Molecular Microbiology

Cover image for Vol. 103 Issue 2

Edited By: John D. Helmann

Impact Factor: 3.761

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 32/123 (Microbiology); 86/289 (Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Online ISSN: 1365-2958

Associated Title(s): Cellular Microbiology

Author Guidelines

Author Guidelines


Molecular Microbiology is published twice a month and is covered by Wiley Accepted Articles and Early View services. This document describes the Journal scope, editorial policies, and procedures for the handling and publication of manuscripts. Click here to download a PDF version of this document.

Molecular Microbiology
publishes studies of Bacteria, Archaea, eukaryotic microorganisms, and their viruses. We do not consider papers on multicellular eukaryotes or their viruses. Research papers should lead to a deeper understanding of the molecular principles underlying basic physiological processes or mechanisms. Appropriate topics include gene expression and regulation, pathogenicity and virulence, physiology and metabolism, synthesis of macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, polysaccharides, etc.), cell biology and subcellular organization, membrane biogenesis and function, traffic and transport, cell-cell communication and signaling pathways, evolution and gene transfer. Articles focused on host responses (cellular or immunological) to pathogens or on microbial ecology should be directed to our sister journals Cellular Microbiology and Environmental Microbiology, respectively.

Papers must be broad in scope and lead to general and substantial advances in our understanding of a biological process. Comparative studies are not appropriate unless they lead to new biological insights. Manuscripts reporting genome, transcriptome or proteome-wide screening approaches are expected to incorporate these data as part of a deeper, mechanistic study (see Mol Microbiol 52: 311-312 (2004) for an Editorial discussing this policy). Papers presenting macromolecular structures are expected to report new mechanistic and/or biological insights emerging from the structural analysis.

Molecular Microbiology also regularly commissions MicroReviews covering these areas of research and highlights selected papers with commissioned MicroCommentaries.

are short reviews published in areas of particular interest and current importance. Authors wishing to submit a review should refer to the instructions available here and should contact the features editor who will decide whether the chosen topic is suitable.

MicroCommentaries are invited articles designed to highlight one or more research papers. Further information on the format and content of MicroCommentaries is available here.

The cost of publishing color images in the print edition will be waived for authors of MicroReviews and MicroCommentaries, who will also, on request to the editors, receive free color reproduction in the next original article they publish in Molecular Microbiology. Note: there is no charge for color images published on-line only.

Online Submission, Review, and Publication of Manuscripts
Manuscripts should be submitted at A user ID and password are obtained on the first use of the site. Note that Supporting Information will not be included in the system-generated PDF file for referees, but will be accessible to the referees when they log into the ScholarOne review page. Papers must be submitted exclusively to Molecular Microbiology and are accepted on the understanding that they have not been, and will not be, published elsewhere. There are no page charges for manuscripts published by Molecular Microbiology but color charges and OpenAccess charges may apply (see below).

Molecular Microbiology has a large editorial team with experience in all areas of research covered by the Journal. Authors should generally choose the Editor whose interests are closest to their own:

• Carmen Buchrieser (Bacterial pathogens, host-pathogen interaction, virulence gene regulation and genomics)
• Steve Harris (Fungal molecular biology and pathogenesis)
• Peggy Cotter (Features editor for MicroReviews; Bacterial pathogens, protein secretion, virulence gene regulation and function, bacteria-host interactions)
• John Helmann (Editor-in-chief; Bacterial gene regulation, transcriptional control mechanisms, stress responses)
• James Imlay (Microbial physiology, enzymology, metabolism)
• Bénédicte Michel (DNA replication, recombination and repair; chromosome dynamics)
• Tracy Palmer (Bacterial cell surfaces, physiology and energetics, protein traffic, transport)
• Dominique Soldati (Parasitology)

An editor may reassign a paper if there is a conflict of interest, if another editor would be more appropriate, or if the chosen editor cannot handle the manuscript in a timely fashion. The temporary absence of an editor will be indicated on the online manuscript submission page. Authors can still select this editor, knowing that processing of the manuscript may be somewhat delayed. If in doubt, authors should submit their manuscripts to John Helmann for assignment. Authors are encouraged to recommend up to six potential reviewers and may also indicate non-preferred (opposed) reviewers. A brief explanation for the opposed referees should be included in the cover letter. Authors will usually receive reviewers' comments within 3-4 weeks. The acceptance date will be the date at which the correctly formatted paper arrives at the production office.

