Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 39 Issue 7

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Keith Mott

Impact Factor: 6.169

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 10/209 (Plant Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1365-3040

VIEW

  1. 1 - 44
  1. Technical Reports

    1. Gene mining in halophytes: functional identification of stress tolerance genes in Lepidium crassifolium

      Gábor Rigó, Ildikó Valkai, Dóra Faragó, Edina Kiss, Sara Van Houdt, Nancy Van de Steene, Matthew A. Hannah and László Szabados

      Version of Record online: 25 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12768

  2. Original Articles

    1. The influence of drought and heat stress on long-term carbon fluxes of bioenergy crops grown in the Midwestern USA

      Eva Joo, Mir Zaman Hussain, Marcelo Zeri, Michael D. Masters, Jesse N. Miller, Nuria Gomez-Casanovas, Evan H. DeLucia and Carl J. Bernacchi

      Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12751

      Perennial grasses have been identified as being, in many ways, ideal feedstocks for bioenergy production. Yet side-by-side comparisons of key carbon fluxes and pools, particularly in response to climate extremes, for perennial grasses compared with the traditional row crops that they replace are needed. This research represents a long-term eddy covariance experiment, encompassing a severe drought, where three perennial ecosystems are compared with traditional row crops. The results show that perennial ecosystems are more resilient to drought than row crops in terms of both carbon uptake and storage and that a post-drought effect may be more likely in a perennial relative to annual ecosystem.

    2. Volatile compounds emitted by diverse phytopathogenic microorganisms promote plant growth and flowering through cytokinin action

      Ángela María Sánchez-López, Marouane Baslam, Nuria De Diego, Francisco José Muñoz, Abdellatif Bahaji, Goizeder Almagro, Adriana Ricarte-Bermejo, Pablo García-Gómez, Jun Li, Jan F. Humplík, Ondřej Novák, Lukáš Spíchal, Karel Doležal, Edurne Baroja-Fernández and Javier Pozueta-Romero

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12759

      It is known that volatile emissions from some beneficial rhizosphere microorganisms promote plant growth. Here we show that volatile compounds (VCs) emitted by phylogenetically diverse rhizosphere and non-rhizhosphere bacteria and fungi (including plant pathogens and microbes that do not normally interact mutualistically with plants) promote growth and flowering of various plant species, including crops. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that many genes differentially expressed in Arabidopsis plants treated with VCs emitted by the fungal phytopathogen Alternaria alternata were also differentially expressed in plants exposed to VCs emitted by the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis GB03, suggesting that plants react to microbial VCs through highly conserved regulatory mechanisms. The discovery that VCs from pathogenic microorganisms can have beneficial effects on plant growth and development extends knowledge of the diversity and complexity of the interactions involved in modulation of plant physiology, raising questions regarding the evolution of the processes, their ecological significance and potential applications.

  3. Reviews

    1. The β-cyanoalanine synthase pathway: beyond cyanide detoxification

      Marylou Machingura, Eitan Salomon, Joseph M. Jez and Stephen D. Ebbs

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12755

      This review focuses on the cyanoalanine synthase pathway in plants and covers both its distribution within the plant kingdom and the broader range of functions now attributed to this pathway. For decades, this pathway has been described solely in terms of its role in cyanide detoxification. This has been an entrenched paradigm that has not changed measurably since the pathway's discovery in the 1960s. Research to date, however, has demonstrated that the functions of the pathway stretch beyond simple cyanide detoxification and encompass a range of functions that are fundamental to plant growth and development as well as to stress tolerance. There have been reviews in the past decade or so on cyanide, cyanogenesis and the range of biological degradation/assimilatory pathways for cyanide, but none have specifically focused on the distribution and function of the β-cyanoalanine synthase pathway as we do here. A fundamental goal of this manuscript is to expand the perception of this pathway and its functional importance.

  4. Opinions

    1. Toward an index of desiccation time to tree mortality under drought

      Chris J. Blackman, Sebastian Pfautsch, Brendan Choat, Sylvain Delzon, Sean M. Gleason and Remko A. Duursma

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12758

  5. Original Articles

    1. Organelle redox autonomy during environmental stress

      Avishay Bratt, Shilo Rosenwasser, Andreas Meyer and Robert Fluhr

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12746

      The subcellular glutathione disulfide/glutathione (GSH) redox state under various stress conditions was assessed using the redox reporter roGFP2 targeted to chloroplastic, mitochondrial, peroxisomal and cytosolic compartments. Under each stress, particular organelles were affected, indicating highly compartmentalized changes in the redox environment. In addition, early high levels of roGFP2 oxidation were found to be suggestive of latter cell death. The results show both cases of organelle autonomy as well as concerted organelle oxidative change.

