Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 40 Issue 2

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Keith Mott

Impact Factor: 6.169

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 10/209 (Plant Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1365-3040


  1. 1 - 36
  1. Original Articles

    1. Water-deficit-induced changes in transcription factor expression in maize seedlings

      Candace M. Seeve, In-Jeong Cho, Leonard B. Hearne, Gyan Prakash Srivastava, Trupti Joshi, Dante O. Smith, Robert E. Sharp and Melvin J. Oliver

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12891

      Transcription factors (TFs) are key trans-regulatory factors in gene networks modifying plant growth and developmental responses to water-deficit stress. This work seeks to identifying TFs in maize that specifically respond to the soil water-deficit component of a drought stress, and to characterize the timing and the tissue in which they are differentially regulated. By using RT-qPCR to measure the abundance of 618 transcripts from 536 TF genes in various shoot and root tissues subjected to either a mild or severe water-deficit stress, we detected 433 water-deficit-responsive TF transcripts representing 392 TF genes. The results of this study describe diverse patterns of TF transcript regulation under different levels of water-deficit stress, and across tissues and contribute to the search for novel strategies for crop improvement for drought tolerance.

    2. The sodium transporter encoded by the HKT1;2 gene modulates sodium/potassium homeostasis in tomato shoots under salinity

      Noelia Jaime-Pérez, Benito Pineda, Begoña García-Sogo, Alejandro Atares, Asmini Athman, Caitlin S. Byrt, Raquel Olías, Maria José Asins, Matthew Gilliham, Vicente Moreno and Andrés Belver

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12883

      In this study, by using different transgenic lines derived from two near-isogenic lines differing in terms of their HKT1;1/HKT1;2 gene allele (from S. lycopersicum or S. cheesmaniae), in which all allelic variants were silenced by stable transformation, we found that the Na+ transporter-encoding gene HKT1;2 functionally underlies the major QTL lkc7.1 controlling shoot Na+/K+ homeostasis and plays the most significant role in tomato salt tolerance.

    3. Experimental evidence for negative turgor pressure in small leaf cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L versus large cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et W.C.Cheng. 1. Evidence from pressure-volume curve analysis of dead tissue.

      Dongmei Yang, Shaoan Pan, Yiting Ding and Melvin T. Tyree

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12861

      It is well known that water in xylem conduits is normally under negative pressure, but the concept of negative pressure in living cells (negative turgor) has rarely been addressed experimentally except in the microscopy studies of J. Oertli on plasmolysis and cytorrhysis of living leaf cells. The purpose of this study was to confirm the biomechanical model results of Ding et al. (2014 New Phytologist) by studying negative turgor in dead tissue. This paper confirms theory, that is that the cell walls of small cells can sustain negative turgor that is −1 MPa more negative than big cells.

    4. Dissecting the Photoprotective Mechanism Encoded by the flv4-2 Operon: a Distinct Contribution of Sll0218 in Photosystem II Stabilization

      Luca Bersanini, Yagut Allahverdiyeva, Natalia Battchikova, Steffen Heinz, Maija Lespinasse, Essi Ruohisto, Henna Mustila, Jörg Nickelsen, Imre Vass and Eva-Mari Aro

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12872

      This work clarifies and dissects the roles of the flv4-2 operon-encoded proteins, Flv2/Flv4 heterodimer and the elusive Sll0218, in photoprotection of the photosynthetic apparatus in Synechosystis. While Flv2/Flv4 heterodimer is involved in an alternative electron transfer route, the Sll0218 protein is localized to specific cell compartments where photosynthetic complexes are assembled, and it is involved in the stabilization of Photosystem II complexes.

  2. Commentaries

  3. Technical Reports

    1. Investigation of the crosstalk between the flg22 and the UV-B-induced flavonol pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings

      Zheng Zhou, Dirk Schenke, Ying Miao and Daguang Cai

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12869

      In this study, an in planta system was established. This system is closer to natural conditions as compared to the cell culture system, allowing for example the analysis of loss- or gain-of-function mutants to dissect the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the crosstalk between UV-B and flg22-induced signaling.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Predicting stomatal responses to the environment from the optimization of photosynthetic gain and hydraulic cost

      John S. Sperry, Martin D. Venturas, William R. L. Anderegg, Maurizio Mencuccini, D. Scott Mackay, Yujie Wang and David M. Love

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12852

      Current land surface models struggle to represent the complex and species-specific manner by which stomata respond to environmental cues, especially soil drought. This paper offers a solution to this problem by assuming that the goal of stomatal regulation is to maximize photosynthetic gain minus hydraulic cost. A trait- and process-based ‘profit-maximizing’ algorithm predicts realistic stomatal behaviour in response to the gamut of environmental stimuli. This new approach to stomatal optimization theory may prove useful in large-scale modelling of responses to climate change.

