Molecular Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 18

Edited By: Loren Rieseberg

Impact Factor: 5.947

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 5/45 (Evolutionary Biology); 11/149 (Ecology); 35/289 (Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Online ISSN: 1365-294X

Associated Title(s): Molecular Ecology Resources

Author Guidelines

General Information

Molecular Ecology publishes papers that use molecular genetic techniques to address consequential questions in ecology, evolution, behaviour and conservation. Studies may employ neutral markers for inference about ecological and evolutionary processes, or examine ecologically important genes and their products. Molecular Ecology concentrates on primary research articles (i.e., Original Articles  and ‘From the Cover’ Papers) but operates a flexible policy regarding other submissions, including Reviews, Syntheses, Opinions, Comments and Meeting Reviews. We also publish articles on technical methods, computer programs and genomic resource development in our companion journal, Molecular Ecology Resources. However, papers that are primarily descriptive and relevant only to the taxon being studied should be submitted to a more specialized journal. We typically provide an editorial decision on new submissions within 4 to 8 weeks. Papers usually appear on Accepted Articles (with a DOI assigned) wiforthin days after receipt of the final manuscript, and normally appear on Early View within about a month. There are no page charges associated with publication in Molecular Ecology.

Molecular Ecology Editorial Office
John Wiley & Sons
111 River Street, 8-02
Hoboken, New Jersey 07030

Article Types
Molecular Ecology will consider several types of articles.

Original Articles
Our principal function is to publish primary research papers. Such papers are reports of research projects that are complete to the extent that they yield valuable insights into topics within our coverage. About 90% of all papers we publish are in this category. Original Articles have a limit of 8000 words per paper, excluding references, although exceptions may be granted in some cases. They generally contain a Title Page, an Abstract (≤250 words), Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, brief Acknowledgements, References, Data Accessibility, Author Contributions, Tables and Figures (with captions), in this order. We generally prefer that they have separate Results and Discussion, but we will consider manuscripts where these sections have been combined.

'From the Cover' Papers
Our 'From the Cover' section contains papers of exceptional interest to a wide audience that address significant questions in ecology, evolution, behaviour or conservation. Submissions that do not meet stringent standards will be returned without review, or invited for consideration as regular Original Articles. Accepted articles will be highlighted on the cover and in the table of contents, and will frequently be featured in commentaries and press alerts. From the Cover manuscripts must be focused (6500 words or fewer, excluding references). Two colour figures will be published in print free of charge for this article type.

From the Cover submissions can include papers previously reviewed by other high impact journals. In these instances, we can utilize all documents associated with the previous review process. The use of these review materials does not guarantee acceptance or that the manuscript will not receive external review. However, papers with largely positive reviews from leading science journals will receive immediate consideration for publication and may not require additional review. If the authors hope to avoid additional review, they need to revise the manuscript according to reviewers' comments and submit a cover letter describing these changes and explaining why their paper would be appropriate for publication as a From the Cover article in Molecular Ecology.

N.B. We appreciate that authors of From the Cover papers are looking for rapid publication, and hence we will consider initial submissions that are not in standard Molecular Ecology

at  e.g., manuscripts in Nature, PNAS or Science format are welcome. Please note that articles deemed suitable for publication will need to be changed to Molecular Ecology format prior to final acceptance

Invited Reviews and Syntheses
Invited Reviews – The editors regularly invite review articles from individuals who have major contributions to make to the field of molecular ecology. Authors may use boxes to provide additional information separate from the main text; the article should contain no more than five boxes, with each no more than 2000 words. All colour figures in these articles are published in print free of charge. We will consider unsolicited review papers, but authors wishing to submit such manuscripts should contact the Reviews Editor (Louis Bernatchez) in advance.
Syntheses – These papers bring together data from many different studies to address an important hypothesis in ecology or evolution. They are not commissioned by an editor and can be directly submitted to the journal. Authors may use boxes to provide additional information separate from the main text; the article should contain no more than five boxes, with each no more than 2000 words. All colour figures in these articles are published in print free of charge.