Expedited Review
Molecular Microbiology offers an expedited review track for manuscripts that have been previously reviewed by certain highly selective journals. If you feel that the previous reviews would support publication of the manuscript in its present form, or after minor revision, in Molecular Microbiology please contact the appropriate editor by e-mail (with a cc: to John Helmann; to indicate that you would like the paper considered for expedited review. For initial review, authors may send the paper as originally formatted.


Manuscripts should be re-formatted according to the Molecular Microbiology guidelines and submitted via the ScholarOne manuscript submission system. Note that Molecular Microbiology does not have page limits nor does it limit the number of references cited, so in many cases manuscript re-organization may be required. Include a cover letter requesting expedited review and (as Supplemental Files) the originally submitted manuscript (PDF file), the previous decision letter including peer reviews, and any manuscript correspondence. In addition, include for the editor a point-by-point response to the previous critiques. Manuscripts considered for expedited review are circulated to the entire board of reviewing editors, and advice of an outside editorial advisor may also be obtained. In many cases, expedited review can result in manuscripts being accepted for publication (depending on any additional minor revisions that might be needed) within 3-10 days.

Guidelines for Manuscript Preparation and Submission

Presentation of Manuscripts
Papers should be as concise as possible, compatible with clarity and completeness. The main text file should contain: Title Page, Summary, Introduction, Results, Discussion, Experimental Procedures, Acknowledgements, References, Tables, and Figure Legends.
This file should be submitted as a Microsoft Word or generic rich text format (RTF) file. Note that submissions to Molecular Microbiology are routinely screened for textual similarity to other published works using CrossCheck software. Authors should also prepare individual files for the Figures, a Graphical Abstract (for the on-line Table of Contents), and an accompanying Abbreviated Summary. For initial review, manuscripts may be submitted as a single file (e.g. PDF) containing both text and figures, or the figures may be submitted as a single file (e.g PDF or PPT). However, at the time of revision all figures be submitted as EPS, TIFF, or high resolution PDF files. Authors are encouraged to review recent issues of the on-line journal for examples of Figure formatting. Authors are welcome to also include a Supporting Information file. The Results and Discussion sections may be combined and can include additional subheadings. Footnotes should be avoided. Abbreviations of non-standard terms should follow, in parentheses, their first full usage. Line numbers (continuous) and page numbers must be included in the submitted text file.

At the time of submission, authors will be asked for Funding Information (at step 5 of the submission process). Depending on their source of funding, and existing agreements with funding agencies (e.g. NIH, see below), Wiley Publishing will automatically transfer the final accepted version of the manuscript to PubMed Central for release 12 months after on-line publication. To facilitate manuscript transfer to PMC, authors should are also asked to include the full name of the grant agency in their acknowledgments (e.g. National Institutes of Health), and not simply cite a grant number.


By submission of a manuscript to Molecular Microbiology, all authors warrant that they have the authority to publish the material and that the paper, or one substantially the same, has neither been published previously, nor is being considered for publication elsewhere. Submissions are routinely subject to testing for textual similarity to other published works via the CrossCheck software employed by Molecular Microbiology. All authors should meet the essential criteria for inclusion as authors as defined by the ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) and discussed in detail at In summary, it is expected that all authors will have made contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; and will have participated in the drafting the work or revising of the study for publication. Individual contributions are to be summarized in the Author Contributions section of the paper (see below). All authors are responsible for the content of the article. 

Title Page
The Title should be as informative as possible and may be either a concise description of the nature of the work or a declarative statement of the major conclusions from the study. If indicated, organisms should be identified by genus and species names (e.g. Escherichia coli rather than E. coli) or by the appropriate taxon name (e.g. Apicomplexa, Crenarchaeota, Leishmania etc.). The title page should include the names of authors, affiliations and the e-mail address to which all correspondence should be sent. Telephone and fax numbers should also be supplied. Present addresses of authors should appear as a footnote. A running title of not more than 50 characters should be provided together with up to six key words for indexing purposes.

All papers must normally include a summary not exceeding 200 words and formatted as a single paragraph. The Summary should define the problem under investigation and present the main findings of the paper in a form accessible to the broadest possible audience. Abbreviations and references should be avoided.

