Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 40 Issue 2

Accepted Articles (Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable. The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future.)

Edited By: Keith Mott

Impact Factor: 6.169

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 10/209 (Plant Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1365-3040

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  1. 1 - 52
  1. Original Articles

    1. Differential response of Scots pine seedlings to variable intensity and ratio of R and FR light

      Md. Abdur Razzak, Sonali Sachin Ranade, Åsa Strand and MR García-Gil

      Accepted manuscript online: 20 JAN 2017 10:40PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12921

      Summary

      We studied the response of Scots pine seedlings to variable intensity and ratio of R and FR light with respect to hypocotyl elongation and accumulation of pigments e.g. chlorophyll and anthocyanin. The results showed that FR high irradiance response is present in pine, is enhanced by increasing light intensity and is more strongly affected by the R light compared to FR light. The overall response in pine is different from what is been previously reported in Arabidopsis or angiosperms; we conclude that the regulatory mechanism for light response may differ between gymnosperms and angiosperms.

    2. Are commercial sweet cherry rootstocks adapted to climate change? Short-term waterlogging and CO2 effects on sweet cherry cv. ‘Burlat’.

      Margarita Pérez-Jiménez, María Hernández-Munuera, M. Carmen Piñero, Gregorio López-Ortega and Francisco M. del Amor

      Accepted manuscript online: 20 JAN 2017 01:15PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12920

      Summary statement

      Elevated CO2 and waterlogging have been scantily studied and it has never done in Prunus species. To our knowledge this would be the first time in which waterlogging is studied in the future scenario of high concentrations of CO2 in this genus. In fact, while many species have been deeply studied in terms of climate change, Prunus species have been forgotten, even when they are extremely relevant crops. This work evaluates the resistance of sweet cherry to waterlogging in an environment enriched in CO2. Thus, some of the findings described in this paper are new and offer a new approach of plant responses to climate change.

  2. Commentaries

    1. Metabolic reprogramming in response to cold stress is like real estate, it's all about location

      Vaughan Hurry

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 08:15PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12923

  3. Original Articles

    1. Exploiting cell cycle inhibitor genes of the KRP family to control root-knot nematode induced feeding sites in plants

      Roberta Ramos Coelho, Paulo Vieira, José Dijair Antonino de Souza Júnior, Cristina Martin-Jimenez, Lieven De Veylder, Julie Cazareth, Gilbert Engler, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa and Janice de Almeida Engler

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 06:20PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12912

      Summary

      Plant cell cycle inhibitor genes control root-knot nematode-induced gall development. Ectopic expression of KRP3, KRP5 and KRP7 members reduce feeding cells size and interfere with giant cell nuclear morphology affecting nematode reproduction. Induced expression of these cell cycle inhibitors in galls can be envisaged as a novel strategy to control phytopathogenic nematodes in crop species.

    2. A possible role for FT-encoding genes in interpreting environmental and internal cues affecting olive (Olea europaea L.) flower induction

      Amnon Haberman, Ortal Bakhshian, Sergio Cerezo-Medina, Judith Paltiel, Chen Adler, Giora Ben-Ari, Jose Angel Mercado, Fernando Pliego-Alfaro, Shimon Lavee and Alon Samach

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 04:40PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12922

      Summary statement

      Olive oil, as part of a healthy Mediterranean diet, is becoming an essential commodity worldwide. Olive production is strongly correlated with the number of flowers produced by trees in the spring. Flowering extent for each olive tree is highly variable between years. Here, using physiological experiments and molecular tools, we studied flower induction in olives. Induction, which occurs in late winter, was found to be influenced by previous fruit load and by cold winter temperatures.

    3. Glutathione peroxidase-like enzymes cover five distinct cell compartments and membrane-surfaces in Arabidopsis thaliana

      Safira Attacha, David Solbach, Krisztina Bela, Anna Moseler, Stephan Wagner, Markus Schwarzländer, Isabel Aller, Stefanie J. Müller and Andreas J. Meyer

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 11:31AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12919

      Brief summary statement

      Although plant glutathione peroxidase-like enzymes (GPXLs) have been implicated in important agronomic traits such as drought tolerance, photooxidative tolerance and immune response there are still major ambiguities regarding their subcellular localization. This gap in our knowledge is closed by this work in which we show the targeting of fluorescent fusion proteins for all eight GPXL family members in Arabidopsis thaliana to the cytosol, nucleus, plastids, mitochondria and the secretory pathway, respectively. By using redox-sensitive GFP2 (roGFP2) as a probe we show that GPXL3 in contrast to earlier assumptions is not in the cytosol or mitochondria, but rather localized in the secretory pathway as a membrane-bound protein anchored with a transmembrane domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that two other GPXLs, GPXL4 and GPXL5, are anchored to the plasma membrane through myristoylation of the N-terminus.

    4. Arabidopsis Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C 4 negatively regulates seedling salt tolerance

      Keke Xia, Bo Wang, Jiewei Zhang, Yuan Li, Hailian Yang and Dongtao Ren

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 11:00AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12918

      Brief summary

      The activity of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) has been suggested to play an important role in regulating plant salt stress responses; however, the individual members of plant PLCs involved in this process need to be identified. Here, we reveal that AtPLC4 negatively regulates salt stress response in Arabidopsis seedlings, and Ca2+ is required for the AtPLC4-mediated regulation process.

