Journal of Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 105 Issue 2

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: David Gibson, Richard Bardgett, Mark Rees, Amy Austin

Impact Factor: 6.18

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 9/150 (Ecology); 9/209 (Plant Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1365-2745

Associated Title(s): Functional Ecology, Journal of Animal Ecology, Journal of Applied Ecology, Methods in Ecology and Evolution

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  1. 1 - 37
  1. Standard Papers

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Seed dispersal distributions resulting from landscape-dependent daily movement behaviour of a key vector species, Anas platyrhynchos

      Erik Kleyheeg, Jelle Treep, Monique de Jager, Bart A. Nolet and Merel B. Soons

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12738

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      Our mechanistic model of endozoochorous dispersal by a keystone waterbird species, the mallard Anas platyrhynchos, reveals that seed deposition patterns are shaped by landscape-dependent movement patterns of the vector, rather than seed trait-related gut passage times. Dispersal distances are inversely related to wetland availability, indicating that staging waterbirds help maintain landscape connectivity in increasingly fragmented landscapes.

    2. Thermal segregation drives patterns of alder and willow expansion in a montane ecosystem subject to climate warming

      Christina L. Rinas, Roman J. Dial, Patrick F. Sullivan, T. Scott Smeltz, S. Carl Tobin, Michael Loso and Jason E. Geck

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12737

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      The provision of taxon-specific coefficients for climate-driven, spatially explicit models using high-resolution digital elevation models is necessary for accurately forecasting vegetative change due to climate warming in montane and arctic regions.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A six thousand-year record of climate and land-use change from Mediterranean seagrass mats

      Lourdes López-Merino, Nieves R. Colás-Ruiz, María F. Adame, Oscar Serrano, Antonio Martínez Cortizas and Miguel A. Mateo

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12741

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      This study shows that climate and land-use changes in the western Mediterranean resulted in enhanced loadings of terrigenous material to the coastal zone since the Late Holocene, likely disturbing the Posidonia meadows and their mat carbon accumulation dynamics. Under the current global change scenario in which CO2 emissions are projected to increase, restoring carbon sinks is a priority. Seagrass habitat restoration should consider not only the coastal perturbations, but also the continental ones at a catchment scale to preserve the socio-economic ecosystem services provided by seagrasses.

    4. The tortoise and the hare: reducing resource availability shifts competitive balance between plant species

      Dean E. Pearson, Yvette K. Ortega and John L. Maron

      Version of Record online: 9 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12736

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      The superinvader spotted knapweed loses to native dominant under drought. This study demonstrates that reduced precipitation inputs linked to climate change can dramatically shift the balance of plant competition, toggling the advantage from exotic to native dominance. Results also illustrate the importance of biotic interactions for predicting species responses to abiotic change, a finding with significant ramifications for assisted migration.

    5. Testing the environmental filtering concept in global drylands

      Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Nicolas Gross, Fernando T. Maestre, Vincent Maire, Francesco de Bello, Carlos Roberto Fonseca, Jens Kattge, Enrique Valencia, Jan Leps and Pierre Liancourt

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12735

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      We identified the particular set of conditions under which the environmental filtering hypothesis operates in drylands world-wide. Our findings also indicate that species with functionally contrasting strategies can still co-occur locally, even under prevailing environmental filtering. Interactions between sources of environmental stress should be therefore included in global trait-based studies, as this will help to further anticipate where the effects of environmental filtering will impact plant trait diversity under climate change.

    6. Measuring and predicting the influence of traits on the assembly processes of wood-inhabiting fungi

      Nerea Abrego, Anna Norberg and Otso Ovaskainen

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12722

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      Our results show that functional traits are linked to the responses of wood-inhabiting fungi to variation in their environment, and thus environmental changes alter ecosystem functions via promoting or reducing species with different fruit-body types. However, further research is needed to identify further functional traits and to provide conclusive evidence for the adaptive nature of the links from traits to occurrence patterns found here.

  2. Essay Reviews

    1. Towards a trait-based ecology of wetland vegetation

      Helen Moor, Håkan Rydin, Kristoffer Hylander, Mats B. Nilsson, Regina Lindborg and Jon Norberg

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12734

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      With the increasing availability of quantitative plant traits a trait-based ecology of wetlands is emerging, with the potential to advance process-based understanding and prediction. We provide an interactive cause-and-effect framework that may guide research efforts to disentangle the multiple interacting processes involved in scaling from environmental conditions to ecosystem functioning via plant communities.