The introduction should present the nature of the problem addressed by the study and place the work in the broader context of the field. An extensive review of the literature is not expected, but background material important for understanding the nature and impact of the study should be presented and appropriately referenced (see References). A detailed summary of the findings of the paper is not appropriate, but a brief statement of the major findings of the paper may provide an appropriate transition to the Results section. In this and all other sections of the main text, authors are encouraged to organize the text into appropriately sized paragraphs with topic sentences to aid readers.

The results section should describe the key findings of the work with reference to Tables, Figures, and Supporting Information as appropriate. Results not requiring extensive supporting documentation can be stated in the text and, if appropriate, numerical values indicated parenthetically. References to "data not shown" are allowed, but referees may request that such material be added if it is deemed important for the conclusions of the study.

The Results section can be divided into sub-sections separated by headings (in italics). Readers should be able to understand the general nature of the experiments, the results, and the immediate conclusions from each aspect of the study without reference to either the Experimental Procedures or Supporting Information. Relevant details should be accessible in the Results section and the Figure and Table legends. Strains should be referred to by the relevant genotype with strain names and numbers indicated parenthetically (rather than the converse). Strain descriptions can be included in the Experimental Procedures or, if necessary, the key strains summarized in a Table. However, details of strain constructions including oligonucleotide primer sequences, plasmids, and complete strain lists are more appropriately included as Supporting Information.

The Discussion section should place the work in a broader context and elaborate on the implications of the major findings. Authors should reference related work completely including both primary literature and review articles as appropriate. The Discussion can be divided into sub-sections separated by headings (in italics). Extensive overlap with the Results section is to be avoided. In some cases, it may improve the presentation to discuss the findings as they are presented in which case a combined Results and Discussion section may be appropriate. In such cases, a final short section may be used to present Conclusions.

Experimental Procedures
The Experimental Procedures should be sufficiently detailed to enable the experiments to be reproduced and will typically be divided into sub-sections separated by headings (in italics). Sources should be indicated for any unusual chemicals, reagents, or strains. New procedures should be described in detail and references provided for previously published procedures. If procedures have been published previously, sufficient information should be included such that the nature of the procedure and key parameters are immediately apparent to readers without reference to the published procedure.

Procedures should be described unambiguously and in sufficient detail for replication. Centrifugation conditions should be indicated using x g rather than by revolutions per minute. Concentrations should be indicated using superscripts (µg ml-1) rather than as fractions (µg/ml).


Authors are encouraged to include acknowledgments to highlight the contributions of those who have contributed to the work (by providing reagents, strains, or advice) but do not qualify for authorship. Acknowledgment of funding sources should also be included in this section. Depending on their source of funding, and existing agreements with funding agencies (e.g. NIH, see below), Wiley Publishing will automatically transfer the final accepted version of the manuscript to PubMed Central (PMC) for release 12 months after on-line publication. To facilitate manuscript transfer to PMC, authors should include the full name of the grant agency in their acknowledgments (e.g. National Institutes of Health) and not simply cite a grant number.


Author Contributions
The contributions of each author to the study should be summarized by indicating which author(s) (indicated by initials, e.g. JDH) have made major contributions to (i) the conception or design of the study, (ii) the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of the data; and (iii) writing of the manuscript. Authorship implies a major contribution in at least one, and likely more than one, of these three broad categories. Authors may choose to be more specific in defining individual contributions, as appropriate.

Graphical Abstract

Authors are asked to prepare a graphical abstract image for the electronic table of contents (eTOC). These images are meant to attract reader interest and may encapsulate a key result or conclusion of the paper. Appropriate images might include molecular or cellular structures, appealing graphics, or models or summary figures. A figure (or panel of a figure) from the main text may be used, if appropriate, or an image may be prepared specifically for this purpose. Please note that this image will appear in the eTOC as thumbnail image, which readers may click on to enlarge to full size. The submitted image should be closely cropped, approximately square in shape and high resolution (600 dpi) at single column width (80 mm). Allowed heights are between 60 and 100 mm.

