Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 40 Issue 3

Accepted Articles (Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable. The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future.)

Edited By: Keith Mott

Impact Factor: 6.169

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 10/209 (Plant Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1365-3040

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  1. 1 - 39
  1. Special Issues

    1. Ying and Yang interplay between reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species controls cell functions

      Laura De Gara and Christine H. Foyer

      Accepted manuscript online: 24 FEB 2017 08:35PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12936

    2. Assessing frost damages using dynamic models in walnut trees: exposure rather than vulnerability controls frost risks.

      Guillaume Charrier, Isabelle Chuine, Marc Bonhomme and Thierry Améglio

      Accepted manuscript online: 9 FEB 2017 08:10PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12935

      To predict critical periods facing frost damages, two dynamic integrated models of frost hardiness were adapted using five years of monitoring in three different genotypes of walnut trees and two locations. Frost hardiness was more accurately predicted when using both temperature and photoperiod as input variables. Higher frost damages (i.e. frost risks) were more closely related to temperature of the freezing events (i.e. frost exposure) rather than to frost hardiness or phenological stage (i.e. frost vulnerability). Even though frost risks are higher in winter at high elevation (exposure constrained) and spring at low elevation, especially in early genotypes (exposure and vulnerability constrained), fruit yields observed the following year were correlated to autumn damages.

  2. Invited Reviews

    1. Photomorphogenic Responses to Ultraviolet-B light

      Gareth I. Jenkins

      Accepted manuscript online: 9 FEB 2017 07:50PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12934

      Exposure to UV-B light regulates plant metabolism, morphology and physiology through differential gene expression. This review summarises current understanding of the role of the photoreceptor UVR8 in mediating photomorphogenic responses to UV-B, including its interactions with other signaling pathways and its action under natural growth conditions.

  3. Special Issues

    1. Quantifying pearl millet response to high temperature stress: thresholds, sensitive stages, genetic variability and relative sensitivity of pollen and pistil

      M. Djanaguiraman, R. Perumal, I.A. Ciampitti, S.K. Gupta and P.V.V. Prasad

      Accepted manuscript online: 7 FEB 2017 07:05PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12931

      We quantified impact of high temperature (HT) stress to determine thresholds, sensitive stages, genetic variability, and fertility of pollen and pistil of pearl millet. High temperatures (≥36/26°C) decreased pollen germination, number of seeds and seed yield per panicle. The periods of gametogenesis and anthesis were most sensitive to HT stress affecting seed yield. There were negative impacts on fertility of both pollen and pistil; however, pistil was relatively more sensitive to HT than pollen, which was explained by greater oxidative damage. Pearl millet has relatively higher ceiling temperature compared to other cereals, thus an important climate resilient crop.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Root cortical senescence decreases root respiration, nutrient content, and radial water and nutrient transport in barley

      Hannah M. Schneider, Tobias Wojciechowski, Johannes A. Postma, Kathleen M. Brown, Andreas Lücke, Viktoria Zeisler, Lukas Schreiber and Jonathan P. Lynch

      Accepted manuscript online: 6 FEB 2017 04:25AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12933

      Three Sentence Summary: Root cortical senescence (RCS) is a poorly understood phenomenon with functional implications for plant performance. RCS reduced root respiration and nutrient content, decreased radial water and nutrient transport, and was accompanied by increased suberization of the endodermis. RCS may have adaptive significance for soil resource acquisition by reducing root carbon and nutrient costs thereby permitting greater root growth, soil resource acquisition, and resource allocation to other plant processes.

