Molecular Microbiology

Cover image for Vol. 103 Issue 2

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: John D. Helmann

Impact Factor: 3.761

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 32/123 (Microbiology); 86/289 (Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Online ISSN: 1365-2958

Associated Title(s): Cellular Microbiology

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  1. 1 - 38
  1. Research Articles

    1. Dynamics of the peptidoglycan biosynthetic machinery in the stalked budding bacterium Hyphomonas neptunium

      Emöke Cserti, Sabine Rosskopf, Yi-Wei Chang, Sabrina Eisheuer, Lars Selter, Jian Shi, Christina Regh, Ulrich Koert, Grant J. Jensen and Martin Thanbichler

      Version of Record online: 19 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13593

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      The stalked budding bacterium Hyphomonas neptunium grows by generating buds at the tip of a stalk-like cellular extension. This study reports the first molecular-level analysis of cell wall biosynthesis in this species. We show that its mode of growth differs significantly from that in related polarly growing species and identify factors critical to proper morphogenesis. These findings set the stage for in-depth mechanistic studies of a fascinating but poorly understood mode of bacterial proliferation.

  2. MicroReview

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      Collagen-like proteins of pathogenic streptococci

      Slawomir Lukomski, Beth A. Bachert, Flavia Squeglia and Rita Berisio

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13604

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      Pathogenic streptococci express collagen-like surface proteins (Scl), which structurally resemble human collagen and participate in a variety of ligand interactions. We review the structure and binding specificities of these proteins in human tissue and blood that facilitate tissue adherence, biofilm formation, and immune evasion. Overall the streptococcal collagen-like proteins represent a group of structurally-related proteins that contribute to disease in humans and animals.

  3. MicroCommentary

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      Deciphering fungal dimorphism: Farnesol's unanswered questions

      Kenneth W. Nickerson and Audrey L. Atkin

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13601

  4. Research Articles

    1. The regulation of antimicrobial peptide resistance in the transition to insect symbiosis

      Adam L. Clayton, Shinichiro Enomoto, Yinghua Su and Colin Dale

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13598

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      Transition to a static lifestyle reduces the requirement for environmental sensing and differential regulation. In this study we examine the functions of two regulatory circuits that Sodalis-allied symbionts use to control cellular adaptations leading to antimicrobial peptide resistance.

    2. 1,2-Diacylglycerol choline phosphotransferase catalyzes the final step in the unique Treponema denticola phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis pathway

      Miguel Ángel Vences-Guzmán, M. Paula Goetting-Minesky, Ziqiang Guan, Santiago Castillo-Ramirez, Luz América Córdoba-Castro, Isabel M. López-Lara, Otto Geiger, Christian Sohlenkamp and J. Christopher Fenno

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13596

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      Some members of genus Treponema synthesize phosphatidylcholine via CDP-choline, which other bacteria utilize for phosphorylcholine modification of cell-surface structures. Outside this subset of host-associated spirochetes that includes T. denticola and T. palladium, this membrane phospholipid synthesis pathway is found only in Eukaryota. The Treponema gene encoding the last enzymatic step (1,2-diacylglycerol choline phosphotransferase) was likely acquired by horizontal transfer from a eukaryotic organism into an ancestral Treponema well after its divergence from other spirochetes.

    3. Microtubule-associated proteins, Bik1 and Bim1, are required for faithful partitioning of the endogenous 2 micron plasmids in budding yeast

      Hemant Kumar Prajapati, Syed Meraj Azhar Rizvi, Ishan Rathore and Santanu K. Ghosh

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13608

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      Microtubules and motor protein Kip1 play pivotal roles in the partitioning of the yeast 2 micron plasmid. To address how this plasmid acquires these host factors, we show that microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) Bik1 and Bim1 can serve as an adapter to link plasmid to the microtubules and the motor and are thus required for faithful partitioning.

    4. Two regulatory RNA elements affect TisB-dependent depolarization and persister formation

      Bork A. Berghoff, Mirthe Hoekzema, Lena Aulbach and E. Gerhart H. Wagner

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13607

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      In Escherichia coli, two regulatory RNA elements set a threshold for production of toxin TisB and, as a consequence, depolarization of the inner membrane upon DNA damage. Downstream generation of persister cells is considered as “primed” by DNA damage as environmental trigger. Deletion of both RNA elements renders persister formation “stochastic”, since no environmental trigger is needed for TisB production in the double deletion strain.