News & Views
Opinions – These papers present points of view that are relevant and potentially controversial as a means of encouraging debate. Such manuscripts may present speculative and provocative viewpoints, although they must be conditioned by the normal standards of scientific objectivity, and they will be subject to peer review. Opinion Articles should be shorter than 6000 words, excluding references.

Comments – Comments on published papers, principally those published in, Molecular Ecology, will be considered by the editors and published after consultation or peer review. Such manuscripts should be as brief as possible. A rebuttal by the original author(s) may also be solicited and published alongside the Comment.

Meeting Reviews – These papers describe the theme, notable presentations and conclusions of a scientific meeting of interest to the molecular ecology community. Meeting Reviews are only published after peer review, and should not present new data. They should be shorter than 6000 words, excluding references.

N.B. Molecular Ecology does not accept Short Communications for publication.

Journal Policies
Policy on Data Archiving
Data are important products of the scientific enterprise, and they should be preserved and usable for decades in the future. As such, Molecular Ecology requires authors to archive the data supporting their results and conclusions along with sufficient details so that a third party can interpret them correctly. Papers with exemplary data and code archiving are more valuable for future research, and, all else being equal, will be given higher priority for publication.

Data should be archived in an appropriate public archive, such as GenBank, Gene Expression Omnibus, TreeBASE, Dryad, the Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity, your own institutional or funder repository, or as Supporting Information on the Molecular Ecology web site. The utility of archived data is greatly enhanced when the scripts and input files used in the analyses are also made available. Given that scripts may be a mix of proprietary and freely available code, their deposition is not compulsory, but we nonetheless strongly encourage authors to make these scripts available whenever possible. As discussed by Whitlock et al. (2010), accurate interpretation of data will likely "require a short additional text document, with details specifying the meaning of each column in the data set. The preparation of such shareable data sets will be easiest if these files are prepared as part of the data analysis phase of the preparation of the paper, rather than after acceptance of a manuscript." For additional guidelines on data deposition best practice, please visit

Data must be publicly available at time of publication. Embargos may be granted in exceptional instances at the discretion of the Managing Editor. Exemptions to this policy may also be granted, especially for sensitive information such as human subject data or the location of endangered species.

To enable readers to locate archived data from Molecular Ecology papers, we require that authors include a ‘Data Accessibility’ section after the References (see 'Preparing Manuscripts for Submission' Section below for details). This section must be present at initial submission, and data archiving must be completed before final acceptance.

Policy on Conflicts of Interest
Authors are required to disclose any possible conflict of interest at the manuscript submission stage; these include financial conflicts (for example patent ownership, stock ownership, consultancies or speaker's fees). When appropriate, a conflict of interest statement will be included in the published manuscript under a separate heading.

Policy on Submission of Preprints:

Molecular Ecology will consider submissions that have previously been made available online, either on a preprint server like arXiv, bioRxiv, or PeerJ PrePrints, or on the authors’ own website. Any such submissions must, however, not have been published in a scientific journal, book or other venue that could be considered formal publication. Authors must inform the editorial office at submission if their paper has been made available as a preprint.
Authors of accepted papers that were made available as preprints must be able to assign copyright to Molecular Ecology, or agree to the terms of the Wiley Open Access agreement and pay the associated fee.
Given that the measurable impact of the article is diminished when citations are split between the preprint and the published article, authors are required to: a) update the entry on the preprint server so that it links to and cites the DOI for the published version, and b) cite only the published article themselves.

Policy on Independent Peer Review Services
Molecular Ecology
will consider referrals from independent review services. However such manuscripts may be subject to additional external review by Molecular Ecology. If appropriate, we will invite authors to submit a revision of their manuscript to Molecular Ecology. Note that we cannot guarantee a positive decision for referred manuscripts.