    2. Tomato photorespiratory glycolate oxidase-derived H2O2 production contributes to basal defense against Pseudomonas syringae

      Golam Jalal Ahammed, Xin Li, Guanqun Zhang, Huan Zhang, Junying Shi, Caizhe Pan, Jingquan Yu and Kai Shi

      Accepted manuscript online: 6 FEB 2017 03:05AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12932

      A brief summary statement

      Although photorespiration, an essential process in C3 plants, has been implicated in the defense response of plants against pathogens, its role in plant basal defense still remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of photorespiration in tomato-Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 interaction focusing on three photorespiratory genes such as GLYCOLATE OXIDASE (GOX2), SERINE GLYOXYLATE AMINOTRANSFERASE (SGT) and SERINE HYDROXYL METHYLTRANSFERASE (SHMT1). Results showed that inoculation with P. syringae increased photorespiration rate and expression of GOX2, SGT and SHMT1, while inhibition of photorespiration decreased tomato basal defense against P. syringae. Further investigation using virus-induced gene silencing and transient overexpression of those genes reveal that H2O2 is critical for GOX2- but not SGT- or SHMT1-modulated SA signaling and subsequent basal defense against P. syringae.

  5. Reviews

    1. Isoprene research – 60 years later, the biology is still enigmatic

      Thomas D. Sharkey and Russell K. Monson

      Accepted manuscript online: 4 FEB 2017 08:45AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12930

      Summary statement

      Isoprene emission from plants is a major component of biosphere-atmosphere interactions but is relatively unrecognized. The first report of isoprene emission from plants was 60 years ago and a number of attributes of isoprene emission from plants were quickly discovered. In the ensuing years a number of people have devoted much effort to understanding the biology, biochemistry, and role in atmospheric chemistry has occurred. Publications describing significant advances are highlighted.

  6. Original Articles

    1. AtHOP3, a member of the HOP family in Arabidopsis, interacts with BiP and plays a major role in the ER stress response.

      Nuria Fernández-Bautista, Lourdes Fernández-Calvino, Alfonso Muñoz and M. Mar Castellano

      Accepted manuscript online: 2 FEB 2017 08:20PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12927

      This is the first time that a member of the HOP family has been described as an essential component of the ER stress response during the UPR in any eukaryote. The ER stress response is highly conserved and so is HOP and BiP, therefore, these data could be also relevant, not only for plants, but also for other eukaryotes. Furthermore, this study opens the possibility that HOP3, by modulating the ER stress response, may have a main function in processes as important for crop productivity as pollen and seed maturation or during the response to environmental challenges.

    2. Phospholipase Dα1-mediated phosphatidic acid change is a key determinant of desiccation-induced viability loss in seeds

      Hongying Chen, Xiaomei Yu, Xudong Zhang, Lan Yang, Xing Huang, Jie Zhang, Hugh W. Pritchard and Weiqi Li

      Accepted manuscript online: 2 FEB 2017 07:10PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12925

      Comparative lipidomic profiling across eight species and imposed hydration – dehydration cycling on Arabidopsis reveals a novel membrane-based mechanism for desiccation-induced viability loss in seeds.

    3. Differential response of Scots pine seedlings to variable intensity and ratio of R and FR light

      Md. Abdur Razzak, Sonali Sachin Ranade, Åsa Strand and MR García-Gil

      Accepted manuscript online: 20 JAN 2017 10:40PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12921

      Summary

      We studied the response of Scots pine seedlings to variable intensity and ratio of R and FR light with respect to hypocotyl elongation and accumulation of pigments e.g. chlorophyll and anthocyanin. The results showed that FR high irradiance response is present in pine, is enhanced by increasing light intensity and is more strongly affected by the R light compared to FR light. The overall response in pine is different from what is been previously reported in Arabidopsis or angiosperms; we conclude that the regulatory mechanism for light response may differ between gymnosperms and angiosperms.

    4. Are commercial sweet cherry rootstocks adapted to climate change? Short-term waterlogging and CO2 effects on sweet cherry cv. ‘Burlat’.

