Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 10

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Keith Mott

Impact Factor: 6.96

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 7/204 (Plant Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1365-3040


  1. 1 - 47
  1. Original Articles

    1. Stomatal responses to vapour pressure deficit are regulated by high speed gene expression in angiosperms

      Scott A. M. McAdam, Frances C. Sussmilch and Timothy J. Brodribb

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12633

      tomatal responses to changes in vapour pressure deficit are the single most important regulator of daytime transpiration and water-use efficiency in land plants. Through a combination of gene expression analyses, high-precision ABA quantification and observations of ABA-biosynthetic mutants, we found that flowering plants can rapidly increase foliar ABA levels through up-regulated ABA-biosynthesis over extremely short time-frame relevant to the stomatal response to VPD.

  2. Reviews

    1. Genetic resources offer efficient tools for rice functional genomics research

      Shuen-Fang Lo, Ming-Jen Fan, Yue-Ie Hsing, Liang-Jwu Chen, Shu Chen, Ien-Chie Wen, Yi-Lun Liu, Ku-Ting Chen, Mirng-Jier Jiang, Ming-Kuang Lin, Meng-Yen Rao, Lin-Chih Yu, Tuan-Hua David Ho and Su-May Yu

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12632

      Summary statement

      Compared with the robustness of genome sequencing and bioinformatics techniques, progress in understanding the function of rice genes has lagged, hampering the utilization of rice genes for cereal crop improvement. In this review, we discuss the important features of existing T-DNA activation- and knockout-tagged rice mutant populations, summarize the recent progress in functional genomics research using these resources and discuss how to more effectively utilize these resources to expedite functional genomics and phenomics studies following forward and reverse genetics approaches. These studies utilizing the T-DNA insertion mutant populations may facilitate the translation of rice functional genomics research to improvements of rice and other cereal crops.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Root aquaporins contribute to whole plant water fluxes under drought stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

      Alexandre Grondin, Ramil Mauleon, Vincent Vadez and Amelia Henry

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12616

      Aquaporin activity and root anatomy may affect root hydraulic properties under drought stress. We studied the root hydraulic conductivity, root sap exudation rate and transpiration rate in the presence or absence of an aquaporin inhibitor (azide) under well-watered conditions and following drought stress in rice. The results suggest that rice root aquaporins can contribute but are not limiting to hydrostatic water fluxes when transpiration is high, but play a major role in osmotic water fluxes occurring when transpiration is low. This paper provides novel insights into rice root hydraulics under drought, aquaporin expression, and related genomic regions. The results have implications for approaches in improving drought tolerance in rice, which is a significant need for rainfed farmers of South and Southeast Asia.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Diurnal patterns in Scots pine stem oleoresin pressure in a boreal forest

      K. Rissanen, T. Hölttä, A. Vanhatalo, J. Aalto, E. Nikinmaa, H. Rita and J. Bäck

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12637

      The field measurements of pine stem oleoresin pressure (OEP) suggested that there are multiple factors driving the pressure. Diurnal OEP changes were positively correlated with temperature. OEP also correlated with stem monoterpene emissions. The xylem water potential was also affecting the OEP, indicating that the tree water status can also impact monoterpene emissions from tree stems.

    3. Systematic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) metabolic responses to herbivory

      Kabir Md Alamgir, Yuko Hojo, John T. Christeller, Kaori Fukumoto, Ryutaro Isshiki, Tomonori Shinya, Ian T. Baldwin and Ivan Galis

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12640

      We show that insect herbivory induces profound metabolic changes in rice plants. In particular, two metabolites, p-coumaroylputrescine and feruloylputrescine, consistently accumulated in rice leaves upon attack of various chewing and sucking insects. Amongst them, important rice pest the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) showed increased mortality when exposed to these metabolites added in the artificial diet during feeding.

    4. New insights into the genetic basis of natural chilling and cold shock tolerance in rice by genome-wide association analysis

      Yan Lv, Zilong Guo, Xiaokai Li, Haiyan Ye, Xianghua Li and Lizhong Xiong

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12635

      By association mapping study of 529 rice accessions, we revealed a distinct genetic basis for natural chilling and cold shock stress tolerance at the seedling stage, and we also found that the cold adaptability of rice is associated with the subpopulation and latitudinal distribution.