  5. MicroCommentary

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      The GpsB files: the truth is out there

      Richard J. Lewis

      Version of Record online: 12 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13612

  6. Research Articles

    1. Probing bacterial cell biology using image cytometry

      Julie A. Cass, Stella Stylianidou, Nathan J. Kuwada, Beth Traxler and Paul A. Wiggins

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13591

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      In this paper, we have described a framework (Clist) and tools (gateTool) for visualizing and analyzing image cytometry data, inspired by the standard tools used for flow cytometry. This approach facilitates efficient analysis of subpopulations defined by cell descriptors such as fluorescence intensity and localization, cell morphology and growth rate. We provided four representative examples relevant to bacterial cell biology.

    2. Structural basis for rifamycin resistance of bacterial RNA polymerase by the three most clinically important RpoB mutations found in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

      Vadim Molodtsov, Nathan T. Scharf, Maxwell A. Stefan, George A. Garcia and Katsuhiko S. Murakami

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13606

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      The bacterial RNA polymerase inhibitor Rifamycin and its derivative Rifampin has been used as a first line anti-tuberculosis treatment since 1960s and remains the cornerstone of current short-term TB treatment. The X-ray crystal structures of RNA polymerase containing clinically common Rifamycin resistant mutations RpoB-S531L, RpoB-H526Y and RpoB-D516V were determined and revealed that the molecular mechanisms of Rifamycin resistance by each mutant are unique and diverse.

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      Structural mechanism for bacterial oxidation of oceanic trimethylamine into trimethylamine N-oxide

      Chun-Yang Li, Xiu-Lan Chen, Dian Zhang, Peng Wang, Qi Sheng, Ming Peng, Bin-Bin Xie, Qi-Long Qin, Ping-Yi Li, Xi-Ying Zhang, Hai-Nan Su, Xiao-Yan Song, Mei Shi, Bai-Cheng Zhou, Lu-Ying Xun, Yin Chen and Yu-Zhong Zhang

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13605

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      Trimethylamine (TMA) and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are widespread in the ocean. TMA monooxygenase (Tmm), a bacterial flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO), is responsible for converting marine TMA to TMAO. In this study, we elucidated the catalytic mechanism of TMA oxidation by a marine bacterial Tmm. The catalytic process of Tmm consists of a reductive half-reaction and an oxidative half-reaction. Our findings first demonstrate that NADP+ undergoes a conformational change in the oxidative half-reaction of FMOs.

    4. CtrA controls cell division and outer membrane composition of the pathogen Brucella abortus

      Nayla Francis, Katy Poncin, Antonella Fioravanti, Victoria Vassen, Kevin Willemart, Thi Anh Phuong Ong, Luca Rappez, Jean-Jacques Letesson, Emanuele G. Biondi and Xavier De Bolle

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13589

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      Brucella abortus is an alpha-proteobacterial pathogen responsible for worldwide zoonosis. Here we report that CtrA is essential for the cell division process, in culture and inside host cells. By characterizing the CtrA regulon, we found that CtrA not only controls cell cycle, but it also modulates the outer membrane composition.

    5. Evolution of a multi-step phosphorelay signal transduction system in Ensifer: recruitment of the sigma factor RpoN and a novel enhancer-binding protein triggers acid-activated gene expression

      Rui Tian, Stephan Heiden, Wan A. M. Osman, Julie K. Ardley, Euan K. James, Margaret M. Gollagher, Ravi Tiwari, Rekha Seshadri, Nikos C. Kyrpides and Wayne G. Reeve

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13592

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      A multistep phosphorelay signal transduction system regulates the acid-activated expression of lpiA/acvB in Ensifer medicae WSM419. Regulation involves a two component sensor/regulator (TcsA/TcrA), a fused sensor-regulator (FsrR), the recruitment of the sigma factor RpoN and a novel cognate enhancer-binding protein EbpA. This system is found in the species E. medicae and is absent from the species Ensifer meliloti except in the case of Mlalz-1, for which there is evidence of horizontal gene transfer.