      Margarita Pérez-Jiménez, María Hernández-Munuera, M. Carmen Piñero, Gregorio López-Ortega and Francisco M. del Amor

      Accepted manuscript online: 20 JAN 2017 01:15PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12920

      Summary statement

      Elevated CO2 and waterlogging have been scantily studied and it has never done in Prunus species. To our knowledge this would be the first time in which waterlogging is studied in the future scenario of high concentrations of CO2 in this genus. In fact, while many species have been deeply studied in terms of climate change, Prunus species have been forgotten, even when they are extremely relevant crops. This work evaluates the resistance of sweet cherry to waterlogging in an environment enriched in CO2. Thus, some of the findings described in this paper are new and offer a new approach of plant responses to climate change.

  7. Commentaries

    1. Metabolic reprogramming in response to cold stress is like real estate, it's all about location

      Vaughan Hurry

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 08:15PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12923

  8. Original Articles

    1. Exploiting cell cycle inhibitor genes of the KRP family to control root-knot nematode induced feeding sites in plants

      Roberta Ramos Coelho, Paulo Vieira, José Dijair Antonino de Souza Júnior, Cristina Martin-Jimenez, Lieven De Veylder, Julie Cazareth, Gilbert Engler, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa and Janice de Almeida Engler

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 06:20PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12912

      Summary

      Plant cell cycle inhibitor genes control root-knot nematode-induced gall development. Ectopic expression of KRP3, KRP5 and KRP7 members reduce feeding cells size and interfere with giant cell nuclear morphology affecting nematode reproduction. Induced expression of these cell cycle inhibitors in galls can be envisaged as a novel strategy to control phytopathogenic nematodes in crop species.

    2. Glutathione peroxidase-like enzymes cover five distinct cell compartments and membrane-surfaces in Arabidopsis thaliana

      Safira Attacha, David Solbach, Krisztina Bela, Anna Moseler, Stephan Wagner, Markus Schwarzländer, Isabel Aller, Stefanie J. Müller and Andreas J. Meyer

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 11:31AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12919

      Brief summary statement

      Although plant glutathione peroxidase-like enzymes (GPXLs) have been implicated in important agronomic traits such as drought tolerance, photooxidative tolerance and immune response there are still major ambiguities regarding their subcellular localization. This gap in our knowledge is closed by this work in which we show the targeting of fluorescent fusion proteins for all eight GPXL family members in Arabidopsis thaliana to the cytosol, nucleus, plastids, mitochondria and the secretory pathway, respectively. By using redox-sensitive GFP2 (roGFP2) as a probe we show that GPXL3 in contrast to earlier assumptions is not in the cytosol or mitochondria, but rather localized in the secretory pathway as a membrane-bound protein anchored with a transmembrane domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that two other GPXLs, GPXL4 and GPXL5, are anchored to the plasma membrane through myristoylation of the N-terminus.

    3. Arabidopsis Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C 4 negatively regulates seedling salt tolerance

      Keke Xia, Bo Wang, Jiewei Zhang, Yuan Li, Hailian Yang and Dongtao Ren

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 11:00AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12918

      Brief summary

      The activity of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) has been suggested to play an important role in regulating plant salt stress responses; however, the individual members of plant PLCs involved in this process need to be identified. Here, we reveal that AtPLC4 negatively regulates salt stress response in Arabidopsis seedlings, and Ca2+ is required for the AtPLC4-mediated regulation process.

    4. Autumn photosynthetic decline and growth cessation in seedlings of white spruce are decoupled under warming and photoperiod manipulations

      Joseph R. Stinziano and Danielle A. Way

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 10:45AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12917

      Photoperiod may limit the ability of trees to respond to climate warming during autumn. In this study, we investigated the impact of photoperiod and temperature manipulations on photosynthetic physiology and growth in white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings. We found that temperature limited photosynthetic physiology while photoperiod limited growth, and climate warming may cause a desynchronization between autumn photosynthesis and growth. Therefore warming-induced stimulation of photosynthesis during autumn may not lead to enhanced carbon sequestration, as this carbon may be allocated to more labile pools instead.

