Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 37 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Keith Mott

Impact Factor: 5.135

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 14/197 (Plant Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1365-3040

VIEW

  1. 1 - 77
  1. Original Articles

    1. Differential responses of plasma membrane aquaporins in mediating water transport of cucumber seedlings under osmotic and salt stresses

      ZHENG-JIANG QIAN, JUAN-JUAN SONG, FRANÇOIS CHAUMONT and QING YE

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12319

      It has long been recognized that inhibition of plant water transport by either osmotic stress or salinity is mediated by aquaporins (AQPs). By applying PEG or NaCl stress at the osmotic strength to cucumber seedlings, and monitoring changes in plant hydraulic properties and the expression patterns of plasma membrane AQP (PIPs), we demonstrated differential responses of CsPIPs in mediating water transport of cucumber seedlings, and the regulatory mechanisms differed according to applied stresses, stress durations, and specific organs.

    2. Floral volatiles: from biosynthesis to function

      JOËLLE K. MUHLEMANN, ANTJE KLEMPIEN and NATALIA DUDAREVA

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12314

      This review is devoted to the biosynthetic pathways (terpenoid, phenylpropanoid/benzenoid and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways) leading to the formation of floral volatile organic compounds and the complex regulation of floral volatile emission. It highlights endogenous and external factors, which control volatile emission, as well as describes diverse biological functions and evolution of floral volatiles in planta.

  2. Reviews

  3. Original Articles

    1. Elevated CO2 alters the feeding behaviour of the pea aphid by modifying the physical and chemical resistance of Medicago truncatula

      HUIJUAN GUO, YUCHENG SUN, YUEFEI LI, XIANGHUI LIU, PINGYAN WANG, KEYAN ZHU-SALZMAN and FENG GE

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12306

    2. Relax and refill: xylem rehydration prior to hydraulic measurements favours embolism repair in stems and generates artificially low PLC values

      PATRIZIA TRIFILÒ, FABIO RAIMONDO, MARIA A. LO GULLO, PIERA M. BARBERA, SEBASTIANO SALLEO and ANDREA NARDINI

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12313

      Recent reports have suggested that diurnal changes in embolism level of stems might arise as a consequence of air entry into xylem conduits upon cutting stems while under substantial tension, and xylem rehydration procedures prior to hydraulic measurements have been recommended to avoid this artefact. Here, we show that xylem rehydration favours embolism repair, thus leading to records of stem hydraulic conductance erroneously higher than those actually experienced by transpiring plants. Our data call for renewed attention to procedures of sample collection in the field and transport to the laboratory.

  4. Reviews

    1. Molecular and physiological responses of trees to waterlogging stress

      JÜRGEN KREUZWIESER and HEINZ RENNENBERG

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12310

      Climate models predict more severe and more frequent waterlogging periods as a consequence of global climate change. Despite their ecological, economic and social importance, the response of trees to such stress is far from being understood. This review summarizes the present knowledge on tree internal responses to waterlogging and highlights molecular and physiological features controlling the flooding tolerance of trees.

  5. Original Articles

    1. Caterpillar-induced plant volatiles remain a reliable signal for foraging wasps during dual attack with a plant pathogen or non-host insect herbivore

      CAMILLE PONZIO, RIETA GOLS, BERHANE T. WELDEGERGIS and MARCEL DICKE

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12301

      While increasing attention is being paid to the effect of multiple attack on indirect plant defenses, still little is known about how different non-host attackers may affect a given tritrophic system. Using a natural study system comprising of Brassica nigra plants, Pieris brassicae caterpillars and its associated parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata, we studied the effects of host egg, aphid or phytopathogen attack on wasp foraging behavior. Our data shows that parasitoid wasps can successfully locate host-infested plants, even when a second, non-host attacker is present on the plant. Analysis of the plant volatiles support the behavioral data, as the emission patterns of all caterpillar-infested treatments were similar, and this despite the presence of a second attacker.

    2. Turnover time of the non-structural carbohydrate pool influences δ18O of leaf cellulose

      XIN SONG, GRAHAM D. FARQUHAR, ARTHUR GESSLER and MARGARET M. BARBOUR

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12309

      In the mechanistic model of cellulose δ18 O, the biochemical parameter pex describes the proportion of organic exchange with the environmental water when sucrose is being converted to plant cellulose. In this study, we collected physiological and isotopic data from leaves of Ricinus communis grown in various environmental conditions, to test the hypothesis that variation in pex is related to variation in the turnover time (τ) of non-structural carbohydrate pool available for cellulose synthesis. Our data analysis yielded evidence for the presence of significant, positive relationship between pex and τ, thereby lending support to the above hypothesis. The observed variation in pex in association with τ has important implications for the interpretation of plant cellulose δ18 O data in environmental/ecological studies.

    3. The mechanism of improved aeration due to gas films on leaves of submerged rice

      PIETER VERBOVEN, OLE PEDERSEN, QUANG TRI HO, BART M. NICOLAI and TIMOTHY D. COLMER

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12300

      In brief, we show that internal aeration of leaf tissues with gas films is greatly enhanced as a result of the fast diffusion of O2 in the gas phase and also due to the large area of collection (the air water interface). In contrast, removal of the leaf gas films (in the proposed model) results in critically low internal O2 concentration which is in good agreement with experimental data already obtained for rice and other terrestrial wetland plants. The combined effects of diffusive boundary layer, gas film, cuticle permeability, stomata, and mesophyll respiration is for the first time comprehensively unraveled using mechanistic modeling.

    4. Identification of early Al-responsive genes in rice bean (Vigna umbellata) roots provides new clues to molecular mechanisms of Al toxicity and tolerance

      W. FAN, H. Q. LOU, Y. L. GONG, M. Y. LIU, Z. Q. WANG, J. L. YANG and S. J. ZHENG

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12258

      Here we used suppression subtractive hybridization together with reverse Northern blot analysis to identify genes with altered transcript levels in the root apex of rice bean (Vigna umbellata) after treatment with low (5 μM) or high (25 μM) concentration of AlCl3 for a short time (4 h). Comparative analysis of transcriptional profiles highlighted candidate genes associated with citrate secretion and revealed that metabolic changes represent adaptive mechanisms to Al stress, whereas inhibition of both cell elongation and cell division underlies Al-induce growth inhibition.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Static and dynamic bending has minor effects on xylem hydraulics of conifer branches (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris)

      STEFAN MAYR, CLARA BERTEL, BIRGIT DÄMON and BARBARA BEIKIRCHER

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12307

      We studied the effects of static and dynamic bending on xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety and hypothesized this mechanical stress to substantially impair xylem hydraulics. Surprisingly, bending caused only minor effects on the hydraulic conductivity or vulnerability to drought induced embolism in studied species. This indicates that bending stress is of minor eco-physiological importance in plant hydraulics. More important, results show that available xylem hydraulic analyses (of conifers) sufficiently reflect plant hydraulics under field conditions.