    2. A loss-of-function allele of OsHMA3 associated with high cadmium accumulation in shoots and grain of Japonica rice cultivars

      Jiali Yan, Peitong Wang, Peng Wang, Meng Yang, Xingming Lian, Zhong Tang, Chao-Feng Huang, David E. Salt and Fang Jie Zhao

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12747

      Excessive cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice poses a risk to food safety. The tonoplast transporter OsHMA3 plays an important role in restricting Cd translocation from roots to shoots. Here, we identify a new loss-of-function allele of OsHMA3 in Japonica rice cultivars associated with high Cd accumulation in shoots and grain.

    3. Microarray and genetic analysis reveals that csa-miR159b plays a critical role in abscisic acid-mediated heat tolerance in grafted cucumber plants

      Hao Li, Yu Wang, Ze Wang, Xie Guo, Feng Wang, Xiao-Jian Xia, Jie Zhou, Kai Shi, Jing-Quan Yu and Yan-Hong Zhou

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12745

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Acclimation of the crucifer Eutrema salsugineum to phosphate limitation is associated with constitutively high expression of phosphate-starvation genes

      Vera Marjorie Elauria Velasco, John Mansbridge, Samantha Bremner, Kimberley Carruthers, Peter S. Summers, Wilson W.L. Sung, Marc J. Champigny and Elizabeth A. Weretilnyk

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12750

      Phosphorus is a limiting macronutrient in many natural habitats and managed agricultural systems. We show that an extremophile crucifer, Eutrema salsugineum (synonymous with Thellungiella salsuginea), copes with low phosphate (Pi) using strategies different than its close relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. Pi-starved seedlings and 4-week-old plants have reduced Pi content relative to plants fertilized with Pi but otherwise exhibit comparable phenotype and biomass, suggesting that Eutrema has a naturally high capacity to acquire and manage Pi efficiently. Our results are consistent with Eutrema plants anticipating low environmental Pi, a behaviour revealed in part by a constitutive expression of genes identified as Pi starvation responsive in other plants, including Arabidopsis.

    5. Regulation of loquat fruit low temperature response and lignification involves interaction of heat shock factors and genes associated with lignin biosynthesis

      Jiao-ke Zeng, Xian Li, Jing Zhang, Hang Ge, Xue-ren Yin and Kun-song Chen

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12741

      Fruit may be subject to chilling injury during postharvest low temperature storage, and heat treatments have been shown to alleviate chilling injury symptoms in many fruit species. The present research showed that heat shock factors (HSF) are involved in loquat fruit chilling injury and induced lignification via two distinct pathways. EjHSF1 transcriptionally regulated EjHsp genes, while EjHSF3 interacted with EjAP2-1 and regulated lignin biosynthetic genes.

    6. Genetic background and environmental conditions drive metabolic variation in wild type and transgenic soybean (Glycine max) seeds

      Hagai Cohen, Ofer M. Shir, Yang Yu, Wensheng Hou, Shi Sun, Tianfu Han and Rachel Amir

      Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12748

      Wild type and transgenic soybean (Glycine max) seeds with higher methionine contents were grown in four geographical habitats in China characterized by different climatic conditions. Using metabolite profiling and advanced statistical tools, we revealed genotype-by-environment interactions, suggesting that mutual relationships existing between the variables of genetic background and environmental conditions are key-determining factors of metabolite profiles in seeds grown under natural environments.

    7. Element distribution and iron speciation in mature wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy mapping and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) imaging

      Niels De Brier, Sara V. Gomand, Erica Donner, David Paterson, Erik Smolders, Jan A. Delcour and Enzo Lombi

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12749

      While it is known that much of the iron (Fe) in wheat grains is associated with phytate in the aleurone, little is known about the distribution of Fe species in the other grain tissues (i.e. crease, embryo) and about the local association of Fe with other possible ligands. This paper demonstrates the use of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy imaging for a speciation analysis of an essential element in a staple food grain. Our results show that large differences in element distribution and Fe speciation exist within and between different wheat grain tissues as a result of the presence of different transport mechanisms. We show that Fe in the nucellar projection is not phytate bound.

