Neurogastroenterology & Motility

Cover image for Vol. 28 Issue 7

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Magnus Simren, Gary Mawe and Jim Galligan, Associate Editor(s): Kirsteen Browning and Arjan Bredenoord

Impact Factor: 3.31

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 26/78 (Gastroenterology & Hepatology); 57/192 (Clinical Neurology); 92/256 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1365-2982

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  1. 1 - 70
  1. Original Articles

    1. Adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome report increased eating-associated symptoms, changes in dietary composition, and altered eating behaviors: a pilot comparison study to healthy adolescents

      B. Reed-Knight, M. Squires, D. K. Chitkara and M. A. L. van Tilburg

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12894

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      Adolescence is a common age at which disordered eating patterns develop, but little is known about eating habits in adolescents with IBS. This study found that more than 90% of BS patients age 15–21 reported eating-associated symptoms and over 40% reported disordered eating patterns such as skipping meals and vomiting to avoid IBS symptoms. IBS patients also ate fewer calories, fat, and lactose than healthy adolescents, but were not at increased risk for disordered eating to lose weight.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Gastrointestinal dysfunction and enteric neurotoxicity following treatment with anticancer chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil

      R. M. McQuade, V. Stojanovska, E. Donald, R. Abalo, J. C. Bornstein and K. Nurgali

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12890

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      5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the first-line chemotherapy for colorectal cancer; its use is associated with severe long-term gastrointestinal side-effects. This is the first study in a mouse model demonstrating that short-term 5-FU treatment induces increased gastrointestinal transit associated with acute intestinal inflammation, which may lead to persistent changes in the ENS contributing to delayed gastrointestinal transit and colonic dysmotility.

    3. Comparison of two high-resolution manometry software systems in evaluating esophageal motor function

      A. Rengarajan, J. Drapekin, A. Patel and C. P. Gyawali

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12887

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      Diagnostic value of high-resolution manometry (HRM) software metrics could be affected by averaging and by software characteristics of different manufacturers. We exported and averaged coordinates of 10-swallow manometry studies in patients referred for antireflux surgery and in controls; these single and composite swallows were imported back into two different HRM systems (Manoview, Medtronic; Medical Measurement Systems, MMS). Differences were noted between Manoview and MMS in IRP values generated, with overdiagnosis of outflow obstruction when Manoview IRP thresholds were applied to MMS composite swallows. Our data support using manufacturer specific thresholds for HRM software tools.

    4. Nausea and vomiting in gastroparesis: similarities and differences in idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis

      H. P. Parkman, E. K. Hallinan, W. L. Hasler, G. Farrugia, K. L. Koch, J. Calles, W. J. Snape, T. L. Abell, I. Sarosiek, R. W. McCallum, L. Nguyen, P. J. Pasricha, J. Clarke, L. Miriel, L. Lee, J. Tonascia, F. Hamilton and The NIDDK Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium (GpCRC)

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12893

    5. Impaired bolus clearance in asymptomatic older adults during high-resolution impedance manometry

      C. Cock, L. Besanko, S. Kritas, C. M. Burgstad, A. Thompson, R. Heddle, R. J. L. Fraser and T. I. Omari

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12892

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      This study performed esophageal HRIM in 45 volunteers to assess the effects of age on Chicago Classification and esophageal pressure-flow parameters. Impaired bolus clearance occurred more frequently in older subjects, with larger peristaltic breaks, more rapid contractions, and reduced LES relaxation. These data will assist interpretation of clinical HRM studies in older dysphagic patients.

    6. Sequential incremental doses of bisacodyl increase the diagnostic accuracy of colonic manometry

      O. Borrelli, M. Pescarin, E. Saliakellis, R. Tambucci, P. Quitadamo, F. Valitutti, A. Rybak, K. J. Lindley and N. Thapar

      Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12876

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      We retrospectively explored whether the use of sequential incremental dose of bisacodyl given during the colonic manometry increases the yield of the test. An additional high dose of bisacodyl improves colonic neuromuscular function by increasing the proportion of patients with fully propagated high-amplitude propagating contractions (HAPCs) and their morphology. Our data suggest that the use of sequential incremental dose of bisacodyl during colonic manometry might significantly impact the management of children with refractory slow transit constipation.

    7. Delayed gastric emptying in diabetic rats caused by decreased expression of cystathionine gamma lyase and H2S synthesis: in vitro and in vivo studies

      S. A. Mard, I. Ahmadi, A. Ahangarpour, M. K. Gharib-Naseri and M. Badavi

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12867

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      The results of the present study showed that endogenous and exogenous H2S and L-cysteine accelerate the GER in normal and diabetic rats. The molecular findings were also showed that mRNA and protein expression of cystathionine gamma lyase, the main responsible enzyme for H2S synthesis in the rat stomach decreased in diabetic rats.