    6. Chlamydomonas NZF1, a tandem-repeated zinc finger factor involved in nitrate signalling by controlling the regulatory gene NIT2

      JOSE JAVIER HIGUERA, EMILIO FERNANDEZ and AURORA GALVAN

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12305

      We have identified a number of loci/ genes related to nitrate signal/assimilation from an insertional mutant library in Chlamydomonas. A tandem zinc finger protein (CrNZF1) is identified as a new factor involved in nitrate signaling. This protein is proposed to favour specific long forms of 3′UTR polyadenylated NIT2 transcripts and suggests a novel mechanism to regulate NIT2 function and nitrate signaling.

    7. Group VII Ethylene Response Factor diversification and regulation in four species from flood-prone environments

      HANS van VEEN, MELIS AKMAN, DIAAN C. L. JAMAR, DICK VREUGDENHIL, MAARTEN KOOIKER, PETER van TIENDEREN, LAURENTIUS A. C. J. VOESENEK, M. ERIC SCHRANZ and RASHMI SASIDHARAN

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12302

      Group VII Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are involved in adaptation of rice and Arabidopsis to flooding. This study shows how this transcription factor family diversified amongst the angiosperms from two ancestral loci. Group VII ERFs were found to be involved in the submergence response of four wild species from flood-prone environments, but showed distinct expression patterns dependent primarily on their phylogenetic origin.

    8. Histone chaperone ASF1 is involved in gene transcription activation in response to heat stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

      MINJIE WENG, YUE YANG, HAIYANG FENG, ZONGDE PAN, WEN-HUI SHEN, YAN ZHU and AIWU DONG

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12299

      This work reports on a previously unknown new role of the histone chaperone ASF1 in plant thermotolerance. The Arabidopsis A tasf1ab double mutant exhibits both basal and acquired thermotolerance defects, linked with impaired induction of some heat response genes. Heat induced gene expression is accompanied by AtASF1A/B protein enrichment, histone H3 eviction, RNA polymerase II accumulation, and H3K56 acetylation in chromatin regions of the target genes (e.g. H sfA2 and H sa32). The data suggest that ASF1 may be involved in nucleosome dissociation regulation in plant response to environmental heat stress.

    9. Banana fruit NAC transcription factor MaNAC1 is a direct target of MaICE1 and involved in cold stress through interacting with MaCBF1

      WEI SHAN, JIAN-FEI KUANG, WANG-JIN LU and JIAN-YE CHEN

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12303

      Research highlight: MaNAC1 is cold and ethylene-inducible and involved in propylene-induced cold tolerance of banana fruit. MaNAC1 is a novel direct target of MaICE1, and the ability of MaICE1 binding to MaNAC1 promoter might be enhanced by MaICE1 phosphorylation and cold stress. MaNAC1 physically interacts with MaCBF1. Our findings suggest that the cold and ethylene-responsive MaNAC1 may be involved in induced-cold tolerance of banana fruit through its interaction with ICE1-CBF cold signaling pathway, providing a novel pathway involving regulator NAC transcription factor.

    10. Herbivore-induced volatile emission in black poplar: regulation and role in attracting herbivore enemies

      ANDREA CLAVIJO MCCORMICK, SANDRA IRMISCH, ANDREAS REINECKE, G. ANDREAS BOECKLER, DANIEL VEIT, MICHAEL REICHELT, BILL S. HANSSON, JONATHAN GERSHENZON, TOBIAS G. KÖLLNER and SYBILLE B. UNSICKER

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12287

      Our study aimed to understand the phenomenon of volatile-mediated natural enemy recruitment in a deciduous tree species native to Europe, black poplar (Populus nigra). Our results show that minor nitrogenous compounds characterize the herbivore induced black poplar volatile blend and are only emitted locally at the herbivore damaged sites. Female Glyptapanteles liparidis parasitoids are attracted to odors released from local herbivore damaged black poplar leaves. Electrophysiological recordings and behavioral essays with individual compounds, both under laboratory and field conditions, suggest that minor nitrogenous compounds, rather than highly abundant terpenoids and green leaf volatiles, are key substances mediating the recruitment of parasitic Hymenopterans in poplar trees.

    11. Biochemical and molecular characterization of rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots forming a barrier to radial oxygen loss

      KONSTANTIN KULICHIKHIN, TAKAKI YAMAUCHI, KOHTARO WATANABE and MIKIO NAKAZONO

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12294

      We analyzed metabolic profiles and gene expression profiles in roots of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants grown under stagnant deoxygenated conditions, which induce suberization in the outer cell layers (OCL) of the roots and formation of strong barrier to radial oxygen loss (ROL). Distinctive biochemical features of rice roots under stagnant conditions were the accumulations of malic acid and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). The appearance of VLCFAs occurred simultaneously with a dramatic decrease of ROL from the root to the external medium. Based on a tissue-specific gene expression analysis, we propose that the physiological role of malic acid accumulation in rice roots grown under stagnant conditions is to provide a substrate for the biosynthesis of fatty acids/VLCFAs in the OCL, which in turn are used in the biosynthesis of suberin.

  6. Opinion

    1. The large pools of metabolites involved in intercellular metabolite shuttles in C4 photosynthesis provide enormous flexibility and robustness in a fluctuating light environment

      MARK STITT and XIN-GUANG ZHU

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12290

      C 4 photosynthesis confers advantages in terms of decreased photorespiration, high photosynthetic rate and improved water use and nitrogen use efficiency. Its operation is intimately linked with the presence of large metabolite pools that are required to drive metabolite shuttles between the mesophyll and bundle sheath. These large metabolite pools may confer a further, previously unappreciated, advantage to C 4 photosynthesis, acting like capacitors in an electricity grid and buffering against rapid fluctuations in light intensity.

  7. Original Articles

    1. Optimal nitrogen distribution within a leaf canopy under direct and diffuse light

      KOUKI HIKOSAKA

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12291

      Nitrogen distribution within a leaf canopy is an important determinant of canopy carbon gain. Here, optimal nitrogen distribution is shown to be very different between models using Beer's law and direct–diffuse light. Optimization of nitrogen distribution is suggested as an effective target trait for improving plant productivity

    2. Lacking chloroplasts in guard cells of crumpled leaf attenuates stomatal opening: both guard cell chloroplasts and mesophyll contribute to guard cell ATP levels

      SHU-WEI WANG, YING LI, XIAO-LU ZHANG, HAI-QIANG YANG, XUE-FEI HAN, ZHAO-HUI LIU, ZHONG-LIN SHANG, TOMOYA ASANO, YASUSHI YOSHIOKA, CHUN-GUANG ZHANG and YU-LING CHEN

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12297

      Controversies regarding the function of guard cell chloroplasts and the contribution of mesophyll in stomatal movements have persisted for several decades. Here, by comparing the stomatal opening of guard cells with (crl-ch) or without chloroplasts (crl-no ch) in one epidermis of crl (crumpled leaf) mutant in Arabidopsis, we showed that stomatal apertures of crl-no ch were samller than those of crl-ch and wild type. Correspondingly, the external pH changes and K + accumulations following fusicoccin (FC) treatment were greatly reduced in the guard cells of crl-no ch compared to crl-ch and wild type, which were consistent with the lower guard cell ATP levels in crl-no ch than those in crl-ch and wild type after white light treatment. In addition, guard cell ATP levels were lower in the epidermis than in leaves, indicating that both guard cell chloroplasts and mesophyll contribute to the ATP source for H + extrusion by guard cells.