    6. Multiple transporters are involved in natamycin efflux in Streptomyces chattanoogensis L10

      Tan-Jun Wang, Yi-Ming Shan, Han Li, Wei-Wang Dou, Xin-Hang Jiang, Xu-Ming Mao, Shui-Ping Liu, Wen-Jun Guan and Yong-Quan Li

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13583

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      We firstly reported the entire natamycin efflux system in the producing strain, Streptomyces chattanoogensis L10. We found that except for the transporter genes located in the biosynthesis gene cluster, the efflux pumps located outside the gene cluster play an important stress response role in the natamycin efflux. This efflux system is a novel self-resistance mechanism and seems to be taken as the common strategy in the macrolide antibiotic producing strains.

    7. Natural antisense transcripts are linked to the modulation of mitochondrial function and teliospore dormancy in Ustilago maydis

      Lauren A. Ostrowski and Barry J. Saville

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13587

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      An antisense RNA (as-ssm1) to the mitochondrial seryl-tRNA synthetase (ssm1) is preferentially expressed in the Ustilago maydis dormant teliospore. Disruption of ssm1 is lethal. Ectopically expressing as-ssm1 in haploid cells led to sense/antisense dsRNA formation and increased ssm1 mRNA levels, but no change in Ssm1 protein levels. However, mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration rate, cell growth and pathogenic development all decreased. These results support a model in which as-ssm1 modulates mitochondrial function in an RNA-dependent manner.

    8. Genetic and biochemical interactions between the bacterial replication initiator DnaA and the nucleoid-associated protein Rok in Bacillus subtilis

      Charlotte A. Seid, Janet L. Smith and Alan D. Grossman

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13590

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      The bacterial replication initiator and transcription factor DnaA associates with specific chromosomal regions by binding directly to recognition sequences in the DNA. We found that in Bacillus subtilis DnaA is also associated with many chromosomal regions by associating with the nucleoid-associated protein Rok (an H-NS analogue). DnaA stimulates the ability of Rok to bind DNA and together, and these two proteins appear to modulate expression of several genes.

  7. MicroReview

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      Membrane protein insertase YidC in bacteria and archaea

      Andreas Kuhn and Dorothee Kiefer

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13586

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      The insertion of proteins into the prokaryotic plasma membrane is catalyzed by translocases and insertases. On one hand, the Sec translocase operates as a transmembrane channel that can open laterally to first bind and then release the hydrophobic segments of a protein into the lipid bilayer. On the other hand, YidC insertases interact with their substrates in a groove-like structure at an amphiphilic protein-lipid interface thus allowing the transmembrane segments of the substrate to slide into the lipid bilayer. We review here the recently published high-resolution structures of archaeal and bacterial YidC homologues that provide new mechanistic insights of how transmembrane proteins achieve the transition from an aqueous environment in the cytoplasm to the hydrophobic lipid bilayer environment of the membrane.

  8. Research Articles

    1. Membrane skeletal association and post-translational allosteric regulation of Toxoplasma gondii GAPDH1

      Rashmi Dubey, Bart L. Staker, Ian T. Foe, Matthew Bogyo, Peter J. Myler, Huân M. Ngô and Marc-Jan Gubbels

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13577

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      The structure of Toxoplasma GAPDH1 is reported as reflection board for the dissection of the structure-function relationships between enzymatic activity, translocation to the cortical cytoskeleton in extracellular parasites, and allosteric regulation of activity by phosphorylation of the S-loop.

    2. Exopolysaccharides promote Myxococcus xanthus social motility by inhibiting cellular reversals

      Tianyi Zhou and Beiyan Nan

      Version of Record online: 19 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13585

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      Cells of the surface-dwelling social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus move coordinately in large groups where individual cells seldom reverse their moving direction. The report by Zhou and Nan shows that exopolysaccharides (EPS) inhibit cellular reversal in a concentration dependent manner. Thus, high concentration of EPS in cell groups is a self-produced signal that promotes group motion by inhibiting cellular reversals.