    5. Ubiquitin-specific protease 24 negatively regulates abscisic acid signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana

      Jinfeng Zhao, Huapeng Zhou, Ming Zhang, Yanan Gao, Long Li, Ying Gao, Ming Li, Yuhong Yang, Yan Guo and Xueyong Li

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12628

      Summary statement

      No deubiquitinating enzyme that functions in ABA signalling pathway has been identified until now. Here, we found that ubiquitin-specific protease 24 (UBP24) possesses deubiquitinating enzyme activity and forms homodimer in vivo. UBP24 negatively regulates ABA signalling in post-germinative and seedling growth probably by affecting the phosphatase activity of the protein phosphatase 2C.

    6. Elm leaves ‘warned’ by insect egg deposition reduce survival of hatching larvae by a shift in their quantitative leaf metabolite pattern

      Nadine Austel, Elisabeth J. Eilers, Torsten Meiners and Monika Hilker

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12619

      While plant anti-herbivore defences are well known to be inducible by feeding damage, little knowledge is available as to how insect egg deposition preceding larval herbivory affects plant defence. Here we show that the defence of elm trees against elm leaf beetle larvae is improved when leaves received elm leaf beetle eggs prior to larval feeding. The egg deposition mediates a shift in the quantitative nutritional pattern of feeding-damaged leaves, resulting in increased larval mortality which may be attributed to an increased larval uptake of a phenolic leaf compound harming the larvae. Hence, insect egg deposition functions as ‘warning’ which prepares the plant for improved anti-herbivore defence.

    7. Embolism spread in the primary xylem of Polystichum munitum: implications for water transport during seasonal drought

      Craig R. Brodersen, Christopher Rico, Orlando Guenni and Jarmila Pittermann

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12618

      Xylem network structure and function have been characterized for many woody plants, but less is known about fern xylem. We characterized seasonal variability in soil moisture and frond water status in a common perennial fern (Polystichum munitum) in the redwood understory of costal California, and then investigated the consequences of drought-induced embolism on vascular function and gas exchange. Overall, this species was surprisingly resistant to long-term drought and maintained water transport capacity. Using high resolution X-ray computed tomography we visualized for the first time the spatial pattern of embolism formation in a fern. The xylem network organization utilized by this species provides a spatially discrete water transport system that limits the systemic spread of embolism, and this strategy is one of several adaptations P. munitum uses to survive long periods with infrequent precipitation.

    8. Physiological relevance of plant 2-Cys peroxiredoxin overoxidation level and oligomerization status

      Delphine Cerveau, Djelloul Ouahrani, Mohamed Amine Marok, Laurence Blanchard and Pascal Rey

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12596

      Environmental stress conditions are presumed to trigger both overoxidation and oligomerization of plant 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (PRX), thus conferring a chaperone role to this thiol peroxidase. In this work, we showed that the 2-Cys PRX overoxidation is mainly regulated by thioredoxin-like electron donors in optimal growth conditions and by sulfiredoxin upon environmental constraints. Physiologically relevant stress conditions did not lead to concomitant and noticeable modifications in 2-Cys PRX overoxidation and oligomerization in Arabidopsis, potato and barley unlike severe oxidative stress induced by methyl viologen. These data lead us to discuss the 2-Cys PRX roles in higher plants under physiological environmental constraints.

    9. Evolutionarily distant pathogens require the Arabidopsis phytosulfokine signalling pathway to establish disease

      Natalia Rodiuc, Xavier Barlet, Sophie Hok, Laetitia Perfus-Barbeoch, Valérie Allasia, Gilbert Engler, Aurélie Séassau, Nathalie Marteu, Janice de Almeida-Engler, Franck Panabières, Pierre Abad, Birgit Kemmerling, Yves Marco, Bruno Favery and Harald Keller

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12627

      Summary Statement

      Secreted peptides frequently determine plant development and the interaction with the environment. We analysed the role of tyrosine-sulphated phytosulfokines (PSKs) for the interaction of Arabidopsis thaliana with leaf and root pathogens, including an oomycete, a bacterium and a root-knot nematode. Functional analyses of loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutant and transgenic lines revealed that the different pathogens require Arabidopsis PSK signalling for cellular reprogramming events that are associated with infection. Our findings indicate that PSK signalling represents a central ‘hub’ in the host, which is targeted by unrelated pathogens for the establishment of disease.