    3. Interplays between nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in cryptogein signalling

      ANNA KULIK, ELODIE NOIROT, VINCENT GRANDPERRET, STÉPHANE BOURQUE, JÉRÔME FROMENTIN, PAULINE SALLOIGNON, CAROLINE TRUNTZER, GRAŻYNA DOBROWOLSKA, FRANÇOISE SIMON-PLAS and DAVID WENDEHENNE

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12295

      The interplays between nitric oxide ( NO ) and reactive oxygen species ( ROS ) in the defense responses triggered by the elicitin cryptogein in tobacco cells were investigated. Both NO and ROS resulting from NADPH oxidase activity contribute to cryptogein-induced cell death and regulate the expression of genes encoding ubiquitine ligases. In turn, peroxynitrite mitigates the effects of NO and ROS .

    4. Ethylene plays an essential role in the recovery of Arabidopsis during post-anaerobiosis reoxygenation

      KUEN-JIN TSAI, SHU-JEN CHOU and MING-CHE SHIH

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12292

      This study investigated the role of ethylene in the reoxygenation stage after anaerobiosis. The results showed that gene transcripts involved in ROS detoxification, dehydration response and metabolic processes were regulated during reoxygenation. Moreover, ethylene signaling may participate in regulating these responses and maintaining the homeostasis of different phytohormones.

    5. Distinct responses to ozone of abaxial and adaxial stomata in three Euramerican poplar genotypes

      JENNIFER DUMONT, DAVID COHEN, JOËLLE GÉRARD, YVES JOLIVET, PIERRE DIZENGREMEL and DIDIER LE THIEC

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12293

      The present capacity of forests to mitigate global climate changes can be negatively influenced by tropospheric ozone. Indeed, tropospheric ozone impairs both photosynthesis and stomatal control of plant transpiration, and thus affects ecosystem productivity.

      This work is important because it deals with the effects of ozone on different physiological, molecular and ultrastructure traits of guard cells, helps in the understanding of stomatal movements and points out which are the central mechanisms in the sensitivity to ozone. The questions addressed in the paper are:

      • Poplar has amphistomatic leaves, is the effect of ozone different on abaxial and adaxial surfaces of the leaves?
      • Does the effect of ozone on stomatal behaviour can be linked to a modification of the ultrastructure of stomata?
      • Does the effect of ozone on stomatal behaviour can be due to a disturbance of the ionic processes of opening and closure of stomata?

      This work is original and brings new insights with gene expression directly inside guard cells. We discussed the mechanisms that explain the decrease of maximum stomatal conductance and slower opening (rather than a closure caused by ozone) in response to realistic doses of ozone. It appears that ozone impacts firstly stomatal conductance of the upper surface of leaf, probably due to greater exposure to ROS. Modification of stomatal responses does not result from ultrastructural changes but more likely from a disturbance of ion fluxes and regulation of the expression of genes involved in signal transduction. Expression of a majority of the studied genes coding for plasma membrane and vacuolar channels is inhibited by ozone, especially the expression of genes coding for the vacuolar calcium channels (CAX1 and CAX3). Low constitutive expression of CAX1 and CAX3 genes in the sensitive genotype could be linked to its slower stomatal responses and thus, could participate to its sensitivity.

    6. Functional diversity of phytochrome family in the control of light and gibberellin-mediated germination in Arabidopsis

      M. V. ARANA, M. SÁNCHEZ-LAMAS, B. STRASSER, S. E. IBARRA, P. D. CERDÁN, J. F. BOTTO and R. A. SÁNCHEZ

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12286

      Our manuscript describes the functional diversity of the phytochrome family in the control of light and gibberellin-mediated germination. We report interactions between the different members of the phytochrome family in the control of light mediated germination, which were not previously recognised. We describe the roles of phyC in germination and this is particularly important since the control of seed germination by phyC was unknown. Finally we describe the photoreceptors that mediate the control of gibberellins responses in the seed, and some of their interactions.

    7. Characterization of distinct root and shoot responses to low-oxygen stress in Arabidopsis with a focus on primary C- and N-metabolism

      ANGELIKA MUSTROPH, GREGORY A. BARDING JR, KAYLA A. KAISER, CYNTHIA K. LARIVE and JULIA BAILEY-SERRES

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12282

      Oxygen deficiency stress leads to significant changes in plant metabolism. Here, root and shoot responses to oxygen deficiency stress were compared at the level of the transcriptome and metabolome using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Differences in fermentation metabolism were discerned between the two organs, specifically root-specific GABA and lactate formation, which could be only partially explained by transcriptome data. The study identified several exciting avenues for future studies, such as details of the mechanism of GABA and Ala accumulation and the roles of metabolite and ion transporters.

    8. Transcriptome analysis of soybean lines reveals transcript diversity and genes involved in the response to common cutworm (Spodoptera litura Fabricius) feeding

      YONGLI WANG, HUI WANG, RUI FAN, QING YANG and DEYUE YU

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12296

      The interaction between soybean and its destructive insect (common cutworm) is interesting, but complicated. In this paper, the time course of induced responses to common cutworm was characterized in two soybean lines. Transcriptional analysis performed after induction reveals hundreds of genes regulated representing regulatory proteins, functional proteins and primary related proteins, which may cooperatively or independently constitute gene networks as the core part in soybean defense responses.

  8. Reviews

    1. The future of isoprene emission from leaves, canopies and landscapes

      THOMAS D. SHARKEY and RUSSELL K. MONSON

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12289

      About the same amount of isoprene is emitted from vegetation to the atmosphere as all other non-methane hydrocarbons combined. Isoprene emission is very sensitive to environmental variables, especially variables likely to change in the future such as temperature and carbon dioxide concentration. These will affect isoprene emission both directly because of changes at the leaf level and indirectly as a result of landscape level effects of global change. We review what is known about how isoprene emission will change in the future and conclude that, on balance, isoprene emission is likely to be greater in the future than it is today.

  9. Original Articles

    1. Drought stress provokes the down-regulation of methionine and ethylene biosynthesis pathways in Medicago truncatula roots and nodules

      ESTÍBALIZ LARRAINZAR, JOHANNA A. MOLENAAR, STEFANIE WIENKOOP, ERENA GIL-QUINTANA, BÉNÉDICTE ALIBERT, ANIS M. LIMAMI, CESAR ARRESE-IGOR and ESTHER M. GONZÁLEZ

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12285

      Legume plants are able to obtain a source of reduced nitrogen through the symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. However, this process is rapidly inhibited under adverse environmental conditions. In this work we have analyzed the involvement of methionine and ethylene biosynthesis in the response of the model legume Medicago truncatula to drought stress and characterized these pathways in roots and nodules, tissues in which sulfur metabolism has been little explored so far.

    2. Partial versus complete submergence: snorkelling aids root aeration in Rumex palustris but not in R. acetosa

      MAX HERZOG and OLE PEDERSEN

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12284

      Some terrestrial wetland plants respond to submergence by elongating the petiole or stem to restore air contact, a phenomenon referred to as snorkelling. We showed that snorkelling greatly enhanced root aeration in Rumex palustris but not at all in R. acetosa owing to the 36-fold higher resistance to gas diffusion in the petiole of R. acetosa.