  3. Standard Papers

    1. Responses of common and rare aliens and natives to nutrient availability and fluctuations

      Yanjie Liu and Mark van Kleunen

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12733

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      Although the fluctuating-resource-availability hypothesis has been a key hypothesis in invasion biology, few experimental studies have explicitly tested it by using fluctuating nutrient levels. Our multi-species experiment corroborate it, and in addition provide evidence that both common and rare naturalized alien plant species could benefit from a large nutrient pulse.

    2. Masting synchrony in northern hardwood forests: super-producers govern population fruit production

      David M. Minor and Richard K. Kobe

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12729

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      Masting is a population-level phenomenon, and is typically studied at this level. However, when we apply individual tree observations of fruit production to this phenomenon, it reveals super-producers which produce fruit more consistently than the rest of the population. By reducing inter-annual variability in fruit production, but increasing synchrony and making large numbers of fruit, super-producers may be able to reap the benefits of masting while governing population fruit production over time.

    3. Stoichiometric N:P flexibility and mycorrhizal symbiosis favour plant resistance against drought

      Pierre Mariotte, Alberto Canarini and Feike A. Dijkstra

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12731

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      Using a stoichiometric approach in a field experiment, our study provides for the first time clear and novel understandings of the mechanisms involved in drought-resistance within the plant-mycorrhizae-soil system. Specifically, we demonstrate that higher stoichiometric N:P flexibility coupled with stronger mutualistic association with mycorrhizae allow subordinate species to better withstand drought perturbations compared to homeostatic and low mycorrhized dominant species.

    4. Invasive plants accelerate nitrogen cycling: evidence from experimental woody monocultures

      Insu Jo, Jason D. Fridley and Douglas A. Frank

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12732

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      Experimental evidence of how invaders alter ecosystem processes such as soil nitrogen (N) cycling is rare, particularly for woody invaders. Here, we present a 3-year monoculture study that examined above- and below-ground plant traits and soil properties to test how forest woody invaders alter soil N cycling. Our results suggest that invaders promote soil N cycling through greater litter input and faster soil N uptake than co-occurring native species, which may significantly impact the dynamics of a key limiting nutrient in forest ecosystems.

    5. Species interactions increase the temporal stability of community productivity in Pinus sylvestris–Fagus sylvatica mixtures across Europe

      Miren del Río, Hans Pretzsch, Ricardo Ruíz-Peinado, Evy Ampoorter, Peter Annighöfer, Ignacio Barbeito, Kamil Bielak, Gediminas Brazaitis, Lluís Coll, Lars Drössler, Marek Fabrika, David I. Forrester, Michael Heym, Václav Hurt, Viktor Kurylyak, Magnus Löf, Fabio Lombardi, Ekaterina Madrickiene, Bratislav Matović, Frits Mohren, Renzo Motta, Jan den Ouden, Maciej Pach, Quentin Ponette, Gerhard Schütze, Jerzy Skrzyszewski, Vit Sramek, Hubert Sterba, Dejan Stojanović, Miroslav Svoboda, Tzvetan M. Zlatanov and Andrés Bravo-Oviedo

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12727

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      Our findings confirm that species mixing can stabilize productivity at the community level but not at the population and tree levels. The different relationships between the mixing effect on the temporal stability and species asynchrony in mixed and monospecific stands suggests that temporal niche complementarity between species may be the main driver rather than differences in species’ intrinsic responses to environmental conditions.

    6. Contrasting mass-ratio vs. niche complementarity effects on litter C and N loss during decomposition along a regional climatic gradient

      Pablo García-Palacios, E. Ashley Shaw, Diana H. Wall and Stephan Hättenschwiler

      Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12730

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      Our study emphasizes that, in the current context of global biodiversity decline, the mass-ratio and niche complementarity mechanisms should be considered to assess litter decomposition dynamics under global change. As litter diversity mechanisms distinctly affected the cycling of C and N, we recommend taking into account such element-specific effects to improve the prediction of the impacts of biodiversity change on biogeochemical cycles.

    7. ACC deaminase-producing rhizosphere bacteria modulate plant responses to flooding

      Mohammadhossein Ravanbakhsh, Rashmi Sasidharan, Laurentius A. C. J. Voesenek, George A. Kowalchuk and Alexandre Jousset

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12721

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      We demonstrate that root-associated bacteria can alter plant response to environmental stress by altering plant hormonal balance. Plant–microbe interactions may thus be an overseen driver of plant life-history strategies that should be taken into account when assessing plant ecological adaptations such as abiotic stress resistance.