    8. Dietary patterns and prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in Iranian adults

      S. S. Khayyatzadeh, A. Esmaillzadeh, P. Saneei, A. H. Keshteli and P. Adibi

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12895

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      In this cross-sectional study among 3846 Iranian adults, we found that ‘fast food’ dietary pattern was associated with higher risk of irritable bowel syndrome. An inverse association was also found between ‘lacto-vegetarian’ dietary pattern and risk of irritable bowel syndrome.

  2. Review Articles

    1. Phenotyping of subjects for large scale studies on patients with IBS

      G. E. Boeckxstaens, V. Drug, D. Dumitrascu, A. D. Farmer, J. Hammer, T. Hausken, B. Niesler, D. Pohl, L. Pojskic, A. Polster, M. Simren, M. Goebel-Stengel, L. Van Oudenhove, M. Vassallo, K.-A. Wensaas, Q. Aziz, L. A. Houghton and COST Action BM1106 GENIEUR members

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12886

  3. Original Articles

    1. Evaluation of esophageal distensibility in eosinophilic esophagitis: an update and comparison of functional lumen imaging probe analytic methods

      D. A. Carlson, Z. Lin, I. Hirano, N. Gonsalves, A. Zalewski and J. E. Pandolfino

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12888

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      The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) offers a method to objectively measure esophageal distensibility in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), however, distension-associated contractility may limit reliable measurement. Methods of esophageal distensbility measurement were compared among EoE patients and asymptomatic controls, which identified a novel method that may improve accuracy, and thus clinical and research utility, for objective measurement in clinical research and practice.

    2. Role of the nitrergic pathway in motor effects of oxytocin in rat proximal colon

      R. Wang, L. Y. Guo, M. Y. Suo, Y. Sun, J. Y. Wu, X. Y. Zhang and C. Y. Liu

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12883

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      In this study, we investigated whether the activation of oxytocin receptor (OTR) located on nitrergic neurons is involved in modulating colonic motor function through stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) release. The role of the nitrergic pathway in motor effects of oxytocin was assessed by organ bath experiments in vitro. Activation of OTR co-expressed with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in myenteric neurons inhibits colonic spontaneous contraction and enhances electrically evoked nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation in longitudinal smooth muscle in vitro, which may be mediated through excitation of nitric oxide (NO) release from the myenteric nitrergic nerves.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 agonists improve intestinal transit in a murine model of postoperative ileus

      K. Tsuchiya, K. Kubota, K. Ohbuchi, A. Kaneko, N. Ohno, A. Mase, H. Matsushima, M. Yamamoto, K. Miyano, Y. Uezono and T. Kono

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12877

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      Periodic peristaltic motility is lost in TRPA1 KO mice. Intraluminal TRPA1 stimulation may beneficial to POI.

    4. High-resolution colonic motility recordings in vivo compared with ex vivo recordings after colectomy, in patients with slow transit constipation

      P. G. Dinning, T. C. Sia, R. Kumar, R. Mohd Rosli, M. Kyloh, D. A. Wattchow, L. Wiklendt, S. J. H. Brookes, M. Costa and N. J. Spencer

      Version of Record online: 9 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12884

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      Recording fibre-optic high resolution manometry in the ex vivo and in vivo colon of patients with slow transit constipation.

    5. Effects of hemin on heme oxygenase-1, gastric emptying, and symptoms in diabetic gastroparesis

      A. E. Bharucha, S. L. Daley, P. A. Low, S. J. Gibbons, K. M. Choi, M. Camilleri, J. J. Saw, G. Farrugia and A. R. Zinsmeister

      Version of Record online: 9 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12874

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      Failure to maintain upregulation of heme oxygenase (HO1) leads to loss of interstitial cells of Cajal and delayed gastric emptying in diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial comparing intravenous hemin, prepared in albumin, to albumin alone (placebo) in 20 patients with diabetic gastroparesis, hemin increased HO1 levels up to 1 week but not thereafter. Hemin did not improve gastric emptying or gastrointestinal symptoms.

    6. Effects of ghrelin receptor agonist, relamorelin, on gastric motor functions and satiation in healthy volunteers

      A. D. Nelson, M. Camilleri, A. Acosta, I. Busciglio, S. Linker Nord, A. Boldingh, D. Rhoten, M. Ryks and D. Burton

      Version of Record online: 9 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12870

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      In 16 healthy volunteers, we compared effects of 30 µg subcutaneous (s.c.) relamorelin to placebo on: (i) gastric volumes measured by SPECT, (ii) 1-h postprandial distal antral motility index (MI) by 15-lumen perfusion gastroduodenal manometry, and (iii) satiation tested by Ensure nutrient drink test. Relamorelin, 30 µg s.c., significantly increased the number of contractions in the distal antrum during 0–60 min postmeal when compared to placebo (p = 0.022); this was also observed in the first two 15 min periods (p = 0.005 and 0.015 for number of contractions 0–15 and 16–30). Relamorelin increases frequency of distal antral motility contractions without significant effects on amplitude of contractions. The lack of inhibition of accommodation and absence of increase in satiation symptoms support relamorelin for the treatment of symptomatic gastroparesis.