    3. LESION SIMULATING DISEASE 1 and ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 differentially regulate UV-C-induced photooxidative stress signalling and programmed cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana

      WERONIKA WITUSZYŃSKA, MAGDALENA SZECHYŃSKA-HEBDA, MIROSŁAW SOBCZAK, ANNA RUSACZONEK, ANNA KOZŁOWSKA-MAKULSKA, DAMIAN WITOŃ and STANISŁAW KARPIŃSKI

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12288

      Because of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV has become more and more dangerous to the biosphere. Therefore, it is important to understand UV perception and signal transduction in plants. In the present study we show that LESION SIMULATING DISEASE 1 (LSD1) and ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1) are antagonistic regulators of UV-C induced programmed cell death (PCD) in A rabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, we demonstrate that chloroplasts are the first organelles that show features of UV-C induced damage, which may indicate their primary role in PCD development.

    4. Suppression of UV-B stress responses by flg22 is regulated at the chromatin level via histone modification

      DIRK SCHENKE, DAGUANG CAI and DIERK SCHEEL

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12283

      This work shows that competition between the abiotic defense reaction towards UV-B radiation and biotic pathogen defense reaction induced by flg22 treatment takes place at the chromatin level. Posttranslational histone modification by H3K9 acetylation is required for activation of the UV-B response and prevented by flg22. Thus, this work provides a basis to further dissect the function of transcription factors involved in this process, which are likely involved in histone modification.

    5. Role of H2O2 dynamics in brassinosteroid-induced stomatal closure and opening in Solanum lycopersicum

      XIAO-JIAN XIA, CHUN-JUAN GAO, LIU-XIA SONG, YAN-HONG ZHOU, KAI SHI and JING-QUAN YU

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12275

      This study was to dissect the role of BR in the regulation of stomatal movements and explore the underlying mechanism. The major finding is that the BR response of stomata was defined by differential dynamics of ROS in guard cells induced by different BR concentrations. ROS can form a positive feedback loop with ABA, which mediated stomatal closure at high BR concentrations, whereas a transient increase of ROS induced a increase of redox status of glutathione, which played a role in stomatal opening at low BR concentrations. The results provide new insights into regulation of stomatal movements and BR signaling.

    6. Mutants of phospholipase A (pPLA-I) have a red light and auxin phenotype

      YUNUS EFFENDI, KATRIN RADATZ, CORINNA LABUSCH, STEFFEN RIETZ, RINUKSHI WIMALASEKERA, HANNA HELIZON, MATHIAS ZEIDLER and GÜNTHER F. E. SCHERER

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12278

      The phospholipase A pPLA-I (At1g61850) is weakly expressed in bundles of shoot and root, and trichomes and pollen. Subcellular localization was shown by antibodies and in knockouts plants complemented by pPLA-I-GFP and pPLA-I is found in the cytosol, the perinuclear and other ER and, in the endodermis, on the plasma membrane. Auxin-related physiology (expression of marker genes, gravitropism and phototropism) was altered in knockdown plants. Red light physiology showed similarity to phyB mutants with hypersensitive elongation in shade and root coils. This implies pPLA-I to have functions in auxin and red light signal transduction.

    7. The Nicotiana attenuata GLA1 lipase controls the accumulation of Phytophthora parasitica-induced oxylipins and defensive secondary metabolites

      STEFAN SCHUCK, MARIO KALLENBACH, IAN T. BALDWIN and GUSTAVO BONAVENTURE

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12281

      Oomycetes of the genus Phytophthora are all destructive plant pathogens, causing rots of roots, stems, leaves, and fruits of a large range of agriculturally important plants. Free oxylipins produced by the plant during infection play an important yet not completely understood role in the plant defense response. Moreover, the mechanisms that activate free oxylipin biogenesis upon infection are unclear. We demonstrate that the GLA1 lipase is a central component of the regulatory mechanisms acting during infection of wild tobacco plants with P. parasitica, controlling free oxylipin formation and metabolic processes. Thus, defensive metabolite levels may be directly or indirectly regulated via the formation of free oxylipins such as 9-hydroxy-linoleic acid (9-OH-18:2).

    8. Cadmium induces two waves of reactive oxygen species in Glycine max (L.) roots

      MARÍA VERÓNICA PÉREZ-CHACA, MARÍA RODRÍGUEZ-SERRANO, ALICIA S. MOLINA, HILDA E. PEDRANZANI, FANNY ZIRULNIK, LUISA M. SANDALIO and MARÍA C. ROMERO-PUERTAS

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12280

      Different pieces of evidence suggest a role for ROS, and NO in cadmium toxicity, although evolution through the treatment is not so analysed. In this work the response of soybean roots over 6 d Cd treatment was analysed. From the very beginning an increase in ROS and NO production was observed besides an initial oxidative damage on lipids and proteins. Then, the roots recover quickly thanks to the induction of its antioxidant enzymes mainly those involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and the NADPH generating enzymes suggesting a key role for NADPH availability in plant acclimation to Cd stress.

    9. Physiological and transcriptomic characterization of submergence and reoxygenation responses in soybean seedlings

      BISHAL G. TAMANG, JOSEPH O. MAGLIOZZI, M. A. SAGHAI MAROOF and TAKESHI FUKAO

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12277

      Complete submergence at the early seedlings stage is a major environmental constraint for soybean production worldwide. As floodwaters subside, submerged seedlings are abruptly exposed to oxygen, which induces oxidative stress. This study defined the fundamental physiological and transcriptomic responses to submergence and reoxygenation in soybean at the seedling establishment stage, highlighting conserved, organ-specific, and species-specific adjustments that enhance adaptability to the two stresses in the major legume species, Glycine max.

    10. A step towards understanding plant responses to multiple environmental stresses: a genome-wide study

      NASSER SEWELAM, YOSHIMI OSHIMA, NOBUTAKA MITSUDA and MASARU OHME-TAKAGI

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12274

      Plants in their natural habitats experience multiple environmental challenges. In this study, we investigated plant responses on a genome-wide basis to multiple combined stresses, including salt, osmotic and heat stresses, which mimic environmental stress in canonical arid conditions that represent about one third of the earth's land. We show that the combined multiple stress treatment induces unique gene expression patterns that are not a simple merge of the individual stresses.

    11. Complex and shifting interactions of phytochromes regulate fruit development in tomato

      SURESH KUMAR GUPTA, SULABHA SHARMA, PARANKUSAM SANTISREE, HIMABINDU VASUKI KILAMBI, KLAUS APPENROTH, YELLAMARAJU SREELAKSHMI and RAMESHWAR SHARMA

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12279

      Fruit ripening is a complex metabolic process that is genetically programed to make the fruit palatable for facilitating seed dispersal. Currently limited information is available on environmental regulation of ripening. In tomato it is reported that fruit localized phytochrome(s) regulates the lycopene accumulation. Investigation of tomato fruit development in phytochrome(s) mutants revealed that interaction between different phytochrome(s) species likely determines the duration of different phases of ripening.

