Plant Pathology

Cover image for Vol. 65 Issue 9

Edited By: Matt Dickinson

Impact Factor: 2.383

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 15/83 (Agronomy); 53/209 (Plant Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1365-3059

Associated Title(s): Molecular Plant Pathology

Virtual Issue - Mycotoxin Contamination Of Grains - A Significant Threat To Human Health


This virtual issue of PLANT PATHOLOGY brings together recent and ‘on-line early’ reviews and articles that have been published in the Journal on the fusarium species responsible for mycotoxin contamination of grains. In recent decades, these fusarium species have re-emerged as the causal agents of diseases of global significance, and they are responsible for yield losses, price discounting as a result of reduced grain quality, and human/animal health issues. The main species of Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae), F. culmorum, F. pseudograminearum and F. acuminatum, along with a number of other species, are responsible for both fusarium head blight and also for crown rot on cereals such as wheat, barley and maize. Mycotoxin production is a more serious problem in the fusarium head blight infection, which is favoured by warm wet weather at anthesis. The major groups of mycotoxins produced on wheat and barley are the trichothecenes, which have been shown to cause chronic and fatal toxicoses of humans and animals and are responsible for foaming of beer in the brewing industry, and zearalenone, which is an oestrogenic metabolite that can cause infertility and abortions, especially in pigs. The fumonisins, which are the more common mycotoxins associated with infection of maize, are known to inhibit sphingolipid biosynthesis, and have been associated with neural tube defects of the brain and spinal cord, as well as certain cancers in humans. Of particular concern are the facts that these toxins can accumulate to high levels in grain during storage under sub-optimal conditions, that the toxins can withstand many of the production stages during brewing and food processing, and that in many countries the levels of these toxins in foods are not routinely monitored.

In the collection of articles that make up this ‘virtual issue’ are two reviews that outline the problems of mycotoxins in grains and also the likely impact of climate change on the prevalence of these toxins worldwide. There are then six original papers that examine the global distribution of the toxin-producing isolates of these fungi, followed by three papers that examine the epidemiology and dispersal mechanisms of these fungi, including the role of thrips in transmission in maize crops. There are then two papers that examine management strategies, and the final paper then presents evidence of the association of these species of fusarium with dry rot infection of potatoes, although as yet there is no evidence that they are capable of producing mycotoxin contamination in potatoes.

Climate change, plant diseases and food security: an overview
S. Chakraborty and A.C. Newton

Possible climate-change effects on mycotoxin contamination of food crops pre- and postharvest
N. Magan, A. Medina and D. Aldred

Trichothecene mycotoxin genotypes of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto and Fusarium meridionale in wheat from southern Brazil
L. B. Scoz, P. Astolfi, D. S. Reartes, D. G. Schmale III, M. G. Moraes and E. M. Del Ponte

Genetic population structure and trichothecene genotypes of Fusarium graminearum isolated from wheat in southern Brazil
P. Astolfi, M. M. Reynoso, M. L. Ramirez, S. N. Chulze, T. C. A. Alves, D. J. Tessmann and E. M. Del Ponte

Trichothecene genotypes of Gibberella zeae from winter wheat fields in the eastern USA
D. G. Schmale, A. K. Wood-Jones, C. Cowger, G. C. Bergstrom and C. Arellano

Geographic distribution and genetic diversity of Fusarium graminearum and F. asiaticum on wheat spikes throughout China
B. Qu, H. P. Li, J. B. Zhang, Y. B. Xu, T. Huang, A. B. Wu, C. S. Zhao, J. Carter, P. Nicholson and Y. C. Liao

Comparison of genetic diversity and pathogenicity of fusarium head blight pathogens from China and Europe by SSCP and seedling assays on wheat
B. Qu, H. P. Li, J. B. Zhang, T. Huang, J. Carter, Y. C. Liao and P. Nicholson

Genotypic diversity in Fusarium pseudograminearum populations in Australian wheat fields
J. B. Scott and S. Chakraborty

Spatial variability of fusarium head blight pathogens and associated mycotoxins in wheat crops
E.-C. Oerke, A. Meier, H.-W. Dehne, M. Sulyok, R. Krska and U. Steiner

Interactions between Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium graminearum in maize ears and consequences for fungal development and mycotoxin accumulation
Picot, D. Hourcade-Marcolla, C. Barreau, L. Pinson-Gadais, D. Caron, F. Richard-Forget and C. Lannou