    2. A synthesis of the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment on plant hydraulics: implications for whole-plant water use efficiency and resistance to drought

      Jean-Christophe Domec, Duncan D. Smith and Kate A. McCulloh

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12843

      Here, we summarize studies on the effects of elevated [CO2] (CO2e) on the structure and function of plant hydraulic architecture and explore the implications of those changes using a model. Changes in conduit diameter and hydraulic conductance due to CO2e vary among species. The effects of CO2e on the structure and function of plant hydraulic architecture depend on the species and plant functional type. Our analysis reveals that hydraulic traits of woody plants will be negatively affected by CO2e, and those of non-woody plants will be positively affected with higher resistance to drought under future conditions.

  5. Reviews

    1. Conflicting demands on angiosperm xylem: Tradeoffs among storage, transport and biomechanics

      R. Brandon Pratt and Anna L. Jacobsen

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12862

      The vascular system of woody plants performs multiple functions related to transport, mechanical support and storage. No one vascular system can maximize performance of all three functions because of structural and evolutionary limitations, and this gives rise to tradeoffs. Understanding these tradeoffs and their structural basis yields insight into the evolution of this ecologically and commercially important tissue.

    2. Leaf water stable isotopes and water transport outside the xylem

      M. M. Barbour, G. D. Farquhar and T. N. Buckley

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12845


      Leaf water isotopes have been suggested to provide information on pathways of water movement within leaves, but interpreting measurements has been difficult. Models of spatially explicit water transport within leaves predict sites of phase change and provide evidence of the importance of vapour phase transport. Unfortunately, rigorous testing of these models is limited by measurement techniques at appropriate scales. Here, we review the literature of leaf water isotopes and transport pathways and suggest that bringing these two areas together to develop a spatially, anatomically and isotopically explicit model of leaf water transport would advance understanding in both areas by generating testable hypotheses of pools and fluxes of leaf water isotopes.

    3. Water potential regulation, stomatal behaviour and hydraulic transport under drought: deconstructing the iso/anisohydric concept

      Jordi Martínez-Vilalta and Núria Garcia-Forner

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12846

      The relationship between leaf water potential regulation (iso/anisohydry) and stomatal behaviour is one of the foundations of our current understanding of plant water relations and drought responses. There are reasons, however, to expect that water potential regulation and stomatal behaviour may be (at least partially) uncoupled across species. We review the literature and provide a quantitative synthesis showing that species with a tight regulation of leaf water potential do not necessarily show greater stomatal control or more constrained assimilation during drought. Therefore, iso/anisohydry cannot be used as an indicator of a specific mechanism of drought-induced mortality or as a proxy for overall plant vulnerability to drought.

    4. Carbon dioxide and water transport through plant aquaporins

      Michael Groszmann, Hannah L Osborn and John R Evans

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12844

      Aquaporins are intrinsic membrane proteins encoded by a multigene family that function to increase membrane permeability to water, CO2 and other molecules. There are many levels of regulation (e.g. diurnal expression, membrane targeting, tetramer composition, gating) that result in highly dynamic and tissue specific control of permeability. Owing to the ease of measurement, aquaporins associated with water permeability have been more extensively characterized than those facilitating CO2 transport. Manipulation of aquaporins is actively being explored in efforts to improve plant performance with respect to plant water relations, stomatal function and photosynthesis.

    5. Water transport and energy

      Wieland Fricke

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12848

      Water flows at the plant and cell level are set in relation to the energy required to maintain these flows. The focus is on long-distance transport (xylem, phloem) and cellular transport. While the contribution of an active water-cotransport mechanism to xylem water flow and regulation of cell water content cannot be excluded on theoretical grounds, it has to be questioned based on the energy required to support such a transport because of the high hydraulic conductivity of the plasma membrane. Long-distance transport of water, including transport along the phloem, comes cheap in energetic terms when compared to water transport at cellular level, as the latter requires a significant portion of cellular proton pump activity and respiration to support solute transport driving water movement osmotically.

    6. Predictable ‘meta-mechanisms’ emerge from feedbacks between transpiration and plant growth and cannot be simply deduced from short-term mechanisms

      François Tardieu and Boris Parent

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12822

      Short-term mechanisms govern growth and transpiration. Because of feedbacks, their combination over time results in emerging properties (‘meta-mechanisms’) that may be counter-intuitive but are reproducible and consistent with results of experiments.