    5. \Rice calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK17 targets plasma membrane intrinsic protein and sucrose phosphate synthase and is required for a proper cold stress response

      M. Cecília Almadanim, Bruno M. Alexandre, Margarida T.G. Rosa, Helena Sapeta, António E. Leitão, José C. Ramalho, TuKiet T. Lam, Sónia Negrão, Isabel A. Abreu and M. Margarida Oliveira

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 08:11AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12916

      Rice production is severely affected by different abiotic stresses, including cold. Cold perception is mediated by calcium signals that activate kinases to elicit the adequate cellular response. In this work, we show the involvement of the rice calcium-dependent protein kinase 17 (OsCPK17) in such a process. We show that altered OsCPK17 gene expression in transgenic lines affects cold tolerance performance, and that OsCPK17 targets proteins are associated with osmotic regulation, and sugar and nitrogen metabolism.

  9. Invited Reviews

    1. Molecular mechanisms and ecological function of far-red light signalling

      David J. Sheerin and Andreas Hiltbrunner

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 07:00AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12915

  10. Original Articles

    1. Silicon promotes cytokinin biosynthesis and delays senescence in Arabidopsis and Sorghum

      Oshry Markovich, Evyatar Steiner, Štěpán Kouřil, Petr Tarkowski, Asaph Aharoni and Rivka Elbaum

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 06:35AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12913

  11. Invited Reviews

    1. The shade avoidance syndrome: Multiple signals and ecological consequences

      Carlos L. Ballaré and Ronald Pierik

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 06:35AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12914

      During the last four decades, there has been an enormous increase in our understanding of how plants sense shading and the proximity of neighbors, and how they activate adaptive morphological and physiological responses. Important elements of the signal transduction pathways that connect informational photoreceptors with functional responses have been elucidated, and shade avoidance has become a textbook example of adaptive plasticity. It is now becoming clear that proximity perception leads to a complete reconfiguration of plant function. This reconfiguration allows the plant to optimize the deployment of leaves into light gaps, balance resource allocation between shoots and roots, optimize leaf gas exchange and nutrient uptake as a function of the degree of shading, and adaptively regulate interactions with herbivores, pathogens and beneficial microorganisms. In this review, we describe the progress in understanding shade avoidance mechanisms and highlight the diversity of plant processes and functions that are controlled by canopy light signals.

  12. Original Articles

    1. Mn accumulation in a submerged plant Egeria densa (Hydrocharitaceae) is mediated by epiphytic bacteria

      Kousuke Tsuji, Takuma Asayama, Nozomi Shiraki, Shota Inoue, Erina Okuda, Chizuru Hayashi, Kazuma Nishida, Hiroshi Hasegawa and Emiko Harada

      Accepted manuscript online: 18 JAN 2017 08:05AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12910

      Field-collected Egeria densa (Brazilian waterweed, Hydrocharitaceae) plants efficiently absorbed and accumulated environmental Mn. This Mn resulted from the accumulation of biogenic Mn oxide in biofilms on the surface of the plants. Several strains of epiphytic bacteria isolated from the plants produced Mn oxide. These findings enhance understanding of aquatic plants involved in the mobilization of Mn in a freshwater environment.

  13. Invited Reviews

    1. Evolutionary origin of phytochrome responses and signaling in land plants

      Keisuke Inoue, Ryuichi Nishihama and Takayuki Kohchi

      Accepted manuscript online: 18 JAN 2017 07:55AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12908

      Phytochrome photoreceptors that regulate many aspects of growth and development throughout the plant life cycle originated in the common ancestor of streptophytes and diversified during the course of land plant evolution. Recent advances in molecular genetics using the moss Physcomitrella patens and the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha revealed that basal land plants show FR-induced responses and that the establishment of phytochrome-mediated transcriptional regulation dates back to at least the common ancestor of land plants. In this review, we summarize our knowledge concerning functions of land plant phytochromes, especially in basal land plants, and discuss sub/neofunctionalization of phytochrome genes in the lineages of land plants.