Relationships of immature and adult thrips with silk-cut, fusarium ear rot and fumonisin B1 contamination of maize in California and Hawaii
M. W. Parsons and G. P. Munkvold

Quantifying cropping practices in relation to inoculum levels of Fusarium graminearum on crop stubble
X. W. Guo, W. G. D. Fernando, P. Bullock and H. Sapirstein

Differential metabolic response of barley genotypes, varying in resistance, to trichothecene-producing and -nonproducing (tri5) isolates of Fusarium graminearum
G. K. Kumaraswamy, A. C. Kushalappa, T. M. Choo, Y. Dion and S. Rioux

Fusarium graminearum as a dry rot pathogen of potato in the USA: prevalence, comparison of host isolate aggressiveness and factors affecting aetiology
R. Estrada Jr, N. C. Gudmestad, V. V. Rivera and G. A. Secor


This virtual issue of PLANT PATHOLOGY contains reviews and articles on major foliar fungal diseases of wheat, septoria tritici blotch, stagonospora leaf blotch, powdery mildew and the rusts. The articles describe recent work on epidemiology, including pathogen population structures, along with control strategies using resistance genes, fungicides and elicitors, and includes two reviews, one on septoria epidemiology and one on breeding cereals for rust resistance. The work described is from numerous different countries and is of particular significance for wheat pathologists, researchers and advisors, and the references included in these articles will provide useful links to other published papers on these pathogens. We hope that bringing these papers together into a single virtual issue will help to highlight the significant recent research on these pathogens, and provide a valuable resource.

Early stages of septoria tritici blotch epidemics of winter wheat: build-up, overseasoning, and release of primary inoculum
F. Suffert, I. Sache and C. Lannou

Evaluation of a predictive model for Mycosphaerella graminicola for economic and environmental benefits
D. E. Te Beest, M. W. Shaw, N. D. Paveley and F. Van Den Bosch

Contributions of disease resistance and escape to the control of septoria tritici blotch of wheat
L. S. Arraiano, N. Balaam, P. M. Fenwick, C. Chapman, D. Feuerhelm, P. Howell, S. J. Smith, J. P. Widdowson and J. K. M. Brown

Identification and location of Stb9, a gene for resistance to septoria tritici blotch in wheat cultivars Courtot and Tonic
L. Chartrain, P. Sourdille, M. Bernard and J. K. M. Brown

Pyraclostrobin reduces germ tube growth of QoI-resistant Mycosphaerella graminicolapycnidiospores and the severity of septoria tritici blotch on winter wheat
S. Kildea, B. Dunne, E. Mullins, L. R. Cooke, P. C. Mercer and E. O’Sullivan

Correlation of in planta endo-beta-1,4-xylanase activity with the necrotrophic phase of the hemibiotrophic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola
A. Siah, C. Deweer, F. Duyme, J. Sanssené, R. Durand, P. Halama and P. Reignault

Genetic structure of Mycosphaerella graminicola populations in Iran
M. Abrinbana, J. Mozafari, M. Shams-bakhsh and R. Mehrabi

Breeding cereals for rust resistance in Australia
R. F. Park

Relationship between wheat rust resistance genes Yr1 and Sr48 and a microsatellite marker
U. K. Bansal, M. J. Hayden, B. Keller, C. R. Wellings, R. F. Park and H. S. Bariana

Effect of plot geometry on epidemic velocity of wheat yellow rust
K. E. Sackett and C. C. Mundt

Spatiotemporal patterns of oxidative burst and micronecrosis in resistance of wheat to brown rust infection
W. Orczyk, M. Dmochowska-Boguta, H. J. Czembor and A. Nadolska-Orczyk

Virulence analysis of Puccinia graminisf.sp. tritici populations in Ethiopia with special consideration of Ug99
B. Admassu, V. Lind, W. Friedt and F. Ordon

Priming of the oxidative burst in rice and wheat cell cultures by ulvan, a polysaccharide from green macroalgae, and enhanced resistance against powdery mildew in wheat and barley plants
R. Paulert, D. Ebbinghaus, C. Urlass and B. M. Moerschbacher

Evidence of host-range expansion from new powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) infections of triticale (×Triticosecale) in France
A. S. Walker, A. Bouguennec, J. Confais, G. Morgant and P. Leroux

Quantitative disease resistance assessment by real-time PCR using the Stagonospora nodorum-wheat pathosystem as a model
R. P. Oliver, K. Rybak, M. Shankar, R. Loughman, N. Harry and P. S. Solomon