    10. Ca2+-regulated and diurnal rhythm-regulated Na+/Ca2+ exchanger AtNCL affects flowering time and auxin signalling in Arabidopsis

      Penghui Li, Gaoyang Zhang, Naomi Gonzales, Yingqing Guo, Honghong Hu, Sunghun Park and Jian Zhao

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12620

      AtNCL is a vacuolar Na+/Ca2+ exchanger with EF hands that mediates sodium (Na+) vacuolar sequestration and meanwhile Ca2+ release. The Ca2+/Na+ exchanger activity can be regulated by Ca2+ and camodulin. AtNCL expression in Arabidopsis is regulated by diurnal rhythm and suppressed by auxin. Its mutants showed altered flowering time and auxin responses. Therefore, AtNCL is a Ca2+-regulated vacuolar Na+/Ca2+ exchanger that regulates auxin responses and flowering time.

    11. Genome-wide association mapping of time-dependent growth responses to moderate drought stress in Arabidopsis

      Johanna A. Bac-Molenaar, Christine Granier, Joost J. B. Keurentjes and Dick Vreugdenhil

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12595

      Drought is one of the major causes of yield loss in agriculture and therefore research for drought tolerance of plants is demanded. Growth of a natural population of 324 natural accessions was determined over time in control and moderate drought conditions, and subsequently, growth was modelled by an exponential function. GWA mapping resulted in the detection of six, time-dependent, QTLs strongly associated with drought. Analysis of earlier reported gene expression changes upon drought enabled us to identify for each QTL the most likely candidates.

    12. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown

      J. Mason Earles, Or Sperling, Lucas C. R. Silva, Andrew J. McElrone, Craig R. Brodersen, Malcolm P. North and Maciej A. Zwieniecki

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12612

      Summary Statement

      While coastal redwood intakes water via its leaves, bark's hydraulic role is not well understood. We find that hydraulic recovery of branches occurs only when the entire branch surface is wet (i.e. bark and leaves), suggesting that bark plays a critical role in above ground water uptake. Using historical weather data from typical redwood habitat, we demonstrate that a sufficient number of crown-wetting hours occur annually to account for substantial hydraulic recovery. These findings raise novel ecological, evolutionary and biophysical questions about the hydraulics of bark.

    13. Enhanced leaf photosynthesis as a target to increase grain yield: insights from transgenic rice lines with variable Rieske FeS protein content in the cytochrome b6/f complex

      Wataru Yamori, Eri Kondo, Daisuke Sugiura, Ichiro Terashima, Yuji Suzuki and Amane Makino

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12594

      Although photosynthesis is the most important source for biomass and grain yield, a lack of correlation between photosynthesis and plant yield among different genotypes of various crop species has been frequently observed. Such observations contribute to the ongoing debate whether enhancing leaf photosynthesis can improve yield potential. Here, we show that there was a strong control of plant growth and grain yield by the rate of leaf photosynthesis, leading to the conclusion that enhancing photosynthesis at the single-leaf level would be a useful target for improving crop productivity and yield both via conventional breeding and biotechnology.

    14. Integrated multi-omics analysis supports role of lysophosphatidylcholine and related glycerophospholipids in the Lotus japonicus–Glomus intraradices mycorrhizal symbiosis

      Vinod Vijayakumar, Gerhard Liebisch, Benjamin Buer, Li Xue, Nina Gerlach, Samira Blau, Jessica Schmitz and Marcel Bucher

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12624

      In research on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AMS) development, relatively little is known about the contribution of lipids and lipid metabolism to cellular functions. With this work, we widen the fascinating avenues that lipid-mediated processes in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) research harbour and offer. Integrated multi-omics (lipidome, transcriptome and ionome) analysis in AMs discerns interspecific variation in lipid composition and biosynthesis and supports the role of lysophosphatidylcholine and other related glycerophospholipids in the Lotus japonicus–Glomus intraradices mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    15. An Arabidopsis mutant of inositol pentakisphosphate 2-kinase AtIPK1 displays reduced arsenate tolerance

