Molecular Microbiology

Cover image for Vol. 95 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: John D. Helmann

Impact Factor: 5.026

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 19/119 (Microbiology); 56/291 (Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Online ISSN: 1365-2958

Associated Title(s): Cellular Microbiology

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  1. 1 - 42
  1. Research Articles

    1. Rot is a key regulator of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation

      Joe M. Mootz, Meredith A. Benson, Cortney E. Heim, Heidi A. Crosby, Jeffrey S. Kavanaugh, Paul M. Dunman, Tammy Kielian, Victor J. Torres and Alexander R. Horswill

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12943

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      Staphylococcus aureus is a significant cause of chronic biofilm infections and the repressor of toxins (Rot) controls this pathogenesis mechanism. When Rot is removed, the level of secreted cysteine protease activity increases, resulting in a decrease in the S. aureus capacity to form a biofilm and reduced bacterial burden in a mouse catheter model of biofilm infection.

    2. A core of three amino acids at the carboxyl-terminal region of glutamine synthetase defines its regulation in cyanobacteria

      Lorena Saelices, Rocío Robles-Rengel, Francisco J. Florencio and M. Isabel Muro-Pastor

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12950

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      Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a key enzyme for nitrogen metabolism from bacteria to humans. In cyanobacteria GS activity is finely modulated by an exclusive mechanism mediated by protein-protein interactions. Inactivating factors (IFs) negatively regulate GS under certain metabolic conditions. We have identified GS key amino acid residues responsible for the electrostatic interaction with its inactivation factors.

    3. Role of HemF and HemN in the heme biosynthesis of Vibrio vulnificus under S-adenosylmethionine-limiting conditions

      Eui-Jin Kim, Eun Kyoung Oh and Jeong K. Lee

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12951

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      An O2-independent coproporphyrinogen III oxidase HemN of Vibrio vulnificus is apparently non-functional when endogenous S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is at low levels. A mutation in hemN, encoding HemNY74F, was selected as a suppressor to rescue the deficiency in wild type HemN activity under SAM-limiting conditions. HemNY74F shows a higher affinity for SAM than wild type HemN.

  2. MicroCommentaries

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      Single-molecule tracking and super-resolution imaging shed light on cholera toxin transcription activation

      Christy F. Landes

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12942

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      The mechanistic secrets of bacterial cells are being deciphered through single-molecule and super-resolution fluorescence imaging, the subject of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The virulence pathway within the cholera-causing microbe, Vibrio cholera, is regulated by unusual transcription activation by two inner-membrane proteins. Using single molecule techniques, Hass, et al. reports a mechanism in which one protein recruits the other to activate transcription, shedding light on the heterogeneity in microbe subcellular organization and the broader process of membrane-bound transcription activation.

  3. Research Articles

    1. The Crc protein participates in down-regulation of the Lon gene to promote rhamnolipid production and rhl quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

      Nana Yang, Shuting Ding, Feifei Chen, Xue Zhang, Yongjie Xia, Hongxia Di, Qiao Cao, Xin Deng, Min Wu, Catherine C.L. Wong, Xiao-Xu Tian, Cai-Guang Yang, Jing Zhao and Lefu Lan

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12954

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      Lon protease links CCR system with rhl QS in P. aeruginosa. CCR, carbon catabolite repression; QS, quorum sensing.

    2. PscI is a type III secretion needle anchoring protein with in vitro polymerization capacities

      Laura Monlezun, David Liebl, Daphna Fenel, Teddy Grandjean, Alice Berry, Guy Schoehn, Rodrigue Dessein, Eric Faudry and Ina Attree

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12947

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      The Pseudomonas aeruginosa T3SS inner rod protein PscI polymerizes into flexible and twisted fibers and induces IL1ß secretion in bone marrow macrophages in vitro through its C terminal region. Polymerized PscI ensures a proper anchoring of the needle to the T3SS basal complex in vivo.