  10. Reviews

    1. Plant signalling in acute ozone exposure

      JULIA P. VAINONEN and JAAKKO KANGASJÄRVI

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12273

      The review summarizes the recent progress in understanding of plant responses to acute ozone exposure at the cellular and molecular levels. Ozone can also be used as a tool to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the apoplast, therefore the review, with emphasis on signaling pathways activated by ozone, is directly relevant for research on apoplastic ROS signaling in general. The review highlights the existence of a complex cross talk between different signaling cascades and importance of tight control of the regulatory pathways as well as inter-organellar communication in plant responses to ozone.

  11. Original Articles

    1. Role of root hydrophobic barriers in salt exclusion of a mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis

      PANNAGA KRISHNAMURTHY, PAVITHRA A. JYOTHI-PRAKASH, LIN QIN, JIE HE, QINGSONG LIN, CHIANG-SHIONG LOH and PRAKASH P. KUMAR

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12272

      The mechanism of salt balance attained through salt exclusion and salt secretion was studied in a mangrove species Avicennia officinalis, using greenhouse-grown seedlings without prior exposure to salinity. Upon salt-treatment, an enhanced deposition of Casparian bands and suberin lamellae were found in the roots and salt glands along with a corresponding up-regulation of a cytochrome P450 gene (AoCYP86B1) that may regulate suberin biosynthesis. The enhanced root barriers reduced Na + loading into the xylem, accounting for a 90–95% salt exclusion in this mangrove species. The endodermis and exodermis with well-formed hydrophobic barriers appear to play a primary role in blocking the apoplastic bypass flow of Na + and Cl into the xylem of Avicennia officinalis enabling these plants to survive in a high salinity environment.

    2. A comprehensive study of thiol reduction gene expression under stress conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana

      C. BELIN, T. BASHANDY, J. CELA, V. DELORME-HINOUX, C. RIONDET and J. P. REICHHELD

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12276

  12. Special Issue

  13. Original Articles

    1. Carbon isotope discrimination during branch photosynthesis of Fagus sylvatica: a Bayesian modelling approach

      LYDIA GENTSCH, ALBIN HAMMERLE, PATRICK STURM, JÉRÔME OGÉE, LISA WINGATE, ROLF SIEGWOLF, PETER PLÜSS, THOMAS BAUR, NINA BUCHMANN and ALEXANDER KNOHL

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12262

    2. Reactive oxygen species in signalling the transcriptional activation of WIPK expression in tobacco

      JUAN XU, KWANG-YEOL YANG, SEUNG JIN YOO, YIDONG LIU, DONGTAO REN and SHUQUN ZHANG

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12271

      Plant mitogen-activated protein kinases represented by tobacco WIPK and its orthologs in other species are unique in their regulation at transcriptional level in response to stress and pathogen infection. Here, we report that ROS is a key component in the activation of WIPK expression, which sheds new light on the crosstalk between ROS and MAPK signaling cascade. Multiple lines of evidence were obtained using gain-of-function GVG-NtMEK2DD transgenic tobacco, DPI (an inhibitor of ROS burst), methyl viologen (an herbicide that induces ROS generation in chloroplasts), exogenously added H2O2, and an H2O2 generating system (glucose/glucose oxidase). Since it has been reported that pre-existing WIPK in tobacco or MPK3 (ortholog of WIPK) in Arabidopsis can heighten plant defense responses,ROS-induced WIPK expression may provide a mechanism by which ROS influence cellular signaling processes in plant stress/defense response.

    3. Cytokinin modulates proteomic, transcriptomic and growth responses to temperature shocks in Arabidopsis

      MARTIN ČERNÝ, PETR L. JEDELSKÝ, JAN NOVÁK, ANDREAS SCHLOSSER and BŘETISLAV BRZOBOHATÝ

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12270

      The degree of tolerance to temperature-shock has a direct impact on plant fitness and, consequently, productivity. However, temperature perception remains poorly understood. Here we provide the first survey of early global proteomic responses to temperature-shock in plants (Arabidopsis seedlings). We also provide a detailed analysis of mutual modulation of proteomic temperature and cytokinin responses, and the consequences for wider growth and metabolic regulation.

  14. Special Issue

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ascorbate deficiency influences the leaf cell wall glycoproteome in Arabidopsis thaliana

      NIGHAT SULTANA, HANNAH V. FLORANCE, ALEX JOHNS and NICHOLAS SMIRNOFF

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12267

      Ascorbate deficient vtc mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana have increased cell wall peroxidase activity and higher resistance to biotrophic pathogens compared to wild type. To discover which peroxidase isoforms are affected, cell glycoproteins were isolated and subjected to label free quantitative proteomics analysis. This approach revealed that peroxidases 33 and 34 (PRX33/34) were more abundant in vtc2-2 while three fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLA1, 2 and 8) had lower abundance in vtc2-2. Inspection of previously published transcriptome data showed that expression of these genes is affected in vtc mutants and that they are responsive to pathogen challenge. The results suggest a role for both classes of proteins in the increased pathogen resistance of vtc mutants.

  15. Original Articles

    1. Differential proteomics of dehydration and rehydration in bryophytes: evidence towards a common desiccation tolerance mechanism

      RICARDO CRUZ DE CARVALHO, ANABELA BERNARDES DA SILVA, RENATA SOARES, ANDRÉ M. ALMEIDA, ANA VARELA COELHO, JORGE MARQUES DA SILVA and CRISTINA BRANQUINHO

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12266

      Bryophytes developed desiccation tolerance (DT) mechanisms during early land invasion. Using a proteomic approach, we hypothesised that an aquatic and a terrestrial bryophyte would display similar responses at protein level during a desiccation event. Since currently there were developments of the proteomics and the genome of Physcomitrella patens, it is the moment to clarify the discussion about DT mechanisms with this information.

      A proteome of an aquatic bryophyte was performed and our results show that the protein variation patterns are similar to the terrestrial DT bryophytes Physcomitrella patens and also to Syntrichia ruralis. These results suggest that all bryophytes may possess common inducible DT mechanisms and the differences in morphology may determine the rate of dehydration and, thus, the capacity to withstand desiccation.

    2. Elevated [CO2] does not ameliorate the negative effects of elevated temperature on drought-induced mortality in Eucalyptus radiata seedlings

      HONGLANG DUAN, REMKO A. DUURSMA, GUOMIN HUANG, RENEE A. SMITH, BRENDAN CHOAT, ANTHONY P. O'GRADY and DAVID T. TISSUE

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12260

    3. Interactions between the jasmonic and salicylic acid pathway modulate the plant metabolome and affect herbivores of different feeding types

      R. SCHWEIGER, A.-M. HEISE, M. PERSICKE and C. MÜLLER

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12257

      The phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are prominent mediators of induced plant defences and their corresponding pathways interact in a complex manner as shown mainly on the transcript level. Applying metabolomics not only of leaf tissue but also of phloem exudates combined with bioassays using a chewing-biting and a piercing-sucking herbivore, we could demonstrate that the JA and SA pathways are connected by divergence and convergence points as well as nodes of positive and negative crosstalk, thereby modulating the leaf and phloem metabolic phenotype of Plantago lanceolata in treatment-specific ways. Moreover, negative effects of single phytohormone applications on one herbivore species were attenuated when JA and SA were applied in combination, indicating pronounced pathway interference. Thus, such pathway interferences provide a great regulatory potential for the plant to trigger appropriate defences if attacked by different antagonist species.