      Yang-Yang Sun, Wen-Zhong Xu, Li Wu, Ruo-Zhong Wang, Zhen-Yan He and Mi Ma

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12623

      We evaluated the potential effect of Pi homeostasis on As(V) tolerance in Arabidopsis using atipk1-1 mutant plants which harboured higher level of free Pi. We found that atipk1-1 exhibited As(V) hypersensitivity and lower level of arsenic in comparison with wild-type plants. During Pi deficiency, the more severe Pi starvation in atipk1-1 plants relative to wild-type indicated the disordered Pi homeostasis in the mutant, which might account for the reduced As(V) tolerance of seedlings. Meanwhile, gene expression analysis of Pi-responsive genes demonstrated the diverse effect of As(V) stress on Pi starvation response.

    16. Differences in defence responses of Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera are affected by water deficit

      Adriana Arango-Velez, Walid El Kayal, Charles C. J. Copeland, L. Irina Zaharia, Inka Lusebrink and Janice E. K. Cooke

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12615

      Western North America is currently experiencing the largest mountain pine beetle epidemic in recorded history; in recent years, this destructive forest pest has undergone host range expansion to jack pine, a boreal forest species. We have examined the effect of water limitation on responses of the evolutionarily co-evolved host lodgepole pine and the naïve host jack pine, focusing on delineating similarities and differences in responses to inoculation with a mountain pine beetle fungal associate, Grosmannia clavigera. These species show different physiological responses to water limitation and that water deficit alters both constitutive and induced defences. Hormone profiles correlate with treatment-associated differences in induced defences, and hormone crosstalk may modulate the patterns of induced defences that we observed in this study.

    17. Establishment and effectiveness of inoculated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agricultural soils

      Luise Köhl, Catherine E. Lukasiewicz and Marcel G. A. van der Heijden

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12600

      In the face of increasingly limited fertilizer resources, the need for new nutrient management strategies in agriculture is paramount. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as so called bio-fertilizer is thought to have great potential for sustainable phosphorus management. However, so far, only few studies tested effects of AMF on plant growths under a broad range of agricultural soils. Moreover, it is still poorly documented whether inoculated AMF can persist in agricultural soils. We conducted a greenhouse study testing eight different unsterilized Swiss field soils for their compatibility for AMF inoculation in terms of inoculum establishment and plant growths characteristics. In contrast to the prevalent assumption, clover growths benefited from Rhizoglomus intraradices inoculation irrespective the P availability in the soil or the indigenous AMF. This study shows that the effectiveness of AMF application in agriculture is not as limited as previously assumed and AMF should be considered as a viable tool for increasing nutrient use efficiency in the future of agriculture.

    18. The mechanism of Rubisco-catalysed oxygenation

      Guillaume Tcherkez

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12629

      Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase is the key enzyme of photosynthetic CO2 fixation and thus a considerable number of studies examined its kinetics and molecular properties. However, the chemical mechanism associated with O2 fixation is not well known. This paper reviews hypotheses and describes the most plausible mechanism for oxygenation.

  4. Commentary

  5. Original Articles

    1. Cutting stems before relaxing xylem tension induces artefacts in Vitis coignetiae, as evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging

      Mayumi Y. Ogasa, Yasuhiro Utsumi, Naoko H. Miki, Kenichi Yazaki and Kenji Fukuda

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12617

    2. Variation in fluxes estimated from nitrogen isotope discrimination corresponds with independent measures of nitrogen flux in Populus balsamifera L.

      Lee A. Kalcsits and Robert D. Guy

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12614

      In plants, nitrogen uptake is not unidirectional and efflux regularly occurs in conjunction with influx. Nitrogen isotope discrimination in an isotope mass balance model has the potential to be an effective phenotyping approach for this trait in woody plants. Here, we report that estimates of nitrogen fluxes by the isotope mass balance model for Populus balsamifera grown under steady-state conditions correspond to independent measures of nitrogen flux measured by compartmental analysis of tracer efflux. This research contributes to the further development of a nitrogen isotope discrimination model that better describes complex, dynamic nitrogen fluxes in plants.