    8. Improved Phytophthora resistance in commercial chickpea (Cicer arietinum) varieties negatively impacts symbiotic gene signalling and symbiotic potential in some varieties

      Jonathan M. Plett, Krista L. Plett, Sean L. Bithell, Chris Mitchell, Kevin Moore, Jeff R. Powell and Ian C. Anderson

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12757

      In brief, the two key novelties of this study are (1) the demonstration that modern breeding practices for improved disease resistance are also negatively affects beneficial plant:microbe interactions and (2) identification in chickpea of microbe ‘specific’ and ‘generalist’ genes that could be used to tailor plant disease resistance to a specific pathogen without affecting mutualistic plant:microbe interactions. These findings hold interest to plant, cell and environment readers across a variety of research fields as the topic is a significant advancement in our understanding of how current breeding practices in crops affect not only the disease susceptibility of a plant but also mutualistic plant:microbe interactions.

  6. Technical Reports

    1. A method for in situ monitoring of the isotope composition of tree xylem water using laser spectroscopy

      Till H. M. Volkmann, Kathrin Kühnhammer, Barbara Herbstritt, Arthur Gessler and Markus Weiler

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12725

      Analysis of the stable isotope composition of xylem water is a powerful tool for assessing plant water relations, but available methodology has greatly limited the scope of isotope-based studies. Here, we introduce an in situ technique based on laser spectroscopy that allows monitoring of the isotope composition of xylem water in trees continuously and at high frequency while eliminating the need for costly and cumbersome destructive collection of plant material and laboratory-based processing. Results from field application demonstrate that temporal dynamics as well as spatial patterns of integration in xylem water isotope composition can now be resolved through direct measurement.

  7. Original Articles

    1. In situ microscopy reveals reversible cell wall swelling in kelp sieve tubes: one mechanism for turgor generation and flow control?

      Jan Knoblauch, Sarah Tepler Drobnitch, Winfried S. Peters and Michael Knoblauch

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12736

      Kelps are unrelated to vascular plants but possess sieve tubes that resemble those in the phloem. When kelp sieve tubes are injured, their cell walls expand reversibly in dependence of intracellular pressure, reducing sieve tube volume to a fraction. This revives the forgotten concept of turgor generation by swelling cell walls; similar phenomena may have been overlooked also in other taxa including vascular plants.

    2. Powdery mildew suppresses herbivore-induced plant volatiles and interferes with parasitoid attraction in Brassica rapa

      Gaylord A. Desurmont, Hao Xu and Ted C. J. Turlings

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12752

      The co-occurrence of different antagonists on a plant can have multitrophic consequences at the community level. Here we show that infection by a fungal pathogen, the powdery mildew Erysiphe cruciferarum, on Brassica rapa strongly reduces plant volatiles emitted in response to damage by the insect herbivore Pieris brassicae, and reduces plant attractiveness to the main natural enemy of P. brassicae, the parasitic wasp Cotesia glomerata. Herbivore performance was unaffected by the presence of powdery mildew, but parasitoid performance was negatively affected (decreased cocoon mass). From a pest management standpoint, the presence of powdery mildew on Brassica plants may affect the foraging efficiency of natural enemies, which may in turn have a negative impact on the regulation of pest populations.

    3. Significant Difference in Hydrogen Isotope Composition Between Xylem and Tissue Water in Populus Euphratica

      Liangju Zhao, Lixin Wang, Lucas A. Cernusak, Xiaohong Liu, Honglang Xiao, Maoxian Zhou and Shiqiang Zhang

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12753

      1. 1. Isotopic fractionations between groundwater, soil water and plant tissue waters are quantified in Populus euphratica, the only tree species living in deserts
      2. 2. No oxygen fractionation occurred between source water and plant tissue waters
      3. 3. No deuterium fractionation occurred between source water and xylem sap
      4. 4. Large deuterium fractionation occurred between source water and plant tissue waters, challenging the commonly accepted idea that isotopic compositions of tissue waters are the same as source water
    4. A dual system formed by the ARC and NR molybdoenzymes mediates nitrite-dependent NO production in Chlamydomonas

      Alejandro Chamizo-Ampudia, Emanuel Sanz-Luque, Ángel Llamas, Francisco Ocaña-Calahorro, Vicente Mariscal, Alfonso Carreras, Juan B. Barroso, Aurora Galván and Emilio Fernández

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12739

      A mechanism for nitric oxide production from nitrite is described in plants. Nitrate Reductase is a key enzyme for this function, but not as a catalyser but as an electrons supplier for another molybdoenzyme (NOFNIR) to produce nitric oxide from nitrite in the presence of nitrate.