    7. Male-specific colon motility dysfunction in the TashT mouse line

      A. M. Touré, B. Charrier and N. Pilon

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12847

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      In this study, we report that adult TashTTg/Tg mice that do not develop aganglionic megacolon suffer from chronic constipation in a male-specific manner. Extensive characterization of gastrointestinal (GI) motility and myenteric plexus structure/composition suggests that this is due to aganglionosis and/or hypoganglionosis combined with male-specific neuronal subtypes' imbalance in the ganglionated distal colon.

    8. Differential activation of afferent neuronal and inflammatory pathways during small bowel obstruction (SBO)

      M. H. Mueller, X. Zhao, T. Macheroux, M. S. Kasparek, H. Seeliger and M. E. Kreis

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12861

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      Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a potentially life-threatening condition its comprehension is essential to improve treatment. We aimed to investigate afferent nerve sensitivity and intestinal inflammatory response during SBO to identify possible targets of treatment. Extracellular multi-unit afferent nerve discharge from jejunal mesenteric nerves from C57 Bl6 mice in vitro was recorded, histological assessment of leukocyte infiltration was performed and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was quantified following SBO. Increased afferent nerve sensitivity and intestinal inflammatory changes may be targeted by, for example, agents with anti-inflammatory action.

    9. Prolonged esophageal acid exposures induce synaptic downscaling of cortical membrane AMPA receptor subunits in rats

      B. Banerjee, B. K. Medda, J. Zhang, V. Tuchscherer, R. Babygirija, P. Kannampalli, J. N. Sengupta and R. Shaker

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12834

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      The findings of this study provide a better understanding of the esophageal pain mechanisms for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. The main objective was to investigate whether prolonged esophageal acid exposures in Sprague Dawley rats resulted in homeostatic synaptic scaling through downregulation of cortical AMPA receptor membrane expression.

    10. Cognitive and hedonic responses to meal ingestion correlate with changes in circulating metabolites

      C. Malagelada, I. Barba, A. Accarino, L. Molne, S. Mendez, E. Campos, A. Gonzalez, C. Alonso-Cotoner, J. Santos, J.-R. Malagelada and F. Azpiroz

      Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12879

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      Meal ingestion induces cognitive responses, such as satiation and fullness, with a hedonic dimension (digestive well-being and satisfaction). Both cognitive and hedonic responses correlated with changes in specific metabolites during the postprandial period.

    11. Prucalopride induces high-amplitude propagating contractions in the colon of patients with chronic constipation: a randomized study

      P. B. Miner Jr, M. Camilleri, D. Burton, H. Achenbach, H. Wan, J. Dragone and B. Mellgard

      Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12832

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      This study compared the effects on colonic motility of prucalopride vs polyethylene glycol 3350 + electrolytes (PEG3350) in patients with chronic constipation. Prucalopride was found to be superior to PEG3350 + electrolytes in improving colonic motility, as measured by the number of high-amplitude propagating contractions, in patients with chronic constipation.

    12. Autonomic nervous system function predicts the inflammatory response over three years in newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis patients

      V. Gunterberg, M. Simrén, L. Öhman, P. Friberg, M. P. Jones, L. Van Oudenhove and H. Strid

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12865

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      This study confirms the close interplay between ANS and the immune system in patients with UC as previously shown in animal models of intestinal inflammation and recently in patients with IBD. We demonstrated both a cross-sectional association between autonomic activity and inflammation upon remission of the onset flare, and also a prediction of the inflammatory activity over a 3-year follow-up period.

    13. Reduction of epithelial secretion in male rat distal colonic mucosa by bile acid receptor TGR5 agonist, INT-777: role of submucosal neurons

      H. Duboc, G. Tolstanova, P.-Q. Yuan, V. S. Wu, I. Kaji, M. Biraud, Y. Akiba, J. D. Kaunitz, M. Million, Y. Tache and M. Larauche

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12866

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      This study presents evidence that the inhibition of basal and stimulated colonic secretion in rat seromuscular stripped preparations of distal colon by the bile specific receptor TGR5 agonist is linked to an action both on epithelial cells and on cholinergic submucosal neurons, in which it is shown to be highly expressed. These data expand the concept that bile acids behave as colonic osmosignals modulating the fluidity of luminal contents.

    14. Activity and MeCP2-dependent regulation of nNOS levels in enteric neurons

      G. Wahba, S. C. Schock, S. Cudd, D. Grynspan, P. Humphreys and W. A. Staines

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12873

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      MeCP2 is required for proper GI motility and normal nNOS levels. nNOS imbalances could mediate the GI dysmotility seen in RTT. Disruption of MeCP2-dependent HSP may be the basis for aberrant nNOS levels and hence GI dysmotility in MeCP2-KO and RTT.

    15. The Endoscopic Reference Score shows modest accuracy to predict histologic remission in adult patients with eosinophilic esophagitis

      B. D. van Rhijn, J. Verheij, A. J. P. M. Smout and A. J. Bredenoord

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12872

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      Endoscopic signs of EoE in the follow-up of two different patients, according to the Endoscopic Reference Score. E, exudates; R, rings; E, edema; F, furrows; S, strictures.