    5. Autumn photosynthetic decline and growth cessation in seedlings of white spruce are decoupled under warming and photoperiod manipulations

      Joseph R. Stinziano and Danielle A. Way

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 10:45AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12917

      Photoperiod may limit the ability of trees to respond to climate warming during autumn. In this study, we investigated the impact of photoperiod and temperature manipulations on photosynthetic physiology and growth in white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings. We found that temperature limited photosynthetic physiology while photoperiod limited growth, and climate warming may cause a desynchronization between autumn photosynthesis and growth. Therefore warming-induced stimulation of photosynthesis during autumn may not lead to enhanced carbon sequestration, as this carbon may be allocated to more labile pools instead.

    6. \Rice calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK17 targets plasma membrane intrinsic protein and sucrose phosphate synthase and is required for a proper cold stress response

      M. Cecília Almadanim, Bruno M. Alexandre, Margarida T.G. Rosa, Helena Sapeta, António E. Leitão, José C. Ramalho, TuKiet T. Lam, Sónia Negrão, Isabel A. Abreu and M. Margarida Oliveira

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 08:11AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12916

      Rice production is severely affected by different abiotic stresses, including cold. Cold perception is mediated by calcium signals that activate kinases to elicit the adequate cellular response. In this work, we show the involvement of the rice calcium-dependent protein kinase 17 (OsCPK17) in such a process. We show that altered OsCPK17 gene expression in transgenic lines affects cold tolerance performance, and that OsCPK17 targets proteins are associated with osmotic regulation, and sugar and nitrogen metabolism.

  4. Invited Reviews

    1. Molecular mechanisms and ecological function of far-red light signalling

      David J. Sheerin and Andreas Hiltbrunner

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 07:00AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12915

  5. Original Articles

    1. Silicon promotes cytokinin biosynthesis and delays senescence in Arabidopsis and Sorghum

      Oshry Markovich, Evyatar Steiner, Štěpán Kouřil, Petr Tarkowski, Asaph Aharoni and Rivka Elbaum

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 06:35AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12913

  6. Invited Reviews

    1. The shade avoidance syndrome: Multiple signals and ecological consequences

      Carlos L. Ballaré and Ronald Pierik

      Accepted manuscript online: 19 JAN 2017 06:35AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12914

      During the last four decades, there has been an enormous increase in our understanding of how plants sense shading and the proximity of neighbors, and how they activate adaptive morphological and physiological responses. Important elements of the signal transduction pathways that connect informational photoreceptors with functional responses have been elucidated, and shade avoidance has become a textbook example of adaptive plasticity. It is now becoming clear that proximity perception leads to a complete reconfiguration of plant function. This reconfiguration allows the plant to optimize the deployment of leaves into light gaps, balance resource allocation between shoots and roots, optimize leaf gas exchange and nutrient uptake as a function of the degree of shading, and adaptively regulate interactions with herbivores, pathogens and beneficial microorganisms. In this review, we describe the progress in understanding shade avoidance mechanisms and highlight the diversity of plant processes and functions that are controlled by canopy light signals.

  7. Original Articles

    1. Mn accumulation in a submerged plant Egeria densa (Hydrocharitaceae) is mediated by epiphytic bacteria

      Kousuke Tsuji, Takuma Asayama, Nozomi Shiraki, Shota Inoue, Erina Okuda, Chizuru Hayashi, Kazuma Nishida, Hiroshi Hasegawa and Emiko Harada

      Accepted manuscript online: 18 JAN 2017 08:05AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12910

      Field-collected Egeria densa (Brazilian waterweed, Hydrocharitaceae) plants efficiently absorbed and accumulated environmental Mn. This Mn resulted from the accumulation of biogenic Mn oxide in biofilms on the surface of the plants. Several strains of epiphytic bacteria isolated from the plants produced Mn oxide. These findings enhance understanding of aquatic plants involved in the mobilization of Mn in a freshwater environment.

  8. Invited Reviews

    1. Evolutionary origin of phytochrome responses and signaling in land plants

      Keisuke Inoue, Ryuichi Nishihama and Takayuki Kohchi

      Accepted manuscript online: 18 JAN 2017 07:55AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12908

      Phytochrome photoreceptors that regulate many aspects of growth and development throughout the plant life cycle originated in the common ancestor of streptophytes and diversified during the course of land plant evolution. Recent advances in molecular genetics using the moss Physcomitrella patens and the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha revealed that basal land plants show FR-induced responses and that the establishment of phytochrome-mediated transcriptional regulation dates back to at least the common ancestor of land plants. In this review, we summarize our knowledge concerning functions of land plant phytochromes, especially in basal land plants, and discuss sub/neofunctionalization of phytochrome genes in the lineages of land plants.

  9. Original Articles

    1. Endogenous circadian rhythms in pigment composition induce changes in photochemical efficiency in plant canopies

      José Ignacio García-Plazaola, Beatriz Fernández-Marín, Juan Pedro Ferrio, Josu G. Alday, Günter Hoch, Damien Landais, Alexandru Milcu, David T Tissue, Jordi Voltas, Arthur Gessler, Jacques Roy and Víctor Resco de Dios

      Accepted manuscript online: 18 JAN 2017 07:55AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12909

      From chloroplasts to ecosystems, the circadian clock is a significant driver of photosynthesis, which becomes apparent when environmental cues are experimentally held constant over a few days. In the present study we have investigated whether the composition of photosynthetic pigments is under circadian regulation. We show that carbon assimilation, stomatal conductance and quantum yield oscillated with a frequency close to 24h, peaking around subjective noon. These changes were paralleled by robust oscillations of chlorophyll a/b both under constant light or darkness, indicating a rhythmic pattern of antenna size adjustment (minimal at night and maximal around noon). These results have important implications for future studies on pigment dynamics, particularly when using remote sensing platforms.