Abbreviated Summary

The Abbreviated Summary is a short non-technical summary of the key findings of the paper meant to accompany the Graphical Abstract in the on-line table of contents. This text should complement, and not repeat, the Title of the paper. Overall length should be limited to 2 to 3 sentences and a total word count of 75 or less.

Quantitative Data and Statistical Analyses
Statistical analysis should be described including the number of biological replicates. The number of significant figures used in numerical data should be appropriate to the precision of the analysis.

Figures that include graphical representations of quantitative data should provide the following information in the figure legends:
• Interpretation of symbols or bars (e.g., "mean values");
• Interpretation of error bars (e.g., "standard deviations");
• Statistical test(s) applied to the data;
• P values for statistical comparisons;
• Number of experimental replicates (n).

Statistics and error bars should represent data from multiple independent experiments, not technical replicates from a single representative experiment. For example, if an experiment were repeated three times with duplicate technical replicates each time, then n = 3. Authors are encouraged to consult the following articles prior to submission: Cumming et al. (2007) J Cell Biol 177: 7-11; Vaux et al. (2012) EMBO Rep 13: 291-296.

Genetic Nomenclature
Standard genetic nomenclature should be used. For further information, including relevant websites, authors should refer to the Genetic Nomenclature Guide in Trends in Genetics (Elsevier Science Ltd, 1995). For other detailed information, authors should consult Bachman (Microbiol Rev 47: 180–230, 1983) for E. coli K-12, Sanderson and Roth (Microbiol Rev 47: 310–453, 1983) for Salmonella typhimurium; Holloway et al. (Microbiol Rev 43: 73–102, 1979) for Bacillus subtilis; Perkins et al. (Microbiol Rev 46: 426–570, 1982) for Neurospora crassa; and the Handbook of Genetics Vol. 1 (R. C. King, ed., Plenum Press, 1974) for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nomenclature for DNA restriction and modification enzymes and their genes should follow Roberts et al. (Nucleic Acids Res 31: 1805-1812, 2003).

Authors should provide citations for statements and background information that derive from previously published work and should, where practical, cite the primary literature. Citations to review articles and commentaries are also encouraged and may, in some situations, be more appropriate.

We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting. Please use the most current reference styles available online [Endnote ( or Reference Manager (]. Please note that even Reference lists prepared using these software tools may require manual editing to conform with journal style. Specifically, titles should not include all initial capitals, and genus and species names should be italicized. Careful editing can avoid delays at the revision and production stages.

In the text, references should be inserted as follows: (Pugsley, 1996; Matsunaga et al., 1997). Only articles that are published or "in press" may be included in the reference list. In the text, unpublished or submitted studies should be referred to as such (e.g. J.M. Smith, unpublished), or as a personal communication. It is the authors' responsibility to obtain permission for personal communications.

The reference list should be in alphabetical order according to the first author. Papers with two authors should follow those of the first named author, arranged in alphabetical order according to the name of the second author. Articles with more than two authors should follow those of the first named author in chronological order. The title of the article must be included. For papers with up to seven authors, the names of all authors should be listed. For papers with eight or more authors, the first six names should be listed, followed by "et al.". Standard abbreviations of journal titles should be used, as in the Index Medicus. The following provide examples:

Pugsley, A.P. (1996) Multimers of the precursor of a type IV pilin like component of the general secretory pathway are unrelated to pili. Mol Microbiol 20: 1235–1245.

McGowan, S.J., Sebaihias, M., OLeary, S., Hardie, K.R., Williams, P., Stewart, G.S.A.B., et al. (1997) Analysis of the carbapenem of Erwinia carotovora: definition of the antibiotic biosynthetic genes and evidence for a novel ß-lactam resistant mechanism. Mol Microbiol 26: 545–556.

Higgins, C.F., Causton, H.C., Dance, G.S.G., and Mudd, E.A. (1993) The role of the 3' end in mRNA stability and decay. In Control of Messenger RNA Stability. Belasco, J.G., and Brawerman, G. (eds). San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 13–30.