    5. Comparison of D1´- and D1-containing PS II reaction centre complexes under different environmental conditions in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

      Tim S. Crawford, Kyrin R. Hanning, Jocelyn P.S. Chua, Julian J. Eaton-Rye and Tina C. Summerfield

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12738

      In oxygenic photosynthesis, the D1 protein of Photosystem II is the primary target of photodamage and environmental stress can accelerate this process. Cyanobacterial response to stress includes transcriptional regulation of genes encoding D1, including low-oxygen-induction of psbA1 encoding the D1´ protein in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We found that a D1´-PS II strain was outperformed by a D1-PS II strain when centres were produced under aerobic conditions; however, a strain containing low-oxygen-induced D1´-PS II centres was more resilient under high light than an equivalent D1 strain. Our results indicate that D1´-PS II centres are important in the reconfiguration of thylakoid electron transport in response to high light and low oxygen.

    6. Shoot tolerance mechanisms to iron toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

      Lin-Bo Wu, Yoshiaki Ueda, Shang-Kun Lai and Michael Frei

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12733

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Regulation of UVR8 photoreceptor dimer/monomer photo-equilibrium in Arabidopsis plants grown under photoperiodic conditions

      Kirsten M.W. Findlay and Gareth I. Jenkins

      Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12724

      UV-B absorption by the photoreceptor UVR8 induces dimer dissociation, forming monomers that initiate photomorphogenic UV-B responses. However, the regulation of dimer/monomer status in plants growing under photoperiodic conditions has not been examined. Here we show that UVR8 does not behave like a simple UV-B switch under photoperiodic conditions in both controlled environments and natural daylight, but establishes a dimer/monomer photo-equilibrium that is regulated by UV-B and influenced by temperature.

    8. Functional specialization of one copy of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase in ureide production from symbiotically fixed nitrogen in Phaseolus vulgaris

      Inmaculada Coleto, Almudena T. Trenas, Alexander Erban, Joachim Kopka, Manuel Pineda and Josefa M. Alamillo

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12743

      Purine de novo synthesis is a key process in all organisms, but even more in ureidic legumes, where it serves for the incorporation of the nitrogen fixed in the nodules. Glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase, PRAT, catalyses the first and most regulated step of purine synthesis. The molecular analysis of the three PRATs from Phaseolus vulgaris reveals that only one isoform seems to be essential for the incorporation of the symbiotically fixed nitrogen and probably for the determination of ureidic metabolism in legumes, whereas the other two work to maintain the basal level of purine nucleotides in the leaves.

    9. Oral secretions from Mythimna separata insects specifically induce defence responses in maize as revealed by high-dimensional biological data

      Jinfeng Qi, Guiling Sun, Lei Wang, Chunxia Zhao, Christian Hettenhausen, Meredith C. Schuman, Ian T. Baldwin, Jing Li, Juan Song, Zhudong Liu, Guowang Xu, Xin Lu and Jianqiang Wu

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12735

      As one of the most important crops in the world, maize suffers heavily from insect attack. However, the response of maize to insect feeding was largely unknown. Using transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics approaches, we found that maize specifically responds to the oral secretions of Mythimna separata with larger and longer-lasting changes than to mechanical wounding. These large-scale data provide a basis for understanding maize response to chewing insects and breeding new maize varieties with enhanced insect resistance.

    10. The Arabidopsis trichome is an active mechanosensory switch

      Li Hong Zhou, Shao Bao Liu, Peng Fei Wang, Tian Jian Lu, Feng Xu, Guy M. Genin and Barbara G. Pickard

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12728

      The trichome is a sensor enabling Arabidopsis (and probably its agricultural relatives) to detect forces on the order of the weights that insects apply. When a trichome is bent or brushed, the unique tapering of its wall facilitates basal force transmission and focusing on a pliant zone, which consequently buckles. Force impinging on a surrounding skirt of cells is transduced to a chemical signal, evidenced as oscillation of cytosolic Ca2+. Elevation of apoplastic skirt cell pH is another indicator that the trichome has switched on chemical activity.