Policy Regarding Number of Loci, Populations and Individuals
We have been reluctant to formulate guidelines regarding the minimum number of independent loci, populations and individuals needed for publication in Molecular Ecology, largely because such guidelines would depend on the question being addressed, the kind of molecular markers and sequencing technologies employed, the geographic range of the focal taxa and the quality and quantity of DNA. Likewise, the guidelines would have to be modified on a yearly basis as standards of the field continue to rise. Thus, our main criterion is that sampling strategies and marker choices should be designed to best address the question motivating the study. However, unless there are exceptional circumstances, authors of single species phylogeographic studies must base their inferences on multiple loci: our editors and reviewers often question the reliability of inferences based on a single locus and such manuscripts will typically not be sent out for review. Please contact the Managing Editor if you would like specific guidance on this policy.
Policy on Data Analysis Best Practice
Molecular Ecology expects that statistical and molecular tools used in submitted papers should meet a high standard of rigour. All analytical approaches have inherent limitations, and authors should therefore attempt to identify the limitations of their chosen approach and corroborate their interpretations when possible.
Policy on the Use of RAPD/ISSR Markers
The appropriateness of RAPD or ISSR markers for population genetic inference is increasingly questioned by our reviewers and editors because of concerns about reproducibility, dominance, and homology. Given these worries, and the ready availability of other kinds of markers that do not suffer from all of these problems, studies based primarily on RAPD/ISSR rarely pass the scrutiny of peer review in Molecular Ecology.
Compliance with International Conventions and Regulations
We strongly recommend that papers submitted to Molecular Ecology comply with the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CBD and CITES). Within the CBD, we ask that authors follow the Access to Benefit Sharing (ABS) guidelines, and give credit and equal access to benefits to countries, academic institutions and scientists that participated in the collection and analysis of data. Under the CITES convention, we request that authors observe the need for permits for the import and export of specimens that fall under CITES guidelines.

Compliance with Laws on Animal Experimentation and Sampling from Natural Populations
We expect that papers submitted to Molecular Ecology comply with the ARRIVE guidelines for the use of animals in research (, as well as any other legal requirements of the countries where the work was conducted. Sampling procedures for natural populations must be properly described and should be designed to minimize their impact on the taxa involved and their habitat. They must also comply with any international and national legal requirements.

Policy on Reporting Stable Isotope Data
For papers using stable isotopes, we recommend that authors follow the guidelines developed by the IUPAC Commission for Isotope Abundances and Atomic Weights; see for more details.
Guidelines for Manuscript Submission
Molecular Ecology accepts manuscripts via Scholar One Manuscripts, an online submission system. This system streamlines the submission process and ensures all papers are processed quickly and efficiently. If an author cannot submit the MS using the electronic procedures outlined below, they should contact the Managing Editor to ascertain whether or not an exception can be made.
N.B. Molecular Ecology employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript you accept that it may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

Submission Procedure
To submit your article, first create an account on Scholar One Manuscripts. This can be done at Once in your 'Author Centre', click on the 'submit new manuscript' link, and follow the instructions to submit your paper. The procedure consists of seven simple steps, which you are guided through by our online system. The help function is always available at the top right of the page for any questions you might have. If you have any questions that cannot be addressed by the online help, please direct them to the Editorial Office.

Preparing Manuscripts for Submission
Cover Letter
A brief message containing any relevant information you wish to convey to the Subject Editor or Managing Editor. If the MS is a resubmission of a previous manuscript, details of the changes made should be placed in the 'response to reviewers' box in step 1 of the resubmission process. Authors submitting manuscripts rejected by other journals are encouraged to state that all comments on previous versions have been taken into account. Authors should also use this space to explain their choice of preferred or non-preferred reviewers and editors.