  16. Special Issue

    1. Phenomic networks reveal largely independent root and shoot adjustment in waterlogged plants of Lotus japonicus

      GUSTAVO G. STRIKER, CECILIA CASAS, MILENA E. MANZUR, ROCÍO A. PLOSCHUK and JORGE J. CASAL

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12268

      This paper presents a detailed phenotypic analysis of control and waterlogged plants of Lotus japonicus recombinant inbred lines. The lines with better root performance and stronger induction of aerenchyma were not the same lines showing better shoot performance and retaining higher stomatal conductance and dark-adapted Fv/Fm under waterlogging conditions. Although the stress experienced by the roots during waterlogging is transmitted to the shoot, shoots and roots deal with waterlogging in a less interdependent manner than often assumed.

  17. Commentary

  18. Original Articles

    1. Wood properties of Populus and Betula in long-term exposure to elevated CO2 and O3

      KATRI KOSTIAINEN, PEKKA SARANPÄÄ, SVEN-OLOF LUNDQVIST, MARK E. KUBISKE and ELINA VAPAAVUORI

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12261

      We studied whether growth changes induced by elevated CO2 and/or O3 were maintained during 11-year exposure in the field and how they reflected to wood structure of aspen and birch. Neither CO2 nor O3 responses were consistent throughout the experiment, but they both varied annually and were more often seen early in the experiment. Our results show that the CO2- and O3-exposed aspen trees displayed a differential balance between efficiency and safety of water transport: the CO2 trees with enhanced radial growth had fewer but hydraulically more efficient larger-diameter vessels. Our study indicates that short-term impact studies conducted with young seedlings may not give a realistic view of long-term ecosystem responses.

    2. Identification and characterization of a novel copper transporter gene family TaCT1 in common wheat

      HAOXUN LI, RENCHUN FAN, LIBIN LI, BO WEI, GUOLIANG LI, LIQING GU, XIANPING WANG and XIANGQI ZHANG

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12263

      Little is known about copper transporters in wheat. Here, we indentifed a novel wheat gene family encoding MFS-type copper transporters, and provided evidence for their functional involvement in promoting copper uptake and keeping copper homeostasis in common wheat.

  19. Commentary

  20. Original Articles

    1. ARP2/3 complex-mediated actin dynamics is required for hydrogen peroxide-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis

      XIN LI, JIAN-HUA LI, WEI WANG, NAI-ZHI CHEN, TONG-SUO MA, YA-NAN XI, XIAO-LU ZHANG, HAI-FEI LIN, YANG BAI, SHAN-JIN HUANG and YU-LING CHEN

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12259

      Multiple cellular events like dynamic actin reorganization and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production were demonstrated to be involved in abscisic acid (ABA) -induced stomatal closure. However, the relationship between them as well as the underlying mechanisms remains poorly understood. Here, we showed that H2O2 generation is indispensable for ABA induction of actin reorganization in guard cells of Arabidopsis that requires the presence of ARP2/3 complex; furthermore, mis-regulated actin dynamics affects H2O2 production upon ABA treatment. Therefore, the data support a possible causal relation between the production of H2O2 and actin dynamics in ABA-mediated guard cell signaling.

    2. Hydroxy-plastochromanol and plastoquinone-C as singlet oxygen products during photo-oxidative stress in Arabidopsis

      RENATA SZYMAŃSKA, BEATRYCZE NOWICKA and JERZY KRUK

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12253

      Hydroxy-plastochromanol and plastoquinone-C, the hydroxyl derivatives of plastochromanol and plastoquinone-9, respectively, are specifically formed from the parent compounds upon the action of singlet oxygen and can be regarded as stable, specific, natural markers of photooxidative stress in vivo. Plastoquinone-C formation dominates during relatively short periods of high light stress, whereas hydroxy-plastochromanol is rather formed when singlet oxygen generation is less pronounced but long lasting.

    3. Functional characterization of the two ferrochelatases in Arabidopsis thaliana

      MICHAEL SCHARFENBERG, LUKAS MITTERMAYR, EDDA VON ROEPENACK-LAHAYE, HAGEN SCHLICKE, BERNHARD GRIMM, DARIO LEISTER and TATJANA KLEINE

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12248

      While most organisms express only one ferrochelatase (FC) protein, land plants possess at least two. We therefore set out to obtain further insights into the functions of FC1 and FC2 in Arabidopsis. In silico analyses, microarray data and phenotypic characterization of the knockdown mutants fc1-1, fc2-1 and fc1-1 fc2-1 point to a more prominent role for FC2 than for FC1 in responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Furthermore, in fc2-1 knockdown plants, photosynthetic activity is disrupted and the photosensitizing pigment protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) accumulates in the dark, providing evidence for a flu (fluorescent) phenotype of the fc2 mutant.

    4. Low glutathione regulates gene expression and the redox potentials of the nucleus and cytosol in Arabidopsis thaliana

      DANIEL SCHNAUBELT, GUILLAUME QUEVAL, YINGPING DONG, PEDRO DIAZ-VIVANCOS, MATOME EUGENE MAKGOPA, GARETH HOWELL, AMBRA DE SIMONE, JUAN BAI, MATTHEW A. HANNAH and CHRISTINE H. FOYER

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12252

      Reduced glutathione (GSH) is a multifunctional metabolite with important (but poorly defined roles) in the regulation of cellular redox homeostasis and gene expression. GSH deficiency in the Arabidopsis thaliana root meristemless 1-1 (rml1-1) mutant or in the wild type seedlings treated with the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) led to an increase of over 40 mV in the redox potentials of the nuclei and cytosol of the root cells. Low GSH levels had a major impact on gene expression. The GSH-responsive genes that were identified include transcription factors and proteins involved in the cell cycle, redox regulation and hormone signalling. Low GSH availability in other GSH synthesis mutants (such as rax1-1, cad2-1 and pad2-1) decreased lateral root densities. The addition of auxin decreased the root glutathione pool. We conclude that GSH deficiency exerts a strong influence over auxin signalling in the absence of effects on oxidative signalling pathways.

    5. Plasticity of functional traits varies clinally along a rainfall gradient in Eucalyptus tricarpa

      ELIZABETH H. MCLEAN, SUZANNE M. PROBER, WILLIAM D. STOCK, DOROTHY A. STEANE, BRAD M. POTTS, RENÉ E. VAILLANCOURT and MARGARET BYRNE

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12251

      Our study investigates the nature of adaptation to climate in a widespread tree species, a topic of current and growing scientific interest, given the ongoing pressures of climate change. However, surprisingly few studies to date have examined within-species patterns of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation in climate related traits, in any detail. Our study reveals clinal variation across a rainfall gradient, not only in the values of functional traits, but in the plasticity of several morphological traits. The findings support the hypothesis that the adaptive value of plasticity depends on both the environment and the trait in question, with genetic variation for plasticity itself forming part of local adaptations to climate.