    16. The incidence rate and characteristics of clinically diagnosed defecatory disorders in the community

      J. Noelting, J. E. Eaton, R. S. Choung, A. R. Zinsmeister, G. R. Locke III and A. E. Bharucha

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12868

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      The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of defecatory disorders in Olmsted County between 1999 and 2008 was 19.3 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI: 16.8–21.8), which is greater than the incidence of Crohn's disease but less than that of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Defecatory disorders are more common in women and are frequently associated with psychiatric conditions and IBS.

  4. Review Articles

    1. Neurobiology of early life stress and visceral pain: translational relevance from animal models to patient care

      D. K. Prusator, A. Andrews and B. Greenwood-Van Meerveld

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12862

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      The current review aims to shed light on the progress and the challenges observed by clinicians within the field of gastroenterology and the preclinical science aimed at addressing those challenges in an effort to understand and more efficiently treat FGIDs in both children and adults.

  5. Original Articles

    1. Effect of estrogen on visceral sensory function in a non-inflammatory colonic hypersensitivity rat model

      C. Knuesel, M. Oulevey-Meier, B. Flogerzi, M. Krayer, I. Gschossmann, J. Miller, L. Tovar, S. Janko and J. M. Gschossmann

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12857

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      To study the effect of sexual hormones on visceral nociception, the selective effect of estrogen on visceral sensitivity in gonadectomized female and male Lewis rats with or without prior treatment with butyrate enemas was studied. In our rat model, estrogen is a strong factor for an increase in visceral sensory function.

    2. The rising cost of hospital care for children with gastroparesis: 2004–2013

      P. L. Lu, M. Moore-Clingenpeel, D. Yacob, C. Di Lorenzo and H. M. Mousa

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12869

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      Our objective was to evaluate the cost of hospital care for children with gastroparesis (GP). The annual cost of hospitalization for children with GP increased by nearly sixfold from 2004 to 2013, driven by a rise in the number of hospitalizations and unique patients hospitalized each year. The rising cost of hospital care for children with GP despite decreases in pediatric hospitalization overall emphasizes the importance of cost-effective evaluation and management of GP.

    3. Pathophysiology of fecal incontinence differs between men and women: a case-matched study in 200 patients

      D. C. Townsend, E. V. Carrington, U. Grossi, R. E. Burgell, J. Y. J. Wong, C. H. Knowles and S. M. Scott

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12858

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      This study analyzed the clinical histories and results of anorectal physiological investigations of 100 consecutive males and 100 case-matched females presenting to our unit with a primary complaint of fecal incontinence.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Interplay between mast cells, enterochromaffin cells, and sensory signaling in the aging human bowel

      Y. Yu, D. M. Daly, I. J. Adam, P. Kitsanta, C. J. Hill, J. Wild, A. Shorthouse, D. Grundy and W. Jiang

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12842

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      The aim of this study was to investigate how aging affects afferent sensitivity and neuro-immune association in the human bowel. Human afferents were broadly classified into subpopulations displaying mechanical and chemical sensitivity, adaptation, chemo-sensitization, and recruitment. Interestingly human bowel afferent nerve sensitivity was attenuated with age. There were associated changes on the density of substance P-immunoreactive (SP-IR) nerves, while the density of ileal and colonic mucosal mast cells was increased with age, as was ileal EC cell number.

    5. The effect of arabinoxylooligosaccharides on gastric sensory-motor function and nutrient tolerance in man

      E. Scarpellini, E. Deloose, R. Vos, I. E. J. A. Francois, J. A. Delcour, W. F. Broekaert, K. Verbeke and J. Tack

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12819

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      Acute AXOS administration is associated with a significant colonic fermentation vs maltodextrin non fermentation. AXOS does not affect gastric sensorimotor function and nutrient tolerance in man, but its fermentation seems to be associated to higher bloating ratings in man.

    6. Esophageal acid sensitivity and mucosal integrity in patients with functional heartburn

      P. W. Weijenborg, A. J. P. M. Smout and A. J. Bredenoord

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12864

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      Patients with functional heartburn experience heartburn in the absence of objective gastroesophageal reflux. What causes heartburn in these patients is unclear. In this study, we evaluated esophageal sensitivity and esophageal mucosal barrier function of patients with functional heartburn. Lag time to heartburn perception after acid perfusion was significantly longer in functional heartburn patients, but once perceived intensity was similar to that in patients with reflux disease. Esophageal mucosal barrier function was similar patients with functional heartburn and reflux disease.

    7. Serotonin-induced contractile responses of esophageal smooth muscle in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus)

      T. Shiina, K. Naitou, H. Nakamori, Y. Suzuki, K. Horii, Y. Sano, H. Shimaoka and Y. Shimizu

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12863

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      This study was performed to determine contractile characteristics induced by serotonin in the suncus esophagus. The findings suggest that serotonin induces contractile responses of the longitudinal smooth muscle in the muscularis mucosae of the suncus esophagus that are mediated via 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors on muscle cells.