Response to Reviewers
If your paper is a revison or resubmission, please prepare a detailed response to the previous set of editor and reviewer comments. The manuscript submission system removes text highlighting, bold type or text colours, so the most robust approach is to copy the decision letter and insert your responses beneath each comment, starting your text with “>>>”. Uploading a copy of the manuscript with changes tracked also assists with the review process, particularly for papers given a ‘reconsider after revision’ or an ‘accept, minor revisions’ decision.
Manuscript File
For initial submission, the main text of the manuscript can be in Microsoft Word with tables and figures either embedded in the document or uploaded as separate files. Manuscripts can also be submitted as a single pdf containing the text, tables and figures. In either case, please ensure that continuous line numbers are included and that figures are sufficiently high quality for review; manuscripts failing to include either of these will be returned to you. Please upload Supporting Information separately from the main text.

If your MS has been prepared in LaTeX, please use the LaTeX ‘article’ class, and do not add coding to ‘force’ line breaks or the positioning of ‘floats’, as this coding will need to be removed in the conversion of the file to XML. To submit your manuscript to ScholarOne Manuscripts, please combine all of your LaTeX and EPS (figure) source files into a single PDF and upload this file as your designated 'Main Document'. This will be used as a reference file. Please then upload all LaTeX and EPS (figure) source files as a single zipped folder designated as a 'TeX/LaTeX Source Folder'.

Keep files as small as possible to facilitate information transmission (max 50 MB). With the exception of LaTeX support files as outlined above, do not use any form of compression or zipping, as these can interfere with our upload process.

To facilitate viewing on screen, please format your manuscript with 2.5 cm side margins, 3 cm top and bottom margins, and clear paragraph delimitations. All manuscripts must have page numbers and continuous line numbers. The main body of text must be double-spaced, with Tables and Figure captions, References, Appendices and Supporting Information single-spaced.
The Title page should contain: 1. Title; 2. Author’s names with initials; 3. Full postal address(es); 4. Four to six keywords for indexing purposes; 5. Name, address, fax number and electronic mail address of corresponding author, to whom proofs will be sent; 6. Running title of no more than 45 characters, including spaces.
Please see the guidelines for specific article types above for additional layout information.

To learn about options for help with English language editing and manuscript formatting, please visit Wiley Editing Services

Tables and Figures
Tables and figures should appear after the main text. Captions should appear with their respective table or figure. Footnotes for tables should be given below the table. Colour images are welcome, but authors are charged for colour production in print (see Final MS Preparation). In the full-text online edition of the journal, figure captions may be truncated in abbreviated links to the full screen version. Therefore, the first 100 characters of any caption should inform the reader of key aspects of the figure.

Preparation of Figures
Almost all figures submitted to Molecular Ecology should be vector graphics, as these are clear at all magnifications and look good both in print and online. Graphs should always be saved directly as .eps or .pdf files from a professional graphics program (e.g., R) and never as .jpg, .tif or any other pixel-based format. Maps should be made using vector graphics in e.g., Adobe Illustrator or R. The output of scientific software programs should also be saved directly as vector graphics whenever possible. Photographic images can be in a pixel-based format, but please ensure that these are saved as .tif files with at least 300 dpi, or (failing that) a .jpg with no compression. Failure to follow these guidelines may result in your paper having blurred, illegible or otherwise low-quality figures.

Please also ensure that figures are prepared such that, after reduction to fit across one column, two-thirds page width, or two columns (80 mm, 112 mm, or 169 mm, respectively) as required, all lettering and symbols will be clear and easy to read, i.e., no axes labels should be too large or too small. Further details are available at

Figures published in Molecular Ecology will appear in colour in the online version of the article, at no cost to authors. It is journal policy that authors pay the full cost for any print reproduction of colour artwork. This cost is £150 for the first colour figure and £50 per additional figure (see Final MS Preparation). In the ‘Colour Online Only’ option, figures have the colour saturation of the original version reduced to zero for print. As a result, we recommend authors consider paying for colour printing if their figures and captions do not convey the same information in greyscale as they do in colour. More information on making figures that are legible in colour online and greyscale in print can be found at

To learn about options for help with figure preparation, please see Wiley Editing Services.
The corresponding author is responsible for obtaining written permission to reproduce material in print and other media’ from the publisher of the original source, and for supplying Wiley with that permission.