  14. Original Articles

    1. Endogenous circadian rhythms in pigment composition induce changes in photochemical efficiency in plant canopies

      José Ignacio García-Plazaola, Beatriz Fernández-Marín, Juan Pedro Ferrio, Josu G. Alday, Günter Hoch, Damien Landais, Alexandru Milcu, David T Tissue, Jordi Voltas, Arthur Gessler, Jacques Roy and Víctor Resco de Dios

      Accepted manuscript online: 18 JAN 2017 07:55AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12909

      From chloroplasts to ecosystems, the circadian clock is a significant driver of photosynthesis, which becomes apparent when environmental cues are experimentally held constant over a few days. In the present study we have investigated whether the composition of photosynthetic pigments is under circadian regulation. We show that carbon assimilation, stomatal conductance and quantum yield oscillated with a frequency close to 24h, peaking around subjective noon. These changes were paralleled by robust oscillations of chlorophyll a/b both under constant light or darkness, indicating a rhythmic pattern of antenna size adjustment (minimal at night and maximal around noon). These results have important implications for future studies on pigment dynamics, particularly when using remote sensing platforms.

    2. The effect of blue light on stomatal oscillations and leaf turgor pressure in banana leaves

      Yotam Zait, Or Shapira and Amnon Schwartz

      Accepted manuscript online: 18 JAN 2017 07:55AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12907

      Increase of VPD above a certain threshold level caused stomatal oscillations in banana leaves with variable amplitudes. Oscillations were also induced under constant VPD when light spectrum was changed from red + blue to red alone, while addition of blue (10%) to red light ended the oscillations. Simultaneous measurements of stomatal conductance and leaf turgor pressure lead to the conclusion that the oscillations result from mismatch between transpiration rate and xylem to epidermis water supply. We found that in addition to the known effect of blue light on stomatal opening, by controlling the leaf turgor pressure it also affects the hydro passive component of stomatal movement.

    3. Ectopic expression of two AREB/ABF orthologs increase dehydration tolerance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

      Tyson C.C. Kerr, Haggag Abdel-Mageed, Lorenzo Aleman, Joohyun Lee, Paxton Payton, Dakota Cryer and Randy D. Allen

      Accepted manuscript online: 18 JAN 2017 07:55AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12906

      In order to understand the role of abscisic acid-responsive transcription factors (ABFs) in the regulation of drought tolerance in cotton, we carried out functional analysis of two gene that express representative ABFs from Arabidopsis and cotton. These genes were ectopically expressed in transgenic cotton plants and the drought tolerance phenotypes of these plants was analyzed. Our results demonstrate that ectopic expression of ABFs from either Arabidopsis or cotton lead to increased stress tolerance mediated primarily through reduced transpirational water loss. The potential uses of ABF transgenes to improve cotton drought tolerance is discussed.

    4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis with Arundo donax decreases root respiration and increases both photosynthesis and plant biomass accumulation

      Antònia Romero-Munar, Néstor Fernández Del-Saz, Miquel Ribas-Carbó, Jaume Flexas, Elena Baraza, Igor Florez-Sarasa, Alisdair Robert Fernie and Javier Gulías

      Accepted manuscript online: 6 JAN 2017 04:05PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12902

    5. Expression of the UVR8 photoreceptor in different tissues reveals tissue-autonomous features of UV-B signalling

      Péter Bernula, Carlos Daniel Crocco, Adriana Beatriz Arongaus, Roman Ulm, Ferenc Nagy and András Viczián

      Accepted manuscript online: 6 JAN 2017 02:05AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12904

      Abstract

      This work analyses how the UV-B specific photoreceptor UVR8 regulates signalling, development and growth when expressed only in specific tissues. We show that early steps of UVR8-dependent signalling, such as accumulation of the key regulatory transcription factor HY5, occur strictly in tissue-autonomous fashion. In contrast, complex UV-B-induced changes, including proper acclimation of adult plants requires simultaneous signalling in the epidermal and mesophyll cells and/or inter-tissue signalling.