  4. MicroReview

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      From microbiology to cancer biology: the Rid protein family prevents cellular damage caused by endogenously generated reactive nitrogen species

      Diana M. Downs and Dustin C. Ernst

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12945

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      The Rid family of proteins is highly conserved and broadly distributed throughout the domains of life. Genetic and biochemical studies, primarily in Salmonella enterica, have defined a role for RidA in responding to endogenously generated reactive enamine species. If allowed to accumulate, enamines can damage cell components. This review describes the enamine hydrolyzing activity of RidA and the effect of this biochemical activity on the metabolic network, which impacts organism fitness.

  5. MicroCommentaries

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      Conservation of fungal and animal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complexes

      Barry Scott

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12946

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      NADPH oxidases (Nox) are a group of eukaryotic flavoenzymes that catalyse the reduction of dioxygen to the superoxide anion. Fungi have two homologues of the catalytic component of the mammalian gp91phox, NoxA and NoxB. Recent work has identified an adaptor of NoxA called NoxD, which is an orthologue of the gp91phox adaptor, p22phox.  NoxA and NoxD mutants of Podospora anserina and Botrytis cinerea have identical phenotypes. The highly conserved tetraspanin appears to be the adaptor for the fungal NoxB.

  6. Research Articles

    1. Cyanide enhances hydrogen peroxide toxicity by recruiting endogenous iron to trigger catastrophic chromosomal fragmentation

      Tulip Mahaseth and Andrei Kuzminov

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12938

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      Hydrogen peroxide and cyanide synergistically kill E. coli via Fenton's reaction (Fe(II)+H2O2–>OH·) unleashing catastrophic chromosomal fragmentation. We show in vitro that cyanide enhances Fenton on DNA. Our genetic investigation reveal that the second mechanism of cyanide potentiation of this Fenton's reaction is via iron recruitment from ferritin iron distribution centers. At the same time, the iron depot Dps acts to protect the chromosome from this massive oxidative damage.

    2. Novel mechanisms of controlling the activities of the transcription factors Spo0A and ComA by the plasmid-encoded quorum sensing regulators Rap60-Phr60 in Bacillus subtilis

      Kristina M. Boguslawski, Patrick A. Hill and Kevin L. Griffith

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12939

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      Many bacteria use quorum sensing to coordinate biological processes as a group. The plasmid-encoded quorum response regulators Rap60-Phr60 control sporulation, genetic competence, and biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis. We identified two novel mechanisms for regulating the activities of the transcription factors Spo0A and ComA by Rap60. Specifically, Rap60 influences Spo0A phosphorylation by inhibiting the autophosphorylation of the sporulation-specific kinase KinA. Rap60 regulates ComA by forming a Rap60-ComA-DNA ternary complex that inhibits transcription of target genes.

    3. The Campylobacter jejuni CprRS two-component regulatory system regulates aspects of the cell envelope

      Sarah L. Svensson, Steven Hyunh, Craig T. Parker and Erin C. Gaynor

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12927

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      Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of food-borne illness, and understanding how it adapts to different environments is key to infection control. Here, we characterize the activity, regulation, and regulon of the conserved C. jejuni two-component regulatory system, CprRS. We find that response regulator phosphorylation, like the regulator itself, is essential for viability, and that the system regulates processes and genes related to the cell envelope, including the htrA periplasmic serine protease.

    4. Antibodies against the majority subunit of type IV pili disperse nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilms in a LuxS-dependent manner and confer therapeutic resolution of experimental otitis media

      Laura A. Novotny, Joseph A. Jurcisek, Michael O. Ward Jr, Zachary B. Jordan, Steven D. Goodman and Lauren O. Bakaletz

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12934

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      Antibodies directed against a recombinant soluble form of PilA [the majority subunit of Type IV pili (Tfp) produced by NTHI] mediated gradual ‘top-down’ dispersal of NTHI from biofilms via a mechanism that was dependent upon expression of both PilA (and by inference, Tfp) and production of AI-2 quorum signaling molecules by LuxS.