References to material on the World Wide Web can be given, but only if the information is available without charge to readers on an official site. The format for citations is as follows:

Beckleheimer, J. (1994). How do you cite URLs in a bibliography? [WWW document]. URL

Tables should be used as appropriate for organizing and presenting complex datasets. In many cases, Tables are useful for summarizing strains, plasmids, and oligonucleotides used in a study. Authors are asked to only include those strains and/or plasmids used in the reported experiments in the main text. More extensive tables of strains (e.g. intermediates in strain constructions), plasmids, and oligonucleotides should be included as a Supplemental File. It is expected that all materials and information needed for understanding and replicating the reported experiments will be available to readers, but only those materials essential for understanding the reported experiments need to be included in the main text file. If only a small number of strains, plasmids, or oligonucleotides are used, a table may not be necessary and these can be described in the text of the Experimental Procedures section.

For production purposes, it is recommended that figures be provided as EPS, TIFF or high resolution PDF files. Please consult our web site for further details ( Please ensure that electronic artwork is prepared such that, after reduction to fit across one or two columns width (80 mm or 169 mm) as required, all lettering will be clear and easy to read. Sub-panels should be labelled in upper-case letters (A, B, etc.) at the top left-hand corner.

When reporting studies using multiple strains, the relevant genotype should be indicated in the figure legend and may also be included in a figure inset. The figure legend should, if needed, include the corresponding strain designations (e.g. strain numbers) such that the relevant strains are unambiguous. Full genotype information should be included in the Experimental Procedures section or a separate Strain Table, as appropriate.

Images cannot be modified to change the appearance of any specific feature. Adjustments of brightness and contrast or color balance are acceptable but must be applied to the entire image. Features cannot be obscured and any rearrangements must be explicitly indicated by the insertion of dividing lines or spaces. Editors may request the original data from the authors for comparison with the prepared figures. Cases of deliberate misrepresentation of data will result in rejection of the paper, and our findings will be reported to the corresponding author's home institution or funding agency.

Authors are encouraged to prepare color figures when this facilitates or is essential for clear presentation. It is the policy of Molecular Microbiology for authors to pay the full cost for color artwork (for exceptions see "Features" section) if they are to be included in the journal print edition. However, if the authors cannot meet these charges, and the editors feel that color figures are essential, then it may be possible to waive these charges. Upon acceptance, authors will be asked to complete a color work agreement form. Current charges are 150 GBP for the first figure and 50 GBP for each subsequent figure. If color is beneficial, but not absolutely necessary, authors may wish to prepare grey-scale versions for print production and color versions for the online format. Figure legends should describe the color version of the figure and include the caveat that readers should, if necessary, refer to the online version for clarification. There are no charges for online-only color figures.

For images that authors wish to have presented in an online 3D-PDF format, the Wiley Online Library provides support for inclusion of appropriately formatted files in the on-line (html) and PDF versions of published manuscripts. Adobe Reader supports the inclusion of 3D images that users can display, rotate, and animate (see For a trial period, all color charges for articles incorporating 3D-PDF images may be waived (at the editor's discretion).

Cover Illustrations
Illustrations suitable for the cover of Molecular Microbiology are welcomed by the editors. Usually, these are related to submitted papers and can be uploaded as a Supplemental File (labeled Cover Submission). Cover submissions should be high resolution (600 dpi) image files (e.g. TIFF) suitable for printing on the journal cover (up to 8.5 x 11 inches) and should be accompanied by a short description of up to 30 words. Authors who provide an image chosen for the cover will be eligible for free color art work in a subsequent research paper.

Supporting Information and Data Deposition
Supporting Information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supporting Information include additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. Supporting Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format. For further information on recommended file types and requirements for submission, please visit:

It is the policy of Molecular Microbiology that sequence data must be deposited in the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ Nucleotide Sequence Data Libraries, the accession number cross-referenced in the published manuscript, and the data made fully available at the time of publication. It is only necessary to submit to one database. The suggested wording for referring to accession-number information is: 'These sequence data have been submitted to the DDBJ/eMBL/ GenBank databases under accession number U12345'. Details of data submission can be found at: DDBJ/DNA Data Bank of Japan: EMBL: GenBank:

Microarray datasets should be presented in compliance with current practices (see for example (MGeD Society at and deposited in an accredited data base such as Array express ( or GEO ( The corresponding reference to the database entry should be included in the text.

Pre-submission English Language editing
Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. There are a number of independent suppliers of editing services, and a link to the Wiley English Language Editing service can be foundhere. All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

Conflict of Interest
Wiley requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, that might be perceived as influencing an author’s objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include but are not limited to patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker’s fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal.

