fear in an African savanna

      Corinna Riginos

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12262

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      While there has been much study of the landscape of fear, this is one of the only experimental studies of this topic for large mammals.

    5. Experimental manipulation of female reproduction demonstrates its fitness costs in kangaroos

      Uriel Gélin, Michelle E. Wilson, Graeme Coulson and Marco Festa-Bianchet

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12266

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      By combining the first experimental manipulation of reproductive effort in wild marsupials with long-term monitoring of multiple populations, the authors quantify the fitness consequences of reproduction.

    6. Species undersampling in tropical bat surveys: effects on emerging biodiversity patterns

      Christoph F. J. Meyer, Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar, Luis F. Aguirre, Julio Baumgarten, Frank M. Clarke, Jean-François Cosson, Sergio Estrada Villegas, Jakob Fahr, Deborah Faria, Neil Furey, Mickaël Henry, Richard K. B. Jenkins, Thomas H. Kunz, M. Cristina MacSwiney González, Isabel Moya, Jean-Marc Pons, Paul A. Racey, Katja Rex, Erica M. Sampaio, Kathryn E. Stoner, Christian C. Voigt, Dietrich von Staden, Christa D. Weise and Elisabeth K. V. Kalko

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12261

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      This study explores inferential bias associated with species undersampling in tropical bat surveys. The authors demonstrate the potential as well as the limitations for reducing survey effort and streamlining sampling protocols, and consequently for increasing cost-effectiveness in tropical bat surveys or monitoring programs. Photo credit: C.F.J. Meyer.

    7. Fitness prospects: effects of age, sex and recruitment age on reproductive value in a long-lived seabird

      He Zhang, Maren Rebke, Peter H. Becker and Sandra Bouwhuis

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12259

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      This paper investigates intraspecific variation in reproductive values due to age, sex and recruitment age in a long-lived seabird. It demonstrates that sex and RA affect underlying fitness traits, but that only age effects on fitness traits translate to variation in reproductive values.

    8. Ecological causes of multilevel covariance between size and first-year survival in a wild bird population

      Sandra Bouwhuis, Oscar Vedder, Colin J. Garroway and Ben C. Sheldon

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12264

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      The paper demonstrates how correlations between traits, fitness and environment influence estimates of selection, and shows how partitioning trait-effects between levels of selection and environmental factors is a promising approach to identify potential agents of selection.

    9. Life-history trade-offs mediate ‘personality’ variation in two colour morphs of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

      Wiebke Schuett, Sasha R. X. Dall, Michaela H. Kloesener, Jana Baeumer, Felix Beinlich and Till Eggers

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12263

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      Here the authors investigate whether life-history trade-offs mediate personality variation in escape responses in different colour morphs of pea aphids. The results show that, under strong trade-offs, organisms who commit to particular lifestyles (being consistent) maximise their fitness.

    10. Ecological generalism and behavioural innovation in birds: technical intelligence or the simple incorporation of new foods?

      Simon Ducatez, Joanne Clavel and Louis Lefebvre

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12255

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      We show that the ecological generalist advantage in front of current environmental change might be related to habitat generalists being better able to incorporate new types of food in their diet. In addition, we show that diet breadth and cognition are associated, suggesting that diet breadth and cognition co-evolved.

    11. A continental scale trophic cascade from wolves through coyotes to foxes

      Thomas M. Newsome and William J. Ripple

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12258

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      We show that the extirpation of wolves throughout North America has caused a continent-wide shift in coyote and red fox densities. To reverse this human induced cascade, wolves may need to occur continuously over large spatial areas. This presents a challenge because wolves are frequently persecuted due to human-wildlife conflicts.

    12. Impacts of breeder loss on social structure, reproduction and population growth in a social canid

      Bridget L. Borg, Scott M. Brainerd, Thomas J. Meier and Laura R. Prugh

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12256

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      This paper quantitatively evaluates how the death of reproductive individuals in socially complex canid species could affect social group cohesion and population growth.

    13. Unravelling the annual cycle in a migratory animal: breeding-season habitat loss drives population declines of monarch butterflies

      D. T. Tyler Flockhart, Jean-Baptiste Pichancourt, D. Ryan Norris and Tara G. Martin

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12253

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      Threats to migratory animals occur at multiple periods of the annual cycle that are separated by thousands of kilometers and span international borders. Using a year-round population model, we show that population declines of monarch butterflies result from loss of breeding habitats in the United States, not from loss of wintering habitats in Mexico.

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