These should briefly give credit to other people who have made a contribution to the study. Please ensure that all relevant grant numbers are listed.

Please see a recent issue of the journal for reference formats.

Data Accessibility
To enable readers to locate archived data from Molecular Ecology papers, we require that authors include a 'Data Accessibility' section after the References. This should list the database and the respective accession numbers for all data from the manuscript. An example is below, and more details can be found

"Data Accessibility:
- DNA sequences: Genbank accessions F234391-F234402; NCBI SRA: SRX0110215
- Final DNA sequence assembly uploaded as online
- Climate data and MaxEnt input files: Dryad doi:10.5521/dryad.12311
- Sampling locations, morphological data and microsatellite genotypes: Dryad doi:10.5521/dryad.12311”

A Data Accessibility section must be present in your manuscript at initial submission, and should list where each dataset will be archived. There is no need to include accession numbers or DOI’s at initial submission, but manuscripts lacking a Data Accessibility section will not be passed through to an editor. Please note that reviewers will be asked to comment on the completeness of this section.
If you have any questions about the formatting or content of this section please contact the Managing Editor.

Author Contributions
Authors should include a brief Author Contributions statement at the end of the paper in which they describe their specific contributions to the published work. Contributions could include, for example, designed research, performed research, contributed new reagents or analytical tools, analyzed data, wrote the paper, etc. An author may have multiple contributions, and multiple authors may have contributed to the same component of the study.

N.B. The mandatory Author Contributions Box replaces the optional Author Information Box.
Supporting Information
Supporting Information gives authors the opportunity to present data in different formats than traditional print media. Papers in all categories may, where appropriate, present Supporting Information for online publication. Please note that Supporting Information should be uploaded in a separate file and given the file designation ‘Supporting Information for online publication’. This material will not appear in the PDF Version of Record, and is distinct from Appendices, which do appear in the final version. For more information on preparing Supporting Information, please see:

Please note that Supporting Information will not be edited or altered from its original format during the production process, and therefore proofs of your Supporting Information will not be available. Supporting Information will appear online when your article is published.

Cover Images
We are always looking for suitable images for the cover of Molecular Ecology. Cover images can be photographs of organisms or habitats; other possibilities are montages of photographs and/or diagrams, maps or data. If you have any candidate images that you would like to be considered for the cover, you can upload them as ‘Cover Image’ files at submission. Please include a brief, informative caption and photo credit (max. 100 words) with this, and also upload completed cover image [copyright release form]. If your image is not selected, your form and image will not be used for any other purpose.

Related Manuscripts
Reviewers and Editors often ask to see unpublished manuscripts (i.e. 'in press', 'in review' or 'submitted') that appear to be related to the submitted paper. As obtaining these during the review process adds unnecessary delays, we request that these related manuscripts are uploaded as 'supplemental files for review only' at the submission stage.
Notes for Accepted Manuscripts

The following items must be completed before your submission can be published:
1. License Agreement:
If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services where, via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS), they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:
CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

- Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
- Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
- Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements, please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:
2. A Colour Work Agreement for manuscripts where one or more figures will appear in colour in print.  When you receive an email saying that the final files of your manuscript are approved, please promptly post or courier the completed hard copy* of the Colour Work Agreement Form (including payment information) to this mailing address:

Customer Services (OPI)
John Wiley & Sons Ltd
European Distribution Centre
New Era Estate, Oldlands Way
Bognor Regis
West Sussex
PO22 9NQ

Manuscripts where all colour figures will appear in greyscale in print do not require a Colour Work Agreement form.