If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and to collectively list in the cover letter to the Editor, in the manuscript (under the Acknowledgment section), and in the online submission system ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.

Dual Use Research
Molecular Microbiology expects that all authors will conform to the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) guidelines for Dual Use Life Sciences Research ( For further information, and a description of "dual use research of concern," please refer to the June 2007 NSABB report ( for transmittal 0807_Sept07.pdf). If any of the reported studies may fall in any of these categories, the Editor-in-chief must be informed at the time of manuscript submission.

Manuscript Review Process and Possible Outcomes
The handling editor will typically commission referee reports from 2-4 expert referees. The average time to first decision is ~22 days from manuscript receipt. Referees are asked to evaluate papers based on the following criteria:

Research manuscripts are acceptable if they:
• make a major scientific contribution that breaks new ground
• report a substantial body of innovative research
• are informative to specialists and interesting to non-specialists
• are of broad interest and high impact

Research manuscripts are unacceptable if they:
• provide only modest or incremental new information
• provide information but without significant new insights
• merely confirm what is already generally known
• lack appropriate controls or statistical analyses of quantitative data

Editors will carefully consider both the referee reports and their own reading of each paper and return a decision to the authors. Possible decisions include (i) reject, (ii) reject with encouragement for resubmission, (iii) reject with referral to MicrobiologyOpen (see below), (iv) major revision, (v) revision, and (vi) accept. A reject decision will generally be returned if the paper is not within the scope of the journal or, in the editor's and/or referees' judgment it lacks the impact and breadth of interest expected for publication in Molecular Microbiology. Resubmission may be encouraged if the work is potentially suited for the journal, but it is anticipated that considerable additional work (likely taking longer than 3 months) is needed to bring the manuscript to the level expected for publication. Major revision is appropriate for those papers that require only a modest amount of additional experimental work and corresponding revisions that can likely be completed quickly. In this case, the Editor reserves the right to return the manuscript for re-review by one or more of the original referees and possibly new referees. This provides a means of obtaining new opinions that might be needed, for example, if the revised paper includes significant additional data. A revision decision is generally reserved for those papers that require minor modifications to the text and figures prior to acceptance. Papers that are judged to be scientifically strong, but that may lack the impact and breadth of interest expected for Molecular Microbiology, may be referred to MicrobiologyOpen (either before or after formal review).

Referrals to the Open Access Journal MicrobiologyOpen
Molecular Microbiology works together with Wiley’s open access journal, MicrobiologyOpen, to enable rapid publication of high quality research that is unable to be accepted for publication by our journal. Authors will be offered the option of having the paper, along with any related peer reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Editor of MicrobiologyOpen. Authors will not need to reformat or rewrite their manuscript at this stage, and publication decisions will be made a short time after the transfer takes place. The Editor of MicrobiologyOpen will accept submissions that report well-conducted research which reaches the standard acceptable for publication. The journal seeks to publish research, pure or applied, that furthers our understanding of microbial interactions and microbial processes. MicrobiologyOpen is compliant with open access mandates and will facilitate wide dissemination of your research findings, while continuing to uphold the Wiley tradition of publishing excellence. Accepted papers can be published rapidly, typically within 15 days of acceptance. MicrobiologyOpen is a Wiley open access journal and article publication fees apply. For more information, please go to

Preparing your Revision
When preparing your revised manuscript, you will be asked to upload the following:

1. A Supplemental File in which you have copy-pasted and responded to the editor's and referees' comments point-by-point. This file must be in Word format.

A single file containing the revised Text, Figure legends, and Tables. This file should not contain any Figures.

3. Single, high-resolution files for each Figure. These files must be in TIFF, EPS, or high resolution PDF format. Please consider at this stage whether color work is essential for each figure and whether color figures are to be published as submitted in the print edition (for which there is a color work fee) or on-line only. On-line only color figures must be readily understood in the grayscale form that will appear in the print edition.

Graphical Abstract. Graphical abstracts accompany the article on the electronic (on-line) table of contents (eTOC). These images are meant to attract reader interest and may encapsulate a key result or conclusion of the paper. Appropriate images might include molecular or cellular structures, appealing graphics, or models or summary figures. A figure (or panel of a figure) from the main text may be used, if appropriate, or an image may be prepared specifically for this purpose. Please note that this image will appear in the eTOC as a thumbnail image, which readers may click on to enlarge to full size. The submitted image should be closely cropped, approximately square in shape and high resolution (600 dpi) at single column width (80 mm). Allowed heights are between 60 and 100 mm.