    7. The functional role of xylem parenchyma cells and aquaporins during recovery from severe water stress

      Francesca Secchi, Chiara Pagliarani and Maciej A. Zwieniecki

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12831

  6. Original Articles

    1. Subcellular reprogramming of metabolism during cold acclimation in Arabidopsis thaliana

      Imke I. Hoermiller, Thomas Naegele, Hanna Augustin, Simon Stutz, Wolfram Weckwerth and Arnd G. Heyer

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12836

      Cold acclimation of plants involves not only changes in metabolite concentrations, but also of their sub-cellular compartmentalization.

      Using a combination of metabolite profiling and fractionation of cellular compartments, sub-cellular metabolite dynamics during cold acclimation were studied in Arabidopsis wildtype and mutants affected in primary metabolism. Although compartmentalization was relatively robust against temperature, characteristic changes occurred especially for the plastids and cytosol. A defect in starch metabolism had a strong impact on these dynamics and reduced plant freezing tolerance.

    2. Non-selective cation channel activity of aquaporin AtPIP2;1 regulated by Ca2+ and pH

      Caitlin S. Byrt, Manchun Zhao, Mohamad Kourghi, Jayakumar Bose, Sam W. Henderson, Jiaen Qiu, Matthew Gilliham, Carolyn Schultz, Manuel Schwarz, Sunita A. Ramesh, Andrea Yool and Steve Tyerman

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12832

      The paradigm that aquaporins may only allow permeation of neutral solutes has been challenged by examples of some animal aquaporins that can act as ion channels. Here, we reveal that AtPIP2;1 is permeable to both water and Na+ in heterologous systems. The AtPIP2;1 ionic conductance is inhibited by low pH and Ca2+ similar to previous observations for non-selective cation channels indicating that AtPIP2;1 is a candidate for facilitating Na+ flux across the plasma membrane of root cells and other cells that express PIP2;1, such as guard cells.

  7. Reviews

    1. Optimal plant water economy

      Thomas N Buckley, Lawren Sack and Graham D Farquhar

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12823

      We review the theory of optimal regulation of plant water loss and suggest directions for continuing research, including (i) improving analytical approximations to the classical theory, as current approximations ignore boundary layer and mesophyll resistance and represent the theory quite poorly; (ii) exploring the role of cyclical variations in hydraulic conductance in optimal diurnal regulation; (iii) distinguishing optimal stomatal responses from changes in stomatal conductance that emerge from optimal shifts in carbon partitioning at long time scales; and (iv) further developing the whole-plant theory and testing its predictions.

  8. Original Articles

    1. Association between water and carbon dioxide transport in leaf plasma membranes: assessing the role of aquaporins

      Manchun Zhao, Hwei-Ting Tan, Johannes Scharwies, Kara Levin, John R Evans and Stephen D Tyerman

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12830

      The osmotic permeability to water and diffusive permeability to CO2 of plasma membranes isolated from leaves were examined to assess co-regulation of transport through aquaporins. The diffusive permeability to CO2 was not limited by unstirred layers or limitations from carbonic anhydrase used in the method. While showing very different osmotic water permeability, plasma membranes from pea and Arabidopsis showed similar CO2 permeability. The temperature dependence of water and CO2 permeation was measured indicating involvement of aquaporins; however, the inhibition of aquaporins reduced water permeability but did not change CO2 permeability. The two permeabilities were positively correlated but only weakly so. These observations are relevant to understanding the role of aquaporins in mesophyll conductance to CO2, and the proposed co-regulation of water and CO2 transport in leaves.

    2. Combined use of herbivore-induced plant volatiles and sex pheromones for mate location in braconid parasitoids

      Hao Xu, Gaylord Desurmont, Thomas Degen, Guoxin Zhou, Diane Laplanche, Luka Henryk and Ted C.J. Turlings

      Version of Record online: 7 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12818

      We demonstrate that parasitic wasps use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) in combination with sex pheromones to locate mates, and foraging for hosts and mates are both orientated by HIPVs in parasitoids. To our knowledge, no other study has specifically addressed the use of HIPVs in mate location of parasitoids, and the inclusion of four species of wasps allows us not only to draw several general conclusions but also to call attention to the differences among species in terms of mate-searching strategies.

  9. Reviews

    1. Xylem and stomata, coordinated through time and space

      Timothy J Brodribb, Scott AM McAdam and Madeline R Carins Murphy

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12817

      Vascular plants incur penalties for allowing leaf hydration to range outside strict limits of hydration. Xylem and stomatal tissues regulate the acquisition and loss of water in leaves, and they must work together to maintain a safe level of leaf hydration. This review examines how xylem and stomatal tissues are coordinated to achieve this important role.