    3. Leaf size serves as a proxy for xylem vulnerability to cavitation in plantation trees

      Stefan G. Schreiber, Uwe G. Hacke, Sabrina Chamberland, Christopher W. Lowe, David Kamelchuk, Katharina Bräutigam, Malcolm M. Campbell and Barb R. Thomas

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12611

      We assessed the variation of hydraulic traits in five hybrid poplar clones measured in 2–3-year old branches (lower to mid crown) and vigorously growing current-year long shoots (upper crown). We found that key hydraulic parameters and leaf size differed between branch types. Strong relationships between vessel diameter, cavitation resistance, xylem- and leaf-specific conductivity as well as leaf area were observed. Leaf size emerged as an interesting and easily quantifiable trait

    4. Molecular mechanisms underlying the entrance in secondary dormancy of Arabidopsis seeds

      Silvia E. Ibarra, Rocío S. Tognacca, Anuja Dave, Ian A. Graham, Rodolfo A. Sánchez and Javier F. Botto

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12607

      Cyclic patterns between primary and secondary dormancy states are common in nature, especially in weed seeds. Here, we demonstrated that the entrance in secondary dormancy of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds imbibed in darkness reduces the content and sensitivity to gibberellins but not to abscisic acid, albeit the last is required. At molecular level, RGL2 DELLA promotes the entrance in secondary dormancy upstream ABI5 action. By multivariate analysis with geographical and environmental variables of accession collection place, we found that temperature is a relevant factor, but not unique, in influencing natural genetic variation on the imposition of secondary dormancy.

    5. ZmMBD101 is a DNA-binding protein that maintains Mutator elements chromatin in a repressive state in maize

      Julia I. Questa, Sebastián P. Rius, Romina Casadevall and Paula Casati

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12604

      Here, we have characterized a maize chromatin protein, ZmMBD101, which is involved in the regulation of Mutator transposon genes in maize. ZmMBD101 is localized to the nucleus and binds both methylated and unmethylated DNA. mbd101 RNAi maize plants have Mutator elements chromatin in a less repressive state, in particular under UV-B conditions. In addition, we present evidence for a biological role of a monocot MBD protein.

    6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis induces strigolactone biosynthesis under drought and improves drought tolerance in lettuce and tomato

      Juan Manuel Ruiz-Lozano, Ricardo Aroca, Ángel María Zamarreño, Sonia Molina, Beatriz Andreo-Jiménez, Rosa Porcel, José María García-Mina, Carolien Ruyter-Spira and Juan Antonio López-Ráez

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12631

      The current work shows a comprehensive study covering the effects of drought on plant physiology and mycorrhizal (AM) colonization. We propose that AM symbiosis alleviates drought stress by altering the hormonal profiles and affecting plant physiology in the host plant. A correlation between AM colonization, strigolactone levels and drought severity is shown for the first time.

    7. Natural 13C distribution in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and consequences for allocation pattern

      Emmanuelle Lamade, Guillaume Tcherkez, Nuzul Hijri Darlan, Rosario Lobato Rodrigues, Chantal Fresneau, Caroline Mauve, Marlène Lamothe-Sibold, Diana Sketriené and Jaleh Ghashghaie

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12606

      This paper describes a new model for oil palm carbon fluxes and allocation based on 13C natural abundance. It is shown that respiratory costs in fruits are larger than that commonly assumed using models based simple biomass distribution. It also suggests that sucrose is the main circulating sugar for fruit filling and leaf development while glucose content and isotope composition mostly reflect starch metabolism.

    8. The chloroplastic DEVH-box RNA helicase INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT 2 involved in plasmodesmata regulation is required for group II intron splicing

      Nicolas Carlotto, Sonia Wirth, Nicolas Furman, Nazarena Ferreyra Solari, Federico Ariel, Martin Crespi and Ken Kobayashi

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12603

      Increased size exclusion limit 2 (ISE2) encodes a putative DEVH-box RNA helicase, whose mutation affects plasmodesmata (PD) regulation. ISE2 was found into chloroplasts, and here, we demonstrate that ISE2 depletion causes splicing defects of chloroplasts transcripts containing group II introns. We also report that a Clp protease mutant impaired in chloroplast splicing shows a similar PD phenotype to ise2 during embryogenesis. Our results support the impact of chloroplasts functions on the regulation of PD-mediated intercellular communication.