    8. Irritable bowel syndrome and the perinatal period: lower birth weight increases the risk

      D. Raslau, L. M. Herrick, G. R. Locke, C. D. Schleck, A. R. Zinsmeister, A. Almazar, N. J. Talley and Y. A. Saito

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12849

    9. Colonic overexpression of the T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 in a mouse model of visceral hypersensitivity and in irritable bowel syndrome patients

      J. Scanzi, A. Accarie, E. Muller, B. Pereira, Y. Aissouni, M. Goutte, J. Joubert-Zakeyh, E. Picard, L. Boudieu, C. Mallet, A. Gelot, D. Ardid, F. A. Carvalho and M. Dapoigny

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12860

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      Our work is a bench-to-bed approach to visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We performed preclinical studies on wild-type and Cav3.2-deficient (Cav3.2-KO) mice, in which visceral hypersensitivity has been induced using 0.5% DSS, showing that the T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 is involved in visceral hypersensitivity. We conducted a prospective clinical study on colonic biopsies from 14 IBS patients and 16 healthy controls, revealing that Cav3.2 calcium channel is overexpressed in colonic biopsies of IBS patients, compared to controls. Thus, Cav3.2 channels could represent a new interesting target to improve IBS patients' abdominal pain.

  6. Technical Notes

    1. Gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy (G-POEM) as a salvage therapy for refractory gastroparesis: a case series of different subtypes

      P. Mekaroonkamol, L. Y. Li, S. Dacha, Y. Xu, S. D. Keilin, F. F. Willingham and Q. Cai

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12854

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      This study objectively described success of G-POEM, a newly developed, minimally invasive endoscopic procedure for patients with refractory gastroparesis in different subtypes, including postsurgical, postinfectious, and idiopathic gastroparesis. It showed promising efficacy to potentially revolutionize the management of gastroparesis.

  7. Original Articles

    1. Effect of vitamin D on gastrointestinal symptoms and health-related quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

      A. Abbasnezhad, R. Amani, E. Hajiani, P. Alavinejad, B. Cheraghian and A. Ghadiri

      Version of Record online: 7 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12851

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      Over the 6-month intervention period, a significantly greater improvement in IBS symptoms, severity score (IBSSS), and quality of life (IBS-QoL) were observed in the vitamin D group as compared to the placebo group.

    2. Diagnostic disagreement between tests of evacuatory function: a prospective study of 100 constipated patients

      S. Palit, N. Thin, C. H. Knowles, P. J. Lunniss, A. E. Bharucha and S. M. Scott

      Version of Record online: 7 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12859

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      100 constipated patients were prospectively investigated using manometry, evacuation proctography and balloon expulsion test, strictly following the ROME III criteria. Our results showed significant discordance between outcome of investigations.

    3. Impact of laparoscopic antireflux surgery on belching in pediatric GERD patients

      N. F. Rinsma, F. A. Mauritz, L. W. E. van Heurn, C. E. J. Sloots, P. D. Siersema, R. H. J. Houwen, D. C. van der Zee, A. A. M. Masclee, J. M. Conchillo and M. Y. A. Van Herwaarden-Lindeboom

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12850

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      In this study, the effect of laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS) on belching was evaluated in pediatric GERD patients. Gastric belching is significantly reduced after LARS, whereas the number of air swallows remains unchanged. This is likely to explain frequently reported postoperative gas-related complications (gas bloat and the inability to belch) of LARS in children.

    4. The impact of abuse and mood on bowel symptoms and health-related quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

      N. Kanuri, B. Cassell, S. E. Bruce, K. S. White, B. M. Gott, C. P. Gyawali and G. S. Sayuk

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12848

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      We studied the relationship of GI and mood symptoms among IBS patients with and without abuse histories. IBS patients with abuse experiences had more severe abdominal pain and illness-related disability, an effect partially mediated by comorbid mood. Multiple abuse experiences exerted negative effects on IBS symptoms and health-related quality of life in an additive fashion.

    5. Prospective cohort study of phenotypic variation based on an anal sphincter function in adults with fecal incontinence

      C. Brochard, G. Bouguen, A. Bodère, A. Ropert, A-L. Mallet, J. Morcet, J-F. Bretagne and L. Siproudhis

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12855

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      Patients with fecal incontinence and normal anal function had severe constipation, paradoxical puborectal contraction, and pushed harder suggesting the involvement of distal constipation. The management of patients with fecal incontinence and normal anal function should focus on the distal constipation.

    6. Brain responses to uncertainty about upcoming rectal discomfort in quiescent Crohn's disease – a fMRI study

      A. Rubio, S. Pellissier, L. Van Oudenhove, G. H. LI, P. Dupont, J. Tack, C. Dantzer, C. Delon-Martin and B. Bonaz

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12844

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      During uncertainty regarding the occurrence of visceral discomfort, CD patients have significantly stronger activations than controls in brain regions implicated in sensory, cognitive and emotional aspects of pain and threat appraisal, and in autonomic responses. These brain responses to uncertainty correlate positively with gastrointestinal symptom-specific anxiety, trait-anxiety, and intolerance of uncertainty.