    2. Biochemical basis of sulphenomics: how protein sulphenic acids may be stabilized by the protein microenvironment

      P. Trost, S. Fermani, M. Calvaresi and M. Zaffagnini

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12791

      This review highlights the importance of acidity and nucleophilicity of protein cysteine thiols in determining the rate of H2O2-mediated primary oxidation to sulphenic acids. The stability and reactivity of sulphenic acids is also investigated, being strictly correlated to the cysteine microenvironment and dependent upon structural determinants, which are specific of each protein sensitive to oxidation. These findings reinforce the prominent role of cysteine sulphenic acids in redox signalling, but a combination of biochemical, structural and computational approaches is mandatory to get insight into the kinetic and thermodynamics factors controlling cysteine oxidation.

    3. An ecophysiological and developmental perspective on variation in vessel diameter

      Uwe G. Hacke, Rachel Spicer, Stefan G. Schreiber and Lenka Plavcová

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12777

      Variation in xylem vessel diameter impacts transport efficiency, vulnerability to freezing-induced embolism, and other aspects of plant biology. This review provides a synthesis of the ecophysiological implications of variation in lumen diameter together with a summary of our current understanding of vessel development and its endogenous regulation. Emphasis is placed on the presumed role of auxin at multiple developmental stages.

  10. Original Articles

    1. Plumbing the depths: extracellular water storage in specialized leaf structures and its functional expression in a three-domain pressure –volume relationship

      Hoa T. Nguyen, Patrick Meir, Joe Wolfe, Maurizio Mencuccini and Marilyn C. Ball

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12788

      The pressure-volume relationships in field grown leaves of the mangrove, Avicennia marina, exhibited three domains dominated successively by 1) the presence and consumption of extracellular water, 2) variable turgor and loss of intracellular water, and 3) osmotic behavior of flaccid cells and plasmolysis. Multiple sites of extracellular water storage were identified, including hollow trichomes and novel structures named “cisternae”. When fully charged, extracellular and cellular water storage could support a typical evaporation rate of 1 mmol m−2s−1 for 54 and 50 min, respectively, before turgor loss was reached. This study emphasizes the importance of leaf anatomy for the interpretation of PV curves, and identifies extracellular water storage sites that enable transient water use without substantive turgor loss when other factors, such as high soil salinity, constrain rates of water transport.

    2. Diacylglycerol kinases activate tobacco NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidative burst in response to cryptogein

      Jean-Luc Cacas, Patricia Gerbeau-Pissot, Jérôme Fromentin, Catherine Cantrel, Dominique Thomas, Emmanuelle Jeannette, Tetiana Kalachova, Sébastien Mongrand, Françoise Simon-Plas and Eric Ruelland

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12771

      Cryptogein is a protein secreted by the oomycete Phytophthora cryptogea that activates defence mechanisms in tobacco. We show here in BY-2 tobacco suspension cells that phosphatidic acid rapidly accumulates in response to cryptogein because of the coordinated onset of phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase activities. Both enzyme specific inhibitors and silencing of the phylogenetic cluster III of the tobacco DGK family were found to reduce PA production upon elicitation and to strongly decrease the RBOHD-mediated oxidative burst. This establishes that phosphatidic acid production by diacylglycerol kinases is upstream of the oxidative burst in response to cryptogein.

    3. Shoot tolerance mechanisms to iron toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

      Lin-Bo Wu, Yoshiaki Ueda, Shang-Kun Lai and Michael Frei

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12733

    4. The Arabidopsis trichome is an active mechanosensory switch

      Li Hong Zhou, Shao Bao Liu, Peng Fei Wang, Tian Jian Lu, Feng Xu, Guy M. Genin and Barbara G. Pickard

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12728

      The trichome is a sensor enabling Arabidopsis (and probably its agricultural relatives) to detect forces on the order of the weights that insects apply. When a trichome is bent or brushed, the unique tapering of its wall facilitates basal force transmission and focusing on a pliant zone, which consequently buckles. Force impinging on a surrounding skirt of cells is transduced to a chemical signal, evidenced as oscillation of cytosolic Ca2+. Elevation of apoplastic skirt cell pH is another indicator that the trichome has switched on chemical activity.

  11. Special Issues

    1. The redox control of photorespiration: from biochemical and physiological aspects to biotechnological considerations

      Olivier Keech, Per Gardeström, Leszek A. Kleczkowski and Nicolas Rouhier

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12713

      This review discusses known and potential redox regulation mechanisms that might affect the photorespiratory enzymes as well as the peripheral enzymes associated to photorespiration. The reported post-translational modifications of key cysteine residues in these enzymes add another layer of complexity for their regulation, which has to be taken into account for any biotechnological strategies aiming at minimizing growth losses associated with photorespiration.