  8. Technical Reports

    1. Not a load of rubbish: simulated field trials in large-scale containers

      M. Hohmann, A. Stahl, J. Rudloff, B. Wittkop and R. J. Snowdon

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12737

      Controlled-environment evaluations of complex traits rarely translate to field performance. To overcome this problem, we established a large-container plant growth system that allows detailed phenotyping of crop plants at field planting densities in deep soil. Yields of field-grown crops were able to be accurately predicted from container-grown plants, enabling detailed studies of stress response physiology under controlled conditions in relation to field performance.

  9. Original Articles

    1. Altitudinal and climatic associations of seed dormancy and flowering traits evidence adaptation of annual life cycle timing in Arabidopsis thaliana

      Deborah S. Vidigal, Alexandre C. S. S. Marques, Leo A. J. Willems, Gonda Buijs, Belén Méndez-Vigo, Henk W. M. Hilhorst, Leónie Bentsink, F. Xavier Picó and Carlos Alonso-Blanco

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12734

      The diversity of annual life cycles is determined by genetic variation for the timing of germination, which is controlled by the level of seed dormancy and by the timing of flowering initiation. Despite the recent progress in understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying both life history traits in Arabidopsis thaliana, the environmental factors that contribute to maintain life cycle variation remain mostly unknown. In this study we find significant and strong correlations between seed dormancy, flowering time and multiple climatic factors, indicating that both traits have coevolved to adapt annual life cycles to climate.

  10. Special Issues

    1. The redox control of photorespiration: from biochemical and physiological aspects to biotechnological considerations

      Olivier Keech, Per Gardeström, Leszek A. Kleczkowski and Nicolas Rouhier

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12713

      This review discusses known and potential redox regulation mechanisms that might affect the photorespiratory enzymes as well as the peripheral enzymes associated to photorespiration. The reported post-translational modifications of key cysteine residues in these enzymes add another layer of complexity for their regulation, which has to be taken into account for any biotechnological strategies aiming at minimizing growth losses associated with photorespiration.

  11. Original Articles

    1. WD40-REPEAT 5a functions in drought stress tolerance by regulating nitric oxide accumulation in Arabidopsis

      Wen-Cheng Liu, Yun-Hui Li, Hong-Mei Yuan, Bing-Lei Zhang, Shuang Zhai and Ying-Tang Lu

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12723

    2. Polyamine oxidase 5 loss-of-function mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana trigger metabolic and transcriptional reprogramming and promote salt stress tolerance

      Xavier Zarza, Kostadin E. Atanasov, Francisco Marco, Vicent Arbona, Pedro Carrasco, Joachim Kopka, Vasileios Fotopoulos, Teun Munnik, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas, Antonio F. Tiburcio and Rubén Alcázar

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12714

      Arabidopsis atpao5 loss-of-function mutants exhibit constitutive accumulation of thermospermine (tSpm) that associates with enhanced salt tolerance. tSpm triggers transcriptional and metabolic changes that involve promotion of ABA and JA pathways, accumulation of TCA cycle intermediates, compatible solutes along with other effects that additively contribute to salt tolerance. We provide evidence for the involvement of tSpm in plant abiotic stress tolerance.

  12. Reviews

  13. Original Articles

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Crosstalk between chloroplast thioredoxin systems in regulation of photosynthesis

      Lauri Nikkanen, Jouni Toivola and Eevi Rintamäki

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12718

      Thioredoxins (TRXs) are ubiquitous protein oxidoreductases that regulate biochemical reactions in cells. Plants are distinguished from other organisms by having highly versatile thioredoxin systems. In this paper, we have investigated the redundancy and dynamics between the ferredoxin-dependent (FTR) and NADPH-dependent (NTRC) thioredoxin systems in photosynthesis in vivo. We show that the two chloroplast TRX systems form an interconnected functional redox network that can dynamically respond to changing light conditions and thus improve plant fitness. It is also demonstrated that an elevated chloroplast thiol redox state through NTRC overexpression improves leaf photosynthetic activity and that in addition to FTR, NTRC system participates in regulation of primary photosynthetic reactions and is particularly important in conditions where light limits photosynthesis.