  9. MicroReview

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      Regulatory gene mutation: a driving force behind group a Streptococcus strain- and serotype-specific variation

      Poulomee Sarkar and Paul Sumby

      Version of Record online: 19 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13584

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      The selection of mutations within regulator-encoding genes is a major driver of bacterial strain- and type-specific phenotypic heterogeneity. Here, we review the types and regulatory-, phenotypic-, and disease-specific consequences of naturally occurring regulatory gene mutations in the human bacterial pathogen the group A Streptococcus. We conclude that mutation plays an outsized role in group A Streptococcus pathogenesis and has clinical relevance.

  10. Research Articles

    1. cAMP-independent signal pathways stimulate hyphal morphogenesis in Candida albicans

      Salvatore M. Parrino, Haoyu Si, Shamoon Naseem, Kevin Groudan, Justin Gardin and James B. Konopka

      Version of Record online: 19 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13588

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      The cAMP pathway induces a switch from budding to hyphal morphogenesis that promotes biofilm formation and invasive growth by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Identification of pseudorevertant strains that can form hyphae in the absence of adenylyl cyclase indicates that cAMP-independent pathways also contribute to this morphological switch.

    2. PrgU: a suppressor of sex pheromone toxicity in Enterococcus faecalis

      Minny Bhatty, Martha I. Camacho, Christian Gonzalez-Rivera, Kristi L. Frank, Jennifer L. Dale, Dawn A. Manias, Gary M. Dunny and Peter J. Christie

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13563

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      Upon sensing of sex pheromone, Enterococcus faecalis cells carrying pCF10 produce PrgB (Aggregation Substance, AS) and a type IV secretion system responsible for high-frequency plasmid transfer. We show PrgB overproduction is highly toxic to E. faecalis cells, and that PrgU mitigates toxicity by downregulating PrgB synthesis. PrgU is a predicted RNA binding protein, and prgB-prgU gene pairs are widely dispersed among enterococci suggestive of a conserved mechanism of feedback regulation of a major surface adhesin.

    3. The stringent response plays a key role in Bacillus subtilis survival of fatty acid starvation

      André A. Pulschen, Diego E. Sastre, Federico Machinandiarena, Agostina Crotta Asis, Daniela Albanesi, Diego de Mendoza and Frederico J. Gueiros-Filho

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13582

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      In our work, we show that Gram-positive bacteria need to deploy the stringent response to survive fatty acid deprivation and that this deployment depends on the long bifunctional RSH enzyme, as it does in Gram-negative bacteria. We also demonstrate that cells become highly vulnerable to nutritional imbalances when they cannot deploy the stringent response, highlighting the possibility that pharmacological strategies to disable the stringent response should potentiate antibiotic action.

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      SymB and SymC, two membrane associated proteins, are required for Epichloë festucae hyphal cell–cell fusion and maintenance of a mutualistic interaction with Lolium perenne

      Kimberly A. Green, Yvonne Becker, Aiko Tanaka, Daigo Takemoto, Helen L Fitzsimons, Stephan Seiler, Hervé Lalucque, Philippe Silar and Barry Scott

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13580

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      The Epichloë festucae transcription factor ProA binds to a conserved motif present in the promoters of symB and symC to activate expression of these genes. SymB and SymC localize to the plasma membrane, septa and points of hyphal fusion. Genetic analysis shows that SymB and SymC are essential for cell-cell fusion and establishment of a hyphal network in planta to maintain a mutualistic symbiotic interaction with the grass host Lolium perenne

    5. Extensive functional redundancy in the regulation of Candida albicans drug resistance and morphogenesis by lysine deacetylases Hos2, Hda1, Rpd3 and Rpd31

      Xinliu Li, Nicole Robbins, Teresa R. O'Meara and Leah E. Cowen

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13578

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      Here, we establish that Hsp90 is acetylated on lysine 30 and 271, and other residues to be identified, in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. There is a large degree of functional redundancy between the KDAC complexes with Hos2, Hda1, Rpd3, and Rpd31 all being required to govern Hsp90-dependent azole resistance. Cycling between acetylated and deacetylated states is important for orchestrating drug resistance, morphogenesis, and virulence.