  12. Original Articles

    1. WD40-REPEAT 5a functions in drought stress tolerance by regulating nitric oxide accumulation in Arabidopsis

      Wen-Cheng Liu, Yun-Hui Li, Hong-Mei Yuan, Bing-Lei Zhang, Shuang Zhai and Ying-Tang Lu

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12723

    2. Polyamine oxidase 5 loss-of-function mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana trigger metabolic and transcriptional reprogramming and promote salt stress tolerance

      Xavier Zarza, Kostadin E. Atanasov, Francisco Marco, Vicent Arbona, Pedro Carrasco, Joachim Kopka, Vasileios Fotopoulos, Teun Munnik, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas, Antonio F. Tiburcio and Rubén Alcázar

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12714

      Arabidopsis atpao5 loss-of-function mutants exhibit constitutive accumulation of thermospermine (tSpm) that associates with enhanced salt tolerance. tSpm triggers transcriptional and metabolic changes that involve promotion of ABA and JA pathways, accumulation of TCA cycle intermediates, compatible solutes along with other effects that additively contribute to salt tolerance. We provide evidence for the involvement of tSpm in plant abiotic stress tolerance.

  13. Reviews

  14. Special Issues

    1. NADPH oxidases differentially regulate ROS metabolism and nutrient uptake under cadmium toxicity

      D. K. Gupta, L. B. Pena, M. C. Romero-Puertas, A. Hernández, M. Inouhe and L. M. Sandalio

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12711

      Under cadmium stress, respiratory burst oxydase homologs (RBOHs) differentially regulate H2O2 production, with RBOHC being the most important source of reactive oxygen species; anti-oxidative defences are also differentially regulated, with superoxide dismutase regulation by RBOHC, as well as the regulation of redox-couple GSH/GSSG ratio by RBOHC and D and the ASA/DHA by RBOHF being the most important factors. Our results also suggest that RBOHs can play an important role in regulating the root-to-shoot nutrient transport and are important players in the nutrient regulatory hub and, for instance, can be of potential interest in biotechnology to protect shoot from heavy metals.

  15. Special Issue

    1. Nitric oxide function in plant abiotic stress

      Nurun Nahar Fancy, Ann-Kathrin Bahlmann and Gary J. Loake

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12707

      In this manuscript, we focus on the current state-of-the-art regarding the role of nitric oxide (NO) and S-nitrosylation during abiotic stress responses in plants. This is significant because NO and S-nitrosylation are emerging as important players in plant abiotic stress signalling. The paper should be of interest to readers in the areas of plant abiotic stress, signalling, redox regulation, NO function and S-nitrosylation.

    2. Functional characterization of the chaperon-like protein Cdc48 in cryptogein-induced immune response in tobacco

      Claire Rosnoblet, Hervé Bègue, Cécile Blanchard, Carole Pichereaux, Angélique Besson-Bard, Sébastien Aimé and David Wendehenne

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12686

      In a previous study, we demonstrated that the chaperone-like protein NtCdc48 is regulated by S-nitrosylation in tobacco cells undergoing an immune response triggered by cryptogein, an elicitin produced by the oomycete Phytophthora cryptogea. In the present original study, we further investigated the function of this chaperone in cryptogein signalling and cryptogein-triggered hypersensitive-like cell death. We reported that only a small proportion of the overall NtCdc48 protein population undergoes S-nitrosylation. However, using different strategies such as gel filtration in native conditions, immunoprecipitation and the generation of a tobacco cell line overexpressing NtCdc48, we demonstrated that this protein is mobilized in response to cryptogein, is present as a hexameric and active complex and interacts with numerous partners related to proteasome-dependent degradation, subcellular trafficking and redox regulation. Importantly, our study highlighted a role for NtCdc48 in cryptogein-triggered cell death. Altogether, this investigation designs NtCdc48 as a new component of plant immunity.

  16. Reviews

    1. The nitrogen–potassium intersection: membranes, metabolism, and mechanism

      Devrim Coskun, Dev T. Britto and Herbert J. Kronzucker

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12671

      This review summarizes fundamental intersections between the pathways of inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3) and potassium (K+) acquisition in plants. Uptake, storage, translocation and metabolism are discussed at levels of organization ranging from molecular-genetic processes to whole-plant physiology. The regulation and optimization of plant growth, yield, metabolism and water-use efficiency are discussed in this nutritional context.


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