    6. The metabolic sensor AKIN10 modulates the Arabidopsis circadian clock in a light-dependent manner

      Jieun Shin, Alfredo Sánchez-Villarreal, Amanda M. Davis, Shen-xiu Du, Kenneth W. Berendzen, Csaba Koncz, Zhaojun Ding, Cuiling Li and Seth J. Davis

      Accepted manuscript online: 5 JAN 2017 04:00AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12903

      Abstract

      Circadian clocks temporally regulate metabolic processes to occur at the proper time of day and the reciprocal role of metabolic signals in controlling the clock function has been proposed recently. Arabidopsis AKIN10 is an evolutionarily conserved energy sensor that can globally reprogram metabolic-enzyme activity and stress-related gene expression, and we show here that it also contributes to the plant clock, as elevated AKIN10 resulted in plants with significantly longer rhythmic period compared to the wild type, a phenotype that was light dependent. Epistasis revealed that the clock gene TIC was genetically required for the action of AKIN10 in regulating clock activity. Our work thus uncovered AKIN10 as a component linking energy signalling to circadian-clock function, itself a key driver of metabolic homeostasis.

    7. Mechanistic studies of sesquiterpene cyclases based on their carbon isotope ratios at natural abundance

      Wenhua Tan, Stefan Bartram and Wilhelm Boland

      Accepted manuscript online: 3 JAN 2017 07:11AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12901

      Abstract

      In the current work we use five known sesquiterpene cyclases, representing simple to complex biosynthetic sequences yielding in the simplest case (i) blends of (E)-β-caryophyllene and α-humulene, in a more complex example (ii) (E)-β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and germacrene D, or in the most complex system (iii) (E)-β-caryophyllene and α-humulene together with several triquinanes from farnesyl diphosphate as substrate. Compound specific IRMS measurements of the enzyme substrate FDP and the products of all the five cyclases were performed.

      The calculated δ13C value for FDP, based on δ13C values and the relative amounts of the products, was in full agreement with its measured δ13C value. Accordingly, sesquiterpenes requiring more C-C bond formations and cleavages during biosynthesis, showed more negative δ13C values than those with a lower number of bond formations or cleavages.

      The different carbon isotope ratios of the products reflect the complexity of their structure and are correlated with the frequency of carbon-carbon bond forming and breaking steps on their individual biosynthetic pathways. Thus, the analysis of carbon isotopic signatures of terpenes at natural abundance can be used as a powerful tool in the elucidation of the biosynthetic sequences, even without “touching” the plant, if emitted volatiles are analyzed.

    8. Allelic variations and differential expressions detected at QTL loci for salt stress tolerance in wheat

      Benedict C. Oyiga, Ram C. Sharma, Michael Baum, Francis C. Ogbonnaya, Jens Léon and Agim Ballvora

      Accepted manuscript online: 3 JAN 2017 04:20AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12898

      Abstract

      This study provides additional genetic and molecular insights into the salt tolerance mechanisms, and thus would aid efforts geared toward improving wheat adaptation to salinity. GWAS was used to identify major loci regulating K+ and Na+ uptake, and several agronomic related traits across multiple growth stages under saline conditions in a 150 diversity wheat panel. The analysis of the underlying candidate genes revealed that some of them are differentially expressed, and contain several functional polymorphic sites at the associated gene coding regions when wheat genotypes with contrasting response to salt stress were compared.