    6. Inductors and regulatory properties of the genomic island-associated fru2 metabolic operon of Streptococcus agalactiae

      Kévin Patron, Philippe Gilot, Vanessa Rong, Aurélia Hiron, Laurent Mereghetti and Emilie Camiade

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13581

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      The regulation mechanism of the fru2 operon of Streptococcus agalactiae was enlightened by (i) localizing its transcriptional promoter and identifying carbohydrate inductors (ii) determining the DNA binding region of its regulator (Fru2R), (iii) identifying histidine or cysteine residues affecting the function of the encoded sugar transporter (PTSFru2) and regulator (Fru2R), and (iv) revealing physical interactions between PTSFru2 and Fru2R.

    7. SecA functions in vivo as a discrete anti-parallel dimer to promote protein transport

      Tithi Banerjee, Christine Lindenthal and Donald Oliver

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13567

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      SecA ATPase facilitates protein transport through the integral membrane SecY channel complex. The physiological form of the various SecA dimers that have been crystallized was explored by engineering a site-specific crosslinker into potential dimer interfaces and performing in vivo photo-crosslinking. The results indicate that a single discrete dimer species is present within the cell, and this species was also captured during arrested protein transport through the SecY channel utilizing a SecA-OmpA-GFP trimeric protein.

    8. Identification of the cAMP phosphodiesterase CpdA as novel key player in cAMP-dependent regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum

      Julia Schulte, Meike Baumgart and Michael Bott

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13574

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      cAMP plays an important role in the regulation of metabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum as effector of the global regulator GlxR. Knowledge on control of the cAMP level is virtually absent. We identified a cAMP phosphodiesterase (CpdA) whose absence results in an elevated cAMP level, extensive changes in gene expression and strong growth defects. cpdA was positively regulated by GlxR, resulting in a feedback loop that counteracts high cAMP levels. CpdA is highly conserved in actinobacteria.

    9. The essential cell division protein FtsN contains a critical disulfide bond in a non-essential domain

      Brian M. Meehan, Cristina Landeta, Dana Boyd and Jon Beckwith

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13565

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      Mutations in the essential cell division protein FtsN that render it incapable of forming a disulfide bond lead to filamentous growth of E. coli. Formation of this disulfide bond can be catalyzed by the Dsb enzymatic system or it can be introduced spontaneously through growth in an aerobic environment.

    10. A PTS EII mutant library in Group A Streptococcus identifies a promiscuous man-family PTS transporter influencing SLS-mediated hemolysis

      Ganesh S. Sundar, Emrul Islam, Kanika Gera, Yoann Le Breton and Kevin S. McIver

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13573

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      Several sugar transporters (Enzyme IICs, EIIC) contribute to the timely expression of the toxin Streptolysin S (SLS), and are redundant for the transport of sugars. The Mannose-specific EII plays an important role in GAS for both PTS carbohydrate metabolism and Streptolysin S expression, potentially allowing for GAS to extract nutrients from the host in order to survive. Black dashed arrows represent the influence of EIIs and other components of carbon metabolism on SLS production.

    11. Combinatorial control of adhesion of Brucella abortus 2308 to host cells by transcriptional rewiring of the trimeric autotransporter btaE gene

      Rodrigo Sieira, Magalí G. Bialer, Mara S. Roset, Verónica Ruiz-Ranwez, Tomás Langer, Gastón M. Arocena, Estefanía Mancini and Angeles Zorreguieta

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13576

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      Regulatory network plasticity is a key attribute underlying changes in bacterial gene expression and a source of phenotypic diversity to interact with the environment. Here, we identified a functional HutC-binding site upstream the Brucella adhesin btaE, which was generated de novo by a single point mutation in the Brucella abortus 2308 virulent strain. This transcriptional rewiring event integrated btaE promoter activity and bacterial adhesion into an ancient regulatory network controlling both metabolic and virulence genes, probably as a result of nucleotide variability associated to intrinsic btaE promoter structural features.

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      Robust Min-system oscillation in the presence of internal photosynthetic membranes in cyanobacteria

      Joshua S. MacCready, Jory Schossau, Katherine W. Osteryoung and Daniel C. Ducat

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13571

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      Unlike canonical prokaryotic models for cell division, cyanobacteria possess extensive thylakoid membranes that could disrupt self-organizing dynamics of the Min system, thereby preventing proper division site placement. We find MinCD regulate FtsZ positioning via dynamic MinE-driven oscillations that require thylakoid membrane perforations. Cdv3 also localises a static MinC pool at the midzone to promote division. Therefore, cyanobacterial fission uses a Min system that combines two distinct classic models and can circumnavigate complex membrane topology.