    9. Environmental and genetic interactions reveal FLOWERING LOCUS C as a modulator of the natural variation for the plasticity of flowering in Arabidopsis

      Belén Méndez-Vigo, Marija Savic, Israel Ausín, Mercedes Ramiro, Beatriz Martín, F. Xavier Picó and Carlos Alonso-Blanco

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12608

      In this study, we aim to determine the genetic mechanisms underlying the natural variation for the plasticity of flowering initiation in Arabidopsis. Given the relevance of climate change, understanding the plasticity of flowering has become nowadays a major issue in plant biology because this has a double contribution to the adaptive potential of plants: as a phenotypic buffer against environmental changes and as mechanism affecting evolutionary adaptation. Despite it is well documented that flowering initiation is one of the most plastic traits in plant development, our study is one of the few analyses that have systematically addressed the natural variation for its plasticity and the genetic bases of this plasticity in a wide range of controlled environments. This contrast with most current studies, which address the genetic bases of the natural variation for flowering initiation mainly in single environmental conditions, and not in a more realistic context of a dynamic and changing environment. Our results not only identify the main genetic mechanisms but also find Flowering locus C (FLC) (one of the best known genes at the functional level, and one of the genes with the largest natural functional diversity described in plants) as a major modulator of the natural variation for the plasticity of flowering in Arabidopsis. These results widen the relevance of the natural variation for FLC beyond its current known function in the regulation of flowering by vernalization.

  6. Reviews

    1. Allocation, stress tolerance and carbon transport in plants: how does phloem physiology affect plant ecology?

      Jessica A. Savage, Michael J. Clearwater, Dustin F. Haines, Tamir Klein, Maurizio Mencuccini, Sanna Sevanto, Robert Turgeon and Cankui Zhang

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12602

      This review highlights the important but understudied role of phloem physiology in mediating how plants interact with their biotic and abiotic environment and shaping larger ecological patterns. We focus on three critical areas of current research: interactions between the xylem and phloem, carbon fluxes both in plants and at the ecosystem scale and interactions between plants and their biotic environment. The goal of this review is to draw attention to the critical role of carbon transport in plant physiological ecology and outline many of the questions that remain to be answered about this critical part of the plant vascular system.

  7. Original Articles

    1. Genetic variation in circadian regulation of nocturnal stomatal conductance enhances carbon assimilation and growth

      Víctor Resco de Dios, Michael E. Loik, Renee Smith, Michael J. Aspinwall and David T. Tissue

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12598

      We know that circadian regulation enhances plant fitness, but the mechanism underlying such a fitness advantage has been seldom tested. Circadian regulation controls the temporal pattern of stomatal opening overnight, amongst other processes, enhancing stomatal conductance at predawn. Here, we show genetic variation in circadian-driven increases of predawn stomatal conductance and that genotypes with a higher degree of stomatal ‘priming’ also showed higher stomatal conductance and photosynthesis in the early morning and, ultimately, enhanced growth. Our results lead to the novel hypothesis that genotypic variation in the circadian-regulated capacity to anticipate sunrise could be an important factor underlying intraspecific variation in tree growth.

    2. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.): allergenicity and molecular characterization of pollen after plant exposure to elevated NO2

      Feng Zhao, Amr Elkelish, Jörg Durner, Christian Lindermayr, J. Barbro Winkler, Franziska Ruёff, Heidrun Behrendt, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Andreas Holzinger, Werner Kofler, Paula Braun, Christine von Toerne, Stefanie M. Hauck, Dieter Ernst and Ulrike Frank

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12601

      Our study shows the influence of abiotic factors on the highly allergenic pollen from ragweed. Climate change and global warming as well as other environmental conditions have an influence on the plant and therefore might have also an influence on the allergenic potential of their pollen. We did proteomic studies and infrared spectroscopic analyses of pollen from the non-model plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia to give more insight on how the pollen reacts to elevated NO2. Allergenic proteins as well as allergen transcripts were increased under elevated NO2, and differences in cell wall components have been detected. Additionally, S-nitrosylation of pollen proteins was shown and higher allergen recognition by immuno-blot have been detected. Allergies are increasing, and the allergenic potential of the pollen is influenced by environmental factors. We used highly sophisticated methods, such as two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analyses, and were able to detect, beside the well-known Ambrosia allergens, a homolog to another plant allergen that reacted also with the sera of ragweed allergenic patients and therefore might modulate the Ambrosia allergenic response.