    5. Identification of Dck1 and Lmo1 as upstream regulators of the small GTPase Rho5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

      Hans-Peter Schmitz, Arne Jendretzki, Janina Wittland, Johanna Wiechert and Jürgen J. Heinisch

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12937

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      We here identified a homolog of the dimeric DOCK/ELMO complex, which acts as a GDP/GTP exchange factor (GEF) on the Rac1 homolog Rho5 in Bakers yeast. Our data indicate that it is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial turnover under oxidative stress and affects apoptosis.

    6. Histidine phosphocarrier protein regulates pyruvate kinase A activity in response to glucose in Vibrio vulnificus

      Hey-Min Kim, Young-Ha Park, Chang-Kyu Yoon and Yeong-Jae Seok

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12936

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      The phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) plays multiple regulatory roles in addition to transport of sugars. Here we show that the PTS catalyzing the first step of glycolysis stimulates the final step of glycolysis in the presence of glucose in the opportunistic human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. This regulation occurs through the inorganic phosphate-dependent interaction of dephospho-HPr with the C-terminal domain of a pyruvate kinase A (PykA) ortholog, which does not occur in Escherichia coli.

    7. Integration of chemotaxis, transport and catabolism in Pseudomonas putida and identification of the aromatic acid chemoreceptor PcaY

      Rita A. Luu, Joshua D. Kootstra, Vasyl Nesteryuk, Ceanne N. Brunton, Juanito V. Parales, Jayna L. Ditty and Rebecca E. Parales

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12929

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      This study demonstrated that the pcaY gene encodes a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein that mediates metabolism-independent chemotaxis to both metabolizable and nonmetabolizable aromatic acids in Pseudomonas putida F1. PcaK, the major facilitator superfamily transporter of 4-hydroxybenzoate was shown to modulate the chemotactic response by facilitating the uptake of 4-hydroxybenzoate, leading to the accumulation of the inducer molecule ß-ketoadipate, which interacts with the transcriptional activator PcaR to stimulate pcaY expression.

    8. Signaling between two interacting sensor kinases promotes biofilms and colonization by a bacterial symbiont

      Allison N. Norsworthy and Karen L. Visick

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12932

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      The squid symbiont, Vibrio fischeri, uses a unique two-component signaling phosphorelay (Syp) to regulate whether it forms biofilms and colonizes its host. Although this pathway contains two functional sensor kinases (RscS and SypF), only a subset of domains within these enzymes is critical in vivo. Together, these domains control the activity of two downstream response regulators (SypE and SypG) leading to biofilms and colonization.

    9. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori HP0231 (DsbK): role in disulfide bond formation, redox homeostasis and production of Helicobacter cystein-rich protein HcpE

      Jeffrey Lester, Sari Kichler, Brandon Oickle, Spencer Fairweather, Alexander Oberc, Jaspreet Chahal, Dinath Ratnayake and Carole Creuzenet

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12923

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      We identified DsbK (HP0231) as a folding factor necessary for the production and secretion of the Helicobacter cysteine rich protein HcpE of the gastric human pathogen Helicobacter pylori and showed that recombinant DsbK can interact with and refold unprocessed, reduced HcpE in vitro. We showed that DsbK has disulfide bond forming activity on reduced lysozyme and has a DsbA-type of activity upon expression in E. coli. We also showed a role of DsbK in maintaining redox homeostasis in H. pylori.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A BTP1 prophage gene present in invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella determines composition and length of the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide

      Erica Kintz, Mark R. Davies, Disa L. Hammerlöf, Rocío Canals, Jay C. D. Hinton and Marjan W. van der Woude

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12933

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      Many invasive Salmonella Typhimurium isolates contain a unique phage, BTP1. Evidence indicates that a BTP1 phage encoded gene modifies the O-antigen subunits of the surface-exposed lipopolysaccharide with an acetyl group. BTP1 phage lysogens in which this gene is deleted exhibited a unique short O-antigen phenotype. Expression of the modifying gene prevented both BTP1 and P22 phage from cleaving the O-antigen and gaining access to the surface for successful infection.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Sub-cellular location of FtsH proteases in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 suggests localised PSII repair zones in the thylakoid membranes

      Joanna Sacharz, Samantha J. Bryan, Jianfeng Yu, Nigel J. Burroughs, Edward M. Spence, Peter J. Nixon and Conrad W. Mullineaux

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12940

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      The repair protease FtsH2 is located in the thylakoid membranes of a cyanobacterium, but has a different distribution from the photosynthetic reaction centres, suggesting the existence of dedicated repair zones in the membrane. False-colour 3D surface plots from fluorescence micrographs showing the distribution of chlorophyll fluorescence (left) and fluorescence from GFP-tagged FtsH2 (right) in cells of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC6803 grown under low light (top) or exposed to high light (bottom).