    2. The effect of blue light on stomatal oscillations and leaf turgor pressure in banana leaves

      Yotam Zait, Or Shapira and Amnon Schwartz

      Accepted manuscript online: 18 JAN 2017 07:55AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12907

      Increase of VPD above a certain threshold level caused stomatal oscillations in banana leaves with variable amplitudes. Oscillations were also induced under constant VPD when light spectrum was changed from red + blue to red alone, while addition of blue (10%) to red light ended the oscillations. Simultaneous measurements of stomatal conductance and leaf turgor pressure lead to the conclusion that the oscillations result from mismatch between transpiration rate and xylem to epidermis water supply. We found that in addition to the known effect of blue light on stomatal opening, by controlling the leaf turgor pressure it also affects the hydro passive component of stomatal movement.

    3. Ectopic expression of two AREB/ABF orthologs increase dehydration tolerance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

      Tyson C.C. Kerr, Haggag Abdel-Mageed, Lorenzo Aleman, Joohyun Lee, Paxton Payton, Dakota Cryer and Randy D. Allen

      Accepted manuscript online: 18 JAN 2017 07:55AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12906

      In order to understand the role of abscisic acid-responsive transcription factors (ABFs) in the regulation of drought tolerance in cotton, we carried out functional analysis of two gene that express representative ABFs from Arabidopsis and cotton. These genes were ectopically expressed in transgenic cotton plants and the drought tolerance phenotypes of these plants was analyzed. Our results demonstrate that ectopic expression of ABFs from either Arabidopsis or cotton lead to increased stress tolerance mediated primarily through reduced transpirational water loss. The potential uses of ABF transgenes to improve cotton drought tolerance is discussed.

    4. A ROP2-RIC1 Pathway Fine Tunes Microtubule Reorganisation for Salt Tolerance in Arabidopsis

      Changjiang Li, Hanmei Lu, Wei Li, Ming Yuan and Ying Fu

      Accepted manuscript online: 9 JAN 2017 09:20PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12905

      Abstract

      The reorganisation of microtubules induced by salt stress is required for Arabidopsis survival under high salinity conditions. RIC1 is an effector of Rho-related GTPase from plants (ROPs), and a known microtubule-associated protein. In this study, we demonstrated that RIC1 expression decreased with long-term NaCl treatment, and ric1-1 seedlings exhibited a higher survival rate under salt stress. We found that RIC1 reduced the frequency of microtubule transition from shortening to growing status, and knockout of RIC1 improved the reassembly of depolymerised microtubules caused by either oryzalin treatment or salt stress. Further investigation showed that constitutively active ROP2 promoted the reassembly of microtubules and the survival of seedlings under salt stress. A rop2-1 ric1-1 double mutant rescued the salt-sensitive phenotype of rop2-1, indicating that ROP2 functions in salt tolerance through RIC1. Although ROP2 did not regulate RIC1 expression upon salt stress, a quick but mild increase of ROP2 activity was induced, led to reduction of RIC1 on microtubules. Collectively, our study reveals a ROP2-RIC1 pathway that fine tunes microtubule dynamics in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis. This finding not only reveals a new regulatory mechanism for microtubule reorganisation under salt stress but also the importance of ROP signaling for salinity tolerance.

    5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis with Arundo donax decreases root respiration and increases both photosynthesis and plant biomass accumulation

      Antònia Romero-Munar, Néstor Fernández Del-Saz, Miquel Ribas-Carbó, Jaume Flexas, Elena Baraza, Igor Florez-Sarasa, Alisdair Robert Fernie and Javier Gulías

      Accepted manuscript online: 6 JAN 2017 04:05PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12902

    6. Expression of the UVR8 photoreceptor in different tissues reveals tissue-autonomous features of UV-B signalling

      Péter Bernula, Carlos Daniel Crocco, Adriana Beatriz Arongaus, Roman Ulm, Ferenc Nagy and András Viczián

      Accepted manuscript online: 6 JAN 2017 02:05AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12904

      Abstract

      This work analyses how the UV-B specific photoreceptor UVR8 regulates signalling, development and growth when expressed only in specific tissues. We show that early steps of UVR8-dependent signalling, such as accumulation of the key regulatory transcription factor HY5, occur strictly in tissue-autonomous fashion. In contrast, complex UV-B-induced changes, including proper acclimation of adult plants requires simultaneous signalling in the epidermal and mesophyll cells and/or inter-tissue signalling.

    7. The metabolic sensor AKIN10 modulates the Arabidopsis circadian clock in a light-dependent manner

      Jieun Shin, Alfredo Sánchez-Villarreal, Amanda M. Davis, Shen-xiu Du, Kenneth W. Berendzen, Csaba Koncz, Zhaojun Ding, Cuiling Li and Seth J. Davis

      Accepted manuscript online: 5 JAN 2017 04:00AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12903

      Abstract

      Circadian clocks temporally regulate metabolic processes to occur at the proper time of day and the reciprocal role of metabolic signals in controlling the clock function has been proposed recently. Arabidopsis AKIN10 is an evolutionarily conserved energy sensor that can globally reprogram metabolic-enzyme activity and stress-related gene expression, and we show here that it also contributes to the plant clock, as elevated AKIN10 resulted in plants with significantly longer rhythmic period compared to the wild type, a phenotype that was light dependent. Epistasis revealed that the clock gene TIC was genetically required for the action of AKIN10 in regulating clock activity. Our work thus uncovered AKIN10 as a component linking energy signalling to circadian-clock function, itself a key driver of metabolic homeostasis.