    3. ASG2 is a farnesylated DWD protein that acts as ABA negative regulator in Arabidopsis

      Christelle Dutilleul, Iliana Ribeiro, Nathalie Blanc, Cynthia D. Nezames, Xing Wang Deng, Piotr Zglobicki, Ana María Palacio Barrera, Lucia Atehortùa, Martine Courtois, Valérie Labas, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h and Eric Ducos

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12605

      CaaX protein farnesylation is a post-translational lipidation that targets the Cys of a peculiar C-terminal motif. Using a tagging-via-substrate strategy, we isolated a farnesylated protein in Arabidopsis, ASG2. ASG2 is a DWD (DDB1 interacting WD40) protein that bears a farnesylation-dependent subcellular localization. Moreover, we show that asg2 mutant mimics era1 (i.e. CaaX protein farnesylation mutant) phenotypes related to seedling development.

    4. Rapid modulation of ultraviolet shielding in plants is influenced by solar ultraviolet radiation and linked to alterations in flavonoids

      Paul W. Barnes, Mark A. Tobler, Ken Keefover-Ring, Stephan D. Flint, Anne E. Barkley, Ronald J. Ryel and Richard L. Lindroth

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12609

      The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoid derivatives) and the resultant decrease in epidermal UV transmittance are primary protective mechanisms employed by plants against potentially damaging solar UV radiation, but whether plants can adjust this UV sunscreen protection in response to diurnal changes in UV is largely unexplored. Here, we use a combination of approaches to demonstrate that plants can modulate their UV-screening properties within minutes to hours, and these changes are driven, in part, by UV radiation. For the cultivated species Abelmoschus esculentus, large and reversible changes in UV screening occurred on a diurnal basis, and these changes were associated with alterations in whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds and several quercetin glycosides. These findings, and others, reveal a much more dynamic UV-protection mechanism than previously recognized, raise important questions concerning the costs and benefits of UV-protection strategies in plants and have practical implications for the development of UV exposure systems aimed at enhancing crop vigor and quality in controlled environments.

    5. Eddy covariance captures four-phase crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) gas exchange signature in Agave

      Nick A. Owen, Órlaith Ní Choncubhair, Jamie Males, José Ignacio del Real Laborde, Ramón Rubio-Cortés, Howard Griffiths and Gary Lanigan

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12610

      Biochemical and physiological adaptations of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants in the genera Agave and Opuntia suggest the potential for high biomass productivity on low-grade lands and resilience to climate change. To our knowledge, however, ecophysiological responses have not been studied in situ at the field scale for these plants. Here, eddy covariance methodology was used to measure mass (CO2 and H2O) and energy exchange fluxes over a field of Agave tequilana near Amatitán, Mexico. Results showed that the site was a net carbon sink of 333 ± 24 g C year−1 (±95% confidence) and that canopy-level carbon uptake persisted at −234 ± 5 mmol CO2 m−2 d−1 (±95% confidence) after 70 d of drought conditions.

  8. Commentary

  9. Original Articles

    1. Responses of two semiarid conifer tree species to reduced precipitation and warming reveal new perspectives for stomatal regulation


      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12588

      Stomatal regulation of leaf water potential in response to declining water availability (isohydric vs. anisohydric behaviour) is believed to be one of the key components of plant drought responses, and has been given a central role in theories addressing the mechanisms underlying drought-induced mortality. We studied the physiological performance of two species with contrasted behaviors (Pinus edulis: isohydric, Juniperus monosperma: anisohydric) under experimental drought and heating treatments. Contrary to expectations both species exhibited similar stomatal conductance dynamics in response to drought, and hydraulic safety margins were broader in the anisohydric species. We conclude that direct association of stomatal behavior with risk of hydraulic failure can be misleading and instead, advocate a more integrative approach incorporating stomatal and xylem responses to declining water potential.

    2. SlDREB2, a tomato dehydration-responsive element-binding 2 transcription factor, mediates salt stress tolerance in tomato and Arabidopsis


      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12591

      Herein we characterized the tomato SlDREB2 transcription factor in response to salinity. Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanum lycopersicum plants overexpressing this regulator displayed improved tolerance to salinity following adjustment of transcriptional, hormonal, physiological and biochemical parameters related to salt-stress response.