    12. High osmolarity glycerol response PtcB phosphatase is important for Aspergillus fumigatus virulence

      Lizziane K. Winkelströter, Vinícius Leite Pedro Bom, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Leandra Naira Zambelli Ramalho, Maria Helena S. Goldman, Neil Andrew Brown, Ranjith Rajendran, Gordon Ramage, Elodie Bovier, Thaila Fernanda dos Reis, Marcela Savoldi, Daisuke Hagiwara and Gustavo H. Goldman

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12919

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      Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungal pathogen that is capable of adapting to different host niches and avoiding host defenses. We have recognized PtcB as a protein phosphatase involved in the HOG (High Osmolarity Glycerol response) pathway. The ΔptcB mutant has both increased phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK (SakA) and expression of osmo-dependent genes. The ΔptcB strain was avirulent in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, stressing the importance of the HOG pathway in the regulation of pathogenicity and virulence.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Plasmodium falciparum SERA5 plays a non-enzymatic role in the malarial asexual blood-stage lifecycle

      Robert Stallmach, Manoli Kavishwar, Chrislaine Withers-Martinez, Fiona Hackett, Christine R. Collins, Steven A. Howell, Sharon Yeoh, Ellen Knuepfer, Avshalom J. Atid, Anthony A. Holder and Michael J. Blackman

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12941

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      The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum invades red blood cells and grows within a membrane-bound structure called a parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The most abundant component of the P. falciparum PV is an essential protein called SERA5 which resembles a papain-like cysteine protease. Here we map the previously unknown terminal proteolytic processing site in SERA5 and show that, despite that, its structural similarity to proteases, SERA5 plays a non-enzymatic role in the parasite life-cycle.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Oxidative stress conditions increase the frequency of de novo formation of the yeast [PSI+] prion

      Victoria A. Doronina, Gemma L. Staniforth, Shaun H. Speldewinde, Mick F. Tuite and Chris M. Grant

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12930

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      The molecular basis by which mammalian and fungal prions arise spontaneously is poorly understood. Using the yeast [PSI+] prion as a model, we show that reactive oxygen species can trigger this event, since cells lacking key antioxidant defence systems form the [PSI+] prion spontaneously at a high frequency.

    15. Ionic interaction of positive amino acid residues of fungal hydrophobin RolA with acidic amino acid residues of cutinase CutL1

      Toru Takahashi, Takumi Tanaka, Yusei Tsushima, Kimihide Muragaki, Kenji Uehara, Shunsuke Takeuchi, Hiroshi Maeda, Youhei Yamagata, Mayumi Nakayama, Akira Yoshimi and Keietsu Abe

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12915

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      The Aspergillus oryzae hydrophobin RolA attaches to the PBSA surface, then recruits and condenses cutinase CutL1 on the surface. Here, we identified amino acid residues required for the RolA–CutL1 interaction. The QCM analysis revealed that negatively charged residues (Asp142, Asp171, and Glu31) of CutL1, and positively charged residues (His32 and Lys34) of RolA play crucial roles in the RolA–CutL1 interaction via ionic interactions. We discuss a molecular prototype model of hydrophobin-based enzyme recruitment at the solid–water interface.

    16. Novel export control of a Legionella Dot/Icm substrate is mediated by dual, independent signal sequences

      Kwang Cheol Jeong, Molly C. Sutherland and Joseph P. Vogel

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12928

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      Export of the protein SidJ, a Legionella Dot/Icm type IV secretion substrate, is mediated by a c-terminal and internal signal sequence that share homology. In addition, optimal secretion of SidJ requires multiple binding sites for the chaperone IcmS/IcmW.