    8. Mechanistic studies of sesquiterpene cyclases based on their carbon isotope ratios at natural abundance

      Wenhua Tan, Stefan Bartram and Wilhelm Boland

      Accepted manuscript online: 3 JAN 2017 07:11AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12901

      Abstract

      In the current work we use five known sesquiterpene cyclases, representing simple to complex biosynthetic sequences yielding in the simplest case (i) blends of (E)-β-caryophyllene and α-humulene, in a more complex example (ii) (E)-β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and germacrene D, or in the most complex system (iii) (E)-β-caryophyllene and α-humulene together with several triquinanes from farnesyl diphosphate as substrate. Compound specific IRMS measurements of the enzyme substrate FDP and the products of all the five cyclases were performed.

      The calculated δ13C value for FDP, based on δ13C values and the relative amounts of the products, was in full agreement with its measured δ13C value. Accordingly, sesquiterpenes requiring more C-C bond formations and cleavages during biosynthesis, showed more negative δ13C values than those with a lower number of bond formations or cleavages.

      The different carbon isotope ratios of the products reflect the complexity of their structure and are correlated with the frequency of carbon-carbon bond forming and breaking steps on their individual biosynthetic pathways. Thus, the analysis of carbon isotopic signatures of terpenes at natural abundance can be used as a powerful tool in the elucidation of the biosynthetic sequences, even without “touching” the plant, if emitted volatiles are analyzed.

  10. Invited Reviews

    1. Dancing in the Dark: Darkness as a Signal in Plants

      Adam Seluzicki, Yogev Burko and Joanne Chory

      Accepted manuscript online: 3 JAN 2017 04:30AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12900

      Abstract

      Daily cycles of light and darkness provide structure that plants use to temporally organize aspects of their physiology and growth. Plants use distinct modes of growth in continuous dark versus light-dark cycles but these programs share many components. In this review we examine progress toward understanding how plants coordinate light- and time-sensitive processes to optimize growth and resource allocation across the day-night cycle, and how darkness changes the function of gene regulatory networks involved in seedling growth, timing, and metabolism.

  11. Original Articles

    1. Allelic variations and differential expressions detected at QTL loci for salt stress tolerance in wheat

      Benedict C. Oyiga, Ram C. Sharma, Michael Baum, Francis C. Ogbonnaya, Jens Léon and Agim Ballvora

      Accepted manuscript online: 3 JAN 2017 04:20AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12898

      Abstract

      This study provides additional genetic and molecular insights into the salt tolerance mechanisms, and thus would aid efforts geared toward improving wheat adaptation to salinity. GWAS was used to identify major loci regulating K+ and Na+ uptake, and several agronomic related traits across multiple growth stages under saline conditions in a 150 diversity wheat panel. The analysis of the underlying candidate genes revealed that some of them are differentially expressed, and contain several functional polymorphic sites at the associated gene coding regions when wheat genotypes with contrasting response to salt stress were compared.

    2. Multifaceted Role of Cycling Dof Factor 3 (CDF3) in the regulation of flowering time and abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis

      Alba-Rocio Corrales, Laura Carrillo, Pilar Lasierra, Sergio G. Nebauer, Jose Dominguez-Figueroa, Begoña Renau-Morata, Stephan Pollmann, Antonio Granell, Rosa-Victoria Molina, Jesús Vicente-Carbajosa and Joaquín Medina

      Accepted manuscript online: 3 JAN 2017 03:05AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12894

      Abstract

      The present study provides new notions about the function of DOF Transcription factors and unveils CDF3 as a key factor that display multiple roles related to plant responses to adverse environmental conditions and the developmental program underlying the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase.

    3. Ratoon rice generated from primed parent plants exhibit enhanced herbivore resistance

      Mao Ye, Yuan-Yuan Song, Scott R. Baerson, Jun Long, Jie Wang, Zhiqiang Pan, Wen-Xiong Lin and Ren-Sen Zeng

      Accepted manuscript online: 2 JAN 2017 05:40AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12897

      Summary

      Rice ratooning is practiced in many rice-growing countries for achieving increased rice production with limited labor input. Here we report that prior elicitation by insect infestation or MeJA treatment in a rice parent crop could enhance anti-herbivore resistance in subsequently-generated ratoons through priming of JA-mediated defenses. Priming of plant anti-herbivore defenses in rice parent crops could potentially provide an economical means for enhancing protection in ratoon crops.

    4. Identification of mega-environments in Europe and effect of allelic variations at maturity E loci on adaptation of European soybean

      Alena K. Kurasch, Volker Hahn, Willmar L. Leiser, Johann Vollmann, Arnold Schori, Claude-Alain Bétrix, Bernhard Mayr, Johanna Winkler, Klemens Mechtler, Jonas Aper, Aleksandra Sudaric, Ivan Pejic, Hrvoje Sarcevic, Patrice Jeanson, Christiane Balko, Marco Signor, Fabiano Miceli, Peter Strijk, Hendrik Rietman, Eugen Muresanu, Vuk Djordjevic, Ana Pospišil, Giuseppe Barion, Peter Weigold, Stefan Streng, Matthias Krön and Tobias Würschum

      Accepted manuscript online: 2 JAN 2017 05:05AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12896

      Summary

      Soybean cultivation in Europe has a great potential, however, little is known about different growing areas and no harmonized maturity group (MG) classification exists. The aim of our study was therefore to characterize different growing areas and to identify mega-environments in Europe, to characterize the MGs grown in Europe and in addition, to identify allelic variation at the maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4 and assess their effects on adaptation. The study comprised 22 locations across 10 countries and 75 European cultivars from five early maturity MGs (000 - II). Our results allowed the first unified assessment of soybean growing regions in Europe and illustrate the strong effect of photoperiod on soybean adaptation and mega-environment classification, as well as the effects of the E maturity loci for soybean adaptation in Europe.