  14. Special Issue

    1. NADPH oxidases differentially regulate ROS metabolism and nutrient uptake under cadmium toxicity

      D. K. Gupta, L. B. Pena, M. C. Romero-Puertas, A. Hernández, M. Inouhe and L. M. Sandalio

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12711

      Under cadmium stress, respiratory burst oxydase homologs (RBOHs) differentially regulate H2O2 production, with RBOHC being the most important source of reactive oxygen species; anti-oxidative defences are also differentially regulated, with superoxide dismutase regulation by RBOHC, as well as the regulation of redox-couple GSH/GSSG ratio by RBOHC and D and the ASA/DHA by RBOHF being the most important factors. Our results also suggest that RBOHs can play an important role in regulating the root-to-shoot nutrient transport and are important players in the nutrient regulatory hub and, for instance, can be of potential interest in biotechnology to protect shoot from heavy metals.

    2. Nitric oxide function in plant abiotic stress

      Nurun Nahar Fancy, Ann-Kathrin Bahlmann and Gary J. Loake

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12707

      In this manuscript, we focus on the current state-of-the-art regarding the role of nitric oxide (NO) and S-nitrosylation during abiotic stress responses in plants. This is significant because NO and S-nitrosylation are emerging as important players in plant abiotic stress signalling. The paper should be of interest to readers in the areas of plant abiotic stress, signalling, redox regulation, NO function and S-nitrosylation.

  15. Original Articles

    1. Deciphering the molecular basis of ammonium uptake and transport in maritime pine

      Vanessa Castro-Rodríguez, Iman Assaf-Casals, Jacob Pérez-Tienda, Xiaorong Fan, Concepción Avila, Anthony Miller and Francisco M. Cánovas

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12692

      Ammonium is the predominant form of inorganic nitrogen in the soil of coniferous forests. Despite the ecological and economic importance of conifers, the molecular basis of ammonium uptake and transport in this group of gymnosperms is largely unknown. In this study, we describe the functional characterization of members of the AMT gene family in Pinus pinaster: PpAMT1.1, PpAMT1.2 and PpAMT1.3 (subfamily 1) and PpAMT2.1 and PpAMT2.3 (subfamily 2). Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that in conifers, all members of the AMT1 subfamily evolved from a common ancestor that is evolutionarily related to the ancient PpAMT1.2 gene. Individual AMT genes are developmentally- and nutritionally-regulated and their transcripts are specifically distributed in different organs. PpAMT1.3 was predominantly expressed in the roots, particularly during N starvation and mycorrhizal interaction whereas PpAMT2.3 was preferentially expressed in lateral roots. Immunolocalization studies of roots with varied nitrogen availability revealed that PpAMT1 and PpAMT2 proteins play complementary roles in the uptake of external ammonium. Heterologous expression in yeast and Xenopus oocytes revealed that the AMT genes encode functional transporters with different kinetics and with different capacities for ammonium transport. Our results provide new insights on how nitrogen is acquired and transported in conifers.

    2. Grapevine petioles are more sensitive to drought induced embolism than stems: evidence from in vivo MRI and microcomputed tomography observations of hydraulic vulnerability segmentation

      Uri Hochberg, Caetano Albuquerque, Shimon Rachmilevitch, Herve Cochard, Rakefet David-Schwartz, Craig R. Brodersen, Andrew McElrone and Carel W. Windt

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12688

      In this work we examined the “hydraulic vulnerability segmentation” hypothesis which predicts that expendable distal organs are more susceptible to waterߚstress induced cavitation than the main stem of the plant. We explored the differences in embolism formation of intact petioles and stems of grapevines by means of MRI and microCT. The paper presents the first direct evidence and the first imaging of hydraulic vulnerability segmentation in living plants and highlight its importance in grapevine responses to severe water stress.

    3. Resolving the ‘nitrogen paradox’ of arbuscular mycorrhizas: fertilization with organic matter brings considerable benefits for plant nutrition and growth

      Tom J. Thirkell, Duncan D. Cameron and Angela Hodge

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12667

      When granted access to an organic matter patch, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were found to obtain significant amounts of nitrogen (N) from the patch and transfer a substantial amount to their partner plant. The patch-derived N contributed significantly to, and increased, total plant N. Total plant phosphorus (P) increased also, as did total plant mass. This study is the first to demonstrate simultaneous increases in N, P and biomass of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphal access to a patch of organic matter.