    8. Above- and below-ground responses of four tundra plant functional types to deep soil heating and surface soil fertilization

      Peng Wang, Juul Limpens, Liesje Mommer, Jasper van Ruijven, Ake L. Nauta, Frank Berendse, Gabriela Schaepman-Strub, Daan Blok, Trofim C. Maximov and Monique M.P.D. Heijmans

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12718

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      Our results indicate that increased thawing depth can only benefit deep-rooted sedges, while the shallow-rooted dwarf shrubs as well as flexible-rooted grasses take advantage of increased nutrient availability in the upper soil layers. Our results suggest that grasses have the highest root plasticity, which enables them to be more competitive in rapidly changing environments. We conclude that root vertical distribution strategies are important for vegetation responses to climate-induced increases in soil nutrient availability in Arctic tundra, and that future shifts in vegetation composition will depend on the balance between changes in thawing depth and nutrient availability in the surface soil.

    9. Intraspecific variability in growth response to environmental fluctuations modulates the stabilizing effect of species diversity on forest growth

      Raphaël Aussenac, Yves Bergeron, Claudele Ghotsa Mekontchou, Dominique Gravel, Kamil Pilch and Igor Drobyshev

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12728

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      Species diversity may help tree communities buffer the effects of environmental fluctuations. This stabilizing effect stems from the asynchrony of species growth due to species differences in their response to environmental fluctuations. However, within-species variability of responses may modulate the stabilizing effect of diversity. Mechanisms at the origin of this variability, therefore, play a crucial role in the diversity–stability relationship.

    10. Predicting the global incidence of seed desiccation sensitivity

      Sarah V. Wyse and John B. Dickie

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12725

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      We aimed to overcome sampling bias to derive a best estimate for the proportion of seed plants with desiccation-sensitive seeds, based on current data. Model results suggest that this figure is likely to be approximately 8% of seed plants globally. Alongside our estimates of the global incidence of this seed trait, we provide data on taxa and habitats where the trait may be most prevalent. Our findings can be used to support conservation planning, particularly with respect to providing decision support for in and ex situ conservation techniques.

  4. Essay Reviews

    1. Moving forward: insights and applications of moving-habitat models for climate change ecology

      Melanie A. Harsch, Austin Phillips, Ying Zhou, Margaret-Rose Leung, D. Scott Rinnan and Mark Kot

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12724

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      Moving habitat models utilize integrodifference equations to track changes in population density over time in a habitat that is moving. They unite ecological theory, data-centered modelling and conservation decision support under a single framework. Their ability to generate testable hypotheses, incorporate data and inform best management practices proves that these models provide a valuable framework for climate change biologists. URLs for interactive web applications to explore the models and code for one model are provided.

  5. Standard Papers

    1. General allometric scaling of net primary production agrees with plant adaptive strategy theory and has tipping points

      David G. Jenkins and Simon Pierce

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12726

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      Adaptive strategies and corresponding environmental conditions appear to constrain terrestrial NPP scaling relative to metabolic theory's ideal. Moreover, tipping points in general nonlinear NPP scaling (at c. 38 and 360 g m−2 B) indicate thresholds for rapid changes in NPP given changing B that occurs via changing climate, human appropriation and land use.

    2. 28-year temporal sequence of epidemic dynamics in a natural rust–host plant metapopulation

      Lars Ericson, Warren J. Müller and Jeremy J. Burdon

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12720

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      The epidemiology of Uromyces valerianae was highly influenced by host population size, previous disease and distance. After accounting for these factors, there was a clear temporal signal of change in disease incidence linked to winter sea level and summer rainfall. These patterns reinforce the importance of considering interactions in multiple populations over long periods of time in order to obtain a clear picture of the variability in disease-induced selection pressures across time and space. The behaviour of the pathogen fitted that predicted for a metapopulation with considerable asynchrony in epidemiological patterns among demes.

    3. Crop-associated virus infection in a native perennial grass: reduction in plant fitness and dynamic patterns of virus detection

      Helen M. Alexander, Emily Bruns, Hayley Schebor and Carolyn M. Malmstrom

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12723

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      Field experimentation, surveys of plant infection status and aster modelling provide a rigorous and broadly applicable approach for quantifying the effects of microbes on multi-year plant fitness. We found that a crop virus had negative multi-year effects on native plant fitness even after infection was no longer detected. Viruses may have substantial effects on native vegetation with agricultural expansion.

    4. Disruption of plant–soil–microbial relationships influences plant growth

      Daniel P. Keymer and Richard A. Lankau

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12716

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      Maintaining historical plant–microbial community relationships may benefit plant species spreading into new areas; however, for movement within current ranges, maintaining the historical relationship between microbial communities and the abiotic aspects of soils may have more important consequences for early growth.