    5. Does ozone increase ABA levels by non-enzymatic synthesis causing stomata to close?

      Erin L. McAdam, Timothy J. Brodribb and Scott A. M. McAdam

      Accepted manuscript online: 1 JAN 2017 09:20PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12893

      Significance statement

      Here we investigate the possibility that stomatal responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly ozone, are driven by rapid non-enzymatic synthesis of abscisic acid (ABA). By measuring ABA levels and stomatal responses after a short pulse of ozone, we find that in species with stomata that are sensitive to ozone, foliar and guard cell ABA levels increase rapidly. This stomatal sensitivity to ozone, and increase in ABA level, also occurs in ABA biosynthetic mutants, suggesting that non-enzymatic oxidation of ABA precursors drives the increase in ABA levels. Our results have important implications for guard cell ROS signalling.

    6. Leaf water 18O and 2H enrichment along vertical canopy profiles in a broadleaved and a conifer forest tree

      Rebekka Bögelein, Frank M. Thomas and Ansgar Kahmen

      Accepted manuscript online: 1 JAN 2017 08:55PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12895

      Summary statement

      For interpretations of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope signatures, plant ecological and paleoclimate studies use the increasingly detailed knowledge on leaf-level enrichment processes of heavy water isotopologues, which was mainly derived under controlled conditions. To assess whether the effect size of biotic and abiotic enrichment drivers is transferable from small scale studies to mature tree canopies, input and leaf water δ2H and δ18O in European beech and Douglas fir were investigated together with the relevant morpho-physiological and microclimatic variables. Fitting these data to different enrichment models and dynamic effect analyses revealed that light-induced ecophysiological gradients as well as the Péclet effect can be neglected for these hypostomatous angiosperm and gymnosperm forest trees, which we link to their leaf morphology. Contrarily, species-specific non-steady state effects, leaf temperatures and the water vapour isotope composition need careful consideration.

    7. Contrasting patterns of cytokinins between years in senescing aspen leaves

      Erik Edlund, Ondrej Novak, Michal Karady, Karin Ljung and Stefan Jansson

      Accepted manuscript online: 1 JAN 2017 08:20PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12899

      Summary statement:

      We profiled cytokinins/cytokinin metabolites in leaves of an aspen (Populus tremula) before and after the initiation of autumnal senescence over three years. The levels and profiles varied greatly between years, despite the fact that the onset of autumn senescence was at the same time. No pattern of pattern of gene expression supported the notion that decreased cytokinin signaling could explain the onset of senescence and we suggest that cytokinin depletion is unlikely to explain the onset of autumn leaf senescence in aspen.

    8. Arabidopsis Stress Associated Protein 9 mediates biotic and abiotic stress responsive ABA signaling via the proteasome pathway

      Miyoung Kang, Seonghee Lee, Haggag Abdelmageed, Angelika Reichert, Hee-Kyung Lee, Mohamed Fokar, Kirankumar S. Mysore and Randy D Allen

      Accepted manuscript online: 31 DEC 2016 01:15AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12892

      Summary

      While the role of certain members of a family of stress associated proteins (SAPs) that contain A20 and An1 zinc finger domains in abiotic stress responses in plants is well established, emerging data shows possible roles for SAPs in other cellular responses. Our research confirms that SAP9 from Arabidopsis (AtSAP9) has ubiquitin ligase activity and is a positive regulator of ABA signaling. Our results also provide evidence for the involvement of AtSAP9 in plant development and disease responses. In addition, we show that AtSAP9 physically binds to the ubiquitin receptors Rad23A and Rad23D, indicating that, in addition to acting as a ubiquitin ligase, SAP9 may function in the UPS system by directing ubiquitinated substrates to the proteasome through interaction with ubiquitin receptors.

    9. The light response of mesophyll conductance is controlled by structure across leaf profiles

      Guillaume Théroux-Rancourt and Matthew E. Gilbert

      Accepted manuscript online: 31 DEC 2016 12:40AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12890

      Summary

      Using theoretical and observed evidence of the response of mesophyll conductance (gm) to light, it is shown that this response is apparent, where the bulk leaf gm appears to respond to light while layer-specific gm values do not. This was successfully represented using a multi-layer leaf model coupled with anatomical observations. This apparent response has implications for how limitation analyses are conducted and illustrates the importance of measuring gm under saturating light. Mesophyll conductance is an emergent property of the 3D leaf structure and not solely a leaf area based phenomenon.

    10. Linkage drag constrains the roots of modern wheat

      Kai P. Voss-Fels, Lunwen Qian, Sebastian Parra-Londono, Ralf Uptmoor, Matthias Frisch, Gabriel Keeble-Gagnère, Rudi Appels and Rod J. Snowdon

      Accepted manuscript online: 30 DEC 2016 11:05AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12888

      Roots are of immense importance for environmental adaptation, but are largely unexplored in major crops. Via high-resolution linkage disequilibrium mapping, we discovered strong linkage drag in European wheat between a haplotype variant controlling heading date and two flanking loci carrying alleles that constrain root biomass. Investigation of genes within the region of interest could help breeders to recover root diversity for future food production in fluctuating environments.