    7. Early life adversity in piglets induces long-term upregulation of the enteric cholinergic nervous system and heightened, sex-specific secretomotor neuron responses

      J. E. Medland, C. S. Pohl, L. L. Edwards, S. Frandsen, K. Bagley, Y. Li and A. J. Moeser

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12828

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      Early life adversity (ELA) is a risk factor in the later life development of GI diseases such as IBS; however, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study demonstrated that early life adversity in a porcine model induces lasting and sex-specific hypersensitivity of secretomotor neuron function and upregulation of the cholinergic ENS. These findings may represent a mechanistic link between ELA and lifelong susceptibility to GI diseases such as IBS.

    8. Long-term efficacy and safety of transanal irrigation in multiple sclerosis

      V. Passananti, A. Wilton, G. Preziosi, J. B. Storrie and A. Emmanuel

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12833

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      These long-term data on a large sample of MS patients confirm that TAI is an effective treatment option for NBD in these patients. TAI reduces the use of other health care services. The only predictive factor for successful therapy was impaired anal electrosensitivity.

  8. Hot Topics

    1. Fructose consumption impairs serotonergic signaling in the murine enteric nervous system

      K. Lowette, A.-S. Desmet, R.M. Farré, J. Tack and P. Vanden Berghe

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12827

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      Prolonged high-fructose consumption can temporarily impair neuronal function and serotonergic signaling in the mouse submucous plexus.

  9. Original Articles

    1. Gastric emptying of solids in children: reference values for the 13C-octanoic acid breath test

      B. Hauser, M. Roelants, J. De Schepper, G. Veereman, V. Caveliers, T. Devreker, E. De Greef and Y. Vandenplas

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12845

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      We compared the 13C-octanoic acid breath test using non-dispersive infrared spectrometry with 99mTechnetium scintigraphy to measure gastric emptying of a standardized pancake test meal in children with upper gastrointestinal problems. We also established normal values for gastric emptying of this standardized pancake test meal measured with the 13C-octanoic acid breath test using non-dispersive infrared spectrometry in healthy children.

    2. Endocannabinoid-related lipids are increased during an episode of cyclic vomiting syndrome

      T. Venkatesan, Y. Zadvornova, H. Raff and C. J. Hillard

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12843

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      Our study examining the endocannabinoid system and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) demonstrates that endocannabinoid-related lipids, N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA), and N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) are increased in the sick phase of CVS and correlate with poor sleep quality and nausea. Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase were also significantly increased in the sick phase of CVS, but only in patients with chronic marijuana use. This suggests that chronic marijuana use enhances the stress response in CVS.

    3. A prospective study on symptom generation according to spicy food intake and TRPV1 genotypes in functional dyspepsia patients

      S.-Y. Lee, T. Masaoka, H. S. Han, J. Matsuzaki, M. J. Hong, S. Fukuhara, H. S. Choi and H. Suzuki

      Version of Record online: 19 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12841

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      This prospective study was approved by institutional review board (IRB) of Konkuk University Medical Center (No. KUH1010381) and Institutional Ethics Committee of Keio University School of Medicine (No. 20120246). After the IRB approvals, the study was registered at the Clinical Trial registration sites in Korea (https://cris.nih.go.kr) and in Japan (http://umin.co.jp) as KCT0000527 and UMIN000009673, respectively.

  10. Hot Topics

    1. Correlated gene expression encoding serotonin (5-HT) receptor 4 and 5-HT transporter in proximal colonic segments of mice across different colonization states and sexes

      C. S. Reigstad, D. R. Linden, J. H. Szurszewski, J. L. Sonnenburg, G. Farrugia and P. C. Kashyap

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12840

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      A strong, positive correlation was identified between colonic expression of serotonin transporter Slc6a4 and serotonin receptor Htr4 across different colonization states and sexes. These data suggest that expression of Slc6a4 and Htr4 involves coregulation of genes located on different chromosomes which modulate serotonergic activity in the gut.

  11. Original Articles

    1. Impact of electrical stimulation of the stomach on gastric distension-induced emesis in the musk shrew

      C. C. Horn, L. Zirpel, M. G. Sciullo and D. M. Rosenberg

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12821

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      Musk shrew in vivo anesthetized preparation. (A) Preparation. (B) Gastric stimulation electrodes were placed at three sites. (C) A representative example of detection of seven emetic episodes using the Kleinberg algorithm for burst detection.

    2. Exploring the effects of synchronous pharyngeal electrical stimulation with swallowing carbonated water on cortical excitability in the human pharyngeal motor system

      J. Magara, E. Michou, A. Raginis-Zborowska, M. Inoue and S. Hamdy

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12839

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      This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of synchronously combining PES with swallowing CW using TMS. PES was most effective at inducing excitation in the pharyngeal motor cortex. Combination of PES and CW were less effective in producing cortical excitability but induced transient excitation in the brainstem.