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      Staphylococcus aureus requires at least one FtsK/SpoIIIE protein for correct chromosome segregation

      Helena Veiga and Mariana G. Pinho

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13572

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      The two Staphylococcus aureus DNA translocases, SpoIIIE and FtsK, act through independent, but redundant, pathways to ensure proper management of the chromosomes. SpoIIIE forms foci at the septum of ∼ 50% of cells at late stages of septum synthesis. FtsK is a multifunctional septal protein, whose C-terminal domain is not required for correct chromosome management in the presence of SpoIIIE. Absence of both DNA translocases causes severe nucleoid segregation and morphological defects.

    14. Essential role of Bordetella NadC in a quinolinate salvage pathway for NAD biosynthesis

      Timothy J. Brickman, Ryan J. Suhadolc, Pamela J. McKelvey and Sandra K. Armstrong

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13566

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      NAD is a vital coenzyme or co-substrate for all living cells. Classical Bordetella species are auxotrophic for pyridines required for NAD biosynthesis. Our report confirms that they lack de novo pathway genes nadA and nadB; however, they possess an orphan de novo pathway gene, nadC, encoding quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase. nadC is required for use of salvaged quinolinate as an NAD precursor, and its expression is controlled by nicotinic acid and by a NadQ family transcriptional regulator.

    15. Maf1 is a negative regulator of transcription in Trypanosoma brucei

      Gabriela Romero-Meza, Daniel E. Vélez-Ramírez, Luis E. Florencio-Martínez, Fiordaliso C. Román-Carraro, Rebeca Manning-Cela, Rosaura Hernández-Rivas and Santiago Martínez-Calvillo

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13568

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      Maf1 is a negative regulator of transcription conserved from yeast to human. In this work we characterized Maf1 in Trypanosoma brucei (TbMaf1), an early-diverging eukaryote. Our data show that TbMaf1 is involved in the control of cell growth in procyclic forms of T. brucei and that it represses transcription of Pol III-dependent genes. Our results also reveal that TbMaf1 regulates transcription of some Pol I- and Pol II-dependent genes.

    16. ProP-ProP and ProP-phospholipid interactions determine the subcellular distribution of osmosensing transporter ProP in Escherichia coli

      Tatyana Romantsov, Doreen E. Culham, Tavia Caplan, Jennifer Garner, Robert S. Hodges and Janet M. Wood

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13569

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      Osmosensing transporter ProP mediates osmolyte uptake to protect bacteria from osmotically-induced dehydration. ProP activity is anionic lipid-dependent and ProP concentrates at the poles of Escherichia coli cells in a cardiolipin-dependent manner. This work suggests that polar localization of ProP results from association of its C-terminal domain with the anionic lipid-enriched membrane at the cell poles. The coiled-coil present on only some orthologues renders that phenomenon CL-dependent.

  11. MicroReview

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      Dual-function small regulatory RNAs in bacteria

      Matthias Gimpel and Sabine Brantl

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13558

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      Dual-function sRNAs are a subgroup of small regulatory RNAs that act on the one hand as base-pairing sRNAs to inhibit or activate target gene expression and on the other hand as peptide-encoding mRNAs. The mechanisms of action of the currently known five dual-function sRNAs are represented schematically.

  12. Research Articles

    1. A functional link between hyphal maintenance and quorum sensing in Candida albicans

      Melanie Polke, Marcel Sprenger, Kirstin Scherlach, María Cristina Albán-Proaño, Ronny Martin, Christian Hertweck, Bernhard Hube and Ilse D. Jacobsen

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13526

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      The deletion of the Candida albicans EED1 gene (eed1Δ), which is essential for hyphal maintenance, leads to the unique phenotype of both, an increased sensitivity to and increased production of the quorum sensing molecule farnesol. The enhanced farnesol signaling activity in eed1Δ is independent of cAMP signaling, promotes the reverse morphogenesis under hypha-inducing conditions without inducing cell death, and contributes to the hyphal maintenance defect of the mutant.

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