    11. Ice and anti-nucleating activities of an ice-binding protein from the annual grass, Brachypodium distachyon

      Melissa Bredow, Heather E. Tomalty, Lindsay Smith and Virginia K. Walker

      Accepted manuscript online: 30 DEC 2016 04:34AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12889

      This work characterizes the ice-binding and anti-nucleating activities of an ice-binding protein from the annual grass, Brachypodium distachyon. In vitro analysis demonstrates that this protein is not only capable of restricting ice-crystal growth and lowering the freezing temperature of solutions but is also able to disrupt bacterial ice nucleation activity. This research highlights the potential use of ice-binding proteins as protection against freezing and pathogen attack at sub-zero temperatures.

    12. Atmospheric CO2 mole fraction affects stand-scale carbon use efficiency of sunflower by stimulating respiration in light

      Xiao Ying Gong, Rudi Schaeufele, Christoph Andreas Lehmeier, Guillaume Tcherkez and Hans Schnyder

      Accepted manuscript online: 26 DEC 2016 08:40AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12886

      Understanding the response of plant carbon use efficiency (CUE = NPP/GPP) to atmospheric CO2 is important for estimating terrestrial primary production and carbon-climate feedbacks. This study provides CUE data that integrate measured respiration in light and assess the CO2 effect on the properties of the substrate supply system of respiration. The observed lower CUE of sunflower at high CO2 was mostly caused by a respiratory effect. The findings provide an explanation for the phenomenon that plant biomass production has increased to a lesser degree than rates of photosynthesis under elevated CO2.

    13. Release of resource constraints allows greater carbon allocation to secondary metabolites and storage in winter wheat

      Jianbei Huang, Almuth Hammerbacher, Lenka Forkelová and Henrik Hartmann

      Accepted manuscript online: 23 DEC 2016 05:05PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12885

      Atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) are rapidly increasing and this may have substantial effects on plant carbon allocation. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), when grown over a gradient of [CO2], showed increases in proportional allocation of biomass and non-structural carbohydrates to leaves at low [CO2], apparently to counteract carbon limitation and re-establish a new functional equilibrium. By contrast, plants grown under elevated [CO2] invested more carbon into long-term survival by increasing whole-plant non-structural carbohydrates (storage) and secondary metabolites (defense).

  12. Invited Reviews

    1. Development of transgenic crops based on photo-biotechnology

      Markkandan Ganesan, Hyo-Yeon Lee, Jeong-Il Kim and Pill-Soon Song

      Accepted manuscript online: 23 DEC 2016 05:05PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12887

      Development of GM crops based on photoreceptor transgenes (mainly phytochromes, crytochromes and phototropins) is reviewed with the proposal of photo-biotechnology that the photoreceptors mediate the light regulation of photosynthetically important genes, and the improved yields often come with the added benefits of crops’ tolerance to environmental stresses.

  13. Original Articles

    1. Temporal development of the barley leaf metabolic response to Pi limitation

      Ralitza Alexova, Clark J. Nelson and A. Harvey Millar

      Accepted manuscript online: 20 DEC 2016 12:15AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12882

      Why have we done this research?

      The response of plants to Pi limitation involves a complex set of processes including root uptake of Pi, adjustment of resource allocation to different plant organs, and increased metabolic Pi use efficiency. There has been considerable transcript profiling studies looking for key elements in the plant response, our aim was to complement this by attempting to identify early-responding, metabolic hallmarks of Pi limitation and place this in the context of primary metabolism.

      What did we find?

      We studied the metabolic response of barley leaves over the first 7 days of Pi stress, and the relationship of primary metabolites with leaf Pi levels and leaf biomass. Changes in the abundance of leaf Pi, cofactors (FAD, NAD), Tyr, and shikimate were significant 1 h after transfer of the plants to low Pi. Combining these data with 15N metabolic labeling, we show that over the first 48 hours of Pi limitation metabolic flux through the N assimilation, photorespiratory and aromatic amino acid pathways are increased.

      What do we think it means?

      We propose that there is a shift in amino acid metabolism in the chloroplast and a need to restore the energetic and redox state of the leaf following an instantaneous change in Pi availability. Correlation analysis of metabolite abundances revealed a central role for major amino acids in Pi stress, appearing to modulate partitioning of soluble sugars between amino acid and carboxylate synthesis, which may play a role in limiting leaf biomass accumulation when external Pi is low.

    2. The occurrence and control of nitric oxide generation by the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain

      Nicole A. Alber, Hampavi Sivanesan and Greg C. Vanlerberghe

      Accepted manuscript online: 16 DEC 2016 11:00PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12884

      Abstract

      Nitric oxide has emerged as an important plant stress signaling molecule but the pathways responsible for nitric oxide synthesis and scavenging remain relatively poorly understood. We provide evidence that electron pressure in the Q-cycle of Complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain can result in the generation of nitric oxide from nitrite. Further, alternative oxidase, by acting as a non-energy-conserving electron sink upstream of the Q-cycle, is able to reduce this electron pressure and hence nitric oxide generation. This places alternative oxidase as a potentially key regulator of nitric oxide signaling from the plant mitochondrion.