    3. Prevalence, characteristics, and treatment outcomes of reflux hypersensitivity detected on pH-impedance monitoring

      A. Patel, G. S. Sayuk and C. P. Gyawali

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12838

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      Reflux hypersensitivity with physiologic acid burden is seen in a third of symptomatic patients referred for pH-impedance monitoring. Use of pH-impedance monitoring shifts proportions of diagnoses toward reflux hypersensitivity rather than functional non-reflux-triggered symptoms. Reflux hypersensitivity to impedance-detected reflux events improves better than acid sensitivity following antireflux therapy. Antireflux surgery can be an option for select reflux hypersensitivity patients with structural disruption at the esophagogastric junction.

  12. Technical Notes

    1. Determinants and clinical impact of pressure drift in manoscan anorectal high resolution manometry system

      G. Parthasarathy, J. McMaster, K. Feuerhak, A. R. Zinsmeister and A. E. Bharucha

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12830

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      During anorectal HRM, Pressure Drift (PD) declines with catheter use, and is greater for newer catheters, when sensors are exposed to higher pressures, and for studies of longer duration. While PD is partially corrected with the thermal compensation algorithm, the impact on interpretation is modest.

  13. Original Articles

    1. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with irritable bowel syndrome and gastrointestinal symptom severity

      S. H. Park, E. J. Videlock, W. Shih, A. P. Presson, E. A. Mayer and L. Chang

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12826

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      This is the first study to measure the prevalence of early adverse life events (EALs) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) questionnaire in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The main results of the study were: (i) A history of EALs (i.e., ACE score ≥1) was associated with significantly higher odds (twofold) of having IBS, (ii) IBS status was predicted by a history of emotional abuse and a mentally ill or incarcerated household member, and (iii) ACE score significantly correlates with both overall IBS symptom and abdominal pain severity. This study demonstrates that the ACE questionnaire is a useful instrument to measure EALs in IBS based on its use in large studies, its ability to measure prevalence across different EAL domains, and its correlation with symptom severity.

  14. Hot Topics

    1. Competency based medical education in gastrointestinal motility

      R. Yadlapati, R. N. Keswani and J. E. Pandolfino

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12835

  15. Original Articles

    1. A commonly used ecto-ATPase inhibitor, ARL-67156, blocks degradation of ADP more than the degradation of ATP in murine colon

      L. Durnin, N. Moreland, A. Lees and V. N. Mutafova-Yambolieva

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12836

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      ARL-67156, at a concentration commonly used in physiological/pharmacological studies, does not inhibit the degradation of ATP, but rather causes accumulation of ADP. POM-1 appears to be a better inhibitor of ATPases in the murine colon.

    2. Interplay between bile acid metabolism and microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome

      M. Dior, H. Delagrèverie, H. Duboc, P. Jouet, B. Coffin, L. Brot, L. Humbert, G. Trugnan, P. Seksik, H. Sokol, D. Rainteau and J.-M. Sabate

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12829

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      We demonstrated that in comparison to healthy subjects, IBS patients have different serum and fecal bile acid profiles that could be secondary to dysbiosis and altered metabolic functions. We also observed variation in bile acid profiles between IBS-C and IBS-D patients, which may explain differences in stool patterns. Bile acid profiles were also correlated with abdominal pain.

    3. Practical and reproducible estimation of myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal in the bowel for diagnostic purposes

      M. den Braber-Ymker, S. Heijker, M. Lammens and I. D. Nagtegaal

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12831

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      We presented a novel semiquantitative estimation method for assessment of the myenteric network of interstitial cells of Cajal in the bowel, which can easily be implemented in diagnostics. The method showed acceptable agreement and reliability. Hence, it might be used in routine diagnostics of intestinal neuromuscular disorders.

    4. Sensory innervation of the guinea pig colon and rectum compared using retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry

      B. N. Chen, C. Olsson, D. F. Sharrad and S. J. H. Brookes

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12825

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      The extrinsic sensory innervation of the guinea pig rectum and colon were compared by retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry. Both regions receive innervation from thoracolumbar spinal afferents; only the rectum was innervated by lumbosacral afferents and vagal afferents were very sparse to both regions. Fewer than half of all traced afferents contained either CGRP or TRPV1.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Tracking gastrointestinal transit of solids in aged rats as pharmacological models of chronic dysmotility

      J. E. Dalziel, W. Young, P. Bercik, N. J. Spencer, L. J. Ryan, K. E. Dunstan, C. M. Lloyd-West, P. K. Gopal, N. W. Haggarty and N. C. Roy

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12824

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      This study reports the development of a non-invasive high resolution X-ray imaging technique to track transit of solid material in vivo. Modulatory drugs altered GI transit of contents in a region-specific manner providing rat models of constipation (loperamide) and accelerated transit (prucalopride).