5. Abbreviated Summary. The Graphical Abstract will be accompanied by a short non-technical summary of the key findings of the paper. This text should complement, and not repeat, the Title of the paper. Overall length should be limited to 2 to 3 sentences and a total word count of 75 or less.

6. (optional) Supplementary material for online presentation in a single PDF file. For readers' convenience, please include a title page similar to that for the main paper with the heading "Supplementary Information." If there are several tables and figures, a brief listing of contents may also be justified. Movies and other material that cannot be converted to PDF should be in separate files. Please indicate in the text where the supplementary material is cited (Fig. S1, Table S1, etc.). There are no color charges for supplementary material. Please note that the SI file will be posted as submitted.

7. (optional) Authors are encouraged to submit a proposed journal front cover illustration. Submissions should be high resolution (600 dpi) image files (e.g. TIFF) and should be accompanied by a short description of up to 30 words. Authors who provide an image chosen for the cover will be eligible for free color art work in a subsequent research paper.

Please ensure that these materials are carefully prepared since Accepted manuscripts will be posted on-line as Accepted Articles and will, for NIH-funded researchers, be forwarded to PubMed Central prior to any additional copy-editing. To facilitate manuscript transfer, please be sure to cite the “National Institutes of Health” as well as the relevant grant number in your acknowledgments.

After Acceptance

Distribution of Strains and Materials
The publication of an article in Molecular Microbiology is subject to the understanding that authors will distribute freely any strains, clones or antibodies described therein for use in academic research. Authors might wish to make their plasmid constructs available free of charge through Addgene (

Color Art Work
If your article contains color artwork, you must return a completed and signed Color Work Agreement (CWA) Form (available here), even if the material is to be published without cost to you (as is the case for all commissioned articles). If you would like to publish the figures in color both in print and online, an original signed hardcopy containing payment information MUST be mailed to the address below.

Customer Services (OPI)
John Wiley & Sons Ltd,
European Distribution Centre
New Era Estate
Oldlands Way
Bognor Regis
West Sussex PO22 9NQ

Free Color Art Work: If you select Online Only color, or in the case of commissioned articles, there will be no payment required, but you must still email the completed first page of the CWA form to the Production Editor (

Copyright Transfer Agreement
[CC-BY for all OnlineOpen authors]
If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by a certain funders [e.g. The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) or the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)] you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with your Funder requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:


Accepted Articles
Molecular Microbiology offers Accepted Articles. Accepted Articles have been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but have not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process. Accepted Articles are published online a few days after final acceptance, appear in PDF format only, are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows them to be cited and tracked, and are indexed by PubMed. A completed copyright form is required before a manuscript can be processed as an Accepted Article.

OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see

Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at: (Please note this form is for use with OnlineOpen material ONLY). Prior to acceptance, please do not inform the Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

Publication Options for NIH-funded Researchers
All Molecular Microbiology authors are in full compliance with NIH requirements. Authors of NIH-funded work can choose either of these publication options in order to meet the terms of their grant:

OnlineOpen, which grants free and immediate availability of the article on publication and automatic, immediate deposition of the final PDF version with PubMed Central (PMC). Each OnlineOpen article will be subject to a fee of US$3000, excluding color charges, to be met by or on behalf of the Author in advance of publication.

2. Standard publication, under the terms of the Copyright Transfer Agreement, will enable authors to meet the terms of their grant without paying a fee. Wiley will post the accepted version of manuscripts by NIH grantholders on PMC upon acceptance by the journal. This accepted version will be made publicly available in PMC 12 months after publication.

The corresponding author will be notified by email when the proofs are ready for review. Excessive changes made by the author, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately.

Free access to the final PDF offprint of your article will be available via Author Services only. Please therefore sign up for Author Services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers. This free access is considered your PDF offprint, and you will not be sent a PDF. You may also nominate up to 10 colleagues for free access. All accesses from Author Services count towards the usage of your article. Paper offprints of the printed published article may be purchased at the time of proof correction.