    3. Amino acid transporter mutants of Arabidopsis provides evidence that a non-mycorrhizal plant acquires organic nitrogen from agricultural soil

      Ulrika Ganeteg, Iftikhar Ahmad, Sandra Jämtgård, Camila Aguetoni-Cambui, Erich Inselsbacher, Henrik Svennerstam, Susanne Schmidt and Torgny Näsholm

      Accepted manuscript online: 12 DEC 2016 04:10AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12881

      Brief Summary

      We studied the potential role of organic nitrogen (N) for plant N nutrition by feeding dual-labelled glutamine to soil-grown Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with enhanced or impeded expression of the amino-acid transporter LHT1. Significant differences between the genotypes in root contents of labelled glutamine and of 15N and 13C validate that it is the glutamine per se that is taken up by the root and not some product derived from it by microbial activity. Our results demonstrate that a non-mycorrhizal plant accesses organic N in competition with soil microbes and that expression of root organic N transporters is decisive for the efficacy of this process.

    4. Cd-induced Cu deficiency responses in Arabidopsis thaliana: are phytochelatins involved?

      Heidi Gielen, Jaco Vangronsveld and Ann Cuypers

      Accepted manuscript online: 11 DEC 2016 06:05PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12876

      We demonstrated that addition of supplemental Cu to Cd-exposed Arabidopsis thaliana plants diminished the SPL7-dependent Cu deficiency response in roots, while it even disappeared in leaves. Moreover, in roots of phytochelatin (PC-)deficient cad1-3 mutants this Cu deficiency response was reduced. Therefore, a working mechanism is provided in which it is suggested that Cd increases PC levels that can complex both Cd and Cu. This results in cellular Cu deficiency and subsequently the activation of SPL7 and hence the induction of the Cu deficiency response.

    5. Exploring growth-defense tradeoffs in Arabidopsis. Phytochrome B inactivation requires JAZ10 to suppress plant immunity but not to trigger shade avoidance responses

      Ignacio Cerrudo, M. Emilia Caliri-Ortiz, Mercedes M. Keller, M. Eugenia Degano, Patricia V. Demkura and Carlos L. Ballare

      Accepted manuscript online: 11 DEC 2016 06:05PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12877

      The photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB) is a key modulator of adaptive plasticity in plant canopies. Low R:FR ratios, which indicate proximity of competitors, inactivate phyB and promote shoot elongation and the shade-avoidance syndrome. At the same time, low R:FR ratios down-regulate plant defenses against pathogens and pests, presumably to save resources for rapid growth. Here, we address the functional connections between these two effects of phyB inactivation. We found that JAZ10, one of the members of the JAZ family of repressor proteins, is required for the suppression of plant defenses triggered by phyB inactivation, but not for the promotion of elongation. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to uncouple shade avoidance from defense suppression in Arabidopsis via inactivation of JAZ10, and may provide clues to improve plant resistance to pathogens in high density crops.

    6. Characterization of poplar metabotypes via mass difference enrichment analysis

      Franco Moritz, Moritz Kaling, Jörg-Peter Schnitzler and Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin

      Accepted manuscript online: 11 DEC 2016 06:05PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12878

      A major part of mass spectrometric data is not amenable to data interpretation as metabolite databases are far from being complete. This work presents the concept and rules on how Mass Difference Enrichment Analysis (MDEA) enables data driven analysis and interpretation of metabolomics data. This new metabolomics approach is presented vis-à-vis the biochemically well-characterized gray poplar isoprene emitting and non-emitting mutants, and yields results that are in perfect accordance with prior metabolite and physiological knowledge. MDEA is shown to extend prior knowledge supporting the formulation of new, testable biochemical working hypotheses.

    7. Monoterpene ‘thermometer’ of tropical forest-atmosphere response to climate warming

      Kolby J. Jardine, Angela B. Jardine, Jennifer A. Holm, Danica L. Lombardozzi, Robinson I. Negron-Juarez, Scot T. Martin, Harry R. Beller, Bruno O. Gimenez, Niro Higuchi and Jeffrey Q. Chambers

      Accepted manuscript online: 11 DEC 2016 06:00PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12879

      High temperatures threaten the ability of tropical forests to absorb large amounts of atmospheric CO2 by photosynthesis, but promote the emissions of monoterpenes (C10H16). Here we show that as record high leaf diurnal and seasonal temperatures were experienced in the central Amazon during the 2015 El Niño event, leaf and landscape monoterpene emissions showed strong linear enrichments of β-ocimenes (+4.4% ºC-1) at the expense of other monoterpene isomers. The results demonstrate consistent temperature sensitivities of five monoterpene groups that were reproducible across large temporal (minutes to seasons) and spatial (leaves to landscape) scales but are not accurately simulated in current Earth Systems models. We suggest that the shift to highly reactive β-ocimenes (Group 1) at high leaf temperatures facilitates forest-atmosphere response to warming by functioning as: 1) effective antioxidants in plants, enhancing thermotolerance of photosynthesis, and 2) as efficient atmospheric precursors of secondary organic aerosols, enhancing cloud cover and precipitation.

  14. Invited Reviews

    1. New insights of red light-induced development

      András Viczian, Cornelia Klose, Éva Ádám and Ferenc Nagy

      Accepted manuscript online: 9 DEC 2016 11:05PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12880

      Phytochromes sense changes in the ratio and intensity of R and FR content of sunlight and by initiating/controlling a complex signaling network regulate nearly all aspect of plant growth and development. Recent research revealed exciting new aspects at molecular level how these photoreceptors function, uncovered the basic difference in the mode of action for the two major phytochrome species phyA and phyB and demonstrated that phyB is also function as thermosensor. This review summarizes and discusses the most important discoveries that opened new avenues for phytochrome-B related research

  15. Original Articles

    1. Solanum tuberosum ZPR1 encodes a light-regulated nuclear DNA-binding protein adjusting the circadian expression of StBBX24 to light cycle