*Because of changes to UK law, credit card information must be transmitted and stored physically, rather than virtually. This means the publisher cannot accept photocopied, scanned, or otherwise electronic versions of the Colour Work form. Colour Work forms are not processed or collected by the Editorial Office.

Publishing Information
Wiley-Blackwell Author Services
Wiley-Blackwell Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production so they do not need to contact the Production Editor to check on progress. Visit  for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Accepted Articles
Molecular Ecology now offers Accepted Articles for all papers as soon they are received by the Production Office. Accepted Articles is a service whereby peer-reviewed articles are published online as soon as they are accepted, before they have been through the copy-editing and proof correction process. This service ensures the earliest possible circulation of research papers after acceptance.

Accepted Articles appear in PDF-only format, without the accompanying full-text HTML. They are fully citable using the DOI number (see EarlyView below for details). They are not considered to be final; changes may be made to an article after Accepted Article online publication, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Wiley Blackwell cannot be held responsible for errors or consequences arising from the use of information contained in Accepted Articles; nor do the views and opinions expressed necessarily reflect those of Wiley Blackwell.
Accepted Articles appear in PDF-only format, without the accompanying full-text HTML. Accepted Articles are fully citable using the DOI number (see Early View below for details). They are not considered to be final; changes will be made to an article after Accepted Article online publication, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record.

Authors will be sent an e-mail alerting them that PDF proofs are available to download from our secure designated author website. Therefore, the corresponding author should supply their email address when they submit their manuscript. Corrections must be returned to the Production Editor within 3 days of receipt by e-mail ensuring that journal title, paper reference number and corresponding authors name are given in the body of the message.
Authors should note that proof corrections should be marked as clearly as possible, and should be kept to a minimum. If the editors consider that significant changes have been introduced at the proof stage, the right is reserved either to levy the costs to authors, or to request resubmission of the manuscript. The corresponding author will be sent a form with their proofs to enable copies of offprints to be ordered.

Early View
 Molecular Ecology is covered by Wiley-Blackwell's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they have completed the copy-editing and proof correction process, rather than having to wait for the print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article. More information about DOIs can be found at:

NIH-funded authors and Molecular Ecology
From April 2008, the NIH mandates grant-holders to deposit their published papers in PubMed Central within 12 months of publication. Molecular Ecology complies with the NIH mandate in allowing authors to post the accepted version of their article, i.e., the version incorporating any amendments made during peer review, 12 months after publication (please see the ‘Accepted version’ section on page 1 of the copyright transfer). In doing so authors will be meeting the terms of their grant ( 

As an alternative, NIH-funded authors may use the Online Open service ( This service grants free and immediate availability of the article on publication, and deposition of the final PDF version with PubMed Central.
Free access to the final PDF offprint will be available via Author Services only. Please sign up for Author Services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits this service offers.

Paper offprints of the final published article may be purchased if ordered via the method stipulated on the instructions that will accompany the proofs. Printed offprints are posted to the correspondence address given for the paper unless a different address is specified when ordered. Note that it is not uncommon for printed offprints to take up to eight weeks to arrive after publication of the journal. For order enquiries please email:

Referrals to the Open Access Journal  Ecology and Evolution
Molecular Ecology works together with Wiley’s Open Access Journal, Ecology and Evolution, to enable rapid publication of quality research that we are unable to accept. Authors of declined manuscripts will be offered the option of having the paper, along with any related reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Editor of Ecology and Evolution. Authors will not need to reformat or rewrite their manuscript at this stage, and publication decisions will be made a short time after the transfer takes place. Once the referral is made, the manuscript will be held in a secure Wiley FTP site that is not accessed until authors request to transfer their manuscript. The Editor of Ecology and Evolution will accept submissions reporting well-conducted research that reaches the standard acceptable for publication. Accepted papers can be published rapidly, typically within 15 days of acceptance. Ecology and Evolution is a Wiley Open Access journal and article publication fees apply. For more information please click here or contact the Editorial Office at at any time with any questions.