    17. The small regulatory RNA FasX enhances group A Streptococcus virulence and inhibits pilus expression via serotype-specific targets

      Jessica L. Danger, Tram N. Cao, Tran H. Cao, Poulomee Sarkar, Jeanette Treviño, Kathryn J. Pflughoeft and Paul Sumby

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12935

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      We have identified that the group A Streptococcus (GAS) small regulatory RNA FasX negatively regulates pilus expression across multiple GAS serotypes, but does so in a serotype-specific manner. Consistent with FasX negatively regulating pilus expression we show that fasX mutant derivative strains of each of the four tested serotypes show increased adherence, relative to the parental strains. In addition, we show that FasX regulatory activity enhances GAS virulence.

    18. LACK, a RACK1 ortholog, facilitates cytochrome c oxidase subunit expression to promote Leishmania major fitness

      Daviel Cardenas, Pamela M. Carter, Catherine S. Nation, Juan C. Pizarro, Jessie Guidry, Ashok Aiyar and Ben L. Kelly

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12924

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      Threshold levels of LACK sustain Leishmania cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV expression for robust mitochondrial function in the mammalian environment.

    19. The phage tail tape measure protein, an inner membrane protein and a periplasmic chaperone play connected roles in the genome injection process of E. coli phage HK97

      Nichole Cumby, Kelly Reimer, Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx, Alan R. Davidson and Karen L. Maxwell

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12918

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      The phage HK97 infection process requires the presence of the bacterial inner membrane transporter protein, PtsG, and periplasmic folding chaperone, FkpA. Specific amino acid sequences in the HK97 tape measure protein encode the dependencies on these host proteins, as well as superinfection exclusion by the HK97 gp15 protein. Based on these data we propose a model for the in vivo genome injection process of HK97.

  7. MicroCommentary

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      Last but not least: new insights into how FtsN triggers constriction during Escherichia coli cell division

      David S. Weiss

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12925

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      New findings indicate a bacterial cell division protein named FtsN triggers constriction by interacting with FtsA in the cytoplasm and the FtsQLB complex in the periplasm. The FtsN-FtsA interaction is facilitated by ZipA.

  8. Research Articles

    1. A thioesterase bypasses the requirement for exogenous fatty acids in the plsX deletion of Streptococcus pneumoniae

      Joshua B. Parsons, Matthew W. Frank, Marc J. Eleveld, Joost Schalkwijk, Tyler C. Broussard, Marien I. de Jonge and Charles O. Rock

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12916

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      PlsX (acyl-acyl carrier protein:phosphate transacylase) is essential for phospholipid synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus, and S. aureus plsX knockouts are fatty acid auxotrophs. However, a plsX knockout in Streptococcus pneumoniae grew without a fatty acid supplement. The expression of an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase (TesS) is responsible for the difference in lipid metabolism in these two bacteria.

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      Pivotal and distinct role for Plasmodium actin capping protein alpha during blood infection of the malaria parasite

      Markus Ganter, Zaira Rizopoulos, Herwig Schüler and Kai Matuschewski

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12922

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      Regulation of microfilament dynamics is critical for stage conversion and life cycle progression of Plasmodium and related apicomplexan parasites. Biochemical and experimental genetics evidence revealed a previously unrecognized functional separation of the two Plasmodium berghei actin capping protein (CP) subunits. Distinct actin capping activities by CP alpha homodimers during blood infection and CP alpha/beta heterodimers in mosquito stage parasites likely reflect an adaptation to different hosts. 

    3. Lineage-specific activities of a multipotent mitochondrion of trypanosomatid flagellates

      Ingrid Škodová-Sveráková, Zdeněk Verner, Tomáš Skalický, Jan Votýpka, Anton Horváth and Julius Lukeš

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12920

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      Five newly isolated trypanosomatids were tested for specific mitochondrial enzymatic activities and respiration. The collected data were mapped to phylogeny to see whether there is a correlation between mitochondrial features and phylogeny or not. We concluded that trypanosomatids, in general, possess a mitochondrion that is capable of adjusting to various environments.