      Agnieszka Kiełbowicz-Matuk, Jagoda Czarnecka, Ewa Banachowicz, Pascal Rey and Tadeusz Rorat

      Accepted manuscript online: 8 DEC 2016 12:30AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12875

      In this work, we report about the characterization in potato of a novel nuclear chromatin-located factor belonging to the ZPR1 family and named StZPR1. We reveal the StZPR1 ability to bind the circadian DNA cis motif ‘CAACAGCATC’, named CIRC, present in the promoter of the clock-controlled StBBX24 gene. We found that the clock-controlled expression pattern of StBBX24 is affected and delayed by 4 h towards night in transgenic lines silenced for StZPR1 expression. Importantly, other BBX genes exhibit altered circadian regulation in these lines. We conclude that ZPR1 is a novel clock-associated protein in plants necessary for the accurate rhythmic expression of specific circadian-regulated genes.

    2. Herbivore perception decreases photosynthetic carbon-assimilation and reduces stomatal conductance by engaging 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 and cytokinin perception

      Ivan D. Meza-Canales, Stefan Meldau, Jorge A. Zavala and Ian T. Baldwin

      Accepted manuscript online: 7 DEC 2016 07:46AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12874

      Changes in photosynthesis by attack from herbivores have been extensively documented however the complexity of its regulation remains largely unknown. Using a functional genetics approach, we demonstrate that photosynthetic carbon assimilation and stomatal responses respond specifically to Manduca sexta elicitors by engaging 12-OPDA, MPK4-ABA and CK signaling in attacked and un-attacked leaves of Nicotiana attenuata plants.

    3. Leaf gas films contribute to rice (Oryza sativa) submergence tolerance during saline floods

      Max Herzog, Dennis Konnerup, Ole Pedersen, Anders Winkel and Timothy David Colmer

      Accepted manuscript online: 7 DEC 2016 07:43AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12873

      Flooding has detrimental effects on rice (Oryza sativa) yields, especially if flood waters are saline. We investigated the importance of leaf gas films (air layers forming around submerged super hydrophobic leaves) during rice saline submergence. We found that leaf gas film removal affected rice submergence tolerance negatively, but that Na+ and Cl could still entered into leaves, suggesting a leaf-water interface in spite of leaf gas film presence.

  16. Reviews

    1. Estimating the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to photosynthesis: A review

      Grace L. Miner, William L. Bauerle and Dennis D. Baldocchi

      Accepted manuscript online: 6 DEC 2016 11:39PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12871

      A common approach for estimating fluxes of CO2 and water in leaf and canopy models is to couple a biochemical model of photosynthesis to a semi-empirical model of stomatal conductance, such as the widely validated Ball-Berry model (e.g., Ball et al., 1987). The designated value of the slope parameter (m) in the Ball-Berry model influences transpiration estimates, but there is a lack of consensus regarding how m varies among species or plant function types (PFTs) or in response to growth conditions, and literature values are highly variable. This review explores the techniques utilized to collect m, discusses factors that can influence estimates, and compiles and synthesizes the reported values of m by species, PFT, and growth conditions for the Ball-Berry, Ball-Berry-Leuning, and the Unified Stomatal Optimization models.

  17. Original Articles

    1. Impairing both HMA4 homeologs is required for cadmium reduction in tobacco

      Verena Liedschulte, Hélène Laparra, James Nicolas Duncan Battey, Joanne Deborah Schwaar, Hervé Broye, Régis Mark, Markus Klein, Simon Goepfert and Lucien Bovet

      Accepted manuscript online: 23 NOV 2016 11:30AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12870

      Summary Statement

      HMA4.1 and HMA4.2 are key players for tobacco zinc and cadmium translocation to the shoot. A mutant approach showed that one single functional HMA4 allele is sufficient for maintaining leaf cadmium level. Therefore, the strategy is to identify optimal mutation combinations in the two HMA4 genes to reduce cadmium without impacting plant growth, i.e. homozygous combination of alleles harbouring one nonsense mutation coupled with one selected missense mutation.

  18. Invited Reviews

    1. Ferns, mosses, and liverworts as model systems for light-mediated chloroplast movements

      Noriyuki Suetsugu, Takeshi Higa and Masamitsu Wada

      Accepted manuscript online: 17 NOV 2016 07:51AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12867

      Molecular mechanisms of chloroplast photorelocation movement are partially elucidated from the molecular genetic research using Arabidopsis thaliana. However, researches using fern, moss, and liverwort not only complement the results by Arabidopsis researches, but also provide new insights that never are given by Arabidopsis research.

  19. Original Articles

    1. Experimental evidence for negative turgor pressure in small leaf cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L versus large cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et W.C.Cheng. 2. Höfler diagrams below the volume of zero turgor and the theoretical implication for pressure-volume curves of living cells.

      Dongmei Yang, Junhui Li, Yiting Ding and Melvin T. Tyree

      Accepted manuscript online: 8 NOV 2016 03:40PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12860

      Summary

      It is well known that water in xylem conduits is normally under negative pressure, but the concept of negative pressure in living cells (negative turgor) has rarely been addressed experimentally except for microscope studies of J. Oertli. This study verifies negative turgor in the small palisade cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L through pressure chamber analysis, models, and quantitative anatomical studies. We demonstrate negative turgor of up to -0.7 MPa in the common range of balance pressure and water content of pressure-volume curves: 0 to 3.3 MPa balance pressure and 0 to 0.35 in relative water content loss of leaves. We conclude that negative turgor needs to be invoked in explain the water balance of leaves with small cells (< 10 µm diameter).

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