    9. Does ozone increase ABA levels by non-enzymatic synthesis causing stomata to close?

      Erin L. McAdam, Timothy J. Brodribb and Scott A. M. McAdam

      Accepted manuscript online: 1 JAN 2017 09:20PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12893

      Significance statement

      Here we investigate the possibility that stomatal responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly ozone, are driven by rapid non-enzymatic synthesis of abscisic acid (ABA). By measuring ABA levels and stomatal responses after a short pulse of ozone, we find that in species with stomata that are sensitive to ozone, foliar and guard cell ABA levels increase rapidly. This stomatal sensitivity to ozone, and increase in ABA level, also occurs in ABA biosynthetic mutants, suggesting that non-enzymatic oxidation of ABA precursors drives the increase in ABA levels. Our results have important implications for guard cell ROS signalling.

    10. Leaf water 18O and 2H enrichment along vertical canopy profiles in a broadleaved and a conifer forest tree

      Rebekka Bögelein, Frank M. Thomas and Ansgar Kahmen

      Accepted manuscript online: 1 JAN 2017 08:55PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12895

      Summary statement

      For interpretations of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope signatures, plant ecological and paleoclimate studies use the increasingly detailed knowledge on leaf-level enrichment processes of heavy water isotopologues, which was mainly derived under controlled conditions. To assess whether the effect size of biotic and abiotic enrichment drivers is transferable from small scale studies to mature tree canopies, input and leaf water δ2H and δ18O in European beech and Douglas fir were investigated together with the relevant morpho-physiological and microclimatic variables. Fitting these data to different enrichment models and dynamic effect analyses revealed that light-induced ecophysiological gradients as well as the Péclet effect can be neglected for these hypostomatous angiosperm and gymnosperm forest trees, which we link to their leaf morphology. Contrarily, species-specific non-steady state effects, leaf temperatures and the water vapour isotope composition need careful consideration.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Contrasting patterns of cytokinins between years in senescing aspen leaves

      Erik Edlund, Ondrej Novak, Michal Karady, Karin Ljung and Stefan Jansson

      Accepted manuscript online: 1 JAN 2017 08:20PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12899

      Summary statement:

      We profiled cytokinins/cytokinin metabolites in leaves of an aspen (Populus tremula) before and after the initiation of autumnal senescence over three years. The levels and profiles varied greatly between years, despite the fact that the onset of autumn senescence was at the same time. No pattern of pattern of gene expression supported the notion that decreased cytokinin signaling could explain the onset of senescence and we suggest that cytokinin depletion is unlikely to explain the onset of autumn leaf senescence in aspen.

  15. Invited Reviews

    1. Development of transgenic crops based on photo-biotechnology

      Markkandan Ganesan, Hyo-Yeon Lee, Jeong-Il Kim and Pill-Soon Song

      Accepted manuscript online: 23 DEC 2016 05:05PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12887

      Development of GM crops based on photoreceptor transgenes (mainly phytochromes, crytochromes and phototropins) is reviewed with the proposal of photo-biotechnology that the photoreceptors mediate the light regulation of photosynthetically important genes, and the improved yields often come with the added benefits of crops’ tolerance to environmental stresses.

  16. Original Articles

    1. Temporal development of the barley leaf metabolic response to Pi limitation

      Ralitza Alexova, Clark J. Nelson and A. Harvey Millar

      Accepted manuscript online: 20 DEC 2016 12:15AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12882

      Why have we done this research?

      The response of plants to Pi limitation involves a complex set of processes including root uptake of Pi, adjustment of resource allocation to different plant organs, and increased metabolic Pi use efficiency. There has been considerable transcript profiling studies looking for key elements in the plant response, our aim was to complement this by attempting to identify early-responding, metabolic hallmarks of Pi limitation and place this in the context of primary metabolism.

      What did we find?

      We studied the metabolic response of barley leaves over the first 7 days of Pi stress, and the relationship of primary metabolites with leaf Pi levels and leaf biomass. Changes in the abundance of leaf Pi, cofactors (FAD, NAD), Tyr, and shikimate were significant 1 h after transfer of the plants to low Pi. Combining these data with 15N metabolic labeling, we show that over the first 48 hours of Pi limitation metabolic flux through the N assimilation, photorespiratory and aromatic amino acid pathways are increased.