    5. Genotypic diversity mitigates negative effects of density on plant performance: a field experiment and life cycle analysis of common evening primrose Oenothera biennis

      Susan C. Cook-Patton, Amy P. Hastings and Anurag A. Agrawal

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12717

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      Plant density and genotypic diversity interacted from the very early stages of seed germination and establishment of Oenothera biennis. This effect persisted over the 2-year life cycle of plants, and genotypic diversity buffered against the negative fitness consequences of high plant density. These results imply a dynamic interplay between the long-held paradigm of density effects in plant ecology and the genetic structure of populations.

    6. Phylogenetic relatedness, phenotypic similarity and plant–soil feedbacks

      Connor R. Fitzpatrick, Laura Gehant, Peter M. Kotanen and Marc T. J. Johnson

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12709

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      Our results illustrate how evolutionary history and phenotypic variation shape plant–soil feedbacks and highlight the need for trait-based studies. Due to the unique evolutionary history of individual traits and the variability in their importance across all possible interacting species, we show that indices of overall phenotypic and phylogenetic relatedness are poor predictors of plant–soil feedbacks at large phylogenetic scales. We conclude that a detailed trait-based approach can be used to predict plant–soil feedbacks, and laboratory measures of soil feedbacks can explain patterns of co-occurrence in nature.

    7. Small-scale and regional spatial dynamics of an annual plant with contrasting sexual systems

      Marcel E. Dorken, Robert P. Freckleton and John R. Pannell

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12719

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      Our study shows that population dynamics may be influenced by processes acting at a range of spatial scales: within patches, across patches within sites, and across sites within regions, as well as by life-history variation. In Mercurialis annua, regional variation in apparent extinction rates is affected by life history and implicated in regulating the geographical distribution of populations with different sexual systems.

    8. Herbivore size matters for productivity–richness relationships in African savannas

      Deron E. Burkepile, Richard W. S. Fynn, Dave I. Thompson, Nathan P. Lemoine, Sally E. Koerner, Stephanie Eby, Nicole Hagenah, Kevin R. Wilcox, Scott L. Collins, Kevin P. Kirkman, Alan K. Knapp and Melinda D. Smith

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12714

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      In an African savanna, we show that the impact of herbivore losses on plant diversity depends on herbivore type (e.g. larger vs. smaller, grazers vs. browsers), plant functional group (e.g. grasses vs. forbs) and productivity. Although larger herbivores such as elephant, buffalo and zebra often have strong impacts on community dynamics, we show that smaller, abundant herbivores such as impala can exert strong top-down control on plant communities.

    9. Precipitation mediates the effect of human disturbance on the Brazilian Caatinga vegetation

      Kátia F. Rito, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Rubens T. Queiroz, Inara R. Leal and Marcelo Tabarelli

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12712

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      Precipitation appears to be a strong environmental filter determining the distribution of water-demanding plant species. Chronic disturbance in wetter (high-productive) forests may favour species diversity by increasing ecosystem heterogeneity (intermediate disturbance hypothesis). Yet, the biodiversity costs of chronic disturbance are higher in drier (low-productive) forests; that is, there is a co-limitation imposed by drought and disturbance in drier forests. Overall, our findings indicate that rapid climatic changes in the region will probably have strong negative effects on this SDTF.

    10. Decade-long time delays in nutrient and plant species dynamics during eutrophication and re-oligotrophication of Lake Fure 1900–2015

      Kaj Sand-Jensen, Hans Henrik Bruun and Lars Baastrup-Spohr

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12715

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      Time delays of P concentrations, water clarity and macrophyte richness and composition were long and complex. Neglecting growth strategies of species makes application of extinction debt and colonization credit concepts dubious, because numbers of oligotrophic species decrease and eutrophic species increase concomitantly during eutrophication and vice versa during oligotrophication. Although the original high species richness may be attained, it is unlikely that the original species composition is restored because many oligotrophic species have vanished from the regional species pool.

    11. Plant litter mixture partly mitigates the negative effects of extended drought on soil biota and litter decomposition in a Mediterranean oak forest

      Mathieu Santonja, Catherine Fernandez, Magali Proffit, Charles Gers, Thierry Gauquelin, Ilja M. Reiter, Wolfgang Cramer and Virginie Baldy

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12711

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      We studied the relative effects of aggravated drought and of plant species mixture on soil biota and on litter decomposition in a Mediterranean oak forest. Drier climate strongly reduced soil biodiversity and litter decomposition rates. However, species-rich litter partly mitigated such a decline. Diverse plant communities should hence be maintained to reduce shifts in ecosystem functioning under climate change.