  16. Opinions

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Deep roots and soil structure

      W. Gao, L. Hodgkinson, K. Jin, C.W. Watts, R.W. Ashton, J. Shen, T. Ren, I.C. Dodd, A. Binley, A.L. Phillips, P. Hedden, M. J. Hawkesford and W.R. Whalley

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12684

      In this opinion article we examine the relationship between penetrometer resistance and soil depth in the field. Assuming that root growth is inhibited at penetrometer resistances > 2.5 MPa, we conclude that in most circumstances the increases in penetrometer resistance with depth are sufficiently great to confine most deep roots to elongating in existing structural pores. We suggest that deep rooting is more likely related to the interaction between root architecture and soil structure than it is to the ability of a root to deform strong soil. Although the ability of roots to deform strong soil is an important trait, we propose it is more closely related to root exploration of surface layers than deep rooting.

  17. Commentaries

    1. Broadening the spectrum of photosynthesis in the grass, Alloteropsis semialata

      Gregory Reeves and Julian M. Hibberd

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12685

  18. Commentary

  19. Original Articles

    1. Evolutionary implications of C3–C4 intermediates in the grass Alloteropsis semialata

      Marjorie R. Lundgren, Pascal-Antoine Christin, Emmanuel Gonzalez Escobar, Brad S. Ripley, Guillaume Besnard, Christine M. Long, Paul W. Hattersley, Roger P. Ellis, Richard C. Leegood and Colin P. Osborne

      Version of Record online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12665

      C4 photosynthesis is a complex trait that increases productivity in some conditions, but the changes linked to its evolutionary assembly remain poorly understood. In this study, we show for the first time that the grass Alloteropsis semialata, the only species known with both C3 and C4 individuals, also includes C3–C4 intermediates. The presence in a single species of individuals spanning the C3, C3–C4 and C4 continuum opens new avenues for ecological, physiological and genetic comparisons to understand the changes that led to the emergence of this novel pathway.

  20. Special Issue

    1. Functional characterization of the chaperon-like protein Cdc48 in cryptogein-induced immune response in tobacco

      Claire Rosnoblet, Hervé Bègue, Cécile Blanchard, Carole Pichereaux, Angélique Besson-Bard, Sébastien Aimé and David Wendehenne

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12686

      In a previous study, we demonstrated that the chaperone-like protein NtCdc48 is regulated by S-nitrosylation in tobacco cells undergoing an immune response triggered by cryptogein, an elicitin produced by the oomycete Phytophthora cryptogea. In the present original study, we further investigated the function of this chaperone in cryptogein signalling and cryptogein-triggered hypersensitive-like cell death. We reported that only a small proportion of the overall NtCdc48 protein population undergoes S-nitrosylation. However, using different strategies such as gel filtration in native conditions, immunoprecipitation and the generation of a tobacco cell line overexpressing NtCdc48, we demonstrated that this protein is mobilized in response to cryptogein, is present as a hexameric and active complex and interacts with numerous partners related to proteasome-dependent degradation, subcellular trafficking and redox regulation. Importantly, our study highlighted a role for NtCdc48 in cryptogein-triggered cell death. Altogether, this investigation designs NtCdc48 as a new component of plant immunity.

  21. Reviews

    1. The nitrogen–potassium intersection: membranes, metabolism, and mechanism

      Devrim Coskun, Dev T. Britto and Herbert J. Kronzucker

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12671

      This review summarizes fundamental intersections between the pathways of inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3) and potassium (K+) acquisition in plants. Uptake, storage, translocation and metabolism are discussed at levels of organization ranging from molecular-genetic processes to whole-plant physiology. The regulation and optimization of plant growth, yield, metabolism and water-use efficiency are discussed in this nutritional context.

  22. Original Articles

    1. Histology and cell wall biochemistry of stone cells in the physical defence of conifers against insects

      Justin G. A. Whitehill, Hannah Henderson, Mathias Schuetz, Oleksandr Skyba, Macaire Man Saint Yuen, John King, A. Lacey Samuels, Shawn D. Mansfield and Jörg Bohlmann

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12654

      Stone cells are found throughout the plant kingdom, yet little is known about these specialized cells and their roles in plant defense. In Sitka spruce, a conifer tree of the pine family, abundance of stone cells in cortical tissues is a major contributor to resistance against stem feeding insects. Stone cells have extremely thick cell walls. We present a detailed histological, biochemical, and molecular characterization that highlights differences in the stone cell phenotype of Sitka spruce genotypes that are either resistant or susceptible against the white pine weevil.

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