    6. Gut microbes in correlation with mood: case study in a closed experimental human life support system

      L. Li, Q. Su, B. Xie, L. Duan, W. Zhao, D. Hu, R. Wu and H. Liu

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12822

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      A case study on the correlation between gut microbial alternation and mood swing of healthy adults was conducted in a closed human life support system during a 105-day experiment. Microbial community structures in the three healthy adults were strongly correlated with mood states.

    7. Diagnostic yield of 24-hour esophageal manometry in non-cardiac chest pain

      M. Barret, T. V. K. Herregods, J. M. Oors, A. J. P. M. Smout and A. J. Bredenoord

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12818

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      Comparing the diagnostic yield of high-resolution manometry and 24-h ambulatory pressure monitoring in patients with non-cardiac chest pain, we found that when the Chicago classification v3.0 was applied, HRM did not identify any of the four (6.8%) patients with esophageal spasm on 24-h measurement. However, taking into account other more subtle abnormalities, such as simultaneous (rapid) or repetitive contractions, HRM had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 98.2% for the diagnosis of esophageal spasm.

  16. Hot Topics

    1. Drug–resin drug interactions in patients with delayed gastric emptying: What is optimal time window for drug administration?

      M. Camilleri

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12823

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      This article reviews the functions of the stomach and the kinetics of emptying of different food forms or formulations to make recommendations on timing of medication administration in order to avoid intragastric drug interactions. Based on the profiles and kinetics of emptying of liquid nutrients and homogenized solids, a window of 3 h between administration of a resin drug and another ‘target’ medication would be expected to allow a median of 80% of medications with particle size <1 mm to empty from the stomach and, hence, avoid potential interaction such as binding of the ‘target’ medication within the stomach.

  17. Original Articles

    1. Changes of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the colon of rats underwent to the wrap partial restraint stress

      C. Traini, S. Evangelista, V. Girod, M.S. Faussone-Pellegrini and M.G. Vannucchi

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12816

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      This study aims to investigate possible morphological changes in the colonic wall of wrap restraint stress (WRS) rats and correlates the results with functional data to improve our understanding of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathogenesis. WRS was maintained for 2 h. At the end, fecal pellets were quantitated and abdominal contractions were recorded in the colon-rectum. Colonic specimens were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry, and western blot. The functional data showed a significant increase in fecal pellet production and the presence of a visceral hypersensitivity. The morphological findings showed the presence of a mucosal inflammation and important changes in nerve structures. The present results support the consistency of the WRS as a potential model for understanding IBS pathogenesis. The changes in nerve structures might represent the main substrates for dysmotility and visceral hypersensitivity. This is the first report of an increase in CRF1r expressing neurons. This datum fits well with the role of the receptor in mediating the stress responses and supports our hypothesis that changes in neurotransmission are mainly involved in the genesis of colonic dysmotility.

    2. Malnutrition increases NO production and induces changes in inflammatory and oxidative status in the distal colon of lactating rats

      E. F. dos Santos-Júnior, C. Gonçalves-Pimentel, L. C. C. de ARAÚJO, T. G. da Silva, M. R. de Melo-Júnior, V. Moura-Neto and B. L. D. S. Andrade-da-Costa

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12820

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      Epidemiological studies have indicated the lack of breast feeding as a risk factor associated with later development of inflammatory bowel disease. Nevertheless, the repercussion of little feeding during suckling on large intestine inflammatory response and anti-oxidant resources has not yet been completely understood. In this study, our results reveal that reduced feeding during suckling changes the inflammatory response and oxidative status in the colon of weanling rats and increase nitric oxide levels in the muscle layers.

    3. Anatomic abnormalities are common potential explanations of manometric esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction

      K. DeLay, G. L. Austin and P. Menard-Katcher

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12814

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      Esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (EGJOO) is a high-resolution manometry (HRM) diagnosis associated with a myriad of conditions and of uncertain clinical implication. We compared clinical and manometric features of EGJOO classified as either idiopathic or related to anatomic conditions. We found that EGJOO is frequently encountered and commonly associated with anatomic abnormalities. Cases of idiopathic EGJOO are more likely to have hypercontractility on HRM.

    4. Validating endpoints for therapeutic trials in fecal incontinence

      J. Noelting, A. R. Zinsmeister and A. E. Bharucha

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12809

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      This study suggests that a 50% reduction in the frequency of fecal incontinence (FI) is clinically meaningful. Daily and weekly instruments are correlated for assessing symptoms of FI.

    5. The association between systemic sclerosis disease manifestations and esophageal high-resolution manometry parameters

      J. N. Kimmel, D. A. Carlson, M. Hinchcliff, M. A. Carns, K. A. Aren, J. Lee and J. E. Pandolfino

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12813

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      Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and previous completed high-resolution manometry were retrospectively evaluated to assign an esophageal motility diagnosis by the Chicago Classification and explore associations with SSc-related clinical characteristics. We identified an association of increased skin severity (measured by the Modified Rodnan Skin Score) and more severe reductions in pulmonary function tests in patients with absent contractility compared with patients with ineffective esophageal motility and normal esophageal motility.

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