      What do we think it means?

      We propose that there is a shift in amino acid metabolism in the chloroplast and a need to restore the energetic and redox state of the leaf following an instantaneous change in Pi availability. Correlation analysis of metabolite abundances revealed a central role for major amino acids in Pi stress, appearing to modulate partitioning of soluble sugars between amino acid and carboxylate synthesis, which may play a role in limiting leaf biomass accumulation when external Pi is low.

    2. The occurrence and control of nitric oxide generation by the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain

      Nicole A. Alber, Hampavi Sivanesan and Greg C. Vanlerberghe

      Accepted manuscript online: 16 DEC 2016 11:00PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12884

      Abstract

      Nitric oxide has emerged as an important plant stress signaling molecule but the pathways responsible for nitric oxide synthesis and scavenging remain relatively poorly understood. We provide evidence that electron pressure in the Q-cycle of Complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain can result in the generation of nitric oxide from nitrite. Further, alternative oxidase, by acting as a non-energy-conserving electron sink upstream of the Q-cycle, is able to reduce this electron pressure and hence nitric oxide generation. This places alternative oxidase as a potentially key regulator of nitric oxide signaling from the plant mitochondrion.

    3. Exploring growth-defense tradeoffs in Arabidopsis. Phytochrome B inactivation requires JAZ10 to suppress plant immunity but not to trigger shade avoidance responses

      Ignacio Cerrudo, M. Emilia Caliri-Ortiz, Mercedes M. Keller, M. Eugenia Degano, Patricia V. Demkura and Carlos L. Ballare

      Accepted manuscript online: 11 DEC 2016 06:05PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12877

      The photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB) is a key modulator of adaptive plasticity in plant canopies. Low R:FR ratios, which indicate proximity of competitors, inactivate phyB and promote shoot elongation and the shade-avoidance syndrome. At the same time, low R:FR ratios down-regulate plant defenses against pathogens and pests, presumably to save resources for rapid growth. Here, we address the functional connections between these two effects of phyB inactivation. We found that JAZ10, one of the members of the JAZ family of repressor proteins, is required for the suppression of plant defenses triggered by phyB inactivation, but not for the promotion of elongation. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to uncouple shade avoidance from defense suppression in Arabidopsis via inactivation of JAZ10, and may provide clues to improve plant resistance to pathogens in high density crops.

    4. Characterization of poplar metabotypes via mass difference enrichment analysis

      Franco Moritz, Moritz Kaling, Jörg-Peter Schnitzler and Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin

      Accepted manuscript online: 11 DEC 2016 06:05PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12878

      A major part of mass spectrometric data is not amenable to data interpretation as metabolite databases are far from being complete. This work presents the concept and rules on how Mass Difference Enrichment Analysis (MDEA) enables data driven analysis and interpretation of metabolomics data. This new metabolomics approach is presented vis-à-vis the biochemically well-characterized gray poplar isoprene emitting and non-emitting mutants, and yields results that are in perfect accordance with prior metabolite and physiological knowledge. MDEA is shown to extend prior knowledge supporting the formulation of new, testable biochemical working hypotheses.

    5. Herbivore perception decreases photosynthetic carbon-assimilation and reduces stomatal conductance by engaging 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 and cytokinin perception

      Ivan D. Meza-Canales, Stefan Meldau, Jorge A. Zavala and Ian T. Baldwin

      Accepted manuscript online: 7 DEC 2016 07:46AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12874

      Changes in photosynthesis by attack from herbivores have been extensively documented however the complexity of its regulation remains largely unknown. Using a functional genetics approach, we demonstrate that photosynthetic carbon assimilation and stomatal responses respond specifically to Manduca sexta elicitors by engaging 12-OPDA, MPK4-ABA and CK signaling in attacked and un-attacked leaves of Nicotiana attenuata plants.

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