    6. Activation of auxin signalling counteracts photorespiratory H2O2-dependent cell death

      PAVEL KERCHEV, PER MÜHLENBOCK, JORDI DENECKER, KRIS MORREEL, FRANK A. HOEBERICHTS, KATRIEN VAN DER KELEN, MICHAEL VANDORPE, LONG NGUYEN, DOMINIQUE AUDENAERT and FRANK VAN BREUSEGEM

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12250

      Although the photorespiratory pathway is biochemically well characterized, little information is available on the functional significance of photorespiration beyond carbon recycling. Particularly important in this respect is theperoxisomal catalase activity which removes photorespiratory H2O2.. By perfroming a chemical screen, we identified 34 small molecules that alleviate the negative effects of photorespiration in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking photorespiratory catalase (cat2). The most potent chemical that could rescue the photorespiratory phenotype of cat2 is a pro-auxin structure, implying a role for auxin signaling in stress tolerance.

    7. Biochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying effects of Cucumber mosaic virus on host-plant traits that mediate transmission by aphid vectors

      KERRY E. MAUCK, CONSUELO M. DE MORAES and MARK C. MESCHER

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12249

      This study explores the biochemical mechanisms underlying the influence of a widespread plant pathogen, the non-persistently transmitted Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), on aspects of host-plant phenotype that influence interactions with aphid vectors. This virus has previously been shown to enhance the attractiveness of plants for aphids (via volatile cues), while simultaneously reducing host plant palatability and quality (stimulating dispersal and virus transmission). Our current results demonstrate that CMV infection reduces host plant quality by altering ratios of carbohydrates to free amino acids in both non-vascular cells (those first sampled by aphids and from which virions are acquired) and in phloem sap, and that infection results in an increase in organic volatile precursors and herbivore defense signaling molecules both constitutively and in response to aphid damage. These changes are consistent with observed effects on host-plant phenotype and patterns of vector behavior, as well as with existing knowledge about the use of host plant resources by CMV during replication and systemic spread. Our results thus provide new insight into the transmission ecology of a multi-host plant pathogen of significant economic and ecological importance.

    8. Pre-dawn stomatal opening does not substantially enhance early-morning photosynthesis in Helianthus annuus

      LISA AUCHINCLOSS, HSIEN M. EASLON, DIEDRE LEVINE, LISA DONOVAN and JAMES H. RICHARDS

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12241

      Most C3 plant species have partially open stomata during the night especially in the 3–5 hours before dawn, yet the function of predawn stomatal opening has not been established. This work investigates the hypothesis that pre-dawn stomatal opening enhances early morning photosynthesis by reducing diffusion limitations to CO 2 at dawn. We found that, for well-watered Helianthus annuus, predawn opening did not substantially enhance early morning A, indicating that it is unlikely to affect A under well-watered agricultural conditions.

    9. Tree-ring stable isotopes record the impact of a foliar fungal pathogen on CO2 assimilation and growth in Douglas-fir

      BRANDY J. SAFFELL, FREDERICK C. MEINZER, STEVEN L. VOELKER, DAVID C. SHAW, J. RENÉE BROOKS, BARBARA LACHENBRUCH and JENNIFER MCKAY

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12256

      We present an approach for using variation in stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in tree-ring cellulose as a diagnostic tool for reconstructing the history of an increasingly widespread foliar fungal disease of Douglas-fir. Stomatal blockage by fungal fruiting bodies resulted in lower carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) in diseased Douglas-fir compared to fungicide-treated trees and a co-occurring non-host reference species (western hemlock). Increased disease symptom severity as inferred from tree-ring Δ13C was correlated with higher summertime relative humidity in previous years. Studies using tree-ring stable isotopes for climate reconstructions should consider the potential impacts of forest pathogens on the interpretation of results.

    10. Metabolomic analysis reveals the potential metabolites and pathogenesis involved in mulberry yellow dwarf disease

      YING-PING GAI, XUE-JUAN HAN, YI-QUN LI, CHUAN-ZHONG YUAN, YAO-YAO MO, FANG-YUE GUO, QING-XIN LIU and XIAN-LING JI

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12255

      A multi target metabolite profiling was characterized by GC/MS to provide for the first time a global analysis of the changes that occur in mulberry following infection by yellows dwarf phytoplasma. Together with global metabolite analysis, some gene expressions and biochemical changes were analyzed, and the potential molecular mechanisms of these changes were discussed. It was pointed out that both the leaf and phloem sap have a complicated metabolic response to phytoplasma infection, but their metabolic changes and response mechanisms were different.

    11. Osmotic stress at the barley root affects expression of circadian clock genes in the shoot

      ERMIAS HABTE, LUKAS M. MÜLLER, MUNQEZ SHTAYA, SETH J. DAVIS and MARIA VON KORFF

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12242

      The objective of the study was 1. to characterize the effects of the circadian clock on physiological performance under osmotic stress in the important crop barley and 2. to study the plasticity of the clock in response to osmotic stress. We demonstrate that osmotic stress at the barley root altered clock gene expression in the shoot and thus acted as a spatial input signal into the clock. Clock genes controlled the expression of stress-response genes, but had minor effects on physiological traits, such as gas exchange. Unlike in Arabidopsis, barley primary assimilation was thus less controlled by the clock and more responsive to environmental perturbations, such as osmotic stress.

    12. Altered growth and improved resistance of Arabidopsis against Pseudomonas syringae by overexpression of the basic amino acid transporter AtCAT1

      HUAIYU YANG, SANDRA POSTEL, BIRGIT KEMMERLING and UWE LUDEWIG

      Article first published online: 24 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12244

      The cationic amino acid transporter gene CAT1 was identified as part of a transcriptional pathogen response and its over-expression negatively affected the biomass, but improved the defense against pathogens via salicylic acid.

    13. Morphological and anatomical determinants of mesophyll conductance in wild relatives of tomato (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon, sect. Lycopersicoides; Solanaceae)

      CHRISTOPHER D. MUIR, ROGER P. HANGARTER, LEONIE C. MOYLE and PHILLIP A. DAVIS

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12245

      Leaf anatomy varies widely, even between closely related species, but is nevertheless constrained by fundamental physics. We are interested in understanding the physiological costs and benefits of different leaf anatomies and how that might affect their evolution. In the wild tomato species we study, we find that increased investment in leaf structure hinders one component of photosynthetic performance, specifically, how rapidly carbon dioxide can reach chloroplasts. Even in tender, herbaceous leaves of tomatoes, moderate investment in tougher leaf structure adversely affects fundamental physiological processes.