    4. The BBA33 lipoprotein binds collagen and impacts Borrelia burgdorferi pathogenesis

      Hui Zhi, Eric H. Weening, Elena Magda Barbu, Jenny A. Hyde, Magnus Höök and Jon T. Skare

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12921

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      Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, binds to extracellular matrix targets, including collagen. Despite this connection, there are no borrelial proteins known to specifically mediate this interaction. In the Zhi et al. report, the surface exposed BBA33 lipoprotein is shown to bind to collagen type VI, and to a lesser extent, type IV. The absence of bba33 greatly impairs borrelial infectivity, providing a link to collagen adherence and B. burgdorferi pathogenesis.

    5. Legionella pneumophila utilizes a single-player disulfide-bond oxidoreductase system to manage disulfide bond formation and isomerization

      Zegbeh Z. Kpadeh, Shandra R. Day, Brandy W. Mills and Paul S. Hoffman

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12914

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      A single player disulfide-bond oxidase/isomerase system from Legionella pneumophila can functionally replace the two player DsbA/DsbC system in Escherichia coli. These studies demonstrate that the system avoids the futile cycle trap by restricting the reduction of DsbA2 by two membrane spanning DsbD, thereby enabling two DsbB oxidases to recycle the oxidase. DsbA2 is required to manage disulfide bonding in cysteine-rich DotG, a critical core component of the Dot/Icm Type 4b secretion system associated with virulence.

  9. MicroReview

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      Hybrid histidine kinases in pathogenic fungi

      Tatiana A. Defosse, Anupam Sharma, Alok K. Mondal, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Jean-Paul Latgé, Richard Calderone, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Vincent Courdavault, Marc Clastre and Nicolas Papon

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12911

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      Hybrid histidine kinases (HHK) are sensing proteins widespread in the fungal kingdom. We propose here an updated compilation and classification of fungal HHK with special focus in the most prominent pathogenic fungi. This analysis revealed that a particular group of fungal HHK, namely group III HHK, remains the most conserved among fungal pathogens of human, plant and insect.

  10. Research Articles

    1. Post-transcriptional regulation of transcript abundance by a conserved member of the tristetraprolin family in Candida albicans

      Melissa L. Wells, Onica L. Washington, Stephanie N. Hicks, Clarissa J. Nobile, Nairi Hartooni, Gerald M. Wilson, Beth E. Zucconi, Weichun Huang, Leping Li, David C. Fargo and Perry J. Blackshear

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12913

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      Zfs1 in Candida albicans is a member of the tristetraprolin (TTP) family of mRNA binding and destabilizing proteins. Zfs1Δ mutants exhibited significant increases in transcripts containing one or more TTP family binding sites. Zfs1 bound to the ideal TTP binding site with high affinity, and co-immunoprecipitated with target transcripts. Although the proposed Zfs1 target transcripts were highly conserved among related species, their putative binding sites often “disappeared” with increasing evolutionary distance from the parental species.

    2. The Bacterial signal transduction protein GlnB regulates the committed step in fatty acid biosynthesis by acting as a dissociable regulatory subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase

      Edileusa C.M. Gerhardt, Thiago E. Rodrigues, Marcelo Müller-Santos, Fabio O. Pedrosa, Emanuel M. Souza, Karl Forchhammer and Luciano F. Huergo

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12912

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      In bacteria and plant chloroplasts, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis is catalyzed by a multi-subunit form of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). This enzyme carboxylates acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA, which in turn acts as the building block for fatty acid elongation. Here we show that PII proteins form a complex with ACC. This interaction results in ACC inhibition by decreasing the enzyme turnover number. Both interaction and ACC inhibition were relieved by 2-oxoglutarate.

    3. Identification of NoxD/Pro41 as the homologue of the p22phox NADPH oxidase subunit in fungi

      Isabelle Lacaze, Hervé Lalucque, Ulrike Siegmund, Philippe Silar and Sylvain Brun

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/mmi.12876

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