    3. Three-dimensional microscale modelling of CO2 transport and light propagation in tomato leaves enlightens photosynthesis


      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12590

      We present a comprehensive 3-D model of light propagation, CO2 diffusion and photosynthesis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaves. The model incorporates the actual leaf microstructure and opens up new possibilities for in silico approaches to improving insights into leaf carbon uptake and to predicting climatic impacts on crop yield and vegetation.

  10. Reviews

    1. An Excel tool for deriving key photosynthetic parameters from combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence: theory and practice


      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12560

      We review the theory of gas exchange data analysis and present a freely downloadable Excel-based fitting tool (EFT) to derive a comprehensive suite of physiological parameters. These allow detailed comparison of photosynthetic characteristics to be made, for natural vegetation, plants with engineered photosynthetic traits, or to distinguish between C3, C4, C2, or intermediate metabolism. We include a practical example, a detailed gas-exchange protocol and a link to a video tutorial.

  11. Original Articles

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Separating water-potential induced swelling and shrinking from measured radial stem variations reveals a cambial growth and osmotic concentration signal


      Article first published online: 23 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12541

      This paper introduces a model that separates water-potential induced changes from field-sampled dendrometer measurements, revealing a cambial growth and osmotic concentration signal. Using this signal, we investigate how environmental factors influence stem growth and tree physiology, which would otherwise be masked by water-related changes. This is important for understanding how factors affect physiological processes of the tree and developing a robust method to quantifying osmotic-related stem radial changes and stem growth.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Infection of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus by the oomycete Eurychasma dicksonii induces oxidative stress and halogen metabolism


      Article first published online: 23 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12533

      Macroalgal response to pathogen infection has mostly been studied by mimicking infection using elicitors. We have established a pathosystem between the genome model seaweed E ctocarpus siliculosus and the oomycete E urychasma dicksonii as a powerful new tool to investigate algal responses to infection via a combined approach of proteomics, qPCR and histochemial staining. Our data give an unprecedented global overview of brown algal response to pathogen infection, and highlight the importance of oxidative stress and halogen metabolism in these interactions.

    3. Silicon-mediated changes in polyamines participate in silicon-induced salt tolerance in Sorghum bicolor L.


      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12521

      This study demonstrates that silicon improves salt tolerance through regulating polyamines (PAs) and ethylene levels in sorghum. The high levels of PAs maintain K+/Na+ homeostasis and moderate salt-induced senescence, leading to improved salt tolerance. These results support the idea that silicon is involved in mediating the salt tolerance response in plants.

    4. Resilience of rice (Oryza spp.) pollen germination and tube growth to temperature stress


      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12475

      This paper explores mechanisms of tolerating short periods of high temperature stress at anthesis in rice in the context of potential climate change and also bearing in mind the wide range of agro-ecosystems in which rice is grown. The paper is the first time responses of individual pollen grains have been modelled in terms of their minimum temperature requirement and maximum temperature limit for germination. Resilience to high temperature stress at anthesis perhaps not surprisingly required a high mean maximum temperature limit for pollen germination, but less obviously, a wide standard deviation of maximum temperature limits among individual pollen grains. Moreover, the hypothesis that physiological mechanisms of tolerance to heat and cold stresses at anthesis were different, was tested and accepted.

    5. Light intensity affects chlorophyll synthesis during greening process by metabolite signal from mitochondrial alternative oxidase in Arabidopsis


      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12438

      Previous studies indicated that during greening, chlorophyll accumulation was largely delayed in plants whose mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was inhibited by knocking out nuclear encoded alternative oxidase (AOX) gene. Here we show that this delay of chlorophyll accumulation was more significant under high light condition and mainly attributed to blocked import of plastidial enzymes, which catalyzes tetrapyrrole or phytol biosynthesis. Inhibition of cyanide-resistant respiration was also was also accompanied by the increase of plastid NADPH / NADP+ ratio, especially under high light treatment which subsequently blocked the import of multiple plastidial proteins import. It thus suggests that light intensity affects chlorophyll synthesis during greening process by a metabolic signal, the AOX-derived plastidial NADPH/NADP + ratio change.


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