    12. Changes in spatial variance during a grassland to shrubland state transition

      Zak Ratajczak, Paolo D'Odorico, Jesse B. Nippert, Scott L. Collins, Nathaniel A. Brunsell and Sujith Ravi

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12696

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      This study documents an increase in spatial variance when a change in fire frequency triggers an initially slow state transition. Spatial variability in the rate and susceptibility to state transitions is indicative of a system with a patchy spatial structure, high spatial heterogeneity and low connectivity between patches. Increases in spatial variance can serve as an indication that some patches have begun a state transition and that management interventions are needed to avoid widespread transitions. This is one of the first empirical examples where altering management after an increase in spatial variance prevented state transitions.

    13. Spartina alterniflora genotypic identity affects plant and consumer responses in an experimental marsh community

      Robyn A. Zerebecki, Gregory M. Crutsinger and A. Randall Hughes

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12703

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      Competition and herbivory are important factors structuring plant communities. However, intraspecific variation among individuals may alter these species interactions. Our experiment found that Spartina genotype-specific variation in morphology, phenology and palatability significantly influenced both consumer (Littoraria) and neighbour (Juncus) responses. Furthermore, optimal Spartina traits differed between these species interactions, and this differential success may contribute to the maintenance of natural plant genetic variation.

    14. Diversity and competition influence tree allometric relationships – developing functions for mixed-species forests

      David Ian Forrester, Adam Benneter, Olivier Bouriaud and Jürgen Bauhus

      Version of Record online: 19 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12704

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      Tree allometry is influenced by, and influences, many forest functions. However, little is known about how allometry of a given species varies with forest structure and tree-species composition, or whether any interspecific differences in allometric responses relate to species traits. Using a European wide data set, this study shows how stand structural characteristics and tree-species diversity can influence tree allometry.

    15. Demographic stimulation of the obligate understorey herb, Panax quinquefolius L., in response to natural forest canopy disturbances

      Jennifer L. Chandler and James B. McGraw

      Version of Record online: 19 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12695

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      Obligate shade species are most likely to be pre-adapted to take advantage of canopy gaps and light influx to a degree, and this pre-adaptation may be due to long-term selection under dynamic old growth forest canopies. We propose a model whereby population performance is represented by a parabolic curve where performance is maximized under intermediate levels of canopy disturbance. This study provides new evidence to aid our understanding of the population-level response of understorey herbs to disturbances whose frequency and intensity are predicted to increase as global climates continue to shift.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of plant diversity on the concentration of secondary plant metabolites and the density of arthropods on focal plants in the field

      Olga Kostenko, Patrick P. J. Mulder, Matthijs Courbois and T. Martijn Bezemer

      Version of Record online: 19 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12700

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      Plant quality can greatly influence insect preference and performance. However, under natural conditions, the effects of the neighbouring plant community can overrule the plant quality effects of individual plants growing in those communities on the abundance of insects associated to this plant.

    17. The historical demise of Pinus nigra forests in the Northern Iberian Plateau (south-western Europe)

      César Morales-Molino, Willy Tinner, Mercedes García-Antón and Daniele Colombaroli

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12702

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      Pinus nigra forests have shown a millennial resilience to the natural fire regime of the Northern Iberian Plateau that was characterized by relatively frequent small-moderate fires and rare high-intensity fires. However, frequent human-caused crown fires and the onset of intensive farming caused their demise over an extensive area. Ongoing land-use abandonment in the Iberian mountains could promote the occurrence of high-intensity, severe fires due to the rapid build-up of high fuel loads. Forest management could mimic the natural fire regime by periodically reducing fuel loads for a transitional period until natural disturbance variability is fully restored, thus preserving these relict native plant communities.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A global test for phylogenetic signal in shifts in flowering time under climate change

      Nicole E. Rafferty and Paul D. Nabity

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12701

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      We tested for phylogenetic signal in the direction and magnitude of shifts in flowering onset globally. Our results indicate selection has shaped flowering time responses of related species under climate change; thus, environmentally determined optima may constrain whether and to what degree species respond phenologically to climate change. Our findings further demonstrate the value of testing for phylogenetic signal across multiple communities and comparing multiple models of trait evolution.

    19. Competition and facilitation determine dwarf mistletoe infection dynamics

      Mónica E. Queijeiro-Bolaños, Edgar J. González, Carlos Martorell and Zenón Cano-Santana

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12699

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      Dwarf mistletoes offer the opportunity to study competition for resources that are different from those consumed by most plants. Our results reveal that their behaviour at the population level was similar to non-parasitic plants, where stabilizing mechanisms allow dwarf mistletoe coexistence. Interactions shift as populations develop, and they depend largely on forest structure.

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