    14. Secondary metabolite from Nostoc XPORK14A inhibits photosynthesis and growth of Synechocystis PCC 6803

      SUMATHY SHUNMUGAM, JOUNI JOKELA, MATTI WAHLSTEN, NATALIA BATTCHIKOVA, ATEEQ UR REHMAN, IMRE VASS, MAARIT KARONEN, JARI SINKKONEN, PERTTU PERMI, KAARINA SIVONEN, EVA-MARI ARO and YAGUT ALLAHVERDIYEVA

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12243

      We identified the secondary metabolite of Nostoc XPORK14A causing these pronounced effects on Synechocystis PCC6803 cells by inhibiting photosynthesis and growth. This compound, designated as M22, has a non-peptide structure. We propose that M22 possesses a dual action mechanism: first, by photo-generation of reactive oxygen species in the presence of light, which in turn affects the photosynthetic machinery of Synechocystis PCC 6803; and second, by altering the in vivo redox status of cells, possibly through inhibition of protein kinases.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Low levels of ribosomal RNA partly account for the very high photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency of Proteaceae species

      RONAN SULPICE, HIROFUMI ISHIHARA, ARMIN SCHLERETH, GREGORY R. CAWTHRAY, BEATRICE ENCKE, PATRICK GIAVALISCO, ALEXANDER IVAKOV, STÉPHANIE ARRIVAULT, RICARDA JOST, NICOLE KROHN, JOHN KUO, ETIENNE LALIBERTÉ, STUART J. PEARSE, JOHN A. RAVEN, WOLF-RÜDIGER SCHEIBLE, FRANÇOIS TESTE, ERIK J. VENEKLAAS, MARK STITT and HANS LAMBERS

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12240

      Proteaceae species in south-western Australia occur on phosphorus- impoverished soils. Their leaves contain very low phosphorus levels, but have relatively high rates of photosynthesis and activities of enzymes involved in primary metabolism, suggesting they do not compromise their metabolic machinery in order to save P. In contrast, we show that low ribosome abundance contributes to the high phosphorus-use efficiency of these Proteaceae species in three ways: less ribosomes means less P investment; the rate of growth and, hence, demand for phosphorus is decreased; young leaves show a delay in the formation of the photosynthetic machinery, exhibiting very low plastidic ribosome abundance and spreading investment of phosphorus in ribosomes over a longer time.

  21. Reviews

    1. Type-II histone deacetylases: elusive plant nuclear signal transducers

      VINCENT GRANDPERRET, VALÉRIE NICOLAS-FRANCÈS, DAVID WENDEHENNE and STÉPHANE BOURQUE

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12236

      Since the beginning of the 21st century, numerous studies have concluded the plant cell nucleus is one of the cellular compartments that define the specificity of the cellular response to an external stimulus or to a specific developmental stage. To that purpose, the nucleus contains all the enzymatic machinery required to carry out a wide variety of nuclear protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) which play an important role in signal transduction pathways leading to the modulation of specific sets of genes. PTMs include protein (de)acetylation which is controlled by the antagonistic activities of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Regarding protein deacetylation, plants are of particular interest: in addition to the RPD3-HDA1 and Sir2 HDAC families that they share with other eukaryotic organisms, plants have developed a specific family called type-II HDACs (HD2s). Interestingly, these HD2s are well conserved in plants and control fundamental biological processes such as seed germination, flowering or the response to pathogens. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding this fascinating but still poorly understood nuclear protein family.

  22. Original Articles

    1. Differential cadmium and zinc distribution in relation to their physiological impact in the leaves of the accumulating Zygophyllum fabago L.

      ISABELLE LEFÈVRE, KATARINA VOGEL-MIKUŠ, LUKA JEROMEL, PRIMOŽ VAVPETIČ, SÉBASTIEN PLANCHON, IZTOK ARČON, JOHANNES T VAN ELTEREN, GILLES LEPOINT, SYLVIE GOBERT, JENNY RENAUT, PRIMOŽ PELICON and STANLEY LUTTS

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12234

      This paper focuses on the importance of histological element distribution in the understanding of plant response to heavy metal accumulation. Through a combined physiological, proteomic and metabolite approach associated to the study of ion compartmentation and complexation, we evidenced that the accumulating species Zygophyllum fabago set up different mechanisms to protect photosynthetically active tissues and to maintain cell turgor against Cd and Zn toxicity.

    2. Day length dependent restructuring of the leaf transcriptome and metabolome in potato genotypes with contrasting tuberization phenotypes

      WAYNE L. MORRIS, ROBERT D. HANCOCK, LAURENCE J M. DUCREUX, JENNY A. MORRIS, MUHAMMAD USMAN, SUSAN R. VERRALL, SANJEEV K SHARMA, GLENN BRYAN, JAMES W. MCNICOL, PETE E. HEDLEY and MARK A. TAYLOR

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12238

      The molecular mechanisms that control tuber formation have been investigated in detail over the past few decades because the control of tuber initiation, number and size uniformity is probably the largest economic constraint of modern potato production. Recent breakthroughs have identified components of the photoperiodic signalling pathway that leads to tuberisation. In this work we have characterised the biochemical and transcriptional responses in two divergent potato genotypes under contrasting day length regimes and revealed new insights into tuberisation and associated processes. Furthermore, we reveal the intriguing presence of an additional StSP6A allele that is associated with tuber formation under long day length conditions. Overall, the data presented in this study highlight the subtle interplay between components of the clock-CONSTANS-StSP6A axis which collectively may interact to fine-tune the timing of tuberisation.

    3. Inhibition of germination of dormant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains by blue light as related to oxygen and hormonal regulation

      HAI HA HOANG, JULIEN SECHET, CHRISTOPHE BAILLY, JULIETTE LEYMARIE and FRANÇOISE CORBINEAU

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12239

      This work demonstrates that blue light inhibits the germination of primary dormant grains placed at low temperature (10 °C), and that exposure longer than 5 days under blue light induces of secondary dormancy.The inability of primary dormant grains to germinate under blue light and induction of secondary dormancy are correlated with an increase in embryo ABA content resulting from an induction of the HvNCED genesand a decrease in HvABA8′OH-1 gene expression. Exposure to blue light also results in changes in GA metabolism gene expression and a strong decrease in HvExpA11 expression suggesting a reduced GA signalling. The reversion of blue light effect by green lightsuggests that this hormonal regulation probably involves cryptochrome.

    4. Opening the black box: outcomes of interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and non-host genotypes of Medicago depend on fungal identity, interplay between P uptake pathways and external P supply

      E. FACELLI, T. DUAN, S E. SMITH, H M. CHRISTOPHERSEN, J M. FACELLI and F A. SMITH

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12237

      Ecological studies of effects of soil microorganisms on plant-plant interactions are frequently based on a ‘black box’ approach; underlying mechanisms are not investigated and interpretation of data is based on generalised concepts. We provide direct evidence relating to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) function in phosphorus (P) uptake and variations in effects of different AM fungi on plant interactions which should be taken into account in interpreting ecological data. Importantly, we found evidence of plant control of P uptake for only one of two AM fungi used, and growth responses to AM inoculation of plant genotypes (host and non-host) grown alone did not predict outcomes of intergenotypic interactions.

    5. Glucose inhibits root meristem growth via ABA INSENSITIVE 5, which represses PIN1 accumulation and auxin activity in Arabidopsis

      TING-TING YUAN, HENG-HAO XU, KUN-XIAO ZHANG, TING-TING GUO and YING-TANG LU

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12233

      Glucose has been documented to play roles in plant growth and development, while its role in root elongation remains elusive. Our study demonstrates that high concentrations of glucose reduce the size of the root meristem zone by repressing PIN1 accumulation and thereby reducing auxin levels. ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) also involves in this process by modulating glucose-regulated PIN1 accumulation. Taken together, our data suggest that ABI5 functions in the glucose-mediated inhibition of the root meristem zone by repressing PIN1 accumulation, thus leading to reduced auxin levels in roots.

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